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1

Somatic Activation of rasK Gene in a Human Ovarian Carcinoma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tumor isolate from a patient with serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary contained an activated rasK gene detected by transfection of NIH/3T3 cells. In contrast, DNA from normal cells of the same patient lacked transforming activity, indicating that activation of this transforming gene was the consequence of somatic mutation in the neoplastic cells. The transforming gene product displayed an electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels that differed from the mobilities of rasK transforming proteins in other tumors, indicating that a previously undescribed mutation was responsible for activation of rasK in this ovarian carcinoma.

Feig, L. A.; Bast, R. C.; Knapp, R. C.; Cooper, G. M.

1984-02-01

2

Dette eksamensprojekt er udfrt p Institut for Informatik og Matematisk Modellering, IMM, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet i perioden 5. august 2002 til 31. marts 2003.  

E-print Network

i hjernevæv, der adskiller epilepsiramte rotter fra en gruppe raske rotter. Proteinsammensætningen i hjernevæv fra rotter er bestemt ved hjælp af 2d-elektroforesegeler. Der blev analyseret prøver fra 19 rotter, dels fra 12 rotter med tre forskellige grader af epilepsi (under udvikling, mild og svær) og dels fra

3

Going to the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... Management What We Have Learned Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys Going to the ER Almost everyone who lives with pain has been to the emergency room at some time. You may have gone ...

4

ER-2 in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data above 95 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. At this altitude the aircraft provides a stable platform for Earth imagery, atmospheric research, and electronic sensor development. Because the ER-2 can fly so high, its sensors 'mimic' sensors carried aboard orbiting satellites. For most missions the ER-2 operates at altitudes between 65,000 feet and 70,000 feet. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches a cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within 20 minutes. Typical cruise speed is 410 knots. The range for a normal 6-hour mission is 2,200 nautical miles (4,070 kilometers), which yields 5 hours of data collection at high altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions of up to 8 hours and ranges of up to 3,000 nautical miles (5,500 kilometers). The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds (1,179 kilograms) distributed in the equipment bay, nose area, and wing pods. In 1991, NASA launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as an environmental system, now called the Earth Science Enterprise. By using satellites and other tools like the ER-2 to intensively study the Earth, NASA hopes to expand human understanding of how natural processes affect people and how people might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, the ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA ER-2 aircraft have played an important role in Earth Science research, like studying ozone depletion over Antarctica and the Arctic. In August and September 1987 an ER-2 traveled to Punta Arenas, Chile, to conduct overflights of the Antarctic. Results from this study provided information suggesting that human-made chemical compounds, specifically chloro-fluorocarbons, caused enormous ozone depletion over the Antarctic region. Subsequent deployments have continued the study of the production and loss of ozone in the polar stratosphere. Atmospheric experiments were flown from Stavanger, Norway in January and February 1989 north of the Arcti

1996-01-01

5

On the ERS Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been two years since the Evaluation Research Society (ERS) published its Standards for Program Evaluation. The standards have influenced professional activities, such as panel discussions, and have been useful in training evaluators. However, the question arises as to whether the standards have been consulted by practicing evaluators or

Anderson, Scarvia B.

6

CONTENTSCLICKONTHESUBJECTYOUWANTTOSEE 49ER ACCOUNT  

E-print Network

Athletic events and recreational facilities Computer labs Student Health Center It's also a Meal Plan ACCOUNT? Here's what the average student spends from the 49er Account per semester: Vending, pay of registration or tuition bill; Student ID number that begins with 800 (assigned at acceptance; appears

Howitt, Ivan

7

Estrogen receptor (ER) modulators each induce distinct conformational changes in ER ? and ER ?  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER) modulators produce distinct tissue-specific biological effects, but within the confines of the established models of ER action it is difficult to understand why. Previous studies have suggested that there might be a relationship between ER structure and activity. Different ER modulators may induce conformational changes in the receptor that result in a specific biological activity. To investigate the possibility of modulator-specific conformational changes, we have applied affinity selection of peptides to identify binding surfaces that are exposed on the apo-ERs ? and ? and on each receptor complexed with estradiol or 4-OH tamoxifen. These peptides are sensitive probes of receptor conformation. We show here that ER ligands, known to produce distinct biological effects, induce distinct conformational changes in the receptors, providing a strong correlation between ER conformation and biological activity. Furthermore, the ability of some of the peptides to discriminate between different ER ? and ER ? ligand complexes suggests that the biological effects of ER agonists and antagonists acting through these receptors are likely to be different. PMID:10097152

Paige, Lisa A.; Christensen, Dale J.; Grn, Hanne; Norris, John D.; Gottlin, Elizabeth B.; Padilla, Karen M.; Chang, Ching-yi; Ballas, Lawrence M.; Hamilton, Paul T.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Fowlkes, Dana M.

1999-01-01

8

Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er.  

SciTech Connect

The stable and neutron-rich isotopes 168Er, 170Er, and 172Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic 136Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K?=4- isomeric intrinsic states in both 168Er and 170Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in 172Er. In 170Er, the identification of a K?=6- band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4- band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The gK-gR values for the 4- bands deduced from the in-band ?-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in 168Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in 170Er, and a two-proton configuration in 172Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6+ isomer in 172Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6+ and 7- two-neutron structures known in the isotone 174Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6+ isomer occurs through the newly identified 4- isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4- and 6+ isomers in 172Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

2010-05-01

9

Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

Katherine Esau

2004-03-09

10

BIOENERGI ER BLEVET MODERNE 4DECEMBER 2003  

E-print Network

at bruge biomasse til energi. Opfyring med brænde og opvarmning med halmfyr eller biogas er kendte, biogas og bioethanol. Bioenergi er den eneste vedvarende energikilde, der findes i fast, flydende og

11

Micro ER valve using homogeneous ER fluids and its application to micro fluid control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize practical micromachines using fluid power with high power density, a micro fluid control system using homogeneous ER (electrorheological) fluids is proposed and fabricated. Homogeneous ER fluids such as nematic liquid crystals change their viscosity with applied electric field strength and is usable in micro flow channels without dispersed particles. Firstly, a micro ER valve using homogeneous ER fluids

J.-H. Park; K. Yoshida; S. Yokota

2000-01-01

12

Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

FULLER, R.K.

1999-02-24

13

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA Due Nov. 6

Kammen, Daniel M.

14

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

2013-01-01

15

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. PMID:23850759

Sano, Renata; Reed, John C

2013-12-01

16

ER-? variant ER-?36 mediates antiestrogen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSC) play important roles in breast cancer occurrence, recurrence and metastasis as well as resistance to therapy. However, the roles of breast cancer stem cells in antiestrogen resistance and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well established. Previously, we identified and cloned a novel variant of estrogen receptor ?, ER-?36, with a molecular weight of 36kDa. ER-?36 mediates rapid antiestrogen signaling and is highly expressed in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated the function and the underlying mechanism of ER-?36-mediated antiestrogen signaling in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF7 and T47D as well as variants with different levels of ER-?36 expression were used. The effects of antiestrogens tamoxifen and ICI 182, 780 on breast CSC's ability of growth, self-renewal, differentiation and tumor seeding were examined using tumorsphere formation, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorences and in vivo xenograft assays. The underlying mechanisms were also analyzed with Western blot analysis. We found that the cancer stem/progenitor cells enriched from ER-positive breast cancer cells were more resistant to antiestrogens than the bulk cells. Antiestrogens increased the percentages of the stem/progenitor cells from ER-positive breast cancer cell through stimulation of luminal epithelial lineage specific ER-positive breast cancer progenitor cells while failed to do so in the cells with knocked-down levels of ER-?36 expression. Our results thus indicated that ER-?36-mediated antiestrogen signaling such as the PI3K/AKT plays an important role in antiestrogen resistance of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25158023

Deng, Hao; Yin, Li; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Liu, Li-Jiang; Wang, Mo-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Yi

2014-10-01

17

Cell signaling events differentiate ER-negative subtypes from ER-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Currently available markers routinely used in clinical practice are of limited value to patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancer [basal-like and HER2neu-positive (HER(+))], an aggressive subtype. Our aim was to uncover molecular pathways and signaling networks exposed by differentially methylated genes informative of the biology of ER(-) breast cancer (BC) subtypes versus ER-positive (ER(+)). Whole-genome methylation array analysis was carried out using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip on 14 primary BC: five ER(+), four triple-negative (TNBC), and five ER(-)HER2(+). Degree of methylation was calculated as a ?-value (ranging from 0 to 1), and M-values [log (?/(1-?)] were used for significance tests. To identify methylated genes associated with ER(-) subtypes (TNBC and ER(-)HER2(+)) and distinct from ER(+), a weighted algorithm, developed to increase statistical rigor, called out genes in which methylation changed dramatically between ER(+) and ER(-) subtypes. Differentially methylated gene lists examined using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis called out canonical pathways and networks with clues to biological distinctiveness as well as relatedness between ER(-) subtypes as compared to ER(+) BC. The study highlights the interplay of ER(-) subtype-specific genes and their signaling pathways as potential putative fingerprints in refining classification of BC subtypes and as potential biological markers designed to hit multiple targets. PMID:25805566

Worsham, Maria J; Chitale, Dhanajay; Chen, Kang Mei; Datta, Indrani; Divine, George

2015-05-01

18

Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption measurements from relatively high concentrations of Er (>0.1 at. %) doped in GaN films show that Er occupies the Ga site with an unprecedentedly short Er-N bond length. Electroluminescence intensities from these GaN:Er films correlate with the concentration of Er atoms that replace Ga, not with the abundantly present O impurities in the host. Simple chemical concepts are used to explain each of these results and their striking difference from those obtained for Er-doped Si. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Citrin, P. H. [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Northrup, P. A. [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States); Birkhahn, R. [University of Cincinnati, Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati, Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States); Steckl, A. J. [University of Cincinnati, Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)] [University of Cincinnati, Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 (United States)

2000-05-15

19

Processing effects on microstructure in Er and ErD2 thin-films.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium metal thin-films have been deposited on molybdenum-on-silicon substrates and then converted to erbium dideuteride (ErD{sub 2}). Here, we study the effects of deposition temperature ({approx}300 or 723 K) and deposition rate (1 or 20 nm/s) upon the initial Er metal microstructure and subsequent ErD{sub 2} microstructure. We find that low deposition temperature and low deposition rate lead to small Er metal grain sizes, and high deposition temperature and deposition rate led to larger Er metal grain sizes, consistent with published models of metal thin-film growth. ErD{sub 2} grain sizes are strongly influenced by the prior-metal grain size, with small metal grains leading to large ErD{sub 2} grains. A novel sample preparation technique for electron backscatter diffraction of air-sensitive ErD{sub 2} was developed, and allowed the quantitative measurement of ErD{sub 2} grain size and crystallographic texture. Finer-grained ErD{sub 2} showed a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture, whereas larger grained ErD{sub 2} had only weak texture. We hypothesize that this inverse correlation may arise from improved hydrogen diffusion kinetics in the more defective fine-grained metal structure or due to improved nucleation in the textured large-grain Er.

Kammler, Daniel R.; Parish, Chad (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brewer, Luke N.

2010-04-01

20

Micro fluid control system using homogeneous ER fluids (proposition of micro ER valve and basic experiments)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize practical micromachines using fluid power with high power density, a micro fluid control system using homogeneous ER fluid is proposed and developed. Firstly, a new micro ER (electrorheological) valve using homogeneous ER fluid is proposed and fabricated. Its diameter is 9 mm. Static and dynamic characteristics are investigated. With supply pressure of 25 kPa and electric field strength

Jung-Ho Park; K. Yoshida; S. Yokota

1999-01-01

21

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

22

A screening cascade to identify ER? ligands.  

PubMed

The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor ? (ER?) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ER?, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ER? and ER?, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ER?. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ER? binders that were examined for their selectivity for ER? versus ER?, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:25422593

Filgueira, Carly S; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S; Villagomez, Rosa A; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Berkenstam, Anders L; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

23

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 ER 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE. (1 offered by the Department of Emergency Medicine. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity

MacAdam, Keith

24

Generacin de Electricidad con Energas Renovables (ER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los funcionarios argumentaron, entre otros, sobre la sostenibilidad energtica a largo plazo, la produccin de electricidad con Energas Renovables-ER (biomasa, elico, solar, geotrmico, mareomotriz, e hidrulica con capacidad menor de 20 MW), la contaminacin ambiental y las externalidades que produce, y las iniciativas sobre el uso de ER que han adoptado pases mas adelantados como Alemania y Espaa. El Vice-Ministro

Jaime E. Luyo

2008-01-01

25

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

26

A screening cascade to identify ER? ligands  

PubMed Central

The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor ? (ER?) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ER?, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ER? and ER?, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ER?. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ER? binders that were examined for their selectivity for ER? versus ER?, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:25422593

Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

27

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25

28

ER sliding dynamics and ERmitochondrial contacts occur on acetylated microtubules  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is extremely dynamic in animal cells, yet little is known about the mechanism and function of its movements. The most common ER dynamic, termed ER sliding, involves ER tubule extension along stable microtubules (MTs). In this study, we show that ER sliding occurs on nocodazole-resistant MTs that are posttranslationally modified by acetylation. We demonstrate that high MT curvature is a good indicator of MT acetylation and show in live cells that ER sliding occurs predominantly on these curved, acetylated MTs. Furthermore, increasing MT acetylation by drug treatment increases the frequency of ER sliding. One purpose of the ER sliding on modified MT tracts could be to regulate its interorganelle contacts. We find that all mitochondria and many endosomes maintain contact with the ER despite the movements of each. However, mitochondria, but not endosomes, preferentially localize to acetylated MTs. Thus, different ER dynamics may occur on distinct MT populations to establish or maintain contacts with different organelles. PMID:20696706

Friedman, Jonathan R.; Webster, Brant M.; Mastronarde, David N.; Verhey, Kristen J.

2010-01-01

29

Correlation of ER?/ER? expression with dendritic and behavioural changes in CUMS mice.  

PubMed

In response to chronic stress, oestrogen receptor (ER)? acts as an anxiogenic agent as opposed to ER? which predominantly acts as an anxiolytic agent. These properties of ER play an important role in mediating anxiety- and depression-like behaviour and physiological responses. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains unclear. In particular, not much is known about the expression of ER? and ER? in the stress-sensitive brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Using a rodent model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), we report that two weeks of CUMS in young male mice (102weeks) induces noteworthy changes in the ratio of ER?/ER? in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. While we observed a significant (P<0.05) increase in ER? mRNA and protein expression levels, the expression of ER? in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala was significantly reduced. This increase in ER? expression with concomitant decrease in ER? expression was associated with increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviour as observed in elevated plus maze test, open field test, forced swim test and sucrose preference test. In addition to these behavioural changes, we report the decrease of dendritic complexity with concomitant increase in spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsohippocampal CA3 region and basolateral complex of amygdala (BLA). Taken together, these results suggest that the CUMS-induced increase in the ratio of ER?/ER? causes dendritic remodeling, which in turn might be responsible for increase in anxiety- and depression-like behaviour in young male mice. PMID:25837835

Sharma, Himanshu R; Thakur, Mahendra K

2015-06-01

30

Shear mode ER transfer function for robotic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-rheological (ER) fluids are becoming popular in modern industrial applications. The advantage of employing ER devices is due to the ease of energizing the ER fluids at fast speeds of response. One innovation in ER applications could be in the positioning control of the robotic arm using an ER clutch. In order to actuate the manipulator, the ER output torque response is required. However, the behaviour of this ER torque response at different input conditions is not clearly understood. Therefore, in this paper, a sample study of the ER output torque is conducted. The ER output torque responses at different input parameters are studied carefully for the establishment of an appropriate ER transfer function in shear mode. This transfer function will serve as an important feature in future ER-actuated robot arm's control process.

Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

2005-06-01

31

Excitation mechanisms of electro- and photo-luminescence of Er 3+ in Er-implanted Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-implanted p +-n Si diode was fabricated and characterized by photo- (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements. A weak EL from Er 3+ was observed at 1538 nm together with the strong free exciton (FE) emissions at 1090 nm and 1130 nm under forward bias, whereas the noisy FE emissions were detected and no noticeable Els from Er 3+ were identified under reverse bias. On the other hands, in PL measurements, a sharp PL signal from Er 3+ was clearly observed at 1538 nm, its PL spectral feature being similar to that of EL from Er 3+ under forward bias. Our present results suggest that the excitation of Er 3+ is achieved through the recombination of electron-hole pairs generated in Si under forward bias.

Uekusa, S.; Awahara, K.; Shimadzu, K.; Kumagai, M.

1997-05-01

32

An ab initio-based Er-He interatomic potential in hcp Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from the ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

Yang, L.; Ye, Y. T.; Fan, K. M.; Shen, H. H.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.

2014-09-01

33

Fusing a lasting relationship between ER tubules.  

PubMed

Atlastin is an integral membrane GTPase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro and in vivo analyses indicate that atlastin is a membrane fusogen capable of driving membrane fusion, suggesting a role in ER structure and maintenance. Interestingly, mutations in the human atlastin-1 gene, SPG3A, cause a form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). The etiology of HSP is unclear, but two predominant forms of the disorder are caused by mutant proteins that affect ER structure, formation and maintenance in motor neurons. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about the molecular mechanism of atlastin function and its potential role in HSP. Greater understanding of the function of atlastin and associated proteins should provide important insight into normal ER biogenesis and maintenance, as well as the pathology of disease. PMID:21550242

Moss, Tyler J; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A

2011-07-01

34

Differential binding with ER? and ER? of the phytoestrogen-rich plant Pueraria mirifica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the estrogenic activity of the phytoestrogen-rich plant, Pueraria mirifica , were determined with yeast estrogen screen (YES) consisting of human estrogen receptors (hER) hER? and hER? and human transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (hTIF2) or human steroid receptor coactivator 1 (hSRC1), respectively, together with the ?-galactosidase expression cassette. Relative estrogenic potency was expressed by determining the ?-galactosidase activity (EC50)

C. Boonchird; T. Mahapanichkul; W. Cherdshewasart

2010-01-01

35

EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg  

E-print Network

EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg #12;mastEr of NursiNg (mN) The UniversiTy of WashingTon BoThell MasTer of nUrsing prograM prepares nurses for advanced leadership roles in health care practice and elective credits support a wide range of nursing interests that allow a custom fit to your individual goals

Manchak, John

36

The ER-2 meteorological measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of ER-2 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) are: (1) to measure the meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, and the three dimensional wind vector) accurately; (2) to provide high resolution data on atmospheric state variables and aircraft flight track to ER-2 investigators on a timely basis; and (3) to conduct collaborative research in atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. A summary of progress and results are presented.

Chan, K. Roland

1990-01-01

37

ER stress: how trypanosomes deal with it.  

PubMed

An efficient response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is essential for the viability of eukaryotic cells. The causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, responds to such stress by inducing spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS), resulting in shutdown of mRNA biogenesis. A new study elucidates the activation cascade and its molecular components, which are unique to the ER stress response in trypanosomes. PMID:25457395

Bindereif, Albrecht; Preuer, Christian

2014-12-01

38

Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er(3+), Er(3+)/Eu(3+)+ and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) doped tellurite glass fibers.  

PubMed

Amplification properties have been compared in Er(3+), Er(3+)/Eu(3+) and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) doped tellurite glass fibers using a 980 nm pumping scheme. The pump efficiency has been compared in the 3 types of fibers. Er(3+) ion upconversion in bulk glasses and fibers in visible range has been measured and the Er(3+) ion IR fluorescence intensity and lifetimes have been recorded to understand the amplification characteristics. Codoping with Ce3+ is more efficient in Er(3+) doped tellurite fibre. PMID:19516666

Shen, Shaoxiong; Richards, Billy; Jha, Animesh

2006-06-12

39

Local compositional environment of Er in ZnS:ErF(3) thin film electroluminescent phosphors  

SciTech Connect

ZnS:Er thin film electroluminescent phosphors have been shown to exhibit a marked maximum in the near infrared emission (NIR) after a 425 C post-deposition anneal with a very narrow temperature window of {+-} 25 C for optimal NIR emission. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been obtained from both the Zn and Er edges in order to examine the local structure of the host and dopant in this NIR phosphor material. Interestingly, the addition of only {approx}0.5 mol. % of Er as ErF{sub 3} into the host is found to reduce the Zn-S bond length of one of the two nearest Zn-S shells by 0.6 {angstrom} relative to high-quality, atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) grown, pure ZnS. The coordination number of this shorter Zn-S bond increases after the optimal 425 C anneal. Longer range fits indicate a highly disordered structure, overall, consistent with earlier TEM results. Erbium-L{sub 3} EXAFS data from the second and third shells show increasing crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature in the vicinity of the Er dopant. Data from the first shell cannot be fit with S atoms, but are fit equally well with either O or F. Comparison with earlier analyses indicates that the Er is most likely surrounded by F in the first shell. Based on these data and previous studies, we develop a model in which the Er dopant is present as an Er:F{sub x} complex with associated S vacancies, which may include one sulfur atom remaining in the Er nearest shell. Upon annealing, there is a reduction in the F present and a rearrangement of the crystal structure in the vicinity of the Er atom. Optimum annealing conditions occur when optimal crystalline environment is achieved prior to the loss of too much F from the Er:F{sub x} complex.

DeVito, David M [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL

2011-01-01

40

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 and both ER isoforms  

E-print Network

in any fish species. In the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the only ER described is an isoformThe complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 effects in vertebrate animals. Similar to other animals, fishes have two distinct ER subtypes, ER (NR3A1

Sullivan, Jack

41

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking  

E-print Network

energy diary (feel free to add more): Transportation Activity / Trip Travel Mode* Alternative Mode (ifEnergy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear [ER100/PP184], 120 [ER200/PP284] Personal Energy Audit [40 POINTS TOTAL] How much energy do you

Kammen, Daniel M.

42

The effect of estrogen on bone requires ER? in nonhematopoietic cells but is enhanced by ER? in hematopoietic cells  

PubMed Central

The effects of estrogen on bone are mediated mainly via estrogen receptor (ER)?. ER? in osteoclasts (hematopoietic origin) is involved in the trabecular bone-sparing effects of estrogen, but conflicting data are reported on the role of ER? in osteoblast lineage cells (nonhematopoietic origin) for bone metabolism. Because Cre-mediated cell-specific gene inactivation used in previous studies might be confounded by nonspecific and/or incomplete cell-specific ER? deletion, we herein used an alternative approach to determine the relative importance of ER? in hematopoietic (HC) and nonhematopoietic cells (NHC) for bone mass. Chimeric mice with selective inactivation of ER? in HC or NHC were created by bone marrow transplantations of wild-type (WT) and ER?-knockout (ER??/?) mice. Estradiol treatment increased both trabecular and cortical bone mass in ovariectomized WT/WT (defined as recipient/donor) and WT/ER??/? mice but not in ER??/?/WT or ER??/?/ER??/? mice. However, estradiol effects on both bone compartments were reduced (?50%) in WT/ER??/? mice compared with WT/WT mice. The effects of estradiol on fat mass and B lymphopoiesis required ER? specifically in NHC and HC, respectively. In conclusion, ER? in NHC is required for the effects of estrogen on both trabecular and cortical bone, but these effects are enhanced by ER? in HC. PMID:25117411

Henning, Petra; Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Farman, Helen; Windahl, Sara H.; Carlsten, Hans

2014-01-01

43

CRYSTAL FIELD IN ErMg, ErPd AND RELATED COMPOUNDS P. MORIN, J. PIERRE and D. SCHMITT  

E-print Network

studies in rare earth intermetallic compounds have received much attention in the recent past [1611 CRYSTAL FIELD IN ErMg, ErPd AND RELATED COMPOUNDS P. MORIN, J. PIERRE and D. SCHMITT determined in the cubic equiatomic compounds ErMg and ErPd by neutron spectroscopy, and by measuring

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Overflader er ekstremt vigtige i bio-logi og medicin, for det er her, tinge-  

E-print Network

," siger Peter Kingshott og Niels Larsen fra Polymerafdelingen. I øjeblikket arbejder mange firmaer rundt funktioner," siger Niels Larsen. Kopi af naturen Ved vævsdyrkning er det afgørende, at cellerne kan vokse på i industrien," siger Niels Larsen. Udgangspunktet var bindevæv fra køer og svin. Overfladen af

45

Characterization of Er in porous Si  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of porous Si-based Er-doped light-emitting devices is a very promising developing field for all-silicon light emitters. However, while luminescence of Er-doped porous silicon devices has been demonstrated, very little attention has been devoted to the doping process itself. We have undertaken a detailed study of this process, examining the porous silicon matrix from several points of view during and after the doping. In particular, we have found that the Er-doping process shows a threshold level which, as evidenced by the cross correlation of the various techniques used, does depend on the sample thickness and on the doping parameters. PMID:22776613

2012-01-01

46

ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP  

SciTech Connect

Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

Gerald Heymsfield

2010-12-20

47

Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

2004-09-30

48

BE'ER-SHEVA 2012MUNICIPALITY OF BE'ER-SHEVA Be'er-Sheva Israel's "Opportunities Capital"  

E-print Network

'er-Sheva is home to some 20 ,000 residents. This prosperous 'university town' has commercial and industrial centers estate, higher education, entrepreneurship, tourism and more. Ongoing highway improvement, including for the Old City is to bring about fundamental change, transforming the Old City into a locus for tourism

Snider, Barry B.

49

Rab10 GTPase regulates ER dynamics and morphology  

PubMed Central

We have identified Rab10 as an ER specific Rab GTPase that regulates ER structure and dynamics. We show that Rab10 localizes to the ER and to dynamic ER-associated structures that track along microtubules and mark the position of new ER tubule growth. Rab10 depletion or expression of a Rab10 GDP-locked mutant alters ER morphology, resulting in decreased ER tubules. We demonstrate that this defect is due to a reduced ability of dynamic ER tubules to grow out and successfully fuse with adjacent ER. Consistent with this function, Rab10 partitions to dynamic ER-associated domains found at the leading edge of almost half of all ER tubule dynamics. Interestingly, this Rab10 domain is highly enriched with at least two ER enzymes that regulate phospholipid synthesis, PI Synthase and CEPT1. Both the formation and function of this Rab10/PIS/CEPT1 dynamic domain is inhibited by expression of a GDP-locked Rab10 mutant. Together, these data demonstrate that Rab10 regulates ER dynamics and further suggests that these dynamics could be coupled to phospholipid synthesis. PMID:23263280

English, Amber R.; Voeltz, Gia K.

2013-01-01

50

DOE/ER-0214 February 1985  

E-print Network

, available resources, and the nation's need for future energy sources. #12;PREFACE During the past few years into account the presenteconomiccon- ditions, the energy situation now and in the future, the role of technicalDOE/ER-0214 Magnetic Program Fusion Plan February 1985 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy

51

Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often

Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

2011-01-01

52

The QuEChERS revolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

53

European Space Agency, ERS-1 program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives selected for ERS-1 which are primarily intended to facilitate the exploitation of coastal oceans, including ice infested waters, and to facilitate the development of improved global weather information through the provision of information on the weather conditions over the oceans of the word are outlined. Additionally, land objectives will be addressed using the synthetic aperture radar incorporated in the payload.

Haskell, A.

1983-01-01

54

ER - the key to the highway.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle at the start of the secretory pathway and the list of its functions is continually growing. The ER organization as a tubular/cisternal network at the cortex of plant cells has recently been shown to be governed by the membrane tubulation proteins of the reticulon family working alongside plant atlastin homologues, members of the RHD3 group of proteins. Such a network has intimate connections with other organelles such as peroxisomes via peroxules, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and at the cell cortex to the plasma membrane with cytoskeleton at so called 'anchor/contact sites'. The ER network is by no means static displaying a range of different movements and acting as a subcellular highway supports the motility of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies plus the transport of macromolecules such as viral movement proteins, nucleocapsid proteins and RNA. Here we highlight recent and exciting discoveries on the maintenance of the ER structure and its role on movement and biology of other organelles. PMID:25259957

Stefano, Giovanni; Hawes, Chris; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-12-01

55

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

56

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

57

ER-associated retrograde SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex mediate an alternative, Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion pathway  

PubMed Central

The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is dynamically maintained by homotypic (ERER) fusion. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p can mediate ERER fusion, but sey1? cells have no growth defect and only slightly perturbed ER structure. Recent work suggested that ER-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimidesensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate a Sey1p-independent ERER fusion pathway. However, an alternative explanationthat the observed phenotypes arose from perturbed vesicle traffickingcould not be ruled out. In this study, we used candidate and synthetic genetic array (SGA) approaches to more fully characterize SNARE-mediated ERER fusion. We found that Dsl1 complex mutations in sey1? cells cause strong synthetic growth and ER structure defects and delayed ERER fusion in vivo, additionally implicating the Dsl1 complex in SNARE-mediated ERER fusion. In contrast, cytosolic coat protein I (COPI) vesicle coat mutations in sey1? cells caused no synthetic defects, excluding perturbed retrograde trafficking as a cause for the previously observed synthetic defects. Finally, deleting the reticulons that help maintain ER architecture in cells disrupted for both ERER fusion pathways caused almost complete inviability. We conclude that the ER SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex directly mediate Sey1p-independent ERER fusion and that, in the absence of both pathways, cell viability depends upon membrane curvaturepromoting reticulons. PMID:25187651

Rogers, Jason V.; McMahon, Conor; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Hughson, Frederick M.; Rose, Mark D.

2014-01-01

58

Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals  

SciTech Connect

The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

Malov, A V [N.P. Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk (Russian Federation); Popov, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

2010-08-03

59

Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier  

E-print Network

Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier via particle swarm optimization Francesco Prudenzano Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier via particle swarm/03/2014 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Design of fiber coupled Er3 :chalcogenide microsphere

Boyer, Edmond

60

ER71 directs mesodermal fate decisions during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Er71 mutant embryos are nonviable and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. To further define the functional role for ER71 in cell lineage decisions, we generated genetically modified mouse models. We engineered an Er71-EYFP transgenic mouse model by fusing the 3.9 kb Er71 promoter to the EYFP reporter gene. Using FACS and transcriptional profiling, we examined the EYFP(+) population of cells in Er71 mutant and wild-type littermates. In the absence of ER71, we observed an increase in the number of EYFP-expressing cells, increased expression of the cardiac molecular program and decreased expression of the hemato-endothelial program, as compared with wild-type littermate controls. We also generated a novel Er71-Cre transgenic mouse model using the same 3.9 kb Er71 promoter. Genetic fate-mapping studies revealed that the ER71-expressing cells give rise to the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the wild-type background. In the absence of ER71, these cell populations contributed to alternative mesodermal lineages, including the cardiac lineage. To extend these analyses, we used an inducible embryonic stem/embryoid body system and observed that ER71 overexpression repressed cardiogenesis. Together, these studies identify ER71 as a critical regulator of mesodermal fate decisions that acts to specify the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages at the expense of cardiac lineages. This enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern mesodermal fate decisions early during embryogenesis. PMID:21989919

Rasmussen, Tara L; Kweon, Junghun; Diekmann, Mackenzie A; Belema-Bedada, Fikru; Song, Qingfeng; Bowlin, Kathy; Shi, Xiaozhong; Ferdous, Anwarul; Li, Tongbin; Kyba, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J

2011-11-01

61

Integrating the ER Approach in an OO Environment \\Lambda  

E-print Network

­Relationship (ER) schemas into the object­oriented specification language TROLL light . This language describes. By doing the translation from ER to TROLL light we preserve the visual advantages of the former and receive. Proceeding this way we hope our proposal for transforming ER schemas into TROLL light specifications provides

Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

62

Test of Axel-Brink predictions in the /sup 167/Er(n,. gamma. )/sup 168/Er reaction  

SciTech Connect

The average radiation widths of primary ..gamma.. rays in the reaction /sup 167/Er(n,..gamma..)/sup 168/Er are in reasonable agreement with the Axel-Brink predictions based on a giant dipole resonance model.

Kahane, S.; Slaughter, G.G.; Raman, S.

1981-01-01

63

Estradiol rapidly regulates membrane ER? levels in hypothalamic neurons  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen binding proteins have been localized intracellularly and on the cell surface. The membrane associated proteins initiate signaling that activates a myriad of cellular responses including the modulation of ion channels and ultimately transcription. Although many of the downstream actions of membrane ERs, including ER? and ER?, have been characterized, the mechanisms regulating membrane ER levels have remained elusive in the nervous system. In the present study, we used surface biotinylation to identify and study the estradiol regulation of membrane ER? in mixed sex, cultured hypothalamic neurons from rat. Following surface biotinylation, western blot analysis revealed full length 66 kDa ER? and several ER? splice variants, most notably a biotinylated 52 kDa ER?-immunoreactive protein. Treatment of the neurons with estradiol caused a rapid and transient increase of the biotinylated 52 kDa and 66 kDa ER? proteins in the plasma membrane. Exposure of the neurons to estradiol also significantly increased internalization of 52 kDa and 66 kDa ER? membrane proteins, a measure of receptor activation. In the hypothalamus, membrane ER? signaling depends on transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a (mGluR1a). Estradiol treatment increased the internalization of mGluR1a in parallel with ER?, a finding consistent with the hypothesis of an ER?-mGluR1a signaling unit. These results demonstrate that estradiol regulates the amount of ER? in the membrane, suggesting estradiol can regulate its own membrane signaling. PMID:20861365

Dominguez, R.; Micevych, P.

2011-01-01

64

Polynomial Time Veri ers and NP A veri er for a language A is an algorithm V  

E-print Network

; it is decided by some non- determinstic polynomial-time Turing machine. Proof sketch: A nondeterministic TMPolynomial Time Veri#12;ers and NP A veri#12;er for a language A is an algorithm V where: A = fw j V accepts hw; ci for some string cg A polynomial time veri#12;er runs in polynomial time in the jwj

Bylander, Tom

65

The ER in 3-D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3-D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contact with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. ER 3-D structure is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. Here, we describe some of the factors that are known to regulate ER structure and discuss how this structural organization, and the dynamic nature of the ER membrane network, allows it to perform its many different functions. PMID:21900009

Friedman, Jonathan R.; Voeltz, Gia K.

2011-01-01

66

MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:25372053

Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

2014-11-01

67

Differential Roles of ER? and ER? in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors ? and ? (ER? and ER?) in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland. In wild-type mice, in vivo administration of estradiol (E) + progesterone (P) stimulated mammary ductal growth and alveolar differentiation. Mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated normal ductal growth and differentiation in response to E + P. By contrast, mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated only rudimentary ductal structures that did not differentiate in response to E + P. EGF demonstrates estrogen-like activity in the mammary glands of ?ERKO mice: treatment of ?ERKO mice with EGF + P (without E) supported normal mammary gland development, induced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and increased levels of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) protein. Mammary gland development in ?ERKO mice treated with EGF + P was comparable to that of wild-type mice receiving EGF + P; EGF had no statistically significant effects on the induction of PR or expression of GPR30 in mammary glands harvested from either wild-type mice or ?ERKO mice. In vitro exposure of mammary glands to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced preneoplastic mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in glands from wild-type mice and ?ERKO mice, but failed to induce MAL in mammary glands from ?ERKO mice. Microarray analysis of DMBA-treated mammary glands identified 28 functional pathways whose expression was significantly different in ?ERKO mice versus both ?ERKO and wild-type mice; key functions that were differentially expressed in ?ERKO mice included cell division, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The data demonstrate distinct roles for ER? and ER? in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland, and suggest that EGF can mimic the ER?-mediated effects of E in this organ. PMID:25405629

Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hawthorne, Michael; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Torres, Karen E. O.; Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L.; Kopelovich, Levy

2014-01-01

68

Anharmonicities of ?-vibrations in 168Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiphonon method, which is mainly an exact diagonalisation of the total hamiltonian in the collective space, is applied to the analysis of the ?-vibrations in 168Er. The results are compared to those obtained by Dumitrescu and Hamamoto in a perturbation treatment and by Matsuo and Matsuyanagi in the self-consistent collective coordinate method. It is also explained why the quasiparticle phonon model of Soloviev strongly overestimates the energies of the two phonon states.

Piepenbring, R.; Jammari, M. K.

1988-04-01

69

ER-12-1 completion report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

1996-12-01

70

Energy level structure of Er3+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic energy levels and E2 and M1 transition rates are reported for the [Xe]4f11 ground configuration in Er3+ from relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations. The Breit transverse interaction and leading QED effects are included as perturbations. Different strategies for describing electron correlation effects are tested and evaluated. The calculated energy levels are compared with experiment and results from semi-empirical methods.

Radi?t?, L.; Gaigalas, G.; Kato, D.; Jnsson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Ku?as, S.; Jonauskas, V.; Matulianec, R.

2015-02-01

71

Aggressive prostate cancer is prevented in ER?KO mice and stimulated in ER?KO TRAMP mice.  

PubMed

Previous evidence suggests soy genistein may be protective against prostate cancer, but whether this protection involves an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent mechanism is unknown. To test the hypothesis that phytoestrogens may act through ER? or ER? to play a protective role against prostate cancer, we bred transgenic mice lacking functional ER? or ER? with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Dietary genistein reduced the incidence of cancer in ER wild-type (WT)/transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice but not in ER? knockout (KO) or ER?KO mice. Cancer incidence was 70% in ERWT mice fed the control diet compared with 47% in ERWT mice fed low-dose genistein (300 mg/kg) and 32% on the high-dose genistein (750 mg/kg). Surprisingly, genistein only affected the well differentiated carcinoma (WDC) incidence but had no effect on poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC). No dietary effects have been observed in either of the ERKO animals. We observed a very strong genotypic influence on PDC incidence, a protective effect in ER?KO (only 5% developed PDC), compared with 19% in the ERWT, and an increase in the incidence of PDC in ER?KO mice to 41%. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis showed ER? expression changing from nonnuclear in WDC to nuclear in PDC, with little change in ER? location or expression. In conclusion, genistein is able to inhibit WDC in the presence of both ERs, but the effect of estrogen signaling on PDC is dominant over any dietary treatment, suggesting that improved differential targeting of ER? vs. ER? would result in prevention of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:22753646

Slusarz, Anna; Jackson, Glenn A; Day, J Kevin; Shenouda, Nader S; Bogener, Jennifer L; Browning, Jim D; Fritsche, Kevin L; MacDonald, Ruth S; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Lubahn, Dennis B

2012-09-01

72

ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment. PMID:25140166

Jheng, Jia-Rong; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Horng, Jim-Tong

2014-01-01

73

ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment. PMID:25140166

Jheng, Jia-Rong; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Horng, Jim-Tong

2014-01-01

74

Progression of Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Increased Er? Levels and Is Repressed by a Dominant Negative Form of Er?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptors (ER), namely ER? and ER?, are hormone-activated transcription factors with an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the implication of ER? in skin cancer, using chemically-induced mouse skin tumours, as well as cell lines representing distinct stages of mouse skin oncogenesis. First, using immunohistochemical staining we showed that ER? is markedly increased

Stella Logotheti; Dimitra Papaevangeliou; Ioannis Michalopoulos; Maria Sideridou; Katerina Tsimaratou; Ioannis Christodoulou; Katerina Pyrillou; Vassilis Gorgoulis; Spiros Vlahopoulos; Vassilis Zoumpourlis

2012-01-01

75

The ER quality control and ER associated degradation machineries are vital for viral pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to protein production and membrane lipid synthesis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) supports cellular metabolism by ensuring protein quality control in the ER. Most positive strand RNA viruses cause extensive remodeling of membranes and require active membrane synthesis to promote infection. How viruses interact with the cellular machinery controlling membrane metabolism is largely unknown. Furthermore, there is mounting data pointing to the importance of the UPR and ER associated degradation (ERAD) machineries in viral pathogenesis in eukaryotes emerging topic. For many viruses, the UPR is an early event that is essential for persistent infection and benefits virus replication. In addition, many viruses are reported to commandeer ER resident chaperones to contribute to virus replication and intercellular movement. In particular, calreticulin, the ubiquitin machinery, and the 26S proteasome are most commonly identified components of the UPR and ERAD machinery that also regulate virus infection. In addition, researchers have noted a link between UPR and autophagy. It is well accepted that positive strand RNA viruses use autophagic membranes as scaffolds to support replication and assembly. However this topic has yet to be explored using plant viruses. The goal of research on this topic is to uncover how viruses interact with this ER-related machinery and to use this information for designing novel strategies to boost immune responses to virus infection. PMID:24653727

Verchot, Jeanmarie

2014-01-01

76

The ablation threshold of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation in dental enamel.  

PubMed

The scientific investigation of fundamental problems plays a decisive role in understanding the mode of action and the consequences of the use of lasers on biological material. One of these fundamental aspects is the investigation of the ablation threshold of various laser wavelengths in dental enamel. Knowledge of the relationships and influencing factors in the laser ablation of hard tooth tissue constitutes the basis for use in patients and the introduction of new indications. The present paper examines the ablation threshold of an Er:YAG laser (lambda=2.94 micro m) and an Er:YSGG laser (lambda=2.79 micro m) in human dental enamel. To this end, 130 enamel samples were taken from wisdom teeth and treated with increasing energy densities of 2-40 J/cm(2). The sample material was mounted and irradiated on an automated linear micropositioner. Treatment was performed with a pulse duration of tau(P(FWHM)) approximately 150 micro s and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz for both wavelengths. The repetition rate of the laser and the feed rate of the micropositioner resulted in overlapping of the single pulses. The surface changes were assessed by means of reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the results, it was possible to identify an energy density range as the ablation threshold for both the Er:YAG and the Er:YSGG laser. With the Er:YAG laser, the transition was found in an energy density range of 9-11 J/cm(2). The range for the Er:YSGG laser was slightly higher at 10-14 J/cm(2). PMID:12417978

Apel, C; Meister, J; Ioana, R S; Franzen, R; Hering, P; Gutknecht, N

2002-01-01

77

The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS. PMID:24910594

Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

2014-01-01

78

ERS-1: 18 months in orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs of the ERS-1 mission outline initial objectives, the orbit configuration, the instrumentation, the international cooperation, and the objectives still to be achieved. Graphs of specified performances include orbit control, inclination correction, solar array power, satellite stability, AMI performance verification, SAR radiometric stability, and RA performance stability. Also displayed are the number of planned (for November 92 through February of 93) and acquired SAR frames of the mission for each of the various sites throughout Europe and the world. A map locating these chosen sites is also included.

Louet, Jacques

1993-01-01

79

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

80

Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

2014-01-01

81

RAC3 is a promigratory co-activator of ER?  

PubMed Central

ER? is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor that is important in breast cancer genesis, behavior and response to hormone-based therapies. A T7 phage display screen against full-length human ER?, coupled with genome-wide exon arrays, was used to identify RAC3 as a putative ER? co-regulator. RAC3 is a rho family small GTPase that is associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement. We demonstrate a novel role for nuclear RAC3 as an ER? transcriptional activator, with prognostic implications for metastatic disease. Through in vitro and cell-based studies, RAC3 was shown to exist in a GTP-bound state and act as a ligand specific ER? co-activator of E2-induced transcription. Over expression of RAC3 induced pro-growth and pro-migratory genes that resulted in increased migration of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. Chemical inhibition and genetic knockdown of RAC3 antagonized E2-induced cell proliferation, cell migration, and ER? mediated gene expression, indicating that RAC3 is necessary for full ER? transcriptional activity. In agreement with the molecular and cellular data, RAC3 over expression in ER?-positive breast cancers correlated with a significant decrease in recurrence free survival and a significant increase in the odds ratio of metastasis. In conclusion, RAC3 is novel ER? co-activator that promotes cell migration and has prognostic value for ER?-positive breast cancer metastasis. RAC3 may also be a useful therapeutic target for ER?-positive breast cancers. PMID:21217774

Walker, Matthew P; Zhang, Maomao; Le, Thien P; Wu, Patricia; Lain, Muriel; Greene, Geoffrey L

2010-01-01

82

Initiation and execution of lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic ?-cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic ?-cells and might contribute to ?-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary ?-cells and human islets exposed to oleate and/or palmitate. Treatment with saturated and/or unsaturated FFA led to differential ER stress signaling. Palmitate induced more apoptosis and markedly activated the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 pathways, owing to a sustained depletion of ER Ca2+ stores, whereas the unsaturated FFA oleate led to milder PERK and IRE1 activation and comparable ATF6 signaling. Non-metabolizable methyl-FFA analogs induced neither ER stress nor ?-cell apoptosis. The FFA-induced ER stress response was not modified by high glucose concentrations, suggesting that ER stress in primary ?-cells is primarily lipotoxic, and not glucolipotoxic. Palmitate, but not oleate, activated JNK. JNK inhibitors reduced palmitate-mediated AP-1 activation and apoptosis. Blocking the transcription factor CHOP delayed palmitate-induced ?-cell apoptosis. In conclusion, saturated FFA induce ER stress via ER Ca2+ depletion. The IRE1 and resulting JNK activation contribute to ?-cell apoptosis. PERK activation by palmitate also contributes to ?-cell apoptosis via CHOP. PMID:18559892

Cunha, Daniel A.; Hekerman, Paul; Ladrire, Laurence; Bazarra-Castro, Angie; Ortis, Fernanda; Wakeham, Marion C.; Moore, Fabrice; Rasschaert, Joanne; Cardozo, Alessandra K.; Bellomo, Elisa; Overbergh, Lutgart; Mathieu, Chantal; Lupi, Roberto; Hai, Tsonwin; Herchuelz, Andre; Marchetti, Piero; Rutter, Guy A.; Eizirik, Dcio L.; Cnop, Miriam

2013-01-01

83

Evaluating the Potential Bioactivity of a Novel Compound ER1626  

PubMed Central

Background ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. Method MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. Results ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor ? protein and up-regulated ? protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 mol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. Conclusion In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis. PMID:24475135

Wang, Tianling; Liu, Hongyi; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

2014-01-01

84

June 1997 ER-2 Flight Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within our current understanding of the atmospheric ionizing radiation, the ER-2 flight package was designed to provide a complete characterization of the physical fields and evaluate various dosimetric techniques for routine monitoring. A flight plan was developed to sample the full dynamic range of the atmospheric environment especially at altitudes relevant to the development of the High Speed Civil Transport. The flight of the instruments occurred in June of 1997 where predictive models indicated a maximum in the high altitude radiation environment occurring approximately nine months after the minimum in the solar sunspot cycle. The flights originated at Moffett field at the Ames Research Center on ER-2 aircraft designated as 706. The equipment was shipped mid- May 1997 for unpacking and checkout, size fitting, systems functional test, and preflight testing on aircraft power with flight readiness achieved on May 30, 1997. The equipment was qualified on its first engineering flight on June 2, 1997 and the subsequent science gathering flights followed during the period of June 5-15, 1997. Herein we give an account of the flight operations.

Jones, Irby W.

2003-01-01

85

Role of Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in Er3+:YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two atomic models are proposed in an 35 nm Er3+-doped YAG crystal. The effect of Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability is discussed. The results for two models show that the threshold of optical bistability for some Er3+ concentration reduces and for some concentration increases. We display that the incoherent pumping field makes the behavior of optical bistability for two proposed model completely different at identical conditions for Er3+ concentration. Our results show that in the absence and presence of incoherent pumping field some Er3+ concentration can lead to maximum and minimum OB threshold. We hope that our proposed model can be suitable for optimizing and controlling the optical bistability in Er3+:YAG crystal.

Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

2014-11-01

86

High-power Er:YAG laser at 1646nm pumped by an Er,Yb fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an Er:YAG laser pumped by a tunable, cladding-pumped Er,Yb fiber laser and discuss factors affecting the laser performance. Crystals with different Er 3+-concentrations in the range 0.5% to 4 at% and with crystal lengths selected for ~95% absorption of the pump light at 1532nm were used, and the laser performance was investigated for a range

Peter Jander; Jayanta K. Sahu; W. Andrew Clarkson

87

A 3D analysis of yeast ER structure reveals how ER domains are organized by membrane curvature  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the structure of yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during six sequential stages of budding by electron tomography to reveal a three-dimensional portrait of ER organization during inheritance at a nanometer resolution. We have determined the distribution, dimensions, and ribosome densities of structurally distinct but continuous ER domains during multiple stages of budding with and without the tubule-shaping proteins, reticulons (Rtns) and Yop1. In wild-type cells, the peripheral ER contains cytoplasmic cisternae, many tubules, and a large plasma membrane (PM)associated ER domain that consists of both tubules and fenestrated cisternae. In the absence of Rtn/Yop1, all three domains lose membrane curvature, ER ribosome density changes, and the amount of PM-associated ER increases dramatically. Deletion of Rtns/Yop1 does not, however, prevent bloated ER tubules from being pulled from the mother cisterna into the bud and strongly suggests that Rtns/Yop1 stabilize/maintain rather than generate membrane curvature at all peripheral ER domains in yeast. PMID:21502358

West, Matt; Zurek, Nesia; Hoenger, Andreas

2011-01-01

88

Untangling the web: Mechanisms underlying ER network formation  

PubMed Central

The ER is a continuous membrane system consisting of the nuclear envelope, flat sheets often studded with ribosomes, and a polygonal network of highly-curved tubules extending throughout the cell. Although protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, vesicular transport, Ca2+dynamics, and protein quality control have been investigated in great detail, mechanisms that generate the distinctive architecture of the ER have been uncovered only recently. Several protein families including the reticulons and REEPs/DP1/Yop1p harbor hydrophobic hairpin domains that shape high-curvature ER tubules and mediate intramembrane protein interactions. Members of the atlastin/RHD3/Sey1p family of dynamin-related GTPases interact with the ER-shaping proteins and mediate the formation of three-way junctions responsible for the polygonal structure of the tubular ER network, with Lunapark proteins acting antagonistically. Additional classes of tubular ER proteins including some REEPs and the M1 spastin ATPase interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Flat ER sheets possess a different complement of proteins such as p180, CLIMP-63 and kinectin implicated in shaping, cisternal stacking and cytoskeletal interactions. The ER is also in constant motion, and numerous signaling pathways as well as interactions among cytoskeletal elements, the plasma membrane, and organelles cooperate to position and shape the ER dynamically. Finally, many proteins involved in shaping the ER network are mutated in the most common forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, indicating a particular importance for proper ER morphology and distribution in large, highly-polarized cells such as neurons. PMID:23602970

Goyal, Uma; Blackstone, Craig

2013-01-01

89

ER 101: 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know  

MedlinePLUS

ER 101 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know The more you know about the care you receive in the ER, the happier and probably healthier ... with physicians youre instructed to see. Emergency physicians are specialists Emergency medicine is a medical specialty ...

90

Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirushost interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling. PMID:24987391

Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

2014-01-01

91

p53 negatively regulates Pin1 expression under ER stress.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the development of many diseases. A previous study indicated that the apoptotic regulator p53 is significantly increased in response to ER stress and participates in ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the regulators of p53 expression during ER stress are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether p53 contributes to the impairment of Pin1 signaling under ER stress. We found that treatment with thapsigargin, a stimulator of p53 expression and an inducer of ER stress, decreased Pin1 expression in HCT116 cells. Also, we identified functional p53 response elements (p53REs) in the Pin1 promoter. Overexpression of p53 significantly decreased Pin1 expression in HCT116 cells while abolition of p53 gene expression induced Pin1 expression. Pin1 expression was significantly increased by treatment with the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-? or down-regulation of p53 expression. Taken together, ER stress decreased Pin1 expression through p53 activation, and this mechanism may be associated with ER stress-induced cell death. These data reported here support the importance of Pin1 as a potential target molecule mediating tumor development. PMID:25451271

Jeong, Kwon; Kim, Seong-Jin; Oh, Yoojung; Kim, Hunsung; Lee, Young-Seok; Kwon, Byung-Su; Park, Sanghyun; Park, Key-Chung; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun; Kang, Insug; Choe, Wonchae

2014-10-27

92

Generational Analyses of Suicide: Baby Boomers and 13ers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personality characteristics of different generations are discussed as they may affect suicide. Suicide data for 1968-91 are presented for "Boomers" (born 1943-60) and for Americans called "13ers" (13th generation of Americans; born 1961-81). Results indicate that both cohorts are at greater risk than earlier generations, with 13ers showing the

McIntosh, John L.

1994-01-01

93

The manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD2.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium dihydride Er(H,D,T){sub 2} is a fluorite structure rare-earth dihydride useful for the storage of hydrogen isotopes in the solid state. However, thermodynamic predictions indicate that erbium oxide formation will proceed readily during processing, which may detrimentally contaminate Er(H,D,T){sub 2} films. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered TEM, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution TEM are used to examine the manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD{sub 2} thin films. An oxide layer {approx}30-130 nm thick was found on top of the underlying ErD{sub 2} film, and showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation to the underlying ErD{sub 2}. Electron diffraction confirmed the oxide layer to be Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. While the majority of the film was observed to have the expected fluorite structure for ErD{sub 2}, secondary diffraction spots suggested the possibility of either nanoscale oxide inclusions or hydrogen ordering. In situ heating experiments combined with electron diffraction ruled out the possibility of hydrogen ordering, so epitaxial oxide nanoinclusions within the ErD{sub 2} matrix are hypothesized. TEM techniques were applied to examine this oxide nanoinclusion hypothesis.

Snow, Clark Sheldon; Parish, Chad Michael; Brewer, Luke N.

2008-10-01

94

Position control system using ER clutch and piezoactuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ultra precision positioning system consisting of electrorheological(ER) clutch and piezoelectric actuators using dual servo control mechanism. ER clutch and ball screw are adopted for a coarse positioning stage, and magnification device driven by multi-stack piezoelectric actuator is manufactured for a fine positioning stage. After deriving the dynamic modeling for coarse motion stage, a sliding mode controller is

Seung-Bok Choi; Sang-Soo Han

2003-01-01

95

FOXK2 Transcription Factor Suppresses ER?-positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth Through Down-Regulating the Stability of ER? via mechanism involving BRCA1/BARD1.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of breast cancer development. Identification of molecules that regulate the function of ERs may facilitate the development of more effective breast cancer treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 interacted with ER?, and inhibited ER?-regulated transcriptional activities by enhancing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ER?. This process involved the interaction between FOXK2 and BRCA1/BARD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of ER?. FOXK2 interacted with BARD1 and acted as a scaffold protein for BRCA1/BARD1 and ER?, leading to enhanced degradation of ER?, which eventually accounted for its decreased transcriptional activity. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of FOXK2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of ER?, decreased the transcription of ER? target genes, and suppressed the proliferation of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. In contract, knockdown of FOXK2 in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation. However, when ER? was also knocked down, knockdown of FOXK2 had no effect on cell proliferation. These findings suggested that FOXK2 might act as a negative regulator of ER?, and its association with both ER? and BRCA1/BARD1 could lead to the down-regulation of ER? transcriptional activity, effectively regulating the function of ER?. PMID:25740706

Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Jia, Zhaojun; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhaowei; Hu, Gaolei; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Min; Wu, Huijian

2015-01-01

96

FOXK2 Transcription Factor Suppresses ER?-positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth Through Down-Regulating the Stability of ER? via mechanism involving BRCA1/BARD1  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of breast cancer development. Identification of molecules that regulate the function of ERs may facilitate the development of more effective breast cancer treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 interacted with ER?, and inhibited ER?-regulated transcriptional activities by enhancing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ER?. This process involved the interaction between FOXK2 and BRCA1/BARD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of ER?. FOXK2 interacted with BARD1 and acted as a scaffold protein for BRCA1/BARD1 and ER?, leading to enhanced degradation of ER?, which eventually accounted for its decreased transcriptional activity. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of FOXK2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of ER?, decreased the transcription of ER? target genes, and suppressed the proliferation of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. In contract, knockdown of FOXK2 in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation. However, when ER? was also knocked down, knockdown of FOXK2 had no effect on cell proliferation. These findings suggested that FOXK2 might act as a negative regulator of ER?, and its association with both ER? and BRCA1/BARD1 could lead to the down-regulation of ER? transcriptional activity, effectively regulating the function of ER?. PMID:25740706

Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Jia, Zhaojun; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhaowei; Hu, Gaolei; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Min; Wu, Huijian

2015-01-01

97

SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: Calcium and ROS  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca2+ and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function. PMID:19527680

Csords, Gyrgy; Hajnczky, Gyrgy

2009-01-01

98

Validation of dynamic torque response of an electrorheological (ER) clutch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that using actuators, which have faster speeds of response than d.c. servomotors, can solve the positional errors of the robot arms. One of the possible robotic actuators can be an electro-rheological (ER) clutch. To justify this objective, the authors measured the output torque response of a co-axial ER clutch. However, due to the dynamic inefficiency of a torque transducer, the measured torque response is inaccurate for analytical studies. Therefore, this measured torque is signal processed by using the transfer functions of this torque sensor and a filter to yield the ER torque response. The validity of this ER torque is investigated by comparing the numerical errors between the measured torque and its inverse torque response. From the torque error analysis, it is concluded that the ER clutch can be an actuator to improve the positioning accuracies of the robot arms.

Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

2006-02-01

99

Induction of neuronal death by ER stress in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Recent studies have suggested that neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or ischemia could arise from dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis, and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER, and are called 'ER stress'. Normal cells respond to ER stress by increasing transcription of genes encoding ER-resident chaperones such as GRP78/BiP, to facilitate protein folding or by suppressing the mRNA translation to synthesize proteins. These systems are termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin-1 (PS1) mutation downregulates the unfolded protein response and leads to vulnerability to ER stress. The mechanisms by which mutant PS1 affects the ER stress response are attributed to the inhibited activation of ER stress transducers such as IRE1, PERK and ATF6. On the other hand, in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), we found the aberrant splicing isoform (PS2V), generated by exon 5 skipping of the Presenilin-2 (PS2) gene transcript, responsible for induction of high mobility group A1a protein (HMGA1a). The PS2V also downregulates the signaling pathway of the UPR, in a similar fashion to that reported for mutants of PS1 linked to familial AD. It was clarified what molecules related to cell death are activated in the case of AD and we discovered that caspase-4 plays a key role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Caspase-4 also seems to act upstream of the beta-amyloid-induced ER stress pathway, suggesting that activation of caspase-4 might mediate neuronal cell death in AD. PMID:15363492

Katayama, Taiichi; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Manabe, Takayuki; Hitomi, Junichi; Kudo, Takashi; Tohyama, Masaya

2004-09-01

100

Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

2011-01-01

101

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24 Section...ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New...

2011-04-01

102

COPII machinery cooperates with ER-localized Hsp40 to sequester misfolded membrane proteins into ER-associated compartments.  

PubMed

Proteins that fail to fold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Certain transmembrane ERAD substrates are segregated into specialized ER subdomains, termed ER-associated compartments (ERACs), before targeting to ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. The traffic-independent function of several proteins involved in COPII-mediated ER-to-Golgi transport have been implicated in the segregation of exogenously expressed human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into ERACs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we focus on the properties of COPII components in the sequestration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-CFTR into ERACs. It has been demonstrated that the temperature-sensitive growth defects in many COPII mutants can be suppressed by overexpressing other genes involved in COPII vesicle formation. However, we show that these suppression abilities are not always correlated with the ability to rescue the ERAC formation defect, suggesting that COPII-mediated EGFP-CFTR entry into ERACs is independent of its ER-to-Golgi trafficking function. In addition to COPII machinery, we find that ER-associated Hsp40s are also involved in the sequestration process by directly interacting with EGFP-CFTR. COPII components and ER-associated Hsp40, Hlj1p, act in the same pathway to sequester EGFP-CFTR into ERACs. Our findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs. PMID:23303252

Kakoi, Shogo; Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken

2013-03-01

103

THE COMPLETE NUCLEAR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FAMILY IN THE RAINBOW TROUT: DISCOVERY OF THE NOVEL ER.2 AND BOTH ER. ISOFORMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Estrogen hormones interact with cellular ERs to exert their biological effects in vertebrate animals. Similar to other animals, fishes have two distinct ER subtypes, ERa (NR3A1) and ERb (NR3A2). The ERb subtype is found as two different isoforms in several fish species because of a gene duplication ...

104

Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli  

E-print Network

Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli Be´atrice Gre -, and mating-induced Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in neurons in which mating stimulation reliably increases, or received 15 intromissions. In the rostral medial preoptic area, Fos-ir was induced by mounts alone

Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

105

Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si P. H. Citrin and P. A. Northrup  

E-print Network

Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si P. H. Citrin and P. A. Northrup elsewhere,7 GaN:Er films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy MBE onto 2 in. Si substrates and studied. % doped in GaN films show that Er occupies the Ga site with an unprecedentedly short ErN bond length

Steckl, Andrew J.

106

Optical properties of Si\\/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by SMBE method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among Er-doped crystalline Si materials, Si\\/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) technique present extraordinary optical properties, with a narrow linewidth of the Er-related emission at 1.5 mum. Based on spectral analysis, the splitting of the ground state of Er3+ ions and the presence of only a single type of Er-related optical center, labeled Er-1, have been

Ngo Ngoc Ha; Z. F. Krasil'Nik; T. Gregorkiewicz

2009-01-01

107

Optical properties of Si\\/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by SMBE method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among Er-doped crystalline Si materials, Si\\/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) technique present extraordinary optical properties, with a narrow linewidth of the Er-related emission at 1.5?m. Based on spectral analysis, the splitting of the ground state of Er3+ ions and the presence of only a single type of Er-related optical center, labeled Er-1, have been conclusively

Ngo Ngoc Ha; Z. F. Krasilnik; T. Gregorkiewicz

2009-01-01

108

Paliperidone ER: a review of the clinical trial data  

PubMed Central

Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER; INVEGA) is an oral antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. The recommended dose range is 312 mg per day. Paliperidone ER utilizes the OROS delivery system, which allows for once-daily dosing. Its pharmacokinetic profile results in a more stable serum concentration. Paliperidone is 9-hydroxyrisperidone, the chief active metabolite of risperidone. It undergoes limited hepatic metabolism, thereby minimizing the risks of hepatic drugdrug and drugdisease interactions. Three 6-week trials in patients with acute schizophrenia reported that paliperidone ER was effective, well tolerated, and produced clinically meaningful improvements in personal and social functioning compared with placebo. Post-hoc analysis of these trials in various populations, including recently diagnosed, elderly and more severely ill patients, those with sleep disturbances and those with predominant negative symptoms demonstrated improvement as well. Paliperidone ER was also significantly better than placebo in the prevention of symptom recurrence in a 6-month maintenance study. The most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with paliperidone ER were extrapyramidal symptoms, tachycardia and somnolence. The incidence of Parkinsonism, akathisia and use of anticholinergic medications increased in a dose-related manner. Further, modest QTc interval prolongation was observed but did not produce clinical symptoms. Similar to risperidone, paliperidone ER is associated with increases in serum prolactin levels. Overall, paliperidone ER was effective, well tolerated and provides a new treatment option for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:19300622

Janicak, Philip G; Winans, Elizabeth A

2007-01-01

109

ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Several theories on the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been proposed: misfolded protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased glutamate toxicity, increased oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular trafficking, and so on. In parallel, a number of drugs that have been developed to alleviate the putative key pathomechanism of ALS have been under clinical trials. Unfortunately, however, almost all studies have finished unsuccessfully. This fact indicates that the key ALS pathomechanism still remains a tough enigma. Recent studies with autopsied ALS patients and studies using mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related toxicity may be a relevant ALS pathomechanism. Levels of ER stress-related proteins were upregulated in motor neurons in the spinal cords of ALS patients. It was also shown that mSOD1, translocated to the ER, caused ER stress in neurons in the spinal cord of mSOD1 transgenic mice. We recently reported that the newly identified ALS-causative gene, vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), plays a pivotal role in unfolded protein response (UPR), a physiological reaction against ER stress. The ALS-linked P56S mutation in VAPB nullifies the function of VAPB, resulting in motoneuronal vulnerability to ER stress. In this review, we summarize recent advances in research on the ALS pathomechanism especially addressing the putative involvement of ER stress and UPR dysfunction. PMID:19184563

Kanekura, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Aiso, Sadakazu; Matsuoka, Masaaki

2009-04-01

110

Structure and dynamics of ER: minimal networks and biophysical constraints.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

2014-08-01

111

Optimization of Yb-Er microchip laser parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Output parameters of microchip lasers based on Yb:Er co-doped phosphate glasses have been numerically calculated using a simplified 4-level model in order to optimize the Yb and Er concentrations and active medium length. It was shown that active media with Yb concentration ~21027 m-3 and length of the order of 1 mm were most appropriate to obtain the practically maximum slope efficiency and minimum threshold power. Simulation results indicated that the Er concentration could be much lower than those currently used in practice. The obtained results were in good agreement with available experimental data.

Burov, L. I.; Krylova, L. G.

2012-07-01

112

IRE1: ER stress sensor and cell fate executor  

PubMed Central

Cells operate a signaling network termed unfolded protein response (UPR) to monitor protein-folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). IRE1 is an ER transmembrane sensor that activates UPR to maintain ER and cellular function. While mammalian IRE1 promotes cell survive, it can initiate apoptosis via decay of anti-apoptotic microRNAs. Convergent and divergent IRE1 characteristics between plants and animals underscore its significance in cellular homeostasis. This review provides an updated scenario of IRE1 signaling model, discusses emerging IRE1 sensing mechanisms, compares IRE1 features among species, and outlines exciting future directions in UPR research. PMID:23880584

Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica

2013-01-01

113

ERS: Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service (ERS) is one of four agencies in the Research, Education, and Economics (REE) Mission Area of the US Department of Agriculture addressing issues of efficiency, efficacy and equity in agriculture and rural development. Recently, ERS has relaunched their site, emphasizing ease of accessibility to publications such as research reports, periodicals, maps, photos and fact sheets to view or download (.pdf format). ERS also provides email, fax, and phone numbers of subject specialists for direct research questions, and a "What's New" menu gives calendars of up-coming titles.

114

The distributions of the duplicate oestrogen receptors ER-?a and ER-?b in the forebrain of the Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus): evidence for subfunctionalization after gene duplication  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes have three distinct oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes: ER-?, ER-?a (or ER-?) and ER-?b. ER-?a and ER-?b arose from a duplication of an ancestral ER-? gene early in the teleost lineage. Here, we describe the distribution of the three ER mRNAs in the hypothalamus and cerebellum of the Atlantic croaker to address two issues: the specific functions of multiple ERs in the neuroendocrine system and the evolution and fate of duplicated genes. ER-? was detected in nuclei of the preoptic area (POA) and hypothalamus previously shown to possess ER-?s in teleosts. AcER-?b, but not ER-?a, labelling was detected in the magnocellular neurons of the POA, nucleus posterior tuberis, the nucleus recessus posterior and cerebellum. By contrast, acER-?a, but not ER-?b, was detected in the dorsal anterior parvocellular POA and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Both ER-?s were found in posterior parvocellular and ventral anterior POA nuclei, the ventral hypothalamus, and periventricular dorsal hypothalamus. The differences we observed in ER subtype mRNA distribution within well-characterized brain nuclei suggest that ER-?a and ER-?b have distinct functions in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction and behaviour, and provide evidence that the teleost ER-? paralogues have partitioned functions of the ancestral ER-? gene they shared with tetrapods. PMID:15817438

Hawkins, M.B; Godwin, J; Crews, D; Thomas, P

2005-01-01

115

Differential hormonal regulation of estrogen receptors ER? and ER? and androgen receptor expression in rat efferent ductules  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors, in addition to the androgen receptor (AR), are expressed at high levels in efferent ductules of the male reproductive tract and it is now well recognized that estrogen receptor (ER) ? is required for the maintenance of normal structure and function of the ductules. However, little is known regarding the hormonal regulation of the receptors themselves in the male. In the present study, efferent ductule ligation and castration, followed by replacement with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or estradiol was used to investigate the relative importance of circulating and luminal sources of steroid for the modulation of ER?, ER? and AR in rat efferent ductules. Uni- or bilateral castration and ligation did not affect the expression of ER? and ER?, but bilateral castration caused down-regulation of AR. Replacement with DHT and testosterone alone or in combination with estradiol caused the recovery of AR expression to control levels. A slight recovery of AR was also observed after estrogen replacement. ER? expression was decreased to nearly undetectable levels after estrogen replacement. On the other hand, ER? did not show evident effects following any of the treatments, suggesting a constitutive expression of this receptor. This differential modulation of the steroid hormone receptors highlights the importance of maintaining a physiological androgen-estrogen balance to regulate the structure and function of efferent ductules in the male. PMID:15232065

Oliveira, Cleida A; Mahecha, Germn A B; Carnes, Kay; Prins, Gail S; Saunders, Philippa T K; Frana, Luiz R; Hess, Rex A

2010-01-01

116

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patio, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki S.

2014-01-01

117

Two Mammalian Sec16 Homologues Have Nonredundant Functions in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Export and Transitional ER Organization  

PubMed Central

Budding yeast Sec16 is a large peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that functions in generating COPII transport vesicles and in clustering COPII components at transitional ER (tER) sites. Sec16 interacts with multiple COPII components. Although the COPII assembly pathway is evolutionarily conserved, Sec16 homologues have not been described in higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that mammalian cells contain two distinct Sec16 homologues: a large protein that we term Sec16L and a smaller protein that we term Sec16S. These proteins localize to tER sites, and an N-terminal region of each protein is necessary and sufficient for tER localization. The Sec16L and Sec16S genes are both expressed in every tissue examined, and both proteins are required in HeLa cells for ER export and for normal tER organization. Sec16L resembles yeast Sec16 in having a C-terminal conserved domain that interacts with the COPII coat protein Sec23, but Sec16S lacks such a C-terminal conserved domain. Immunoprecipitation data indicate that Sec16L and Sec16S are each present at multiple copies in a heteromeric complex. We infer that mammalian cells have preserved and extended the function of Sec16. PMID:17192411

Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

2007-01-01

118

Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin  

SciTech Connect

A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-05

119

5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Physicians A very short site blurb should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns ... Safety En Espaol ER 101 Where Should I Go? Check In Medical Tests Admission to the Hospital ...

120

er handltng and ~Ing IS the key to  

E-print Network

\\er beller ""a) to pre erve foods . The fish freezing industry has progre ~ed from the covered-pans- ""ith ., was the test city for th e introduction of frozen fruits and vegetable and much valu- able informati on wa

121

Spectroscopic study of Er:Sm doped barium fluorotellurite glass.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er(3+), Sm(3+) and Er(3+):Sm(3+) ions codoped barium fluorotellurite (BFT) glasses. Different Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions were observed under 532 nm and 976 nm laser excitations. Energy transfer from Er(3+) ion to Sm(3+) ion was confirmed on the basis of luminescence intensity variation and decay curve analysis in both the cases. Under green (532 nm) excitation emission intensity of Sm(3+) ion bands improves whereas on NIR (976 nm) excitation new emission bands of Sm(3+) ions were observed in Er:Sm codoped samples. Ion interactions and the different energy transfer parameters were also calculated. PMID:20510646

Bahadur, A; Dwivedi, Y; Rai, S B

2010-09-15

122

Broadband emission in Er(3+)-Tm(3+) codoped tellurite fibre.  

PubMed

The visible and near infrared emission spectra of Er(3+)-Tm3(3+)-codoped tellurite glasses and fibres were measured with the excitation of an 800 nm laser. A broad emission extending from 1.35 mum to 1.6 mum with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ~160 nm was recorded in a 24 cm long 0.2 wt% Er(2)O(3) and 1.0 wt% Tm(2)O(3) codoped tellurite fibre. Energy transfer between Er(3+) and Tm(3+) play important roles in the luminescence mechanism. These results indicate that Er(3+)-Tm(3+) codoped tellurite fibre could be a promising material for broadband light source and broadband amplifier for the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. PMID:19475079

Huang, Lihui; Jha, Animesh; Shen, Shaoxiong; Liu, Xiaobo

2004-05-31

123

Dynamics of induced dipole ER fluid: a continuous energetic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied dynamics of Electrorheological (ER) fluid by continuum induced dipole fluid method [1]. We found that the velocity profile of ER fluid increases in high shear-rate region and solid particles are separated from colloid in high electric field. These findings demonstrated the breakdown of Bingham fluid model under high shear-rate and high electric field. Our continuum approach describes ER fluid's behaviors under most conditions. We also found that the shift of maximum shear stress under different electric field follows the same trend as that of the maximum static stress. This indicates that the static and dynamic stresses are both dominated by the same energetic process. A connection between micro-particles' structures and macro-dynamic properties under varying conditions is established by our continuum method. Our studies probe the physics of induced dipole ER fluid. [4pt] [1] Jianwei Zhang, Xiuqing Gong, Chun Liu, Weijia Wen, and Ping Sheng, Physical Review Letters 101, 194503, 2008.

Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Jiaxi

2011-03-01

124

The Grand Banks ERS-1 SAR wave spectra validation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.

Vachon, P. W.; Dobson, F. W.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, R. J.; Buckley, J. R.; Allingham, M.; Vandemark, D.; Walsh, E. J.; Khandekar, M.; Lalbeharry, R.

1993-01-01

125

Optical properties of Er3+-doped fluoride glass channel waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest results on the preparation and characterization of Er3+-doped fluoride glass channel waveguides are presented. The waveguides are prepared by means of ion exchange between fluoride and chloride ions, through a silica mask, on ZBLA (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3) fluoride glass substrate. Single mode propagation is demonstrated at 1.55 ?m for a 10-mm long, 5-?m wide waveguide. Propagation losses are found to be not greater than 0.28 dB/cm. An "on/off' gain of 3.9 dB is measured at the output of a 1% Er3+-4% Ce3+-doped fluoride waveguide, with about 240 mW incident pump power at 980 nm. Modelisation studies show that net gain could be achieved in (Er3+, Ce3+) doubly-doped and (Er3+, Ce3+, Yb3+) triply doped fluoride waveguides.

Haquin, Herve; Vasilief, Ion; Fonteneau, Gilles; Nazabal, Virginie; Adam, Jean-Luc; Guy, Stephan; Jacquier, Bernard; Couchaud, Maurice; Rabarot, Maurice; Fulbert, Laurent

2004-06-01

126

Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis  

E-print Network

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers ...

Kim, Sunghwan

127

The kinetics of ER fusion protein activation in vivo.  

PubMed

Reversibly switchable proteins are powerful tools with which to explore protein function in vitro and in vivo. For example, the activity of many proteins fused to the hormone-binding domain of the modified oestrogen receptor (ER(TAM)) can be regulated by provision or removal of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Despite the widespread use of ER(TAM) fusions in vivo, inadequate data are available as to the most efficacious routes for systemic tamoxifen delivery. In this study, we have used two well-characterized ER(TAM) fusion proteins, both reversibly activated by 4-OHT, to compare the effectiveness and kinetics of 4-OHT delivery in mice in vivo by either tamoxifen in food or by intraperitoneal injection. Our data indicate that dietary tamoxifen offers an effective, facile and ethically preferable means for long-term activation of ER(TAM) fusion proteins in vivo. PMID:24662815

Wilson, C H; Gamper, I; Perfetto, A; Auw, J; Littlewood, T D; Evan, G I

2014-10-01

128

Functional brain imaging based on ERD\\/ERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory, cognitive and motor processing can result in changes of the ongoing EEG in form of an event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS). Both phenomena are time-locked but not phase-locked to the event and they are highly frequency-band specific. The ERD is interpreted as a correlate of an activated cortical area with increased excitability and the ERS in the

G. Pfurtscheller

2001-01-01

129

DHEA - a precursor of ER? ligands.  

PubMed

What is DHEA and why is there so much public interest in this steroid which has been touted as the fountain of youth and is supposed to have all kinds of health benefits? Endocrinologists have been fascinated with DHEA for a long time because of its high production in the fetal adrenals and its continued high levels until the 7th decade of life. Yet there is still little agreement about its physiological functions. In its simplest terms endocrinology is the communication between at least three organs: one sends a message, one releases a hormone into the blood in response to the message and one responds to the hormone. DHEA is produced by a specific zone of the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis, whose sole function is to produce this steroid. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids which are C21 steroids are produced in two other zones of the adrenal cortex called the zona fasicularis and the zona glomerulosa, respectively. Being C21 steroids, they cannot be synthesized from DHEA which is a C19 steroid. To date there is no known hormone which specifically stimulates the zona reticularis and there is no known specific receptor for DHEA. Thus DHEA does not qualify as a hormone. DHEA could have autocrine or paracrine effects but, so far, there is no known effect of DHEA on either the cells of the zona glomerulosa or the zona fasicularis. Of course DHEA could have functions as a local precursor of androgens or estrogens and many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of transdermal or transvaginal administration of DHEA in postmenopausal women. This review will consider two of the potential functions of DHEA as a precursor of estrogen receptor beta (ER?) ligands. PMID:25125389

Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

2015-01-01

130

Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

131

Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

132

Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

133

Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1997-01-01

134

Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1999-01-01

135

Electron Spin Resonance measurements on Er-doped chalcogenide glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er doped Ge_33As_12Se_55 bulk glasses were studied by X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements at low temperatures. The Er-related ESR signal is very broad, with intensity from zero magnetic field to higher than 1.4 T. At low field a relatively narrow peak exists at g \\cong 13.5 with a low field wing extended to zero field. The low field wing is due to the hyperfine structure arising from the isotope ^167Er with nuclear spin I=7/2, which is 22.9% abundant. As is the case in most crystalline hosts, the Er ESR line becomes broader with increasing temperature. Simulation of the powder pattern shows that the main peak at low field results from g_? \\cong 13.5. The high field part of the ESR spectrum is very broad and featureless and corresponds to values of g_allel that approach 0.5. This measurement is the first accurate evaluation of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for Er in a glassy host. The Er ESR spectrum results from distortions due to the disorder in the host matrix. A second ESR signal was observed at around g=2. A line-shape analysis indicates that this signal mainly comes from an As-related defect with g_allel = 2.0023, g_? = 2.066; A_allel = 200 Gauss, A_? = 50 Gauss.

Yan, Baojie; Taylor, P. C.

1997-03-01

136

Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?) Activity Modulates Synaptic Signaling and Structure  

PubMed Central

Brain-synthesized estrogen has been shown to influence synaptic structure, function, and cognitive processes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid effects of estrogen on the dendritic spines of cortical neurons are not clear. Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is expressed in cortical neurons, and ER? knockout mice display impaired performance in cortically mediated processes, suggesting that signaling via this receptor has profound effects on cortical neuron function. However, the effect of rapid signaling via ER? on dendritic spines, and the signaling pathways initiated by this receptor in cortical neurons, are unknown. Here we show that activation of ER? with the specific agonist WAY-200070 results in increased spine density, and PSD-95 accumulation in membrane regions. Activation of ER? by WAY-200070 also resulted in the phosphorylation of p21-activated kinase (PAK) and ERK1/2 in cultured cortical neurons, suggesting a mechanism for the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, we found that aromatase, an enzyme critical for estrogen production, is present at presynaptic termini, supporting a role for brain-synthesized estrogen as a neuromodulator in the cortex. These results implicate ER? signaling in controlling dendritic spine morphology, in part via a PAK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway, and provide mechanistic insight into the rapid cellular effects of estrogen on brain function. PMID:20926671

Srivastava, Deepak P.; Woolfrey, Kevin M.; Liu, Feng; Brandon, Nicholas J.; Penzes, Peter

2010-01-01

137

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2014-04-01

138

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2013-04-01

139

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2012-04-01

140

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2011-04-01

141

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2010-04-01

142

Induction of neuronal death by ER stress in Alzheimers disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that neuronal death in Alzheimers disease (AD) or ischemia could arise from dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis, and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER, and are called ER stress. Normal cells respond to ER stress by increasing transcription of genes encoding

Taiichi Katayama; Kazunori Imaizumi; Takayuki Manabe; Junichi Hitomi; Takashi Kudo; Masaya Tohyama

2004-01-01

143

ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB  

SciTech Connect

Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-L{alpha}, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

Mera, Kentaro [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro, E-mail: takurok@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

2010-06-25

144

Association of TRPS1 gene with different EMT markers in ER?-positive and ER?-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different subtypes. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) gene, a GATA-type transcription factor, has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in tumour invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to elucidate the different roles and clinical relevance of TRPS1 in different estrogen receptor (ER) expression subtypes of breast cancer. Methods An immunohistochemical study was performed. The correlation between clinicopathological features and other biomarker profiles were analysed statistically. Result TRPS1 expression was correlated with the patients age (P?=?0.017). It was positively related with ER? (P?ER? (P?=?0.001) status, but negatively associated with Ki67 (P?=?0.002) and HER2 (P?=?0.025) status. In ER?-positive breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was positively associated with the expression of E-cadherin (P?ER? (P?=?0.03), and p53 (P?=?0.002) status, while in ER?-negative breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was correlated with slug (P?=?0.004), vimentin (P?=?0.003), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P?=?0.031), and IMP3 (P?=?0.005) expression. Conclusions Based on our findings, we conclude that TRPS1 is positively associated with E-cadherin and ?-catenin status in ER?-positive breast cancer cells, while it is also significantly associated with mesenchymal markers of EMT in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. TRPS1 can be a prognostic marker depending on the type of breast cancer. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8686515681264281 PMID:24934762

2014-01-01

145

An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show in S. cerevisiae that LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein, Ice2p, facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG-degradation and -synthesis, promoting the rapid re-localization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER, and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. PMID:24373967

Markgraf, Daniel F.; Klemm, Robin W.; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Rapoport, Tom A.

2014-01-01

146

Optical transition and upconversion luminescence in Er 3+ doped and Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped fluorophosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorophosphates glasses YF 3-BaF 2-Ba(PO 3) 2 doped with Er 3+ and Er 3+-Yb 3+ were prepared and the structures of the samples were briefly investigated. The experimental intensity parameters were calculated according to the Judd-Ofelt theory, from which the radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes of Er 3+ were obtained. Bright green and red upconversion emissions was observed in Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped samples excited by 980 nm laser diode, and two-photons absorption processes were determined for the emissions by examining the dependence of the emission intensity on the excitation power. The concentration effects on the intensity and decay time of the upconversion emission revealed that growing Er 3+ concentration declined the probability of sequential energy transfer from Yb 3+ to Er 3+, and thus increasing the intensity ratio of the red emission to the green ones. The temperature effects on the intensity ratios of different emission bands showed that the maximum transducer sensitivity based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) was calculated to be 0.0015/C at 6 C.

Lai, Boyuan; Feng, Li; Wang, Jing; Su, Qiang

2010-07-01

147

Preparation and optical properties of YH2:Er2+ and Y2O3:Er3+ nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The rare earth hydride nanoparticles have been prepared successfully by a novel method of hydrogen plasma-metal reaction. The YH2:Er2+ nanoparticles of 40-50 nm were polycrystalline and in hexagonal shape. The Y2O3:Er3+ nanoparticles were fabricated by annealing the hydride nanoparticles in air at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C, respectively. The influence of the sintering temperature on the size, crystal structure and optical properties of these nanoparticle samples were investigated. After annealing, the Y2O3:Er3+ nanoparticles became single crystalline and spherical shape, and the mean particle size of these particles did not change apparently upon the annealing temperature up to 700 degrees C. With the increase of the annealing temperature, the absorption intensity of YH2 in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra decreased and the peak position moved to high-frequency, whereas the absorption intensity of Y2O3 was enhanced. The intensity of the near-IR fluorescence spectra of the Y2O3:Er3+ nanoparticles increased remarkably with the increase of the annealing temperature from 300 to 700 degrees C. The Y2O3:Er3+ sample sintered at 700 degrees C exhibited a strong photoluminescent intensity at the wavelength of about 1535 nm, with a narrow full width of 6 nm at the half maximum. This makes the Y2O3:Er3+ nanoparticles promising for the applications in the optical communication devices. PMID:23862433

Liu, Tong; Cao, Yurong; Zhu, Mu; Zhang, Tongwen; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

2013-06-01

148

ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

2014-01-01

149

MGMT Inhibition Restores ER? Functional Sensitivity to Antiestrogen Therapy  

PubMed Central

Antiestrogen therapy resistance remains a huge stumbling block in the treatment of breast cancer. We have found significant elevation of O6 methylguanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) expression in a small sample of consecutive patients who have failed tamoxifen treatment. Here, we show that tamoxifen resistance is accompanied by upregulation of MGMT. Further we show that administration of the MGMT inhibitor, O6-benzylguanine (BG), at nontoxic doses, leads to restoration of a favorable estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation phenotype (high p-ER? Ser167/low p-ER? Ser118), which has been reported to correlate with sensitivity to endocrine therapy and improved survival. We also show BG to be a dual inhibitor of MGMT and ER?. In tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, BG alone or in combination with antiestrogen (tamoxifen [TAM]/ICI 182,780 [fulvestrant, Faslodex]) therapy enhances p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, cytochrome C release and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, all indicative of apoptosis. In addition, BG increases the expression of p21cip1/waf1. We also show that BG, alone or in combination therapy, curtails the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer xenografts, BG alone or in combination treatment causes significant delay in tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry confirms that BG increases p21cip1/waf1 and p-ER? Ser167 expression and inhibits MGMT, ER?, p-ER? Ser118 and ki-67 expression. Collectively, our results suggest that MGMT inhibition leads to growth inhibition of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and resensitizes tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells to antiestrogen therapy. These findings suggest that MGMT inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for overcoming antiestrogen resistance. PMID:22549111

Bobustuc, George C; Smith, Joshua S; Maddipatla, Sreeram; Jeudy, Sheila; Limaye, Arati; Isley, Beth; Caparas, Maria-Lourdes M; Constantino, Susan M; Shah, Nikita; Baker, Cheryl H; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Baidas, Said; Konduri, Santhi D

2012-01-01

150

Release of Methyl CpG Binding Proteins and Histone Deacetylase 1 from the Estrogen Receptor (ER) Promoter upon Reactivation in ER-Negative Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor (ER) is an epigenetically reg- ulated gene. Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) syner- gistically activate the methylated ER gene pro- moter in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to examine the chromatin status and repres- sor complex associated with silenced ER and changes in the key regulatory factors during reac-

Dipali Sharma; Julie Blum; Normand Beaulieu; A. Robert Macleod; Nancy E. Davidson

2000-01-01

151

H89 sensitive kinase regulates the translocation of Sar1 onto the ER membrane through phosphorylation of ER-coupled ?-tubulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

ER-to-Golgi protein transport is carried out by transport vesicles which are formed at the ER-exit sites with recruitment of cytoplasmic coat proteins. Vesicle formation is initiated by assembly of the small G protein (Sar1) onto the ER membrane. Sar1 assembly onto the ER membrane is suppressed by protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting participation of H89-sensitive kinase in this process. The

Hiroshi Nakagawa; Shuichi Miyazaki; Takuto Abe; Haruka Umadome; Katsuhiro Tanaka; Kazuhiko Nishimura; Masayuki Komori; Saburo Matsuo

2011-01-01

152

Reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi protein trafficking contributes to ER stress in lipotoxic mouse beta cells by promoting protein overload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesisSaturated fatty acids augment endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic beta cells and this is implicated in the loss\\u000a of beta cell mass that accompanies type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying the induction of ER stress are unclear.\\u000a Our aim was to establish whether saturated fatty acids cause defects in ER-to-Golgi protein trafficking, which may thereby\\u000a contribute to ER

A. M. Preston; E. Gurisik; C. Bartley; D. R. Laybutt; T. J. Biden

2009-01-01

153

Transcriptomic analysis identifies gene networks regulated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER? that control distinct effects of different botanical estrogens  

PubMed Central

The estrogen receptors (ERs) ER? and ER? mediate the actions of endogenous estrogens as well as those of botanical estrogens (BEs) present in plants. BEs are ingested in the diet and also widely consumed by postmenopausal women as dietary supplements, often as a substitute for the loss of endogenous estrogens at menopause. However, their activities and efficacies, and similarities and differences in gene expression programs with respect to endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) are not fully understood. Because gene expression patterns underlie and control the broad physiological effects of estrogens, we have investigated and compared the gene networks that are regulated by different BEs and by E2. Our aim was to determine if the soy and licorice BEs control similar or different gene expression programs and to compare their gene regulations with that of E2. Gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells treated with control vehicle, BE or E2. These cells contained three different complements of ERs, ER? only, ER?+ER?, or ER? only, reflecting the different ratios of these two receptors in different human breast cancers and in different estrogen target cells. Using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and gene ontology and interactome analyses, we found that BEs regulated many of the same genes as did E2. The genes regulated by each BE, however, were somewhat different from one another, with some genes being regulated uniquely by each compound. The overlap with E2 in regulated genes was greatest for the soy isoflavones genistein and S-equol, while the greatest difference from E2 in gene expression pattern was observed for the licorice root BE liquiritigenin. The gene expression pattern of each ligand depended greatly on the cell background of ERs present. Despite similarities in gene expression pattern with E2, the BEs were generally less stimulatory of genes promoting proliferation and were more pro-apoptotic in their gene regulations than E2. The distinctive patterns of gene regulation by the individual BEs and E2 may underlie differences in the activities of these soy and licorice-derived BEs in estrogen target cells containing different levels of the two ERs. PMID:25363786

Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Helferich, William G.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

2014-01-01

154

Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

155

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

156

Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development  

SciTech Connect

Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

Boston, Rebecca S.

2010-11-20

157

The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.  

PubMed

Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortl

Weaver, D A

158

Anxiolytic Effects and Neuroanatomical Targets of Estrogen Receptor-? (ER?) Activation by a Selective ER? Agonist in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

The dichotomous anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties of estrogens have been reported to be mediated by two distinct neural estrogen receptors (ER), ER? and ER?, respectively. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we confirmed that the anxiolytic actions of estradiol are mediated by ER? and extended and these observations to demonstrate the neuroanatomical targets involved in ER? activation in these behavioral responses. We examined the effects of the biologically active S-enantiomer of diarylpropionitrile (S-DPN) on anxiety-related behavioral measures, the corresponding stress hormonal response to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and potential sites of neuronal activation in mutant female mice carrying a null mutation for ER? gene (?ERKO). S-DPN administration significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the open field, light-dark exploration, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) in ovariectomized wild-type (WT) mice, but not in their ?ERKO littermates. Stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH were also attenuated by S-DPN in the WT mice but not in the ?ERKO mice. Using c-fos induction after elevated plus maze, as a marker of stress-induced neuronal activation, we identified the anterodorsal medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis as the neuronal targets of S-DPN action. Both areas showed elevated c-fos mRNA expression with S-DPN treatment in the WT but not ?ERKO females. These studies provide compelling evidence for anxiolytic effects mediated by ER?, and its neuroanatomical targets, that send or receive projections to/from the paraventricular nucleus, providing potential indirect mode of action for the control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function and behaviors. PMID:22186418

Oyola, Mario G.; Portillo, Wendy; Reyna, Andrea; Foradori, Chad D.; Kudwa, Andrea; Hinds, Laura; Handa, Robert J.

2012-01-01

159

Optical characterization, luminescence properties of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses for broadband amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, optical absorption and emission spectra and luminescence decay lifetimes of different concentrations, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mol% of Er3+ and 0.1Er3+/0.5Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses (TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnONb2O5) were reported. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined and used to calculate spontaneous radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (?R), branching ratios (?) and stimulated emission cross-sections (?P) for certain emission transitions. NIR emission at 1.5?m and up-conversion spectra of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses were measured under excitation wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption, emission and gain cross-sections for 4I13/2?4I15/2 transition of Er3+ are determined. The peak emission cross-section of this transition is found to be higher (9.9510-21 cm2) for 0.1 mol% of Er3+ and lower (6.8110-21 cm2) for 1.0 mol% of Er3+ doped tellurite glasses, which is comparable to other oxide glasses. The larger peak emission cross-section for lower concentration of Er3+ is due to the high refractive index of glass matrix (2.1547), relation established from Judd-Ofelt theory. The observed full-widths at half maxima (FWHM) for lower and higher concentrations of Er3+ are 64nm and 96 nm respectively. The larger values of FWHM and peak emission cross-sections are potentially useful for optical amplification processes in the design of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFs). Under 980 nm excitation three strong up-conversion bands were observed at 530nm, 546nm and 665nm. The pump power dependent intensities and mechanisms involved in the up-conversion process have been studied. The luminescence decay profiles for 4I13/2 level were reported for all glass matrices.

Meruva, Seshadri; Carlos, Barbosa Luiz; Alberto Peres, Ferencz Junior Julio

2014-03-01

160

Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 ?m related to 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 ? 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 ?m combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers indicate that these optical systems may be considered as promising materials for Er-doped optical amplifiers operating within third telecommunication window.

Lisiecki, Rados?aw; Augustyn, El?bieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; ?elechower, Micha?

2011-09-01

161

Doppler images of the eclipsing binary ER Vulpeculae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Doppler images of both components of the eclipsing binary system ER Vul, based on the spectra obtained in 2004 November, 2006 September and 2008 November. The least-squares deconvolution technique is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratios of the observed profiles. The new surface images reveal that both stars of ER Vul show strong starspot activities and the starspots appear at various latitudes. The surface maps of 2006 and 2008 both show the presence of large high-latitude starspots on each component of ER Vul. We find no obvious phase shift of the active regions during our observations. The longitude distributions of starspots are non-uniform on both stars. At low-to-mid latitudes, the active regions are almost exclusively found in the hemisphere facing the other star. However, we find no pronounced concentration of spots at the sub-stellar points.

Xiang, Yue; Gu, Shenghong; Cameron, A. Collier; Barnes, J. R.

2015-02-01

162

The ERS-1 satellite - Approaching two years in orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After almost two years in orbit ERS-1, the most sophisticated Earth-observation satellite ever built in Europe, is delivering huge quantities of validated products to the scientific and applications communities. The need for absolute calibration of the onboard instrumentation and its continuous monitoring has been recognized by the user community and the Agency alike as an essential element in guaranteeing the best possible exploitation of ERS-1's substantial capabilities. The results of these continuous calibration and monitoring activities have served to confirm the outstanding and extremely stable performances of the ERS-1 instruments, which allow the user community to compare multi-temporal observations very precisely and thereby obtain a much better understanding of the dynamics of our environment.

Louet, J.; Zobl, R.

1993-05-01

163

ER=EPR, GHZ, and the Consistency of Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture.It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol.

Susskind, Leonard

2014-01-01

164

ER=EPR, GHZ, and the Consistency of Quantum Measurements  

E-print Network

This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture.It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol.

Leonard Susskind

2014-12-29

165

Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER  

PubMed Central

Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGFVEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

2015-01-01

166

Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER.  

PubMed

Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D; Zhou, Bin

2015-01-01

167

Spectroscopic properties of fluorophosphate glass with high Er3+ concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorophosphate glass with 4 mol. % ErF3 content was prepared. The different scanning calorimetry was conducted. Raman spectrum, infrared transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum were measured. Fluorescence spectrum and lifetime of emission around 1.53 ?m were measured under 970 nm laser diode excitation. The metaphosphate content in the composition is limited, but the maximum phonon energy of glass amounts to 1290 cm-1, and is comparatively high. The full width at half maximum is about 56 nm, and is wider than for most of the materials investigated. The measured lifetime of 4 I 13/2?4 I 15/2 transition, contributed by the high phonon energy, inefficient interaction of Er3+ ions, and low water content, amounts to no less than 7.36 ms though the Er3+ concentration is high. This work might provide useful information for the development of compact optical devices.

Liao, M.; Hu, L.; Duan, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wen, L.

2007-01-01

168

N-linked protein glycosylation in the ER.  

PubMed

N-linked protein glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a conserved two phase process in eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of an oligosaccharide on a lipid carrier, dolichylpyrophosphate and the transfer of the oligosaccharide to selected asparagine residues of polypeptides that have entered the lumen of the ER. The assembly of the oligosaccharide (LLO) takes place at the ER membrane and requires the activity of several specific glycosyltransferases. The biosynthesis of the LLO initiates at the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane and terminates in the lumen where oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) selects N-X-S/T sequons of polypeptide and generates the N-glycosidic linkage between the side chain amide of asparagine and the oligosaccharide. The N-glycosylation pathway in the ER modifies a multitude of proteins at one or more asparagine residues with a unique carbohydrate structure that is used as a signalling molecule in their folding pathway. In a later stage of glycoprotein processing, the same systemic modification is used in the Golgi compartment, but in this process, remodelling of the N-linked glycans in a protein-, cell-type and species specific manner generates the high structural diversity of N-linked glycans observed in eukaryotic organisms. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the N-glycosylation pathway in the ER that results in the covalent attachment of an oligosaccharide to asparagine residues of polypeptide chains and focuses on the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23583305

Aebi, Markus

2013-11-01

169

Clinical highlights from the 2011 ERS Congress in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

This article reports on selected papers pertinent to the most important clinical problems in the field of respiratory medicine. Expert authors from the Clinical Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have selected updated reports related to presentations given at the 2011 ERS Annual Congress, which was held in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and attended by more than 20,000 participants. The hot topics and selected abstracts from the scientific groups of the Clinical Assembly are discussed here in the context of recent literature. PMID:22408196

Spruit, Martijn A.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Herth, Felix J.F.; Poletti, Venerino; Ley, Sebastian; Burghuber, Otto C.; Clini, Enrico; Cottin, Vincent

2012-01-01

170

ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

2011-12-01

171

High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 ?s combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.

2011-03-01

172

Orchestration of secretory protein folding by ER chaperones  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of protein biogenesis in the cell, dedicated to production of secretory, membrane and organelle proteins. The secretome has distinct structural and post-translational characteristics, since folding in the ER occurs in an environment that is distinct in terms of its ionic composition, dynamics and requirements for quality contol. The folding machinery in the ER therefore includes chaperones and folding enzymes that introduce, monitor and react to disulfide bonds, glycans, and fluctuations of luminal calcium. We describe the major chaperone networks in the lumen and discuss how they have distinct modes of operation that enable cells to accomplish highly efficient production of the secretome. PMID:23507200

Gidalevitz, Tali; Stevens, Fred; Argon, Yair

2013-01-01

173

Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

Spangler, Lee H.

1994-01-01

174

Spectral analysis of Er(3+)-, Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-and Er(3+)/Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped TeO(2)-ZnO-WO(3)-TiO(2)-Na(2)O glasses.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present the spectroscopic properties of Er(3+)-, Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-and Er(3+)/Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped novel tellurite glasses. From the measured absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (?(2), ?(4) and ?(6)) have been evaluated for the Er(3+)-doped glass. With 980nm excitation three strong upconversion emission bands centered at 505, 520 and 630nm were observed for both Er(3+)-and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped glasses and the characteristic near-infrared emission bands were spectrally centered at 1.535m. The near-infrared spectra of Er(3+)-and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped glasses have shown full width at half-maxima (FWHM) around 100nm and 120nm for the erbium [Formula: see text] transition, respectively. The measured maximum decay times of the [Formula: see text] transition (at wavelength 1.535m) are about 7.24ms and 7.68ms for 1.0Er(3+) and 1.0Er(3+)/ 2Yb(3+) (mol%)-codoped glasses, respectively. The maximum stimulated emission cross sections for the [Formula: see text] transition of Er(3+) and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) are 8.64 10(-21) and 6.78 10(-21)cm(2). From 1Er(3+)/ 1Tm(3+)/ 2Yb(3+) (mol%)-codoped glass, broad near-infrared emission bands centered at 1510nm ([Formula: see text]) and 1637nm ([Formula: see text]) with full width at half-maxima (FWHM) around 52nm and 60nm, respectively, were observed. These glasses with broad near-infrared emissions should have potential applications in tunable lasers and broadband optical amplification at low-loss telecommunication windows. PMID:21694435

Lakshminarayana, G; Qiu, Jianrong; Brik, M G; Kumar, G A; Kityk, I V

2008-09-17

175

Fluorescence dynamics and rate equation analysis in Er3+ and Yb3+ doped double tungstates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence dynamics in Er3+ and Yb3+ doped KGd(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 has been investigated. Lifetimes have been measured for the Yb (2F5\\/2), Er (4I13\\/2), and Er (4S3\\/2) levels around 1, 1.5, and 0.55 mum, respectively. The Yb (2F5\\/2) lifetimes show a decreasing trend toward the limiting Er (4I11\\/2) lifetime with increasing Er-to-Yb concentration ratio, whereas the Er (4I13\\/2) lifetimes are

Stefan Bjurshagen; Jonas E. Hellstrm; Valdas Pasiskevicius; Maria Cinta Pujol; Magdalena Aguil; Francesc Daz

2006-01-01

176

Effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on dentine hypersensitivity. Short-term clinical evaluation.  

PubMed

Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful condition and is a clinical challenge due to the different treatment strategies available. High-intensity lasers have been studied as a possible option. The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study was to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on DH. The study group comprised 28 subjects who met the inclusion criteria. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify sensitivity before treatment as baseline, immediately before and immediately after treatment, and 1 week and 1 month after treatment. Teeth were assigned to four groups: group 1 control (no treatment), group 2 Er:YAG laser treatment (2 Hz/32.4 mJ/5.9 J/cm(2)), group 3 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.25 W/4.4 J/cm(2)), and group 4 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.50 W/ 8.9 J/cm(2)). Data were collected and submitted to statistical analysis for both evaporative (air) and mechanical (probe) stimulation. For both the air and probe stimulation no differences were observed between the pretreatment sensitivities. With the evaporative stimulus, the pain level immediately after treatment was reduced; however, after this the values remained stable. Irradiation with the Er:YAG laser was associated with the lowest level of pain. With the mechanical stimulus, group 4 showed the most pronounced decrease in pain immediately after treatment; however, by the end of the study, pain levels had increased. Groups 1, 2 and 3 showed a reduction in pain that was significantly different from that in group 4 after the 4 weeks of clinical follow up. Based on the results and within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that none of the laser treatments studied was capable of completely eliminating pain, but the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are suitable for the treatment of DH. PMID:21912983

Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corra; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

2012-07-01

177

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

Greg Ruskauff

2011-12-01

178

UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA GEOMETRIA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS Tema 5: Varietats 1. Sigui C la manera que els raigs de llum que vinguin d'un origen O = (10, 100) i es reflecteixin en P facin cap a Q

Casanellas, Marta

179

Photometric Studies of the Triple Star ER Orionis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1637 BVR CCD observations of the overcontact binary ER Ori are used as the basis for new light curves, including the first red one. From these measurements, new timings of minimum light have been calculated. The complex period variation can be sorted into a linear period improvement, a secular period increase of considerable magnitude, and a 50

Chun-Hwey Kim; Jae Woo Lee; Ho-Il Kim; Jae-Mann Kyung; Robert H. Koch

2003-01-01

180

High spin single particle states in 152,153Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic investigation of yrast and near-yrast states in 152Er and 153Er is presented. We report measurements of prompt and delayed excitation functions, ?-? coincidences, isomeric lifetimes, and ?-ray angular distribution, obtained chiefly from the reactions 144Sm(12C,xn)152,153Er using carbon beams of laboratory energy 65-95 MeV. The levels observed extend to a spin of J>=432 and include two long-lived isomers in 153Er. The nuclear structure is discussed in terms of the shell model and compared with the systematic behavior of levels in N=84 and N=85 isotones. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 144Sm(12C,xn) E=65-95 MeV; 144Sm(11B,xn) E=40-70 MeV; 124Te(32S,xn) E=125-155 MeV. Measured I?(E,t), I?(?), ?-?(t). Deduced level sequences, T12, J?. Continuous and pulsed beams, enriched targets, Ge(Li) detectors, NaI(Tl) multiplicity filter.

Horn, D.; Young, G. R.; Lister, C. J.; Baktash, C.

1981-03-01

181

ER designer toolkit: a graphical event definition authoring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there exist several tools for Complex Event Recognition, varying from design platforms for business process modeling (BPM) to advanced Complex Event Processing (CEP) engines. Several efforts have been reported in literature aiming to support domain experts in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition of such rules,

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Giannis Mouchakis; George Paliouras; Vangelis Karkaletsis

2011-01-01

182

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization  

E-print Network

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

Sapatnekar, Sachin

183

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

NONE

1998-02-01

184

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

185

Tales of ER and RE Syntax and Semantics Martin Gogolla  

E-print Network

Tales of ER and RE Syntax and Semantics Martin Gogolla July 22, 2005 #12; Abstract This paper. The schemas are regarded as determining the syntax of the datamodels, and the set of associated states, and handles the semantics merely informally. Our approach allows to formally handle syntax and se­ mantics

Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

186

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) Residues in Ya-Er Lake Area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ya-Er lake region samples - soil, mud, rice, rice seed grain, sediment, snail and fish - were analysed for ?-, ?-, and ?-HCH, according to the standard operating procedure, as used for the necessities of the German Environmental Specimen Bank. The results obtained indicate unexpectedly low concentrations of the HCH-isomers in soil and mud. According to the HCH concentrations in

Y. Xu; Y. Zhang; K. Oxynos; J. Schmitzer; A. Kettrup

1994-01-01

187

Membrane Trafficking: Returning to the Fold(ER).  

PubMed

Retrieval mechanisms are essential to dynamically maintain the composition and functional homeostasis of secretory organelles. A recent study has identified a novel class of cargo receptor that retrieves a specific subset of escaped ER folding machinery from the Golgi. PMID:25829015

Perez-Linero, Ana M; Muiz, Manuel

2015-03-30

188

Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (-6 km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles

David T. Sandwell; Walter H. F. Smith

1997-01-01

189

Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements  

E-print Network

Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G: nie@mers.byu.edu Abstract--Using collocated ESCAT, TRMM PR, and ECMWF data, the effects of rain scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

Long, David G.

190

Powering Agility Through Technology er 12th, 20  

E-print Network

Powering Agility Through Technology rvic ring 285/ er 12th, 20 IT Open Forum IT Se es Enginee 287 Decemb 13 #12;2 Powering Agility Through Technology Open Forum Q&A Instructions WebEx Users: Recorded&A will be posted on its website after this event. #12;3 Powering Agility Through Technology Agenda Introduction

Su, Xiao

191

Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature  

E-print Network

the optical properties of silicon nanostructures2,3 or in doping silicon with radiative centers, such as rare fabricated by depositing a core on top of a 1.9 m thick silicon dioxide layer thermally grown on a SiStrong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal

192

Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative  

E-print Network

Legend Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative Brain Metastases / Leptomeningeal dz Non in HER2 Positive Breast Cancer 127511 - Neratinib for HER2 positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases 117526 - Immunotherapy with Globo H-KLH (OPT-822) for Metastatic Breast Cancer No Interventional Clinical

Walter, Peter

193

CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION SUmmER 2014  

E-print Network

healthcare delivery and clinical effectiveness. UC Davis Extension, a leader in health informatics education at the Biomedical informatics, Clinical and translational science Center at uC Davis Health system. Clinical dataCONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION SPRING/ SUmmER 2014 Health Informatics Health Information

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

194

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos  

E-print Network

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos Our work on active vision has by the idea of approaching vision for behavioural systems in the form of modules that are directly related, we present our views about the architecture of vision systems, about how to tackle the design

Fermller, Cornelia

195

ccsd00001676, Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu er layers  

E-print Network

ccsd00001676, version 1 16 Jun 2004 Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu#11;er layers on Al 2 O 3 de Lourmel, 75015 Paris, France Abstract The structure and growth of thin #12;lms of titanium on #11 [2110] and Ti[1010] k Al 2 O 3 [1100] epitaxy of the #11; phase of titanium reported before for thick

196

Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

Leanos-Castaneda, Olga [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: olgalidia09@yahoo.com; Kraak, Glen van der [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2007-10-15

197

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Localization Is Critical for DsbA-L Protein to Suppress ER Stress and Adiponectin Down-regulation in Adipocytes.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory functions. We previously reported that adiponectin multimerization and stability are promoted by the disulfide bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) in cells and in vivo. However, the precise mechanism by which DsbA-L regulates adiponectin biosynthesis remains elusive. Here we show that DsbA-L is co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein disulfide isomerase and the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. In addition, DsbA-L interacts with the ER chaperone protein Ero1-L? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In silico analysis and truncation mapping studies revealed that DsbA-L contains an ER targeting signal at its N terminus. Deletion of the first 6 residues at the N terminus greatly impaired DsbA-L localization in the ER. Overexpression of the wild type but not the ER localization-defective mutant of DsbA-L protects against thapsigargin-induced ER stress and adiponectin down-regulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, overexpression of the wild type but not the ER localization-defective mutant of DsbA-L promotes adiponectin multimerization. Together, our results reveal that DsbA-L is localized in both the mitochondria and the ER in adipocytes and that its ER localization plays a critical role in suppressing ER stress and promoting adiponectin biosynthesis and secretion. PMID:25739441

Liu, Meilian; Chen, Hongzhi; Wei, Li; Hu, Derong; Dong, Kun; Jia, Weiping; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

2015-04-17

198

ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

2011-02-18

199

78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release...has determined that METADATE ER (methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCl)) extended-release...new drug applications (ANDAs) for methylphenidate HCl extended-release tablet,...

2013-07-05

200

Emergency Room (ER) Referrals and Health Insurance in the United States.  

PubMed

This article aims to determine how various health insurance policies affect the rate of emergency room (ER) referrals in the United States. The secondary data, gathered in National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) in 2008 and 2010, was used. The authors identify the relationships between health insurance and ER referrals by using zero-inflated binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression. About 17% (2008) and 20% (2010) of the respondents had one or more ER referrals in the 2 years; those who were under coverage of governmental health insurance are more likely to refer ER than uninsured group. The differences in ER referrals that ended with hospital admission across different insurance policies are not significant. Health insurance is a remarkable factor in ER referrals; the coverage of health insurance plans can affect consuming the services provided in ER. Governmental insurance plans can increase ER referrals. PMID:25751585

Amini, Reza; Swan, James; Yang, Philip; Ingman, Stanley Rusk; Turner, Keith; Sahaf, Robab

2015-01-01

201

In-situ Er-doped GaN optical storage  

E-print Network

-situ Er-doped GaN films (11.5 m thick) were grown on Si substrates. To ``write'' a bit, the GaN:Er filmIn-situ Er-doped GaN optical storage devices using high- resolution focused ion beam milling B. K-density GaN:Er optical storage devices were fabricated with focused ion beam (FIB) milling tech- niques. In

Steckl, Andrew J.

202

Golgi Membranes Are Absorbed into and Reemerge from the ER during Mitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative imaging and photobleaching were used to measure ER\\/Golgi recycling of GFP-tagged Golgi proteins in interphase cells and to monitor the dissolution and reformation of the Golgi during mitosis. In interphase, recycling occurred every 1.5 hr, and blocking ER egress trapped cycling Golgi enzymes in the ER with loss of Golgi structure. In mitosis, when ER export stops, Golgi proteins

Kristien J. M Zaal; Carolyn L Smith; Roman S Polishchuk; Nihal Altan; Nelson B Cole; Jan Ellenberg; Koret Hirschberg; John F Presley; Theresa H Roberts; Eric Siggia; Robert D Phair; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

1999-01-01

203

Materials issues and device performances for light emitting Er-implanted Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of photo and electroluminescence from Er-implanted crystalline Si have been investigated and the crucial issues for the achievement of higher efficiency have been identified. Photoluminescence experiments show that Er-related levels are the gateway for the energy transfer from the electronic system of the semiconductor to the internal 4f shell of the Er ions. Er excitation is in fact

S. Coffa; F. Priolo; G. Franz; A. Polman; S. Libertino; M. Saggio; A. Carnera

1995-01-01

204

Protein expression of the transcriptional regulator MI-ER1 alpha in adult mouse tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

MI-ER1 is a novel transcriptional regulator that plays a critical role in embryonic development and is differentially expressed\\u000a in breast carcinoma. The MI-ER1 protein sequence is highly conserved among species, with 95% identity between mouse and humans\\u000a and 72% between Xenopus and mouse. There are two major protein isoforms, MI-ER1? and MI-ER1?, which differ in the sequence of their C-terminus.

Leanne B. Thorne; Patti L. McCarthy; Gary D. Paterno; Laura L. Gillespie

2008-01-01

205

The distributions of the duplicate oestrogen receptors ER-ba and ER-bb in the forebrain of  

E-print Network

;geneduplication;teleostfishes;neuroendocrineregulation;hypothalamus;brain 1. INTRODUCTION Steroid hormone receptors are members of a large family of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that are critical to the reproduction, differentiation and develop- ment of vertebrates vertebrate evolution (Thornton 2001). The primary physiological ligand for ERs is the sex steroid oestradiol

Crews, David

206

The ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway directs ubiquitin-mediated degradation of a variety of ER-associated  

E-print Network

. All rights reserved. Abbreviations CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CPY of cellular quality control, ERAD is also harnessed for feedback regulation of sterol synthesis, and most for quality control or regulation Recently, there has been an explosion of interest and infor- mation about ER

Hampton, Randy

207

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2013-04-01

208

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2011-04-01

209

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2010-04-01

210

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2014-04-01

211

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2012-04-01

212

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases  

E-print Network

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

Hebert, Daniel N.

213

ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter  

E-print Network

ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter Department is localized to the luminal (i.e., noncytoplasmic) face of the ER mem- brane, yet nuclear fusion must initiate of Sec63p, Sec71p, and Sec72p plays a central role in mediating nuclear mem- brane fusion and requires ER

Walter, Peter

214

Research on Semiactive Control of Engine Vibration Basing on Electro-Rheological(ER) Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the demand of engine mount, using ER technology to research on the active engine vibration isolation. We introduced ER technology and ER mount in detail. We established the model of active engine vibration isolation. We designed the self-adjusting parameters fuzzy controller, which makes the performance of fuzzy controller in high-point. Then used MATLAB software to simulate and analyse

Cangsu Xu; Yongda Wang; Shaomin Lou

2006-01-01

215

Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence  

E-print Network

Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence D. S. Lee, J Received 9 April 2001; accepted for publication 5 June 2001 GaN thin films have been doped with varying Er mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering measurements showed that the Er concentration in GaN

Steckl, Andrew J.

216

Visible emission from Er-doped GaN grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy  

E-print Network

Visible emission from Er-doped GaN grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy A. J. Steckla Er-doped GaN thin films. The GaN was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates using solid sources for Ga, Al, and Er and a plasma gas source for N2. Above GaN band-gap photoexcitation

Steckl, Andrew J.

217

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma ... list specific symptoms that are your cue to go to the ER. If old enough, your child ...

218

75 FR 48281 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-900ER Series Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...keyway. The lower wing skins on Model 737-900ER series airplanes have fuel tank access...737-900ER series airplanes are located between ribs 4 and 5, between wing stations 180 and...737-900ER series airplanes lower wing skins to crack...

2010-08-10

219

The EDOP Radar System on the High-Altitude NASA ER2 Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA ER-2 high-altitude ( 20 km) aircraft that emulates a satellite view of precipitation systems carries a variety of passive and active ( lidar ) remote sensing instruments. A new Doppler weather radar system at X band ( 9.6 GHz ) called the ER-2 Doppler radar ( EDOP ) has been developed and flown on the ER-2 aircraft. EDOP

Gerald M. Heymsfield; Steven W. Bidwell; I. Jeff Caylor; Syed Ameen; Shaun Nicholson; Wayne Boncyk; Lee Miller; Doug Vandemark; Paul E. Racette; Louis R. Dod

1996-01-01

220

High-power diode-pumped Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber laser  

E-print Network

High-power diode-pumped Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber laser Igor Martial,1,2,* Julien Didierjean,2 describe an efficient laser emission from a directly grown Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber Er:YAG single-crystal fiber laser. Using an off-axis pumping scheme, CW output powers up to 7.3 W can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med-spiller nr hjteknologisk forskning skal  

E-print Network

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med- spiller når højteknologisk forskning skal omsættes til holdbar forretning. CAT er en forskerpark der drives i samarbej- de mellem Danmarks Tekniske Universitet forskning og udvikling i samar- bejde med de tre institutioners forskere. ?n af virksomhederne i CAT er

222

Small regulators, major consequences - Ca? and cholesterol at the endosome-ER interface.  

PubMed

The ER is the largest cellular compartment and a major storage site for lipids and ions. In recent years, much attention has focused on contacts between the ER and other organelles, and one particularly intimate relationship is that between the ER and the endosomal system. ER-endosome contacts intensify when endosomes mature, and the ER participates in endosomal processes, such as the termination of surface receptor signaling, multi-vesicular body formation, and transport and fusion events. Cholesterol and Ca(2+) are transferred between the ER and endosomes, possibly acting as messengers for ER-endosome crosstalk. Here, we summarize different types of ER-endosomal communication and discuss membrane contact sites that might facilitate this crosstalk. We review the protein pairs that interact at the ER-endosome interface and find that many of these have a role in cholesterol exchange. We also summarize Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and endosomes, and hypothesize that ER-endosome contacts integrate several cellular functions to guide endosomal maturation. We post the hypothesis that failure in ER-endosome contacts is an unrecognized but important contributor to diseases, such as Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24554437

van der Kant, Rik; Neefjes, Jacques

2014-03-01

223

Rice crops monitoring in the Mekong river delta using combined ERS and RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary findings on the use of combined ERS and RADARSAT SAR images in rice crops monitoring is described in this paper. ERS and RADARSAT (S6 mode) images of the Mekong river delta during the rice seasons in 1997 were used. Different growth stages of rice can be identified in the ERS-RADARSAT false colour composite images

S. C. Liew; P. Chen; S. P. Kam; T. P. Tuong; V. Q. Minh; H. Lim

1998-01-01

224

Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts  

PubMed Central

In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimidesensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

2013-01-01

225

Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts.  

PubMed

In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B; Field, Christine M; Mitchison, Tim J; Rapoport, Tom A

2013-12-01

226

COMBINED CRAM ER-RAO/WEISS-WEINSTEIN BOUND FOR TRACKING TARGET BEARING  

E-print Network

COMBINED CRAM ´ER-RAO/WEISS-WEINSTEIN BOUND FOR TRACKING TARGET BEARING Kristine L. Bell and Harry A recursive Bayesian Cram´er-Rao/Weiss-Weinstein bound for the discrete-time nonlinear filtering problem. It is often the case that the recursive Bayesian Cram´er-Rao bound (BCRB) developed by Tichavsky et al

George Mason University

227

Polybasic trafficking signal mediates golgi export, ER retention or ER export and retrieval based on membrane-proximity.  

PubMed

Trafficking of integral membrane proteins between the ER and Golgi complex, and protein sorting and trafficking between the TGN and endosomal/lysosomal compartments or plasma membranes, are dependent on cis-acting, linear amino acid sorting signals. Numerous sorting signals of this type have been identified in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins, several of which rely on basic residues. A novel Golgi export signal that relies on a membrane-proximal polybasic motif (PBM) was recently identified in the reptilian reovirus p14 protein, a representative of an unusual group of bitopic fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins encoded by fusogenic orthoreoviruses and responsible for cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, cell surface immunofluorescence, and endoglycosidase H assays, we now show the p14 PBM can mediate several distinct trafficking functions depending on its proximity to the transmembrane domain (TMD). When present within 4-residues of the TMD it serves as a Golgi export signal, but when located at the C-terminus of the 68-residue p14 cytoplasmic endodomain it functions as an ER retention signal. The PBM has no effect on protein trafficking when located at an internal position in the cytoplasmic domain. When present in both membrane-proximal and -distal locations, the PBMs promote export to, and efficient retrieval from, the Golgi complex. Interestingly, the conflicting trafficking signals provided by two PBMs induces extensive ER tubulation and segregation of ER components. These studies highlight how a single trafficking signal in a simple transmembrane protein can have remarkably diverse, position-dependent effects on protein trafficking and ER morphogenesis. PMID:24714640

Parmar, Hirendrasinh B; Barry, Chris; Duncan, Roy

2014-01-01

228

Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ER?/ER? Balance in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2? production in young females, while increased O2? in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ER?/ER?) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ER?/ER? in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2?. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5?flanking region of ER? gene. PMID:21966501

Novens, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

2011-01-01

229

Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retrograde Traffic in Yeast Requires Dsl1p, a Component of the ER Target Site that Interacts with a COPI Coat Subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

DSL1 was identified through its genetic interaction with SLY1, which encodes a t-SNARE- interacting protein that functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic. Conditional dsl1 mutants exhibit a block in ER-to-Golgi traffic at the restrictive temperature. Here, we show that dsl1 mutants are defective for retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, even under conditions where no anterograde transport block is evident. These results suggest

Barbara A. Reilly; Bryan A. Kraynack; Susan M. VanRheenen; M. Gerard Waters

230

Role of incoherent pumping and Er3+ ion concentration on subluminal and superluminal light propagation in Er3+-doped YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the absorption-dispersion process and group index of weak probe field in a four-level Er3+:YAG crystal. We find that the Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field can influence the absorption-dispersion process and group index of weak probe field. Moreover, our results show that Er3+ ion concentration plays a major role in lasing without inversion and absorption with inversion.

Seyyed, Hossein Asadpour; H. Rahimpour, Soleimani

2015-01-01

231

Er and Yb isotope fractionation in planetary materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements relative to solar abundances. Little is known, however, about volatility at the high temperatures relevant to asteroidal collisions and to the giant lunar impact. Although refractory rare-earth elements have overall similar crystallochemical properties, some differ in their temperatures of condensation from the nebular gas. This is the case for Yb, which condenses at 1490K and in the vapor is mostly in elemental form. By contrast, Er, largely present as ErO, condenses at 1660K. We analyzed the Er and Yb isotopic compositions in 33 terrestrial basalts, garnets, different classes of chondrites and achondrites, and lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The range of mass-dependent isotope fractionation is larger for Yb (0.43 per amu) than Er (0.23) isotopes. For terrestrial rocks, a positive correlation between ?Yb and La/Yb suggests that the isotopic differences between Er and Yb can be accounted for by the presence of small fractions of Yb2+. Yb is isotopically heavy in kimberlite and light in garnets. Ytterbium behaves similarly to Fe, with Yb3+ being more incompatible than the much less abundant Yb2+. In addition, the coexistence of divalent and trivalent sites in the garnet structure and the preference of heavy isotopes for stable bonds makes Yb in garnet isotopically light. The deficit of heavy Yb isotopes in lunar basaltic samples relative to the Earth, chondrites, and eucrites provides new evidence that the Moon formed by the condensation of silicate vapor in the aftermath of the giant lunar impact. Separation of vapor from melt and of heavy from light isotopes is first expected during the adiabatic expansion of the initial vapor plume. Subsequently, friction between melt and gas tends to further enrich the Moon feeding zone in silicate vapor to compensate the inward migration of melt out of the pre-lunar disk. A major consequence of interpreting the present lunar data by vapor/melt segregation is that the relative abundances of refractory elements in the Moon are unlikely to be chondrite-like or even Earth-like. Erbium isotope ratios in lunar samples reflect the capture of neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays. The first resonance of 167Er for neutron capture will help cover an energy range poorly covered by other nuclides.

Albalat, Emmanuelle; Telouk, Philippe; Albarde, Francis

2012-11-01

232

Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion derived Er3+ -doped Y2O3 and Er3+/Yb3+co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er3+ -doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379 nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er3+ -doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978 nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb3+ addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er3+:Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er3+ -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb3+ ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb3+ ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er3+ has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed.

Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P.; Venkatramu, V.; Kim, S. H.

233

Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction.  

PubMed

Combustion derived Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb(3+) addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb(3+) ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er(3+) has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed. PMID:24682034

Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P; Venkatramu, V; Kim, S H

2014-05-21

234

Impact of incoherent pumping field and Er3+ ion concentration on group velocity and index of refraction in an Er3+-doped YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on the refractive index and group index in an Er3+: YAG crystal is investigated. It is shown that under different concentrations of Er3+ ion in the crystal, the index of refraction and absorption can be changed and a high index of refraction is accompanied by amplification in the medium. Also, it is shown that with the switching from subluminal to superluminal, or vice versa, light propagation can be obtained by different concentrations of Er3+ ions in the crystal.

Jafarzadeh, Hossein; Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

2015-03-01

235

A Systematic In Silico Mining of the Mechanistic Implications and Therapeutic Potentials of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-? in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has long been a potential target in ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. In this study, we integrated ER-?-related bioinformatic data at different levels to systematically explore the mechanistic and therapeutic implications of ER-?. Firstly, we identified ER-?-interacting proteins and target genes of ER-?-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and analyzed their functional gene ontology (GO) annotations of those ER-?-associated proteins. In addition, we predicted ten consensus miRNAs that could target ER-?, and screened candidate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that might hit diverse conformations of ER-? ligand binding domain (LBD). These findings may help to uncover the mechanistic implications of ER-? in breast cancer at a systematic level, and provide clues of miRNAs- and small molecule modulators- based strategies for future ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:24614816

Lu, Bangmin; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zijie; Bao, Jinku

2014-01-01

236

Compartmentalization of endoplasmic reticulum quality control and ER-associated degradation factors.  

PubMed

Recent studies are delineating a detailed picture of the architecture and function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the early secretory pathway, showing the existence of dynamic compartmentalization of ER quality control and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) factors. The compartmentalization is regulated by ER protein load and in turn regulates protein processing and cell fate. This compartmentalization is intimately linked to the protein quality control processes, protein disposal through ERAD, the unfolded protein response, and the initiation of apoptosis. It includes novel compartments, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), vesicles implicated in "ERAD-tuning," and the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). PMID:23194074

Leitman, Julia; Ron, Efrat; Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

2013-01-01

237

Presenilin-2 modulation of ER-mitochondria interactions  

PubMed Central

Presenilin (PS) mutations are the main cause of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) and have been demonstrated to cause an imbalance of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Though PS1 and 2 are generally considered to behave similarly in terms of their effects on Ca2+ handling, we have recently described a novel function, which is unique to PS2, i.e., the modulation of ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Accordingly, PS2, but not PS1, affects the Ca2+ cross-talk between these organelles, a key feature in determining cell fate. In particular, PS2 overexpression, and more drastically that of FAD-linked PS2 mutants, strongly increases the interaction between ER and mitochondria, thus facilitating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The likely mechanisms behind this phenomenon and its potential effects in cell physiology and pathology are discussed. PMID:21980580

Fasolato, Cristina; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola

2011-01-01

238

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview  

PubMed Central

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

239

Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

1998-01-01

240

Position control system using ER clutch and piezoactuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents ultra precision positioning system consisting of electrorheological(ER) clutch and piezoelectric actuators using dual servo control mechanism. ER clutch and ball screw are adopted for a coarse positioning stage, and magnification device driven by multi-stack piezoelectric actuator is manufactured for a fine positioning stage. After deriving the dynamic modeling for coarse motion stage, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve robust control performance. In addition, conventional PID controller incorporated with the hysteresis nonlinearity of the piezoelectric actuator is designed to construct a feed-back with feed-forward control scheme for precise and fast positioning of the fine motion stage. Step regulating control performance of the proposed dual servo system is evaluated via experimental works to verify the effectiveness of the proposed position control system.

Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Sang-Soo

2003-08-01

241

Er-doped planar waveguides for power amplifier applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New devices are required to provide effective tools for DIAL or LIDAR measurements from space, which will enable improved mapping of the concentration and distribution of CO2 in our atmosphere. Here we present characteristics of Er-doped thin film waveguides, with an extended gain bandwidth, which are applicable to planar waveguide power amplifiers for wavelengths around the 1572 nm CO2 absorption peaks. Planar waveguide films have been fabricated by sputtering of fluorophosphate and tellurite based glasses onto oxidised silicon wafers, and their properties characterized. The deposition parameters for undoped and Er,Yb-doped films have been assessed and studied, achieving losses of <1.5 dB/cm at 633 nm for the as deposited waveguides. A comparison between the two host materials is made and the potential performance discussed.

Mackenzie, J. I.; Murugan, G. S.; Yu, A. W.; Abshire, J. B.

2013-03-01

242

Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

1992-01-01

243

Completion report for well ER-30-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

244

Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

N?mec, M.; ulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelnkov, H.

2015-01-01

245

Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays akey role in the synthesis of awide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

246

UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA GEOMETRIA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS Llista 1: Varietats lineals 1 R3 i la que te origen P = (1, 0, 1) i base u1 = (1, 1, 0), u2 = (0, 1, 1), u3 = (1, 1, 1). (ii el sistema de refer`encia amb origen P = (2, 1, 4) i base u1 = (1, 1, 0), u2 = (0, 1, 1), u3 = (0, 0

Casanellas, Marta

247

Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416  

SciTech Connect

The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

Seymour, Joseph D.

2014-02-01

248

Soliton mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser.  

PubMed

We report on a simple diode-pumped passively mode-locked Er:Yb:glass laser generating transform-limited 1536-nm solitons of 255-fs duration with a repetition rate of 50 MHz and average power of 58 mW. We also discuss timing jitter and the trade-off between short pulses and high output power in these lasers. PMID:15751879

Sphler, G J; Krainer, L; Innerhofer, E; Paschotta, R; Weingarten, K J; Keller, U

2005-02-01

249

Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have obtained room-temperature electroluminescence (EL) at ?1.54 ?m from Er and O co-doped crystalline p-n Si diodes fabricated by ion implantation, under both forward and reverse bias conditions. Under forward bias, the EL intensity decreases by a factor of ?15 on going from 110 to 300 K, where a weak peak is still visible. In contrast, we report the

G. Franz; F. Priolo; S. Coffa; A. Polman; A. Carnera

1994-01-01

250

IOWA STAT-er CHATTER Winter 2009/2010  

E-print Network

: Ghostbusters, Futurama, Conan O'Brien, and Bob Barker, to name a few. The second annual video game night drinks at Welch Ave. Station during our January FAC. Life is not all fun and games, however. The grad://main.acsevents.org/site/TR/RelayForLife/ RFLFY10MW?team_id=568827&pg=team&fr_id= 22852 Intramural Sports Update Mark McKelvey The STAT-ers were

251

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

252

ERD\\/ERS patterns reflecting sensorimotor activation and deactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillations in the alpha and beta band (<35Hz) show characteristic spatiotemporal patterns during sensorimotor processing. Whereas event-related desynchronization (ERD) during motor preparation, execution, and imagery can be seen as a correlate of an activated cortical area, event-related synchronization (ERS) of frequency components between 10 and 13Hz may represent a deactivated cortical area or inhibited cortical network, at least under certain

Christa Neuper; Michael Wrtz; Gert Pfurtscheller

2006-01-01

253

Combined Enalapril and Felodipine Extended Release (ER) for Systemic Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of factorial design evaluated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, and the vascular selective calcium antagonist felodipine extended release (ER) in patients with essential hypertension. After a 4-week, single-blind placebo baseline period, 707 patients with sitting diastolic blood pressures (BPs) in the range of 95 to 115 mm

1997-01-01

254

Magnetic phase transitions of ErCu 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ErCu 2 has a first-order magnetic phase transition at 6.1 K ( Tt) below the Nel temperature of 11.3 K. The spin structure above Tt is a transversely modulated square-wave type structure with wave vector 5/13a* and moments along the b-axis. Then an anti-phase-domain modulation with wave vector 1/18c* adds to above structure below Tt.

Hashimoto, Yuzo; Kawano, Hazuki; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Kawano, Shinji; Shigeoka, Toru

1995-02-01

255

ER Stress-Induced Clearance of Misfolded GPI-Anchored Proteins via the Secretory Pathway  

PubMed Central

Summary Proteins destined for the cell surface are first assessed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper folding before release into the secretory pathway. This ensures that defective proteins are normally prevented from entering the extracellular environment, where they could be disruptive. Here, we report that, when ER folding capacity is saturated during stress, misfolded glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins dissociate from resident ER chaperones, engage export receptors, and quantitatively leave the ER via vesicular transport to the Golgi. Clearance from the ER commences within minutes of acute ER stress, before the transcriptional component of the unfolded protein response is activated. These aberrant proteins then access the cell surface transiently before destruction in lysosomes. Inhibiting this stress-induced pathway by depleting the ER-export receptors leads to aggregation of the ER-retained misfolded protein. Thus, this rapid response alleviates the elevated burden of misfolded proteins in the ER at the onset of ER stress, promoting protein homeostasis in the ER. PMID:25083867

Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Ajinkya, Monica; Bhat, Savithri; Itakura, Eisuke; Hegde, RamanujanS.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

2014-01-01

256

[Influence of erbium ion concentration on Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ -doped tellurite glass].  

PubMed

Er3+ -doped tellurite glasses with four different concentrations were fabricated, and the oscillator strength of Er3+ in the tellurite glasses were calculated through the absorption spectra of the glasses. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter omega i, spontaneous transition probability A, fluorescence branching ratio beta, and radiative lifetime tau rad of Er3+ were calculated on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory, and the effect of the erbium ion concentration on the above optical parameters was also discussed. The fluorescence spectra of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition and the lifetime of Er3+: (4)I(13/2) level of the samples were measured. The stimulated emission cross-section of (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples was finally calculated by using McCumber theory. The results show that with the increase in the Er3+ concentration, the oscillator strength and spontaneous transition probability A of Er3+ increase, while the fluorescence branching ratio beta of Er3+ shows little difference. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples changes slightly with the increase in the Er3+ concentration. All the fluorescence effective line widths for the four different Er3+ concentration samples are nearly 50 nm. PMID:16830740

Zhou, Gang; Dai, Shi-xun; Yu, Chun-lei; Zhang, Jun-jie; Hu, Li-li; Jiang, Zhong-hong

2006-03-01

257

Cholesterol loading in macrophages stimulates formation of ER-derived vesicles with elevated ACAT1 activity  

PubMed Central

ACAT1 is normally a resident enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously showed that treating macrophages with denatured LDL causes a large increase in ER-derived, ACAT1-positive vesicles. Here, we isolated ER membranes and ER-derived vesicles to examine their ACAT enzyme activity in vitro. The results showed that when macrophages are grown under normal conditions, ACAT1 is located in high density ER membrane; its enzymatic activity is relatively low. Loading macrophages with cholesterol did not increase the total cellular ACAT1 protein content significantly but caused more ACAT1 to appear in ER-derived vesicles. These vesicles exhibit lower density and are associated with markers of both ER and the trans-Golgi network. When normalized with equal ACAT1 protein mass, the enzymatic activities of ACAT1 in ER-derived vesicles were 3-fold higher than those present in ER membrane. Results using reconstituted ACAT enzyme assay showed that the increase in enzyme activity in ER-derived vesicles is not due to an increase in the cholesterol content associated with these vesicles. Overall, our results show that macrophages cope with cholesterol loading by using a novel mechanism: they produce more ER-derived vesicles with elevated ACAT1 enzyme activity without having to produce more ACAT1 protein. PMID:20460577

Sakashita, Naomi; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Lei, Xiaofeng; Fujiwara, Yukio; Takeya, Motohiro; Chang, Ta-Yuan

2010-01-01

258

Slug contributes to cancer progression by direct regulation of ER? signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the most effective treatment for breast cancer. However, this treatment eventually fails as the tumor develops resistance. Although reduced expression of ER-? is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-? downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. The present study shows that Slug has an inverse relationship with ER? in breast and prostate cancer patient samples. Also the inhibition of Slug blocks mammary stem cell activity in primary mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize that Slug may be a key transcription factor in the regulation of ER? expression. To understand the Slug-ER? signaling pathway, we employed resistant cell line MCF-TAMR (ER? relatively negative) derived from its parental MCF-7 (ER? positive) cell line and assessed changes in cell phenotype, activity and response to therapy. Conversely, we performed knockdown of Slug in the high-Slug expressing cell line MDA-MB-231 and assessed reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype. Microarray analysis showed that Slug is overexpressed in high grade breast and prostate cancer tissues. Additionally, Slug overexpression leads to drug resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slug binds directly to ER? promoter E-boxes and represses ER? expression. This resulted in decrease in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that Slug, by regulation of ER? expression, contributes to tumor progression and could serve as an important target for cancer therapy. PMID:25652255

LI, YOUQIANG; WU, YANYUAN; ABBATIELLO, THOMAS C.; WU, WARREN L.; KIM, JU RI; SARKISSYAN, MARIANNA; SARKISSYAN, SUREN; CHUNG, SEYUNG S.; ELSHIMALI, YAHYA; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT V.

2015-01-01

259

Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER? Inhibition  

PubMed Central

The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER? and increased ER? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER? dissociation and ER? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

2013-01-01

260

Slug contributes to cancer progression by direct regulation of ER? signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor? (ER?) is the most effective treatment for breast cancer. However, this treatment eventually fails as the tumor develops resistance. Although reduced expression of ER-? is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-? downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. The present study shows that Slug has an inverse relationship with ER? in breast and prostate cancer patient samples. Also the inhibition of Slug blocks mammary stem cell activity in primary mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize that Slug may be a key transcription factor in the regulation of ER? expression. To understand the Slug-ER? signaling pathway, we employed resistant cell line MCF-TAMR (ER? relatively negative) derived from its parental MCF-7 (ER? positive) cell line and assessed changes in cell phenotype, activity and response to therapy. Conversely, we performed knockdown of Slug in the high-Slug expressing cell line MDA-MB-231 and assessed reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype. Microarray analysis showed that Slug is overexpressed in high grade breast and prostate cancer tissues. Additionally, Slug overexpression leads to drug resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slug binds directly to ER? promoter E-boxes and represses ER? expression. This resulted in decrease in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that Slug, by regulation of ER? expression, contributes to tumor progression and could serve as an important target for cancer therapy. PMID:25652255

Li, Youqiang; Wu, Yanyuan; Abbatiello, Thomas C; Wu, Warren L; Kim, Ju Ri; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Sarkissyan, Suren; Chung, Seyung S; Elshimali, Yahya; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

2015-04-01

261

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

1997-04-22

262

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

263

Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.  

PubMed

Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

2014-02-01

264

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

Hamilton, Charles E. (Bellevue, WA); Furu, Laurence H. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

265

?-Synuclein Is Localized to Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes  

PubMed Central

Familial Parkinson disease is associated with mutations in ?-synuclein (?-syn), a presynaptic protein that has been localized not only to the cytosol, but also to mitochondria. We report here that wild-type ?-syn from cell lines, and brain tissue from humans and mice, is present not in mitochondria but rather in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM), a structurally and functionally distinct subdomain of the ER. Remarkably, we found that pathogenic point mutations in human ?-syn result in its reduced association with MAM, coincident with a lower degree of apposition of ER with mitochondria, a decrease in MAM function, and an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation compared with wild-type. Although overexpression of wild-type ?-syn in mutant ?-syn-expressing cells reverted the fragmentation phenotype, neither overexpression of the mitochondrial fusion/MAM-tethering protein MFN2 nor inhibition/ablation of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 was able to do so, implying that ?-syn operates downstream of the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery. These novel results indicate that wild-type ?-syn localizes to the MAM and modulates mitochondrial morphology, and that these behaviors are impaired by pathogenic mutations in ?-syn. We believe that our results have far-reaching implications for both our understanding of ?-syn biology and the treatment of synucleinopathies. PMID:24381286

Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; Area-Gomez, Estela; Rb, Cornelia; Liu, Yuhui; Magran, Jordi; Becker, Dorothea; Voos, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

266

Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 ?M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

KRIZANOVA, OLGA; STELIAROVA, IVETA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; PASTOREK, MICHAL; HUDECOVA, SONA

2014-01-01

267

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2005-02-01

268

Emerging features of ER resident J-proteins in plants.  

PubMed

J-proteins are co-chaperone components of the HSP70 system. J-proteins stimulate Hsp70ATPase activity, which is responsible for stabilizing the interaction of Hsp70 with client proteins. J-proteins are localized in various intracellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Five types of ER resident J-proteins (ERdjs) have been found in plants (P58, ERdj2, ERdj2A, ERdj3B and ERdj7). Rice OsERdj3A is located in the vacuole and protein storage vacuoles (PSV, PB-II) under conditions of ER stress. J-proteins that are localized to the vacuole or lysosome are not found in mammals and yeast, suggesting that the presence of OsERdj3A in the vacuole is plant-specific and one of the features unique to plant ERdjs. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and recent research advancements regarding plant ERdjs, and compare mammalian and yeast ERdjs with plant ERdjs. PMID:25763480

Ohta, Masaru; Takaiwa, Fumio

2014-07-01

269

Emerging features of ER resident J-proteins in plants.  

PubMed

J-proteins are co-chaperone components of the HSP70 system. J-proteins stimulate Hsp70ATPase activity, which is responsible for stabilizing the interaction of Hsp70 with client proteins. J-proteins are localized in various intracellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Five types of ER resident J-proteins (ERdjs) have been found in plants (P58, ERdj2, ERdj2A, ERdj3B and ERdj7). Rice OsERdj3A is located in the vacuoleand protein storage vacuoles (PSV, PB-II) under conditions of ER stress. J-proteins that are localized to the vacuole or lysosome are not found in mammals and yeast, suggesting that the presence of OsERdj3A in the vacuole is plant-specific and one of the features unique to plant ERdjs. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge andrecent research advancements regarding plant ERdjs, and compare mammalian and yeast ERdjs with plant ERdjs. PMID:24614601

Ohta, Masaru; Takaiwa, Fumio

2014-01-01

270

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

NONE

1997-03-01

271

USP14 inhibits ER-associated degradation via interaction with IRE1{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess the ER quality control systems, the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt to ER stress. IRE1{alpha} is one of the ER stress receptors and mediates the UPR. Here, we identified ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 14 as a binding partner of IRE1{alpha}. USP14 interacted with the cytoplasmic region of IRE1{alpha}, and the endogenous interaction between USP14 and IRE1{alpha} was inhibited by ER stress. Overexpression of USP14 inhibited the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and USP14 depletion by small interfering RNA effectively activated ERAD. These findings suggest that USP14 is a novel player in the UPR by serving as a physiological inhibitor of ERAD under the non-stressed condition.

Nagai, Atsushi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Kadowaki, Hisae; Maruyama, Takeshi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takeda, Kohsuke [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nishitoh, Hideki [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)], E-mail: hnishitoh@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ichijo, Hidenori [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-02-20

272

X-ray and neutron diffraction of Er-hydride films.  

SciTech Connect

The outline of this report is: (1) structures of hexagonal Er meal, ErH{sub 2} fluorite, and molybdenum; (2) texture issues and processing effects; (3) idea of pole figure integration; and (4) promising neutron diffraction work. Summary of this report are: (1) ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} film microstructures are strongly effected by processing conditions; (2) both x-ray and neutron diffraction are being pursued to help diagnose structure/property issues regarding ErT{sub 2} films and these correlations to He retention/release; (3) texture issues are great challenges for determination of site occupancy; and (4) work on pole-figure-integration looks to have promise addressing texture issues in ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} films.

Rodriguez, Mark Andrew

2004-10-01

273

Interaction of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) with Estrogen Receptor (ER) ? and Activator Protein 1 (AP1) in Dexamethasone-mediated Interference of ER? Activity*  

PubMed Central

The role of glucocorticoids in the inhibition of estrogen (17-?-estradiol (E2))-regulated estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell proliferation is well established. We and others have seen that synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) antagonizes E2-stimulated endogenous ER? target gene expression. However, how glucocorticoids negatively regulate the ER? signaling pathway is still poorly understood. ChIP studies using ER?- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-positive MCF-7 cells revealed that GR occupies several ER?-binding regions (EBRs) in cells treated with E2 and Dex simultaneously. Interestingly, there was little or no GR loading to these regions when cells were treated with E2 or Dex alone. The E2+Dex-dependent GR recruitment is associated with the displacement of ER? and steroid receptor coactivator-3 from the target EBRs leading to the repression of ER?-mediated transcriptional activation. The recruitment of GR to EBRs requires assistance from ER? and FOXA1 and is facilitated by AP1 binding within the EBRs. The GR binding to EBRs is mediated via direct protein-protein interaction between the GR DNA-binding domain and ER?. Limited mutational analyses indicate that arginine 488 located within the C-terminal zinc finger domain of the GR DNA-binding domain plays a critical role in stabilizing this interaction. Together, the results of this study unravel a novel mechanism involved in glucocorticoid inhibition of ER? transcriptional activity and E2-mediated cell proliferation and thus establish a foundation for future exploitation of the GR signaling pathway in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:23814048

Karmakar, Sudipan; Jin, Yetao; Nagaich, Akhilesh K.

2013-01-01

274

Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2- x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2- x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2- x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7 1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1 10-15 cm2/s at 1,250C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices.

Najar, Adel; Omi, Hiroo; Tawara, Takehiko

2014-07-01

275

Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films  

PubMed Central

Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7??1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1??10-15 cm2/s at 1,250C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

2014-01-01

276

Alpha-synuclein delays endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in mammalian cells by antagonizing ER/Golgi SNAREs.  

PubMed

Toxicity of human alpha-synuclein when expressed in simple organisms can be suppressed by overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport machinery, suggesting that inhibition of constitutive secretion represents a fundamental cause of the toxicity. Whether similar inhibition in mammals represents a cause of familial Parkinson's disease has not been established. We tested elements of this hypothesis by expressing human alpha-synuclein in mammalian kidney and neuroendocrine cells and assessing ER-to-Golgi transport. Overexpression of wild type or the familial disease-associated A53T mutant alpha-synuclein delayed transport by up to 50%; however, A53T inhibited more potently. The secretory delay occurred at low expression levels and was not accompanied by insoluble alpha-synuclein aggregates or mistargeting of transport machinery, suggesting a direct action of soluble alpha-synuclein on trafficking proteins. Co-overexpression of ER/Golgi arginine soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (R-SNAREs) specifically rescued transport, indicating that alpha-synuclein antagonizes SNARE function. Ykt6 reversed alpha-synuclein inhibition much more effectively than sec22b, suggesting a possible neuroprotective role for the enigmatic high expression of ykt6 in neurons. In in vitro reconstitutions, purified alpha-synuclein A53T protein specifically inhibited COPII vesicle docking and fusion at a pre-Golgi step. Finally, soluble alpha-synuclein A53T directly bound ER/Golgi SNAREs and inhibited SNARE complex assembly, providing a potential mechanism for toxic effects in the early secretory pathway. PMID:20392839

Thayanidhi, Nandhakumar; Helm, Jared R; Nycz, Deborah C; Bentley, Marvin; Liang, Yingjian; Hay, Jesse C

2010-06-01

277

The Possible Impact of Obesity on Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors (ER? and ER?) Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has been associated with increased mortality from hormone dependant cancers such as breast cancer which is the most prevalent cancer in women. The link between obesity and breast cancer can be attributed to excess estrogen produced through aromatization in adipose tissue. The role of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer development is well studied but how obesity can affect the expression pattern of steroid hormones in patients with different grades of breast cancer was the aim of this study. Methods In this case-control study, 70 women with breast cancer participated with different grades of obesity (36 none obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 34 obese, BMI ? 25 kg/m2). The mean age of participants was 44.53 1.79 yr (2170 yr). The serum level of estrogen, progesterone and androgen determined by ELISA. Following quantitative expression of steroid hormone receptors mRNA in tumor tissues evaluated by Real-time PCR. Patients with previous history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy were excluded. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The difference in ER?, ER? and PR mRNA level between normal and obese patients was significant (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression of AR mRNA was found to be higher than other steroid receptors. There was no significant relation between ER? gene expression in two groups (P = 0.68). We observed a significant relationship between ER? and AR mRNA with tumor stage and tumor grade, respectively (P = 0.023, P = 0.015). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it is speculated that obesity could paly a significant role in estrogen receptors gene expression and also could affect progression and proliferation of breast cancer cells. PMID:22174584

Esfahlan, R. Jahanban; Zarghami, N.; Esfahlan, A. Jahanban; Mollazadeh, M.; Nejati, K.; Nasiri, M.

2011-01-01

278

COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

BECHTEL NEVADA

2005-12-01

279

Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe2-ErAl2 system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe2-xAlx Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36 ? x ? 1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36 ? x < 0.75 and 1.4 ? x ? 2.0. For the intermediate compositions with 0.75 ? x ? 1.4, the hexagonal C14 structure is observed. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature TC decreases from 275 to 28 K as the Al content increases from x = 0.36 to x = 1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2 T, the maximum entropy change is 6 J/kg K at T = 28 K for the composition with x = 1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

?wik, J.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.; Miller, M.

2015-03-01

280

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions  

E-print Network

: 103 [ER100/PP184], 133 [ER200/PP284] Problem Set #3 Solutions 1. Cogeneration a. Cogeneration is the combined production of power and heat. In cogeneration facilities, the waste heat from the engine is put the same amount of consumed energy, cogeneration facilities increase their first law efficiency (I = Energy

Kammen, Daniel M.

281

ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress.  

PubMed

VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation. PMID:21277284

Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

2011-02-18

282

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2014 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3  

E-print Network

Course), Student ID, Course # (ER100 etc), Discussion Section (101-110) Combined-Cycle Power Plant 1. UC Berkeley's campus features a combined heat and power (CHP) energy system. This power (electricity) station [ER200/PP284] Page 2 of 6 d) In 2013, campus used roughly 200. GWh of electricity. What would

Kammen, Daniel M.

283

Neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage in mouse hippocampal cells depends on ER? but not ER? or GPR30 signalling.  

PubMed

Raloxifene is the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) currently used in clinical practice to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in bone tissue and to antagonise ERs in breast and uterine cancers. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of action of raloxifene on hypoxia-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage of mouse hippocampal cells in primary cultures, with a particular focus on raloxifene interactions with the classical nuclear ERs (ER?, ER?) and the recently identified membrane ER G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In this study, 18 h of hypoxia increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1?) mRNA expression and induced apoptotic processes, such as loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-3 and fragmentation of cell nuclei based on Hoechst 33342 staining. These effects were accompanied by reduced ATPase and intracellular esterase activities as well as substantial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells exposed to hypoxia. Our study demonstrated strong neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic caspase-3-independent actions of raloxifene in hippocampal cells exposed to hypoxia. Raloxifene also inhibited the hypoxia-induced decrease in Er? mRNA expression and attenuated the hypoxia-induced rise in Er? and Gpr30 mRNA expression levels. Impact of raloxifene on hypoxia-affected Er? mRNA was mirrored by fluctuations in the protein level of the receptor as demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescent labelling. Raloxifene-induced changes in Er? mRNA expression level were in parallel with ER? immunofluorescent labeling. However, changes in Gpr30 mRNA level were not reflected by changes in the protein levels measured either by ELISA, Western blot or immunofluorescent staining at 24h post-treatment. Using specific siRNAs, we provided evidence for a key involvement of ER?, but not ER? or GPR30 in neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced cell damage. This study may have implications for the treatment or prevention of hypoxic brain injury and the administration of current or new generations of SERMs specific to ER?. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Sex steroids and brain disorders". PMID:24846829

Rzemieniec, J; Litwa, E; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Go?as, A; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

2015-02-01

284

Room temperature continuous-wave laser performance of LD pumped Er:Lu?O? and Er:Y?O? ceramic at 2.7 ?m.  

PubMed

We report the demonstration of continue wave operation of diode end-pumped Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers operating at 2.7 ?m at room temperature. The maximum output power of 320 mW and 611 mW was obtained from the Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers, with slope efficiency of 6.5% and 7.6%, respectively. Characteristics of Red-shift in lasing wavelength of the ceramic lasers was investigated and discussed. The study indicates that under 967 nm and 976 nm LD pumping, 15 at.% Er-doped Lu2O3 ceramic exhibit a better performance than that of Y2O3 at room temperature. PMID:25321032

Wang, Li; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xuan; Tang, Dingyuan

2014-08-11

285

Loss of Clcc1 Results in ER Stress, Misfolded Protein Accumulation, and Neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Folding of transmembrane and secretory proteins occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transportation to the cell surface and is monitored by the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates the UPR that restores ER homeostasis by regulating gene expression that leads to an increase in the protein-folding capacity of the ER and a decrease in the ER protein-folding load. However, prolonged UPR activity has been associated with cell death in multiple pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Here, we report a spontaneous recessive mouse mutation that causes progressive cerebellar granule cell death and peripheral motor axon degeneration. By positional cloning, we identify the mutation in this strain as a retrotransposon insertion in the Clcc1 gene, which encodes a putative chloride channel localized to the ER. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C3H/HeSnJ inbred strain has late onset cerebellar degeneration due to this mutation. Interestingly, acute knockdown of Clcc1 expression in cultured cells increases sensitivity to ER stress. In agreement, GRP78, the major HSP70 family chaperone in the ER, is upregulated in Clcc1-deficient granule cells in vivo, and ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in these neurons before their degeneration. These data suggest that disruption of chloride homeostasis in the ER disrupts the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to eventual neuron death. PMID:25698737

Jia, Yichang; Jucius, Thomas J; Cook, Susan A; Ackerman, Susan L

2015-02-18

286

A conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC) facilitates phospholipid transfer from the ER to mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER-mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER-mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER-mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

Lahiri, Sujoy; Chao, Jesse T; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K O; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P; Loewen, Christopher J R; Prinz, William A

2014-10-01

287

A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ERmitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ERmitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ERmitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

2014-01-01

288

Imaging interorganelle contacts and local calcium dynamics at the ER-mitochondrial interface.  

PubMed

The ER-mitochondrial junction provides a local calcium signaling domain that is critical for both matching energy production with demand and the control of apoptosis. Here, we visualize ER-mitochondrial contact sites and monitor the localized [Ca(2+)] changes ([Ca(2+)](ER-mt)) using drug-inducible fluorescent interorganelle linkers. We show that all mitochondria have contacts with the ER, but plasma membrane (PM)-mitochondrial contacts are less frequent because of interleaving ER stacks in both RBL-2H3 and H9c2 cells. Single mitochondria display discrete patches of ER contacts and show heterogeneity in the ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) transfer. Pericam-tagged linkers revealed IP(3)-induced [Ca(2+)](ER-mt) signals that exceeded 9 microM and endured buffering bulk cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] increases. Altering linker length to modify the space available for the Ca(2+) transfer machinery had a biphasic effect on [Ca(2+)](ER-mt) signals. These studies provide direct evidence for the existence of high-Ca(2+) microdomains between the ER and mitochondria and suggest an optimal gap width for efficient Ca(2+) transfer. PMID:20603080

Csords, Gyrgy; Vrnai, Pter; Golenr, Tnde; Roy, Swati; Purkins, George; Schneider, Timothy G; Balla, Tams; Hajnczky, Gyrgy

2010-07-01

289

Imaging interorganelle contacts and local calcium dynamics at the ER-mitochondrial interface  

PubMed Central

The ER-mitochondrial junction provides a local calcium signaling domain that is critical for both matching energy production with demand and the control of apoptosis. Here, we visualize ER-mitochondrial contact sites and monitor the localized [Ca2+] changes ([Ca2+]ER-mt) using drug-inducible fluorescent interorganelle linkers. We show that all mitochondria have contacts with the ER but plasma membrane-mitochondrial contacts are less frequent because of interleaving ER stacks in both RBL-2H3 and H9c2 cells. Single mitochondria display discrete patches of ER contacts and show heterogeneity in the ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer. Pericam-tagged linkers revealed IP3-induced [Ca2+]ER-mt signals that exceeded 9?M and endured buffering bulk cytoplasmic [Ca2+] increases. Altering linker length to modify the space available for the Ca2+ transfer machinery had a biphasic effect on [Ca2+]ER-mt signals. These studies provide direct evidence for the existence of high Ca2+ microdomains between the ER and mitochondria, and suggest an optimal gap width for efficient Ca2+ transfer. PMID:20603080

Csords, Gyrgy; Vrnai, Pter; Golenr, Tnde; Roy, Swati; Purkins, George; Schneider, Timothy G.; Balla, Tams; Hajnczky, Gyrgy

2011-01-01

290

ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1cregulated dynamic actin filament arrays  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293

Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rm, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija

2014-01-01

291

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negativespecific breast cancer risk loci  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 2030% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Gunel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Drk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Vant; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Brge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menndez, Primitiva; Mller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonn, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Gonzlez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D

2013-01-01

292

SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

2014-01-01

293

When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility. PMID:24926295

Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

2014-01-01

294

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Gunel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Drk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Brge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menndez, Primitiva; Mller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonn, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Gonzlez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan

2013-04-01

295

ER? mediates alcohol-induced deregulation of Pol III genes in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The association of alcohol consumption and breast cancer is more pronounced in cases that are positive for estrogen receptor (ER+) than in cases that are negative (ER?). Its mechanism remains to be determined. Deregulation of RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription enhances cellular tRNAs and 5S rRNA production, increasing translational capacity to promote cell transformation and tumor formation. Here, we report that alcohol increases Pol III gene transcription in both normal and cancer breast cell lines. The induction in ER+ breast cancer cells (MCF-7) is significantly higher than in ER? normal breast cells (MCF-10A, MCF-10F and MCF-12A) and is correlated with ER expression. E2 causes <2-fold increase in Pol III gene transcription. The addition of ethanol to this system now produces a 1015-fold increase. Ethanol increases ER? expression, resulting in an increase in Brf1 protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ethanol markedly stimulates phosphorylation of JNK1, but not JNK2. Inhibition of JNK1 decreases ERE-Luc reporter activity and represses expression of ER?, Brf1 and Pol III genes. Reduction of ER? by its small interfering RNA represses Brf1 and Pol III gene transcription. Ethanol with E2 produces larger and more numerous colonies. Repression of ER? or Brf1 inhibits alcohol-induced cell transformation. Together, these results support the idea that alcohol increases ER? expression through JNK1 to elevate Brf1 expression and Pol III gene transcription to bring about greater phenotypic changes. These studies demonstrate that ER? mediates Pol III gene transcription through Brf1, suggesting that ER? may play a critical role in alcohol-induced deregulation of Pol III genes in ER+ breast cancer development. PMID:23054611

Zhong, Shuping

2013-01-01

296

Estrogen directly and specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa through the activation of both estrogen receptor isoforms (ER? and ER?) in rat kidney proximal tubule.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that estrogen (E2) downregulates phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa and causes phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia in ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we examined whether E2 directly targets NaPi-IIa in the proximal tubule (PT) and studied the respective roles of estrogen receptor isoforms (ER? and ER?) in the downregulation of NaPi-IIa using both in vivo and an in vitro expression systems. We found that estrogen specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa but not NaPi-IIc or Pit2 in the kidney cortex. Proximal tubules incubated in a "shake" suspension with E2 for 24 h exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in NaPi-IIa protein abundance. Results from OVX rats treated with specific agonists for either ER? [4,4',4?;-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, PPT] or ER? [4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, DPN] or both (PPT + DPN), indicated that only the latter caused a sharp downregulation of NaPi-IIa, along with significant phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia. Lastly, heterologous expression studies demonstrated that estrogen downregulated NaPi-IIa only in U20S cells expressing both ER? and ER?, but not in cells expressing either receptor alone. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that rat PT cells express both ER? and ER? and that E2 induces phosphaturia by directly and specifically targeting NaPi-IIa in the PT cells. This effect is mediated via a mechanism involving coactivation of both ER? and ER?, which likely form a functional heterodimer complex in the rat kidney proximal tubule. PMID:25608964

Burris, Dara; Webster, Rose; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Faroqui, Rashma; Levi, Moshe; Hawse, John R; Amlal, Hassane

2015-03-15

297

Study of negative and positive superhumps in ER Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out photometric observations of the SU UMa-type dwarf nova ER UMa during 2011 and 2012, which showed the existence of persistent negative superhumps even during the superoutburst. We performed a two-dimensional period analysis of its light curves by using a method called "least absolute shrinkage and selection operator" (Lasso) and the "phase dispersion minimization" (PDM) analysis, and found that the period of negative superhumps systematically changed between a superoutburst and the next superoutburst. The trend of the period change can be interpreted as a reflection of the change of the disk radius. This change is in agreement with the one predicted by the thermal tidal instability model. The normal outburst during a supercycle showed a general trend that the rising rate to its maximum becomes slower as the next superoutburst is approaching. The change can be interpreted as the consequence of the increased gas-stream flow into the inner region of the disk as a result of the tilted disk. Some of superoutbursts were found to be triggered by a precursor normal outburst when the positive superhump appeared to develop. The positive and negative superhumps coexisted during the superoutburst. Positive superhumps were prominent only for four or five days after the supermaximum, while the signal of negative superhumps became stronger after the middle phase of the superoutburst plateau. A simple combination of the positive and negative superhumps was found to be insufficient for reproduction of the complex profile variation. We were able to detect the developing phase of positive superhumps (stage A superhumps) for the first time in ER UMa-type dwarf novae. Using the period of stage A superhumps, we obtained a mass ratio of 0.100(15), which indicates that ER UMa is on the ordinary evolutional track of cataclysmic variable stars.

Ohshima, Tomohito; Kato, Taichi; Pavlenko, Elena; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Krajci, Thomas; Baklanov, Alex; Samsonov, Denis; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Andreev, Maksim V.; Noguchi, Ryo; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Nomoto, Takashi; Ono, Rikako; Nakagawa, Shin'ichi; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Aoki, Tomoya; Kawabata, Miho; Kimura, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Voloshina, Irina; Zemko, Polina; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Ruiz, Javier; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Virnina, Natalia; Virtanen, Jani; Miller, Ian; Boitnott, Boyd; Littlefield, Colin; James, Nick; Tordai, Tamas; Robert, Fidrich; Padovan, Stefano; Miyashita, Atsushi

2014-07-01

298

Crystal structure and microstructure of ?-Er 2S 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomic structure of Er2S3 was refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compound is isostructural to the ?-Ho2S3 structure type, which has monoclinic symmetry and space group P21\\/m, a=10.072 (1) , b=3.976 (2) , c=17.389 (2) , ?=98.66(1), Z=6. Refinement proceeded to R=0.037 for 1745 observed reflections. Experimental high-resolution micrographs (structural images) were obtained along the [010] zone axis

A. R Landa-Cnovas; U Amador; L. C Otero-D??az

2001-01-01

299

A Sex Attractant for the Scarab Beetle Anomala solida Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

(R,Z)-5-(-)-(Oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one (R-buibuilactone) attracted male Anomala solida Er. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), a vineyard and orchard pest in Southeastern Europe. The presence of the corresponding (S) enantiomer or of 2-(E)-nonen-1-ol (a frequently found pheromone component in other Anomala spp.) in the bait did not influence catches. Traps baited with (R,Z)-5-(-)-(oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one were successfully used for monitoring the flight of A. solida, and may

Mikls Tth; Mitko Subchev; Ivan Sredkov; Istvn Szarukn; Walter Leal

2003-01-01

300

Magnetic behaviour of some amorphous Er-Co alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some amorphous Er-Co alloys, have been studied by examining their normal magnetization curves with both hysteresis major and minor loops. Rayleigh parameters from hysteresis minor loops allowed to describe the low-field behaviour of the magnetization: (i) the increase of ?m is in a good agreement with Rayleigh laws but a weak deviation is observed on the thick samples at fields up to 100 Oe, which can be due to magnetostatic effects; (ii) the ratio ?Hc/ ?0 is close to 1 for the thin sample (0.1 ?m) as predicted by the Nel theory.

Soltani, M. L.; Lahoubi, M.; Fillion, G.

2000-07-01

301

Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350  

SciTech Connect

Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

John H. Miller

2005-06-10

302

Role of Cue1p in ubiquitination and degradation at the ER surface.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) degradation of aberrant proteins is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here, a membrane-bound component of the ubiquitin system, Cue1p, was identified. It was shown to recruit the soluble ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7p to the ER membrane. In the absence of Cue1p, unassembled and thus cytosolically mislocalized Ubc7p was unable to participate in ER degradation or in the turnover of soluble non-ER proteins. Moreover, ubiquitination by Cue1p-assembled Ubc7p and Ubc6p was a prerequisite for retrograde transport of lumenal substrates out of the ER, which suggests that ubiquitination is mechanistically integrated into the ER degradation process. PMID:9388185

Biederer, T; Volkwein, C; Sommer, T

1997-12-01

303

Emerging themes of ER organization in the development and maintenance of axons  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system comprising the nuclear envelope, polyribosome-studded peripheral sheets, and a polygonal network of smooth tubules extending throughout the cell. Though protein biosynthesis, transport, and quality control in the ER have been extensively studied, mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous architecture of the ER have been clarified more recently. These insights have increased interest in ER morphology changes associated with the development of neuronal axons and dendrites as well as their integration with pre- and postsynaptic signaling pathways. A number of proteins involved in shaping and distributing the ER network are mutated in neurological disorders, particularly the hereditary spastic paraplegias, emphasizing the importance of proper ER morphology for the establishment and maintenance of highly-polarized neurons. PMID:20678923

Renvois, Benot; Blackstone, Craig

2010-01-01

304

Luminescence properties of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped glasses in the VUV region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of APLF + Nd and APLF + Er glass, with composition 20Al(PO3)3-80LiF + 1NdF3 and + 1ErF3 (in mol%). APLF + Nd and APLF + Er have a dominant fluorescence peak at 185 nm and 168 nm with decay times of 4.5 ns and 5.8 ns, respectively. Fluorescence from APLF + Nd is attributed to 4f25d ? 4f3 transitions in neodymium (Nd) while fluorescence from APLF + Er is due to spin allowed transition in erbium (Er). This is the first report of VUV fluorescence from rare earth ions doped in glass hosts, which could provide the basis for mass production of VUV emitting materials. Our results also suggest the potential of using APLF + Nd and APLF + Er as neutron scintillators during inertial confinement fusion.

Yamanoi, Kohei; Murata, Takahiro; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fujino, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Satoh, Nakahiro; Kan, Hirofumi

2013-09-01

305

An EPR study of Er3+ impurities in RbTiOPO4 single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Er3+ ions in single crystals of RbTiOPO4 (RTP) is presented. The EPR spectra show the existence of six different Er3+ centres. The g-matrix has been determined for these centres from the analysis of the angular dependences of the spectrum in three planes of the crystal. The study supports that erbium can enter the Rb+ and Ti4+ low-symmetry sites of RTP. This conclusion differs from those for KTP:Er3+ and RTP codoped with Nb and Er. The different occupancies found for Er in these various crystals is suggested to be due to the differences in Er concentration.

Bravo, D.; Martn, A.; Carvajal, J. J.; Aguil, M.; Daz, F.; Lpez, F. J.

2007-08-01

306

ATF4 is necessary and sufficient for ER stress-induced upregulation of REDD1 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a variety of cell stresses, e.g. endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, expression of REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses) is transcriptionally upregulated. However, the mechanism through which ER stress acts to upregulate REDD1 expression is unknown. In the present study, REDD1 expression was found to be upregulated by ER stress in several cell lines. However, in

Michael L. Whitney; Leonard S. Jefferson; Scot R. Kimball

2009-01-01

307

Comparative activation of estrogen receptor alpha (er alpha) by endocrine disruptors  

E-print Network

) ........................................................... 6 1.1.3. Structure of DBD and LBD of ER? .......................................... 11 1.1.4. ER?-Mediated Transactivation ............................................... 15 1.1.5. Cofactors and Other Interacting Proteins.... ........................................... 80 Figure 14. Estrogen, antiestrogen and xenoestrogen induced transactivation in MCF-7 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant ER?. ............ 82 Figure 15. Estrogen, antiestrogen and xenoestrogen induced transactivation in MDA-MB-231 cells...

Wu, Fei

2009-05-15

308

Analysis of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation after Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Pigmentary disorders such as hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, are devastating complications of erbium:yttrium-aluminum- garnet (Er:YAG) laser resurfacing. This study was un- dertaken to assess the clinical and histopathologic features of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation following Er:YAG laser resurfacing, especially in darker skin. Study Design\\/Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety patients (skin phototypes III and above), treated with Er:YAG

Yong Ju Kim; Ho-Sup Lee; Sang-Wook Son; Soo-Nam Kim; Young-Chul Kye

2005-01-01

309

Rare earth focused ion beam implantation utilizing Er and Pr liquid alloy ion sources  

E-print Network

procedures for the fabrication of Er­Ni and Pr­Pt liquid alloy ion sources LAIS . Er2 beam with target write implantation. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X 99 08306-7 I. INTRODUCTION Rare earth solubility of Er in Si 1018 atoms/cm3 ) and the thermal quenching effect.4 The thermal quenching effect could

Steckl, Andrew J.

310

Gingival tissue healing following Er:YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats.  

PubMed

The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is currently used for periodontal soft tissue management with favorable outcomes. However, the process of wound healing after Er:YAG laser (ErL) treatment has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingival tissue healing after ErL ablation in comparison with that after electrosurgery (ElS). Gingival defects were created in 28 rats by ablation with ErL irradiation or ElS. The chronological changes in wound healing were evaluated using histological, histometrical, and immunohistochemical analyses. The ErL-ablated gingival tissue revealed much less thermal damage, compared to the ElS. In the ElS sites, the postoperative tissue destruction continued due to thermal damage, while in the ErL sites, tissue degradation was limited and the defects were re-epithelialized early. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72/73 expression was detected abundantly remote from the wound in the ElS, whereas it was slightly observed in close proximity to the wound in the ErL sites. Hsp47 expression was observed in the entire connective tissue early in the wound healing and was found limited in the wound area later. This phenomenon proceeded faster in the ErL sites than in the ElS sites. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) persisted in the epithelial tissue for a longer period in the ElS than that in the ErL. The ErL results in faster and more favorable gingival wound healing compared to the ElS, suggesting that the ErL is a safe and suitable tool for periodontal soft tissue management. PMID:24241972

Sawabe, Masanori; Aoki, Akira; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ogita, Mayumi; Izumi, Yuichi

2015-02-01

311

Cargo Selection by the COPII Budding Machinery during Export from the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cargo is selectively exported from the ER in COPII vesicles. To analyze the role of COPII in selec- tive transport from the ER, we have purified compo- nents of the mammalian COPII complex from rat liver cytosol and then analyzed their role in cargo selection and ER export. The purified mammalian Sec23-24 complex is composed of an 85-kD (Sec23) protein

Meir Aridor; Jacques Weissman; Sergei Bannykh; Claude Nuoffer; William E. Balch

1998-01-01

312

A pathogenic role for ER stress-induced autophagy and ER chaperone GRP78/BiP in T lymphocyte systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

Abnormal regulation of ER stress and apoptosis has been implicated in autoimmune disorders. Particularly, ER stress-induced autophagy and the role of GRP78, or BiP in T lymphocyte survival and death in SLE are poorly understood. This study investigated the pathogenic roles of ER stress-induced autophagy and GRP78/BiP in apoptosis of T lymphocytes. We compared spontaneous and induced autophagy and apoptosis of T lymphocytes in healthy donors and patients with SLE. The molecular mechanism of altered autophagy and apoptosis was investigated in T lymphocytes transfected with siRNA for beclin 1 and CHOP and T lymphocytes overexpressing GRP78. Decreased autophagy and increased apoptosis in response to TG-induced ER stress were observed in lupus T lymphocytes. GRP78 and ER stress-signaling molecules, such as PERK, p-eIF2?, IRE1, and ATF6 decreased, whereas CHOP levels increased in lupus T cells in response to TG. The levels antiapoptotic molecules, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL decreased, whereas the proapoptotic molecules, Bax and caspase 6, increased in lupus T cells. The TG-induced ER stress altered autophagy and apoptosis, which in turn, led to abnormal T cell homeostasis with increased apoptotic T cell death. We hypothesize that aberrant autophagy of T lymphocytes as a result of ER stress and decreased GRP78 expression is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE and might serve as important therapeutic targets. PMID:25516752

Lee, Won-Seok; Sung, Myung-Soon; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Yoo, Han-Gyul; Cheon, Yun-Hong; Chae, Han-Jung; Yoo, Wan-Hee

2015-02-01

313

Regulation of ER-phagy by a Ypt/Rab GTPase module  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of misfolded proteins on intracellular membranes has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. One cellular pathway that clears such aggregates is endoplasmic reticulum autophagy (ER-phagy), a selective autophagy pathway that delivers excess ER to the lysosome for degradation. Not much is known about the regulation of ER-phagy. The conserved Ypt/Rab GTPases regulate all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. We recently showed that a Ypt module, consisting of Ypt1 and autophagy-specific upstream activator and downstream effector, regulates the onset of selective autophagy in yeast. Here we show that this module acts at the ER. Autophagy-specific mutations in its components cause accumulation of excess membrane proteins on aberrant ER structures and induction of ER stress. This accumulation is due to a block in transport of these membranes to the lysosome, where they are normally cleared. These findings establish a role for an autophagy-specific Ypt1 module in the regulation of ER-phagy. Moreover, because Ypt1 is a known key regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport, these findings establish a second role for Ypt1 at the ER. We therefore propose that individual Ypt/Rabs, in the context of distinct modules, can coordinate alternative trafficking steps from one cellular compartment to different destinations. PMID:23924895

Lipatova, Zhanna; Shah, Ankur H.; Kim, Jane J.; Mulholland, Jonathan W.; Segev, Nava

2013-01-01

314

Photoluminescence and energy transfer study of Er3+ and Dy3+ codoped tellurite glasses.  

PubMed

Photoluminescence properties of the Er(3+)-Dy3+ codoped tellurite glasses were studied by absorption and visible emission spectra, which revealed luminescence bands of both Er3+ and Dy3+ when pumping with the wavelength of 325 nm. The concentration quenching occurred as Dy3+ concentration increased beyond 3 mol%. The dependence of Er3+ characteristic emission on Dy3+ concentration indicated energy transfer process between Er3+ and Dy3+. The chromaticity coordinates of these glasses are close to white light, which implies that these glasses might be potential candidates for white lighting through an appropriate combination. PMID:22409022

Zhang, Feng; Xiao, Zhisong; Zhu, Fang; Yan, Lu; Zhou, Bo; Huang, Anping

2011-12-01

315

ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  

PubMed

Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II-dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II-induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II-dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

Young, Colin N; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Pierce, Joseph P; Morgan, Donald A; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

2012-11-01

316

Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

Sundarayya, Y., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Kumar, K. Ashwini, E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Sondge, Rajesh, E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Srinath, S., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Kaul, S. N., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad - 500046 (India)

2014-04-24

317

The ER stress factor XBP1s prevents amyloid-? neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. A prominent pathologic hallmark in the AD brain is the abnormal accumulation of the amyloid-? 142 peptide (A?), but the exact pathways mediating A? neurotoxicity remain enigmatic. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced during AD, and has been indirectly implicated as a mediator of A? neurotoxicity. We report here that A? activates the ER stress response factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in transgenic flies and in mammalian cultured neurons, yielding its active form, the transcription factor XBP1s. XBP1s shows neuroprotective activity in two different AD models, flies expressing A? and mammalian cultured neurons treated with A? oligomers. Trying to identify the mechanisms mediating XBP1s neuroprotection, we found that in PC12 cells treated with A? oligomers, XBP1s prevents the accumulation of free calcium (Ca2+) in the cytosol. This protective activity can be mediated by the downregulation of a specific isoform of the ryanodine Ca2+ channel, RyR3. In support of this observation, a mutation in the only ryanodine receptor (RyR) in flies also suppresses A? neurotoxicity, indicating the conserved mechanisms between the two AD models. These results underscore the functional relevance of XBP1s in A? toxicity, and uncover the potential of XBP1 and RyR as targets for AD therapeutics. PMID:21389082

Casas-Tinto, Sergio; Zhang, Yan; Sanchez-Garcia, Jonatan; Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

2011-01-01

318

Completion Report for Well ER-8-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

319

The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

2013-07-01

320

Completion Report for Well ER-2-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

321

Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 ? m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 ? s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air/water atomizer spray. Extracted teeth were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath, stored in saline solution, and dried and weighed before each laser treatment. The laser irradiation was performed for 10 s using a 600 ? m focused beam. Each sample was irradiated varying the air/water ratio of the integrated nebulizer spray. After the treatment, the samples were again weighed and produced craters were analyzed with a profilometric system. The crater volume permitted to evaluate the laser ablation yield. Teeth treated with an air/water spray ratio of 95-80% resulted in greatest average quantity of tissue ablation. This investigation confirmed the high efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the ablation of dental hard tissues showing the fundamental role of the water spray, which plays a fundamental role in the quantitative and qualitative modifications of the hard tissue treated, as it will be discussed in detail.

Beltrano, J. J.; Torrisi, L.; Campagna, E.; Rapisarda, E.; Finocchiaro, I.; Olivi, G.

322

Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 ?m diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

2004-06-01

323

Ag+ planar waveguides in novel Er Yb silicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar waveguides were prepared by silver ? sodium ion-exchange in a set of specially designed europium ytterbium-doped silicate glasses. In this study, we focused on the influence of co-doping glasses with ytterbium ions on their final behaviour. First, a suitable molar ratio between Er3+/Yb3+ ions was searched in order to maximize the efficiency of absorption of the pumping signal at 980 nm and consequently to increase the intensity of the emitted signal at 1550 nm. Transmission spectra at 980 and 1550 nm and emission spectra at 1550 nm of these new glasses are given. Second, effect of ytterbium ions on permeability of a glass network structure during the ion-exchange process of waveguides fabrication was also studied. Properties of the fabricated planar waveguides were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to gain information about chemical composition of the active layer prepared in Er3+/Yb3+ substrate and dark mode spectroscopy at 671 nm to obtain information about the optical properties (e.g. number of guided modes, refractive index profiles and depth of waveguide active layer).

Jankov, Stanislava; vecov, Blanka; Salavcov, Linda; pirkov, Jarmila; Mka, Martin; Oswald, Jiri

2007-05-01

324

Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of A-site cation ordered BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on a synthesis procedure, structural and electrical properties of BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6, A-site double perovskites having layered arrangement of Ba and Er cations. These materials belong to a family of BaLnMn2O5+? oxides, which up to now were successfully synthesized for Ln=Y and La-Ho lanthanides. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful synthesis of BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6, yielding>95 wt% of the considered compounds. Structural characterization of the materials is given at room temperature, together with in situ XRD studies, performed during oxidation of BaErMn2O5 in air, at elevated temperatures up to 500 C. A complex structural behavior was observed, with oxidation process of BaErMn2O5 occurring at around 300 C. The oxidized BaErMn2O6 shows a structural phase transition at about 225 C. Results of structural studies are supported by thermogravimetric measurements of the oxidation process, performed in air, as well as reduction process, preformed in 5 vol% of H2 in Ar. Additionally, isothermal oxidation/reduction cycles were measured at 500 C, showing interesting properties of BaErMn2O5+?, from a point of view of oxygen storage technology. Electrical conductivity of BaErMn2O5 is of the order of 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature and shows activated character on temperature with activation energy Ea=0.30(1) eV. Positive sign of Seebeck coefficient for this material indicates holes as dominant charge carriers. Oxidized BaErMn2O6 possesses much higher electrical conductivity, almost 0.2 S cm-1 at room temperature. Additional, about 10-fold increase of electrical conductivity, occurring in the vicinity of 225 C for this material, can be associated with phase transition from charge/orbital-ordered insulator COI(CE) to paramagnetic metal PM phase. The highest conductivity for BaErMn2O6 was measured near 500 C and is almost equal to 40 S cm-1, while negative sign of Seebeck coefficient can be associated with electrons being dominant charge carriers.

?wierczek, Konrad; Klimkowicz, Alicja; Zheng, Kun; Dabrowski, Bogdan

2013-07-01

325

[Direct upconversion sensitization luminescence comparison of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride fluoride pentaphosphate glass].  

PubMed

This paper investigates the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride glass (ErYb: FOG), fluoride glass (ErYb: ZBLAN) and pentaphosphate noncrystalline (ErYb: PP) excited by a 966 nm diode laser. The splendid upconversion luminescence phenomenon is found. It is resulted from that the Yb3+ concentration in rather high, the energy transfer among Er(3+)-Yb3+ and Yb(3+)-Yb3+ ions is rather strong. An important fact is found that the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of ErYb: FOG is about 100-100,000 times greater than that of ErYb: PP. And meanwhile it is interesting that the upconversion luminescence intensity of ErYb: FOG is near to that of ErYb: ZBLAN. It is significant to enhance the comprehensive level of up-conversion luminescence. PMID:12939953

Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Zhao, Chen-yi; Sawanobori, N; Ma, Hui; Song, Zeng-fu

2003-02-01

326

Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Omoto, Y.; Humire, P. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)] [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, J.-A. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden) [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-08-10

327

ESI MS, spectroscopic and semiempirical characterization of a macrobicyclic complex with Er (III) cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium cryptate [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] NO 3 has been synthesized as a result of the Schiff base condensation and investigated by FT-IR, ESI MS and EPR methods. In the ESI MS spectrum of this complex [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] NO 3 in the range of cv = 10-30V two main signals at m/z = 422 and m/z = 842 were observed corresponding to the [(MSB-H) Er] 2+ and [(MSB-2H) Er] + fragmentary cations, respectively. Besides these main peaks, a low intensity signals at m/z = 903 and m/z = 921 assigned to the [(MSB-H+NO 3) Er] + and [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] + complexes were also found. FT-IR spectrum revealed a broad band at 3403 cm -1 assigned to the ?(OH) vibrations of hydrogen bonded water molecule within the 1:1 macrobicyclic Schiff base-Er 3+ complex as well as the bands at 1335 cm -1 and 1355 cm -1 assigned to the ?(NO3-) vibrations of both bonded and non-bonded with the metal cations nitrate groups, respectively. DTA-TG analysis confirmed the presence of one water molecule in the complex. Full geometry optimization and heat of formation calculations of macrobicyclic Schiff base ligand and its complexes including nitrate anion and one water molecule were carried out. A comparison of these data suggests that the complexation of Er 3+ cation by the macrobicyclic Schiff base molecule with the involvement of water molecule is less energetically favourable. EPR measurements confirmed the presence of one Er 3+ cation in the complex structure. Computer simulation of the recorded EPR spectra revealed the presence of low symmetry at the Er ion site. The semiempirical MM/AM1d calculations indicated an asymmetrical location of the Er 3+ cation within the complex structure.

Przybylski, Piotr; Ko?odziej, Beata; Leniec, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, S?awomir M.; Grech, Eugeniusz; Typek, Janusz; Brzezinski, Bogumil

2008-04-01

328

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica.  

PubMed

: Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600C to 900C. An annealing treatment at 1,100C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3 0.3 nm and (3.1 0.2)1018 Si nanocrystallitescm-3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0 0.2)1018 clusterscm-3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites. PMID:23336324

Talbot, Etienne; Lard, Rodrigue; Pareige, Philippe; Khomenkova, Larysa; Hijazi, Khalil; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

2013-01-01

329

Sorting nexin 17 regulates ApoER2 recycling and reelin signaling.  

PubMed

ApoER2 is a member of the low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. As a receptor for reelin, ApoER2 participates in neuronal migration during development as well as synaptic plasticity and survival in the adult brain. A previous yeast two-hybrid screen showed that ApoER2 is a binding partner of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) - a cytosolic adaptor protein that regulates the trafficking of several membrane proteins in the endosomal pathway, including LRP1, P-selectin and integrins. However, no further studies have been performed to investigate the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function. In this study, we present evidence based on GST pull-down and inmunoprecipitation assays that the cytoplasmic NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2 interacts with the FERM domain of SNX17. SNX17 stimulates ApoER2 recycling in different cell lines including neurons without affecting its endocytic rate and also facilitates the transport of ApoER2 from the early endosomes to the recycling endosomes. The reduction of SNX17 was associated with accumulation of an ApoER2 carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). In addition, in SNX17 knockdown cells, constitutive ApoER2 degradation was not modified, whereas reelin-induced ApoER2 degradation was increased, implying that SNX17 is a regulator of the receptor's half-life. Finally, in SNX17 silenced hippocampal and cortical neurons, we underscored a positive role of this endosomal protein in the development of the dendritic tree and reelin signaling. Overall, these results establish the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function and aid in identifying new links between endocytic trafficking and receptor signaling. PMID:24705369

Sotelo, Pablo; Farfn, Pamela; Benitez, Mara Luisa; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, Mara-Paz

2014-01-01

330

Sorting Nexin 17 Regulates ApoER2 Recycling and Reelin Signaling  

PubMed Central

ApoER2 is a member of the low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. As a receptor for reelin, ApoER2 participates in neuronal migration during development as well as synaptic plasticity and survival in the adult brain. A previous yeast two-hybrid screen showed that ApoER2 is a binding partner of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) - a cytosolic adaptor protein that regulates the trafficking of several membrane proteins in the endosomal pathway, including LRP1, P-selectin and integrins. However, no further studies have been performed to investigate the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function. In this study, we present evidence based on GST pull-down and inmunoprecipitation assays that the cytoplasmic NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2 interacts with the FERM domain of SNX17. SNX17 stimulates ApoER2 recycling in different cell lines including neurons without affecting its endocytic rate and also facilitates the transport of ApoER2 from the early endosomes to the recycling endosomes. The reduction of SNX17 was associated with accumulation of an ApoER2 carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). In addition, in SNX17 knockdown cells, constitutive ApoER2 degradation was not modified, whereas reelin-induced ApoER2 degradation was increased, implying that SNX17 is a regulator of the receptor's half-life. Finally, in SNX17 silenced hippocampal and cortical neurons, we underscored a positive role of this endosomal protein in the development of the dendritic tree and reelin signaling. Overall, these results establish the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function and aid in identifying new links between endocytic trafficking and receptor signaling. PMID:24705369

Sotelo, Pablo; Farfn, Pamela; Benitez, Mara Luisa; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, Mara-Paz

2014-01-01

331

The effect of Zn2+ ion on the UV-VIS-NIR and upconversion emission spectroscopy of Er3+ in Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystals tridoped with x mol% Zn2+ ions (x = 1, 3, 5 and 8 mol%) was grown by Czochralski technique. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to measure the concentration of Er3+ in the crystal. The UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of Zn:Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystals were measured, and Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to predict the J-O intensity parameters (?t) and spectroscopic quality factor (X). With 980 nm excitation, duration lengthening of 1.54 ?m emission and intensity enhancement of green upconversion emission were observed for Zn:Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystal.

Dai, Li; Jiao, Shanshan; Xu, Chao; Qian, Zhao; Li, Dayong; Lin, Jiaqi; Xu, Yuheng

2014-03-01

332

[Up-conversion luminescent materials of Y2O3: RE(RE=Er or Er/Yb) prepared by sol-gel combustion synthesis].  

PubMed

Y2O3 powders doped with rare-earth ions were synthesized by sol-gel combustion synthesis. Effects of different calcinating temperatures, Er+ doping concentration and Yb3+ doping concentration were investigated. It was shown that the single well crystallized Y2O3 powders could be obtained at 800 degrees C; as the calcinating temperature increased, the crystallinity and upconversion luminescence intensity were higher; the particle size was uniform around 1 microm at 900 degrees C; when Er3+ doping concentration was 1 mol%, the green upconversion luminescence intensity reached the maximum, but for red upconversion luminescence, when Er3+ doping concentration was 4 mol%, its luminescence intensity reached the maximum; as the ratio of Yb3+ to Er3+ was 4:1, the green emission intensity reached the maximum, while the red emission intensity was always increasing as Yb3+ doping concentration increased. PMID:21284150

Han, Peng-de; Zhang, Le; Huang, Xiao-gu; Wang, Li-xi; Zhang, Qi-tu

2010-11-01

333

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

1991-01-01

334

Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 2.833H2O and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 0.5H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 2.833H2O ( I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 0.5H2O ( II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [Er L 2(NO3)2]+ complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]+ complex cations, NO{3/-} anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO3)5]2- complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied.

Polyakova, I. N.; Baulin, V. E.; Ivanova, I. S.; Pyatova, E. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

2015-01-01

335

Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retrograde Traffic in Yeast Requires Dsl1p, a Component of the ER Target Site that Interacts with a COPI Coat Subunit  

PubMed Central

DSL1 was identified through its genetic interaction with SLY1, which encodes a t-SNARE-interacting protein that functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic. Conditional dsl1 mutants exhibit a block in ER-to-Golgi traffic at the restrictive temperature. Here, we show that dsl1 mutants are defective for retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, even under conditions where no anterograde transport block is evident. These results suggest that the primary function of Dsl1p may be in retrograde traffic, and that retrograde defects can lead to secondary defects in anterograde traffic. Dsl1p is an ER-localized peripheral membrane protein that can be extracted from the membrane in a multiprotein complex. Immunoisolation of the complex yielded Dsl1p and proteins of ?80 and ?55 kDa. The ?80-kDa protein has been identified as Tip20p, a protein that others have shown to exist in a tight complex with Sec20p, which is ?50 kDa. Both Sec20p and Tip20p function in retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, are ER-localized, and bind to the ER t-SNARE Ufe1p. These findings suggest that an ER-localized complex of Dsl1p, Sec20p, and Tip20p functions in retrograde traffic, perhaps upstream of a Sly1p/Ufe1p complex. Last, we show that Dsl1p interacts with the ?-subunit of the retrograde COPI coat, Ret2p, and discuss possible roles for this interaction. PMID:11739780

Reilly, Barbara A.; Kraynack, Bryan A.; VanRheenen, Susan M.; Waters, M. Gerard

2001-01-01

336

Luman\\/CREB3 Induces Transcription of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response Protein Herp through an ER Stress Response Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luman\\/CREB3 (also called LZIP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound transcription factor which is believed to undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to cellular cues. We previously found that Luman activates transcription from the unfolded protein response element. Here we report the identification of Herp, a gene involved in ER stress-associated protein degradation (ERAD), as a direct target of Luman.

Genqing Liang; Timothy E. Audas; Yu Li; Gregory P. Cockram; J. Doug Dean; Amanda C. Martyn; Koichi Kokame; Rui Lu

2006-01-01

337

Synergistic Activation of Functional Estrogen Receptor (ER)- by DNA Methyltransferase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibition in Human ER--negative Breast Cancer Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of transcriptional repression complexes such as DNA meth- yltransferase (DNMT) 1\\/histone deacetylase (HDAC) or methyl-CpG binding protein\\/HDAC is emerging as an important mechanism in silenc- ing a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes. Our previous studies showed that treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-- negative human breast cancer cells with the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2- deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) led to ER

Dawn L. Phillips; Anne T. Ferguson; William G. Nelson; James G. Herman; Nancy E. Davidson

2000-01-01

338

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

1990-01-01

339

Protein dislocation from the ER requires polyubiquitination and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation by the ubiquitinproteasome system requires the dislocation of substrates from the ER into the cytosol. It has been speculated that a functional ubiquitin proteasome pathway is not only essential for proteolysis, but also for the preceding export step. Here, we show that short ubiquitin chains synthesized on proteolytic substrates are not sufficient to complete dislocation;

Ernst Jarosch; Christof Taxis; Corinna Volkwein; Javier Bordallo; Daniel Finley; Dieter H. Wolf; Thomas Sommer

2002-01-01

340

Ubx2 links the Cdc48 complex to ER-associated protein degradation.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation requires the dislocation of selected substrates from the ER to the cytosol for proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The AAA ATPase Cdc48 (known as p97 or VCP in mammals) has a crucial, but poorly understood role in this transport step. Here, we show that Ubx2 (Sel1) mediates interaction of the Cdc48 complex with the ER membrane-bound ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 (Der3) and Doa10. The membrane protein Ubx2 contains a UBX domain that interacts with Cdc48 and an additional UBA domain. Absence of Ubx2 abrogates breakdown of ER proteins but also that of a cytosolic protein, which is ubiquitinated by Doa10. Intriguingly, our results suggest that recruitment of Cdc48 by Ubx2 is essential for turnover of both ER and non-ER substrates, whereas the UBA domain of Ubx2 is specifically required for ER proteins only. Thus, a complex comprising the AAA ATPase, a ubiquitin ligase and the recruitment factor Ubx2 has a central role in ER-associated proteolysis. PMID:16179953

Neuber, Oliver; Jarosch, Ernst; Volkwein, Corinna; Walter, Jan; Sommer, Thomas

2005-10-01

341

Specific heat of RNi 2B 2C(R = Y, Er) and YNi 4B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative heat capacity measurements of YNi4B and YNi2B2C show that the incorporation of carbon in the latter causes a significant lattice stiffening. From the magnetic and specific heat data of ErNi2B2C we deduce that superconductivity and antiferromagnetism of the Er sublattice coexists below TN.

G. Hilscher; T. Holubar; N. M. Hong; W. Perthold; M. Vybornov; P. Rogl

1995-01-01

342

Specific heat of RNi2B2C (R = Y, Er) and YNi4B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative heat capacity measurements of YNi4B and YNi2B2C show that the incorporation of carbon in the latter causes a significant lattice stiffening. From the magnetic and specific heat data of ErNi2B2C we deduce that superconductivity and antiferromagnetism of the Er sublattice coexists below TN.

G. Hilscher; T. Holubar; N. M. Hong; W. Perthold; M. Vybornov; P. Rogl

1995-01-01

343

The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation.  

PubMed

How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER. PMID:25287301

Schwarz, Dianne S; Blower, Michael D

2014-10-13

344

Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu  

E-print Network

Voltage-controlled yellow or orange emission from GaN codoped with Er and Eu D. S. Lee, J elecroluminescent device ELD made on GaN thin films codoped with Er and Eu. The GaN film was grown by molecular Schottky devices were fabricated on the GaN films using indiumtin oxide ITO transparent electrodes. ELD

Steckl, Andrew J.

345

Optical enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetism in Er-doped GaN epilayers  

E-print Network

Optical enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetism in Er-doped GaN epilayers N. Nepal,1,a J. M of Er-doped GaN epilayer structures, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, with illumination to sharp emission lines from the ultraviolet UV through the visible to the infrared IR .24 Doping of AlGaN

Jiang, Hongxing

346

March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 1 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL  

E-print Network

in the ER diagram Phone EMPLOYEE Name F. name M. Init L. name SSN Age #12;March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 9 Entity Representation: An entity type EMPLOYEE with attributes: Name, SSN, Address, Salary, Birth usually contains groups of entities that are similar. Example: A company employing many employees stores

Adam, Salah

347

March 23, 2008 DB:EER Model -1 1 ER to Relational Mapping  

E-print Network

Regular Entity EMPLOYEE EMPLOYEE Sex Address Salary Name SSN Fname Minit Lname Bdate ER Schema Relational to correspond to the weak entity type DEPENDENT. We include the primary key SSN of the EMPLOYEE relation which DEPENDENT EMPLOYEE SexSSN ... DEPENDENT Sex Name BirthDateRelationship Dependents_of M1 ER Schema Relational

Adam, Salah

348

Microtubules, the ER and Exu: New associations revealed by analysis of mini spindles mutations  

PubMed Central

During Drosophila oogenesis, organized microtubule networks coordinate the localization of specific RNAs, the positioning of the oocyte nucleus, and ooplasmic streaming events. We used mutations in mini spindles (msps), a microtubule-associated protein, to disrupt microtubule function during mid- and late oogenesis, and show that msps is required for these microtubule-based events. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization is influenced by microtubules in other systems, we hypothesized that using msps to alter microtubule dynamics might affect the structure and organization of the ER in nurse cells and the oocyte. ER organization was monitored using GFP-tagged versions of Reticulon-like1 and protein disulfide isomerase. Analyses of living cells indicate microtubule associations mediate the movement of ER components within the oocyte. Surprisingly, the distribution and behavior of tubular ER in the oocyte differs from general ER, suggesting these two compartments of the ER interact differently with microtubules. We find that the morphology of Exu particles is msps-dependent, and that Exu is specifically associated with tubular ER in msps mutants. Our results extend previous descriptions of sponge bodies and the fusome, suggesting both are manifestations of a dynamic structure that interacts with microtubules and persists throughout oogenesis. PMID:19303437

Pokrywka, Nancy Jo; Payne-Tobin, Anna; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.; Swartzman, Sasha

2009-01-01

349

Removal of dental filling materials by Er:YAG laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous reports it could be shown that pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation is effective for the removal of dental enamel, dentin, and caries. Damage to the adjacent hard substances is minimal. Temperature measurements and animal studies revealed that thermal pulp damage can be avoided. The experimental results make the Er:YAG laser promising for the preparation of dental cavities. In many

Raimund Hibst; Ulrich Keller

1991-01-01

350

Environmental and Resource Studies Program Equipment Available For Use in ERS Courses  

E-print Network

(battery tester) power inverter solar panel and solar charge controller Audio-Visual Equipment camera-06 The following lists describe ERS Program equipment available for teaching. See also our list of books, maps, and videos. If you want to use any of the items below, or want something not on this list, to use in your ERS

Fox, Michael

351

Temperature dependence and quenching processes of the intra-4f luminescence of Er in crystalline Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminescence quenching of Er in crystalline Si at temperatures between 77 and 300 K is investigated. Samples were prepared by solid-phase epitaxy of Er-implanted amorphous Si layers with or without O codoping. After epitaxial regrowth at 620 C, thermal annealing at 900 C for 30 sec was performed in order to eliminate residual defects in the regrown layer and

S. Coffa; G. Franz; F. Priolo; A. Polman; R. Serna

1994-01-01

352

From acute ER stress to physiological roles of the Unfolded Protein Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

When protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is disrupted by alterations in homeostasis in the ER lumen, eucaryotic cells activate a series of signal transduction cascades that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we summarize our current understanding of how the UPR functions upon acute and severe stress. We discuss the mechanism of UPR receptor activation,

J Wu; R J Kaufman

2006-01-01

353

Arabidopsis Bax inhibitor-1: A rheostat for ER stress-induced programmed cell death.  

PubMed

Unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells elicit a highly conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) that leads to an increase in the capacity of the ER to deal with protein folding by hightened expression of enzymes such as chaperone and protein disulfide isomerases. However, cells die by apoptosis if the function of the ER cannot be restored in metazoans. To what extent is this mechanism evolutionarily conserved in plant cells remains to be elucidated. Emerging data from our recent study now provide compelling evidence that a conserved cell death suppressor, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1), plays a pivotal role as a survival factor against endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) that likely acts in parallel to the UPR pathway. This finding suggests a clear functional correlation to the predicted ER localization of AtBI1 as well as directly implicating the ER of plant cells as an important modulator of cell death activation. Furthermore, ER stress and its associated cell death in plants can be relieved by administration of chemical chaperones which have been clinically used for treatment of many human diseases linked to neurodegenerative disorders that are triggered by the dysfunction of ER homeostasis. This opens the way for future studies to decipher the mechanisms and pathways of ER-mediated PCD, and function of this pathway in plant development and stress response. PMID:19704470

Watanabe, Naohide; Lam, Eric

2008-08-01

354

The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation  

PubMed Central

How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER. PMID:25287301

Schwarz, Dianne S.

2014-01-01

355

Validation of ERS differential SAR interferometry for land subsidence mapping: the Bologna case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Bologna, Italy, is ideal to assess the potential of ERS differential SAR interferometry for land subsidence mapping in urban areas for a couple of reasons: the subsiding area is large and presents important velocities of the vertical movements; there is a typical spatial gradient of the vertical movements; many ERS SAR frames are available; a large scientific

U. Wegmuller; T. Strozzi; G. Bitelli

1999-01-01

356

Viscous control of homogeneous ER fluid using a variable structure control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous electrorheological (ER) fluid is a smart fluid whose appearance viscous coefficient can be controlled by applying an electric field. Therefore, the application of this fluid can create a damping device in a mechanical system. However, the ER effect of the fluid is easily changed by shear rate or temperature variation. In this study, a viscous coefficient control method using

Taro Nakamura; Norihiko Saga

2005-01-01

357

Upconversion properties of Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses.  

PubMed

Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses emitting blue, green and red upconversion luminescence at 970 nm laser diode excitation were studied. It was shown that Tm3+ behaves as the sensitizer to Er3+ for the green upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3H4+Er3+:4I 15/2-->Er3+:4I 9/2+Tm3+:3H6, and for the red upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3F4+Er3+:4I 11/2-->Tm3+:3H6+Er3+:4F 9/2. Moreover, Er3+ acts as quenching center for the blue upconversion luminescence of Tm3+. The sensitization of Tm3+ to Er3+ depends on the concentration of Yb3+. The intensity of blue, green and red emissions can be changed by adjusting the concentrations of the three kinds of rare earth ions. This research may provide useful information for the development of high color and spatial resolution devices and white light simulation. PMID:17329153

Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili; Fang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Junjie; Sun, Hongtao; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Liyan

2007-11-01

358

Upconversion properties of Er 3+, Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er 3+, Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses emitting blue, green and red upconversion luminescence at 970 nm laser diode excitation were studied. It was shown that Tm 3+ behaves as the sensitizer to Er 3+ for the green upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm 3+: 3H 4 + Er 3+: 4I 15/2 ? Er 3+: 4I 9/2 + Tm 3+: 3H 6, and for the red upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm 3+: 3F 4 + Er 3+: 4I 11/2 ? Tm 3+: 3H 6 + Er 3+: 4F 9/2. Moreover, Er 3+ acts as quenching center for the blue upconversion luminescence of Tm 3+. The sensitization of Tm 3+ to Er 3+ depends on the concentration of Yb 3+. The intensity of blue, green and red emissions can be changed by adjusting the concentrations of the three kinds of rare earth ions. This research may provide useful information for the development of high color and spatial resolution devices and white light simulation.

Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili; Fang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Junjie; Sun, Hongtao; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Liyan

2007-11-01

359

A Method for Estimating Soil Moisture from ERS Scatterometer and Soil Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of using ERS Scatterometer data for soil moisture monitoring over the Ukraine is investigated. The ERS Scatterometer is a C-band radar with a spatial resolution of 50 km and a high temporal sampling rate. An algorithm for estimating the surface soil moisture content is applied to 6 years of data. A qualitative comparison with meteorological observations and auxiliary

Wolfgang Wagner; Guido Lemoine; Helmut Rott

1999-01-01

360

Precise orbit determination and gravity field improvement for the ERS satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial orbit error has long been the major error source in ERS-1 altimetry, crippled by having only satellite laser ranging for precise tracking and relying on insufficiently accurate general-purpose gravity field models. Altimeter crossovers are used very effectively as additional tracking data to laser ranging. The ERS Tandem Mission even provides the unique possibility to simultaneously determine orbits of

Remko Scharroo; Pieter Visser

1998-01-01

361

Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era  

SciTech Connect

/sup 51/Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer.

Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

1985-03-01

362

Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) Subtypes and ERb Isoforms in Colon Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon cancer incidence and mortality rates are lower in females com- pared with males, and numerous epidemiological studies suggest that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) reduces cancer risk in postmeno- pausal women. Two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERa and ERb, mediate genomic effects in target cells. The aim of this study was to determine the relative mRNA expression levels for ER

Martha Campbell-Thompson; I. Jeanette Lynch; Bhavna Bhardwaj

2001-01-01

363

Ice Discrimination using ERS scatterometer Siebren de Haan and Ad Stoffelen  

E-print Network

Ice Discrimination using ERS scatterometer Siebren de Haan and Ad Stoffelen 18 September 2001 Results 13 4 Ice Discrimination 16 4.1 Ice Discrimination Algorithm in ERS scatterometer measurements. The objective is to find an improved discrimination of water and ice

Stoffelen, Ad

364

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218.40 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age....

2010-04-01

365

Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Evidence for the ER =EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER =EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area of Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges (or wormholes) connecting them. We show that the geometrical entropy of classical ER bridges satisfies the subadditivity, triangle, strong subadditivity, and Cadney-Linden-Winter inequalities. These are nontrivial properties of entanglement entropy, so this is evidence for ER =EPR. We further show that the entanglement entropy associated with classical ER bridges has nonpositive tripartite information. This is not a property of entanglement entropy, in general. For example, the entangled four qubit pure state |GHZ4?=(|0000?+|1111?)/?2 has positive tripartite information, so this state cannot be described by a classical ER bridge. Large black holes with massive amounts of entanglement between them can fail to have a classical ER bridge if they are built out of |GHZ4? states. States with nonpositive tripartite information are called monogamous. We conclude that classical ER bridges require monogamous EPR correlations.

Gharibyan, Hrant; Penna, Robert F.

2014-03-01

366

PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II  

EPA Science Inventory

The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

367

Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs  

E-print Network

Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland of electrically resonant terahertz planar metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrates, thereby modulating the resonant response of the metamate- rials. A switching recovery time of 20 ps

Huang, Jianyu

368

Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs\\/GaAs nanoisland superlattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate optical switching of electrically resonant terahertz planar metamaterials fabricated on ErAs\\/GaAs nanoisland superlattice substrates. Photoexcited charge carriers in the superlattice shunt the capacitive regions of the constituent elements, thereby modulating the resonant response of the metamaterials. A switching recovery time of 20 ps results from fast carrier recombination in the ErAs\\/GaAs superlattice substrates.

Hou-Tong Chen; Willie J. Padilla; Joshua M. O. Zide; Seth R. Bank; Arthur C. Gossard; Antoinette J. Taylor; Richard D. Averitt

2007-01-01

369

A Hands-On Approach to Teaching Protein Translation & Translocation into the ER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of protein translation and translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can often be challenging for introductory college biology students to visualize. To help them understand how proteins become oriented in the ER membrane, I developed a hands-on activity in which students use Play-Doh to simulate the process of protein

LaBonte, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

370

Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN V. Dierolfa)  

E-print Network

on sapphire substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition MOCVD and implanted with Er and O ions-GaN layer, was co-implanted with Er and O ions and annealed. Steckl et al. achieved a further breakthrough lattice and the atomic complexes that are formed are not fully understood. While ion implantation

Dierolf, Volkmar

371

Effects of ER?-specific antagonist on mouse preimplantation embryo development and zygotic genome activation.  

PubMed

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is essential for normal development of mammalian preimplantation embryos. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) has been implicated in early embryogenesis, and controls the expression of genes associated with proliferation, differentiation and development of cell and target organs via a genomic effect. The objective of this study was to determine whether ER? plays a role in early embryo development and affects ZGA gene expression. Toward this objective, 1-cell embryos from B6C3F1 mouse were cultured with the antiestrogen ICI182780, ER?-specific antagonist MPP, ER?-specific antibody and ER?-specific antagonist PHTPP. Development of 2-cell to 4-cell in vitro was significantly blocked by ICI182780, MPP and ER?-antibody treatment in a dose-dependent manner but not affected by PHTPP exposure. MPP decreased nuclear ER? protein levels and reduced mRNA expression levels of MuERV-L, one of the ZGA related genes. The results indicate that ER? has a functional role in early embryo development by regulation of ZGA-related genes. PMID:25263659

Zhang, Yanqin; Jiang, Yufei; Lian, Xiuli; Xu, Songhua; Wei, Jianen; Chu, Chenfeng; Wang, Shie

2015-01-01

372

Downregulation of E2F1 during ER stress is required to induce apoptosis.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently emerged as an alternative target to induce cell death in tumours, because prolonged ER stress results in the induction of apoptosis even in chemoresistant transformed cells. Here, we show that the DNA-damage-responsive pro-apoptotic factor E2F1 is unexpectedly downregulated during the ER stress-mediated apoptotic programme. E2F1 decline is a late event during the ER response and is mediated by the two unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors ATF6 and IRE1 (also known as ERN1). Whereas ATF6 directly interacts with the E2F1 promoter, IRE1 requires the involvement of the known E2F1 modulator E2F7, through the activation of its main target Xbp-1. Importantly, inhibition of the E2F1 decrease prevents ER-stress-induced apoptosis, whereas E2F1 knockdown efficiently sensitises cells to ER stress-dependent apoptosis, leading to the upregulation of two main factors in the UPR pro-apoptotic execution phase, Puma and Noxa (also known as BBC3 and PMAIP1, respectively). Our results point to a novel key role of E2F1 in the cell survival/death decision under ER stress, and unveil E2F1 inactivation as a valuable novel potential therapeutic strategy to increase the response of tumour cells to ER stress-based anticancer treatments. PMID:25616897

Pagliarini, Vittoria; Giglio, Paola; Bernardoni, Paolo; De Zio, Daniela; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Corazzari, Marco

2015-03-15

373

PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

Richardson, R.B.

1996-06-01

374

Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

1995-04-01

375

An updated period analysis for ER Orionis: A definitive solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated period analysis for the overcontact eclipsing binary ER Orionis is presented. Featured is an improved derivation of parameters for the light time effect (LTE) due to the third star (in actuality, a pair of stars) utilising the latest set of eclipse timings. The very good fit between the eclipse timing differences (ETD) plot (otherwise known as an O-C diagram) and the theoretical ETD curve makes possible an improved determination of the rate of mass interchange between the binary pair, dm1/dt = +1.83(6) 10-7 M?/year. In addition, the mass of the companion system (in actuality, m3 sin i) and the elements of its orbit were computed. A suggestion is made for a method of future determination of the inclination of the orbit of the companion system.

Nelson, Robert H.

2015-01-01

376

High upconversion optical gain of Er3+-doped tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upconversion technique of rare-earth-doped glasses or crystals is a potential route for achieving short-wavelength lasers (SWLs). The optical gain is an important parameter for evaluating lasing medium performance. Therefore, upconversion luminescence in glass with composition of 70TeO2-9PbF2-10AlF3-10BaF2-1Er2O3 was demonstrated, and the small-signal optical gain was measured via an amplified spontaneous emission technique when the sample was excited with a 980 nm laser. It was found that the optical gain was as large as 4.0 dB/cm, thus indicating that this glass may be a good medium for SWLs.

Fu, S. B.; Chen, B. J.; Zhang, J. S.; Li, X. P.; Zhong, H.; Tian, B. N.; Wang, Y. Z.; Sun, M.; Zhang, X. Q.; Cheng, L. H.; Zhong, H. Y.; Xia, H. P.

2014-06-01

377

Thermal lensing in Er, Yb?:?YVO4 crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal lens is characterized in 0.7?at.%Er, 3?at.%Yb?:?YVO4 yttrium vanadate crystal cut along the [1?0?0] crystallographic axis, for ? and ? laser polarizations, by a probe beam method. For a pump spot radius of 100??m and ?-polarization, sensitivity factors of the thermal lens equal 5.7 and 7.9?m?1?W?1 (parallel and perpendicular to the [0?0?1]-axis, respectively); the astigmatism degree is 28%. The fractional heat load is determined by ISO-standard laser calorimetry, ?h = 0.63? ?0.05. The anisotropy of the photo-elastic effect plays a dominant role in the formation of the astigmatic thermal lens.

Loiko, Pavel; Matrosov, Vladimir; Yumashev, Konstantin

2015-03-01

378

Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland using ERS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland glaciers was calculated at the grounding line using ERS radar interferometry data acquired during the tandem phase. The resulting estimates exceed the production of icebergs at the glacier fronts by a factor of 3.5. This large decrease in ice flux is attributed to extensive melting at the underside of the floating sections. When compared to the predicted grounding line ice discharge of an ice sheet in balance, the results show an excess of 28 cubic km/yr of ice lost to the ocean. The north and northeast sectors of the Greenland ice sheet are therefore thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise.

Rignot, Eric

1997-01-01

379

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

380

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

Townsend, M.J.

2000-12-01

381

Investigation of optical amplification in Si-Nanocrystal-Er doped optical fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study in detail the optical properties of the Er and silicon nanocrystal doped fiber amplifier system in steady state case. This analysis is based on energy coupling between each silicon nanocrystal and the neighboring Er (+3)ions. Also, we consider the interaction between pairs of Er ions such as cooperative up-conversion mechanism and concentration quenching effect. The proposed method is used the rate equation as fundamental basis for description of the light interaction with nanocrystals and Er ions. We show that with introducing Si-nanocrystals into Er doped fiber, amplification process strongly improves and the fiber length of the fiber amplifier for a given gain is reduced compared to traditional cases. In this paper, limiting factor K exiton governing the maximum number of exitons that can coexist within a single silicon nanocrystal, has been introduced and it is shown that in the case of K exiton=2, optical gain is considerably increased.

Rostami, A.; Salmanogli, A.; Janabi Sharifi, F.

2007-10-01

382

Cross Talk Between ER Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Health and Disease.  

PubMed

In mammals, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses compose the major defense networks that help the cells adapt to and survive stress conditions caused by biochemical, physiological and pathological stimuli. However, chronic ER stress, oxidative stress, or inflammation have been found to be associated with the initiation and progression of a variety of human diseases in the modern world. Under many pathophysiologic conditions, ER stress response, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses are integrated and amplified in specialized cell types to facilitate the progression of disease. In the past few decades, ER stress response, oxidative stress, and inflammation as well as their interactive relationships have been hot research topics in biomedicine. In this review, we summarize the recent advance in our understanding of the cross talk between ER stress response, oxidative stress, and inflammation in immunity and in inflammatory and metabolic diseases. PMID:25804758

Dandekar, Aditya; Mendez, Roberto; Zhang, Kezhong

2015-01-01

383

ERPM connections: sites of information transfer and inter-organelle communication  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells are divided into distinct membrane-bound organelles with unique identities and specialized metabolic functions. Communication between organelles must take place to regulate the size, shape, and composition of individual organelles, as well as to coordinate transport between organelles. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms an expansive membrane network that contacts and participates in crosstalk with several other organelles in the cell, most notably the plasma membrane (PM). ERPM junctions have well-established functions in the movement of small molecules, such as lipids and ions, between the ER and PM. Recent discoveries have revealed additional exciting roles for ERPM junctions in the regulation of cell signaling, ER shape and architecture, and PM domain organization. PMID:23522446

Stefan, Christopher J; Manford, Andrew G; Emr, Scott D

2014-01-01

384

Electrochemical Preparation of Al-Li-Er-Tm Alloys by Co-reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical behavior of Al, Li, Er, and Tm was investigated on tungsten electrodes in LiCl-KCl-AlF3-ErCl3-TmCl3 melts. The results indicated that the co-reduction of Al, Li, Er, and Tm occurs at current densities more negative than -0.469 A cm-2 or applied potentials more negative than -2.31 V. The strengthen phases of Al3Er and Al3Tm were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. ICP-AES analyses showed that the content of lithium, erbium, and thulium in Al-Li-Er-Tm alloys could be controlled by adjusting AlF3 concentration and electrochemical parameters.

Sun, Yi; Zhang, Milin; Han, Wei; Li, Mei; Ye, Ke; Yang, Yusheng; Yan, Yongde; Zhang, Meng

2013-12-01

385

Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F., E-mail: doty@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G. [AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2014-09-08

386

ER contact sites define the position and timing of endosome fission.  

PubMed

Endocytic cargo and Rab GTPases are segregated to distinct domains of an endosome. These domains maintain their identity until they undergo fission to traffic cargo. It is not fully understood how segregation of cargo or Rab proteins is maintained along the continuous endosomal membrane or what machinery is required for fission. Endosomes form contact sites with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are maintained during trafficking. Here, we show that stable contacts form between the ER and endosome at constricted sorting domains, and free diffusion of cargo is limited at these positions. We demonstrate that the site of constriction and fission for early and late endosomes is spatially and temporally linked to contact sites with the ER. Lastly, we show that altering ER structure and dynamics reduces the efficiency of endosome fission. Together, these data reveal a surprising role for ER contact in defining the timing and position of endosome fission. PMID:25416943

Rowland, Ashley A; Chitwood, Patrick J; Phillips, Melissa J; Voeltz, Gia K

2014-11-20

387

Power scaling of resonantly cladding-pumped, Yb-free, Er-doped LMA fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the recent major efforts in power scaling of resonantly cladding-pumped Yb-free Er fiber lasers are presented. Commercially available Yb-free Er-doped large mode area Er60-20/125 (LMA) DC fibers were tested in two regimes: (i), as a booster amplifier in a single-frequency (SF) MOPA configuration and, (ii), in a Bragg grating (FBG) based narrowband fiber laser configuration. We obtained 28.5 W of output power at 1590 nm, the highest power reported so far out of Yb-free Er-doped LMA fiber with resonant cladding pumping. The achieved optical-to-optical conversion slope efficiency of 56.6% is also believed to be the highest efficiency ever reported from Yb-free Er-doped fiber laser with resonant cladding pumping.

Dubinskii, M.; Zhang, J.; Kudryashov, I.

2009-04-01

388

Analysis of upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped tellurite optical fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper the analysis of upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped tellurite glass and optical fiber has been investigated. Upconversion luminescence at 525 nm, 546 nm, 651 nm corresponding to the Er3+: 2H11/2?4I15/2, 4S3/2?4I15/2, (4F9/2?4I15/2) transitions, respectively was obtained as a result of energy transfer between Yb3+ and Er3+ ions. Developed tellurite glass characterized by highest intensity of upconversion luminescence (0.5mol% Yb2O3/0.1mol% Er2O3) was used as core of optical fiber. The analysis of influence of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped tellurite optical fiber length on upconversion emission spectra was examinated.

Mazerski, Wojciech; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

2013-10-01

389

Active vibration control system of smart structures based on FOS and ER actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active vibration control system based on fiber optic sensor (FOS) and electrorheological (ER) actuator is established in this paper. A new intensity modulated fiber optic vibration sensor is developed following the face coupling theory. The experimental results show that this new type of intensity modulated fiber optic vibration sensor has higher sensitivity in measuring the vibration frequency. At the same time, experimental investigations are focused on evaluating the dynamic response characteristics of a beam fabricated with ER fluid. It is noted that the most significant change in the material properties of ER fluid is the change of material stiffness and damping which varies with the electric field intensity imposed upon the ER fluid. Finally, the structural vibration of the smart composite beam based on ER fluid, fiber optic sensor and piezoelectric transducer has been monitored and controlled actively utilizing a fuzzy-logic algorithm.

Leng, Jinsong; Asundi, A.

1999-04-01

390

CCD Observations of ERS with the 60 cm Telescope at ASV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observations of extragalactic radio sources (ERS) which are possible in the optical domain and can be used to establish the link between the ICRF2 and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF). Our telescope of small aperture size (< 1 m) is located in the south of Serbia, near the town of Prokuplje, at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV) which belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB). It is a Cassegrain-type optical system (D=60 cm, F=600 cm) of equatorial mount. About 40 ERS, from ICRF2 list, were observed at ASV during 2011 and 2012. These observations are of importance to compare the ERS optical and radio positions (VLBI ones), and to investigate the relation between optical and radio reference frames. Also, they are useful to check the possibilities of the instrument. We observed ERS with the CCD Apogeee Alta U42. The observations, reduction and preliminary results of some ERS are presented here.

Damljanovic, G.; Milic, I. S.

2013-05-01

391

Modulation of ER stress and apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak via translocon during unfolded protein response: involvement of GRP78.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many cellular functions, including protein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The ability of cells to respond to the ER stress is critical for cell survival, and disruption in such regulation can lead to apoptosis. ER stress is accompanied by alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, and the ER Ca(2+) store depletion by itself can induce ER stress and apoptosis. Despite that, the ER Ca(2+) leak channels activated in response to the ER stress remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that ER Ca(2+) depletion during the ER stress occurs via translocon, the ER protein complex involved in translation. Numerous ER stress inducers stimulate the ER Ca(2+) leak that can be prevented by translocon inhibitor, anisomycin. Expression of GRP78, an ER stress marker, increased following treatment with puromycin (a translocon opener) and was suppressed by anisomycin, confirming a primary role of translocon in ER stress induction. Inhibition of ER store depletion by anisomycin significantly reduces apoptosis stimulated by the ER stress inducers. We suggest that translocon opening is physiologically modulated by GRP78, particularly during the ER stress. The ability to modulate the ER Ca(2+) permeability and subsequent ER stress can lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23322163

Hammadi, Mehdi; Oulidi, Agathe; Gackire, Florian; Katsogiannou, Maria; Slomianny, Christian; Roudbaraki, Morad; Dewailly, Etienne; Delcourt, Philippe; Lepage, Gilbert; Lotteau, Sabine; Ducreux, Sylvie; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Van Coppenolle, Fabien

2013-04-01

392

Guanabenz Interferes with ER Stress and Exerts Protective Effects in Cardiac Myocytes  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. During ER stress, disruption of the complex of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A and catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 by the small molecule guanabenz (antihypertensive, ?2-adrenoceptor agonist) and subsequent inhibition of stress-induced dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) results in prolonged eIF2? phosphorylation, inhibition of protein synthesis and protection from ER stress. In this study we assessed whether guanabenz protects against ER stress in cardiac myocytes and affects the function of 3 dimensional engineered heart tissue (EHT). We utilized neonatal rat cardiac myocytes for the assessment of cell viability and activation of ER stress-signalling pathways and EHT for functional analysis. (i) Tunicamycin induced ER stress as measured by increased mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, P-eIF2?, activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP homologous protein, and cell death. (ii) Guanabenz had no measurable effect alone, but antagonized the effects of tunicamycin on ER stress markers. (iii) Tunicamycin and other known inducers of ER stress (hydrogen peroxide, doxorubicin, thapsigargin) induced cardiac myocyte death, and this was antagonized by guanabenz in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. (iv) ER stressors also induced acute or delayed contractile dysfunction in spontaneously beating EHTs and this was, with the notable exception of relaxation deficits under thapsigargin, not significantly affected by guanabenz. The data confirm that guanabenz interferes with ER stress-signalling and has protective effects on cell survival. Data show for the first time that this concept extends to cardiac myocytes. The modest protection in EHTs points to more complex mechanisms of force regulation in intact functional heart muscle. PMID:24892553

Neuber, Christiane; Uebeler, June; Schulze, Thomas; Sotoud, Hannieh; El-Armouche, Ali; Eschenhagen, Thomas

2014-01-01

393

Guanabenz interferes with ER stress and exerts protective effects in cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. During ER stress, disruption of the complex of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A and catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 by the small molecule guanabenz (antihypertensive, ?2-adrenoceptor agonist) and subsequent inhibition of stress-induced dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) results in prolonged eIF2? phosphorylation, inhibition of protein synthesis and protection from ER stress. In this study we assessed whether guanabenz protects against ER stress in cardiac myocytes and affects the function of 3 dimensional engineered heart tissue (EHT). We utilized neonatal rat cardiac myocytes for the assessment of cell viability and activation of ER stress-signalling pathways and EHT for functional analysis. (i) Tunicamycin induced ER stress as measured by increased mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, P-eIF2?, activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP homologous protein, and cell death. (ii) Guanabenz had no measurable effect alone, but antagonized the effects of tunicamycin on ER stress markers. (iii) Tunicamycin and other known inducers of ER stress (hydrogen peroxide, doxorubicin, thapsigargin) induced cardiac myocyte death, and this was antagonized by guanabenz in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. (iv) ER stressors also induced acute or delayed contractile dysfunction in spontaneously beating EHTs and this was, with the notable exception of relaxation deficits under thapsigargin, not significantly affected by guanabenz. The data confirm that guanabenz interferes with ER stress-signalling and has protective effects on cell survival. Data show for the first time that this concept extends to cardiac myocytes. The modest protection in EHTs points to more complex mechanisms of force regulation in intact functional heart muscle. PMID:24892553

Neuber, Christiane; Uebeler, June; Schulze, Thomas; Sotoud, Hannieh; El-Armouche, Ali; Eschenhagen, Thomas

2014-01-01

394

AR collaborates with ER? in aromatase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Androgen receptor (AR) is an attractive target in breast cancer because of its frequent expression in all the molecular subtypes, especially in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive luminal breast cancers. We have previously shown a role for AR overexpression in tamoxifen resistance. We engineered ER-positive MCF-7 cells to overexpress aromatase and AR (MCF-7 AR Arom cells) to explore the role of AR in aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance. Androstendione (AD) was used as a substrate for aromatization to estrogen. The nonsteroidal AI anastrazole (Ana) inhibited AD-stimulated growth and ER transcriptional activity in MCF-7 Arom cells, but not in MCF-7 AR Arom cells. Enhanced activation of pIGF-1R and pAKT was found in AR-overexpressing cells, and their inhibitors restored sensitivity to Ana, suggesting that these pathways represent escape survival mechanisms. Sensitivity to Ana was restored with AR antagonists, or the antiestrogen fulvestrant. These results suggest that both AR and ER? must be blocked to restore sensitivity to hormonal therapies in AR-overexpressing ER?-positive breast cancers. AR contributed to ER? transcriptional activity in MCF-7 AR Arom cells, and AR and ER? co-localized in AD + Ana-treated cells, suggesting cooperation between the two receptors. AR-mediated resistance was associated with a failure to block ER transcriptional activity and enhanced up-regulation of AR and ER-responsive gene expression. Clinically, it may be necessary to block both AR and ER? in patients whose tumors express elevated levels of AR. In addition, inhibitors to the AKT/IGF-1R signaling pathways may provide alternative approaches to block escape pathways and restore hormone sensitivity in resistant breast tumors. PMID:25178514

Rechoum, Yassine; Rovito, Daniela; Iacopetta, Domenico; Barone, Ines; And, Sebastiano; Weigel, Nancy L.; OMalley, Bert W.; Brown, Powel H.

2015-01-01

395

A robust classifier of high predictive value to identify good prognosis patients in ER negative breast cancer.  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction Patients with primary operable oestrogen receptor (ER) negative (-) breast cancer account for about 30% of all cases and generally have a worse prognosis than ER-positive (+) patients. Nevertheless, a significant proportion...

Teschendorff, Andrew E; Caldas, Carlos

2008-08-28

396

ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosisa controversial role of protein disulphide isomerase  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress, which could lead to neurodegeneration, and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes, are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a disulphide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS. PMID:25520620

Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari

2014-01-01

397

Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf2+ and Hf4+. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO2, HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power.

Zhang, H. Y.; He, H. J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhuge, L. J.; Ye, C.; Wu, X. M.

2015-01-01

398

Role of ERRF, a Novel ER-Related Nuclear Factor, in the Growth Control of ER-Positive Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Whereas estrogenestrogen receptor ? (ER) signaling plays an important role in breast cancer growth, it is also necessary for the differentiation of normal breast epithelial cells. How this functional conversion occurs, however, remains unknown. Based on a genome-wide sequencing study that identified mutations in several breast cancer genes, we examined some of the genes for mutations, expression levels, and functional effects on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. We present the data for C1orf64 or ER-related factor (ERRF) from 31 cell lines and 367 primary breast cancer tumors. Whereas mutation of ERRF was infrequent (1 of 79 or 1.3%), its expression was up-regulated in breast cancer, and the up-regulation was more common in lower-stage tumors. In addition, increased ERRF expression was significantly associated with ER and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positivity, which was still valid in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)negative tumors. In ER-positive tumors, ERRF expression was inversely correlated with HER2 status. Furthermore, higher ERRF protein expression was significantly associated with better disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly in ER- and/or PR-positive and HER2-negative tumors (luminal A subtype). Functionally, knockdown of ERRF in two ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, T-47D and MDA-MB-361, suppressed cell growth in vitro and tumorigenesis in xenograft models. These results suggest that ERRF plays a role in estrogen-ERmediated growth of breast cancer cells and could, thus, be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:22341523

Su, Dan; Fu, Xiaoying; Fan, Songqing; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Xin-Xin; Fu, Liya; Dong, Xue-Yuan; Ni, Jianping Jenny; Fu, Li; Zhu, Zhengmao; Dong, Jin-Tang

2012-01-01

399

Measurement of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral for the 170Er(n, ?)171Er reaction by using a gold monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal neutron cross section (?0) and the resonance integral (I0) of the reaction 170Er(n, ?)171Er were measured by an activation method using a reaction 197Au(n, ?)198Au as a single comparator. The high-purity natural erbium (natEr) and gold (197Au) foils with and without Cd cover with the thickness of 0.5 mm were irradiated in a neutron field of the Pohang neutron facility. The induced activities in the activated foils were measured with a well calibrated coaxial HPGe detector. The thermal neutron cross section for the 170Er(n, ?)171Er reaction has been determined to be ?0 = 7.80 0.35 barn, relative to the reference value of 98.65 0.09 barn for the 197Au(n, ?)198Au reaction. By assuming the cadmium cut-off energy of 0.55 eV, the resonance integral for the 170Er(n, ?)171Er reaction is I0 = 40.4 2.8 barn, which is determined relative to the reference value of 1550 28 barn for the 197Au(n, ?)198Au reaction. In order to improve the accuracy of the experimental results the epithermal neutron spectrum shape factor (?) was determined, and the necessary corrections for the counting loss caused by ?-ray attenuation (Fg), the thermal neutron shelf-shielding (Gth), the resonance neutron self-shielding (Gepi) effects, the ?-ray coincidence summing effect, as well as neutron flux fluctuation. The present results are compared with the reference data and discussed.

Nguyen, Van Do; Pham Duc, Khue; Kim Tien, Thanh; Nguyen Thi, Hien; Kim, Guinyun; Yang, Sungchul; Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Sung Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Lee, Man Woo

2013-09-01

400

The TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressors are required for proper ER stress response and protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 and TSC2 are tumor suppressors that inhibit cell growth and mutation of either gene causes benign tumors in multiple tissues. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products form a functional complex that has GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity toward Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is constitutively activated in TSC mutant tumors. We found that cells with mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2 are hypersensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and undergo apoptosis. Although the TSC mutant cells show elevated eIF2? phosphorylation, an early ER stress response marker, at both basal and induced conditions, induction of other ER stress response markers, including ATF4, ATF6 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), is severely compromised. The defects in ER stress response are restored by raptor knockdown but not by rapamycin treatment in the TSC mutant cells, indicating that a rapamycin-insensitive mTORC function is responsible for the defects in ER stress response. Consistently, activation of Rheb sensitizes cells to ER stress. Our data show an important role of TSC1/TSC2 and Rheb in unfolded protein response and cell survival. We speculate that an important physiological function of the TSC1/2 tumor suppressors is to protect cells from harmful conditions. These observations indicate a potential therapeutic application of using ER stress agents to selectively kill TSC1 or TSC2 mutant cells for TSC treatment. PMID:20616807

Kang, Y J; Lu, M-K; Guan, K-L

2011-01-01

401

ELECTRONIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE HYDRIDES OF ErFe2 FROM 5 7 Fe AND , 6 6  

E-print Network

transition me- tal intermetallic compounds readily absorb large quantities of hydrogen /1,2/. The hydrogen. The ErFe2 intermetallic compound was prepared by argon arc melting using ultra pure argon (99 intermetallic ErFe2 are considered. For ErFe2H3.es, X-ray analyses showed the presence of an expanded C15 cubic

Boyer, Edmond

402

POSTERIOR CRAM ER-RAO BOUND FOR TRACKING TARGET BEARING Kristine L. Bell and Harry L. Van Trees  

E-print Network

POSTERIOR CRAM ´ER-RAO BOUND FOR TRACKING TARGET BEARING Kristine L. Bell and Harry L. Van Trees@gmu.edu ABSTRACT The posterior Cram´er-Rao bound on the mean square error in tracking the bearing, bearing rate data. The joint Bayesian Cram´er-Rao bound on the state variables over the entire observation interval

George Mason University

403

Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis.  

PubMed

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmzas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

2015-01-01

404

Ixeris dentata decreases ER stress and hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of ApoB secretion.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by the hepatic accumulation of saturated fatty acids involving the ER stress mechanism. Secretion of apo lipid carrier proteins and their binding to hepatic TG and cholesterol are affected by ER stress. This study was designed to identify ER stress regulators with potential effects against hepatic lipid accumulation. Ixeris dentata (IXD) is a traditional herbal remedy for indigestion, hepatitis, and diabetes used in Korea, Japan, and China. To examine the regulatory effects of IXD against hepatic lipid accumulation and elucidate its suggested mechanism of ER stress, HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with IXD extract in the presence of palmitate. While palmitate induced an ER stress response in hepatocytes, as indicated by the upregulation of PERK, increased eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) phosphorylation, enhanced expression of GADD153/C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reduced secretion of apoB resulting in hepatic cellular accumulation of triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol, IXD extract significantly inhibited the lipid accumulation and PERK/eIF2?/CHOP-axis of the ER stress response. The inhibition of the PERK/eIF2?/CHOP signaling pathway by IXD in palmitate-treated cells suggests that IXD regulates hepatic dyslipidemia through the regulation of ER stress. PMID:24871656

Lee, Mi-Rin; Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Nan-Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

2014-01-01

405

Enhanced green emission from Er2WO6 nanocrystals embedded composite tellurite glasses.  

PubMed

A series of tungsten-tellurite glasses activated with different concentrations (0-1.5 mol%) of Er(3+) has been synthesized. The structural properties of the best luminescent sample and the optical properties of its Er(3+) ions, are studied both immediate after its preparation as well as after its ageing. On ageing the glass suffers structural reorganization and generates Er(2)WO(6)-nanocrystals in the matrix, which greatly enhances the normal and upconversion green luminescence efficiency of Er(3+). The nanocrystal aided enhancement of normal and upconversion luminescence of Er(3+) of the glass has been attributed to the crystal field effects of the new environment of Er(3+) in the nanocrystals. A phenomenon of preferential enhancement of red upconversion luminescence at the cost of green upconversion luminescence of Er(3+) at its higher concentrations in the glass has been observed and the related photo-physics is proposed. The material shows the prospect of being used as NIR solar concentrator. PMID:21140199

Balaji, Sathravada; Misra, Dipten; Debnath, Radhaballabh

2011-05-01

406

Ocular-specific ER stress reduction rescues glaucoma in murine glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Administration of glucocorticoids induces ocular hypertension in some patients. If untreated, these patients can develop a secondary glaucoma that resembles primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The underlying pathology of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma is not fully understood, due in part to lack of an appropriate animal model. Here, we developed a murine model of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma that exhibits glaucoma features that are observed in patients. Treatment of WT mice with topical ocular 0.1% dexamethasone led to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), functional and structural loss of retinal ganglion cells, and axonal degeneration, resembling glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma in human patients. Furthermore, dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension was associated with chronic ER stress of the trabecular meshwork (TM). Similar to patients, withdrawal of dexamethasone treatment reduced elevated IOP and ER stress in this animal model. Dexamethasone induced the transcriptional factor CHOP, a marker for chronic ER stress, in the anterior segment tissues, and Chop deletion reduced ER stress in these tissues and prevented dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension. Furthermore, reduction of ER stress in the TM with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevented dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension in WT mice. Our data indicate that ER stress contributes to glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension and suggest that reducing ER stress has potential as a therapeutic strategy for treating glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. PMID:24691439

Zode, Gulab S.; Sharma, Arti B.; Lin, Xiaolei; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Kim, Gun Hee; Clark, Abbot F.; Sheffield, Val C.

2014-01-01

407

Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15  

PubMed Central

SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1) Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl)-aminate (PMS) forming Er(PMS)x-SBA-15 and (2) Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 10?21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of effective bandwidth have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the JuddOfelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMS)x-SBA-15. PMID:21170408

2010-01-01

408

ERAD and protein import defects in a sec61 mutant lacking ER-lumenal loop 7  

PubMed Central

Background The Sec61 channel mediates protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane during secretory protein biogenesis, and likely also during export of misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The mechanisms of channel opening for the different modes of translocation are not understood so far, but the position of the large ER-lumenal loop 7 of Sec61p suggests a decisive role. Results We show here that the Y345H mutation in L7 which causes diabetes in the mouse displays no ER import defects in yeast, but a delay in misfolded protein export. A complete deletion of L7 in Sec61p resulted in viable, cold- and tunicamycin-hypersensitive yeast cells with strong defects in posttranslational protein import of soluble proteins into the ER, and in ERAD of soluble substrates. Membrane protein ERAD was only moderately slower in sec61?L7 than in wildtype cells. Although Sec61?L7 channels were unstable in detergent, co-translational protein integration into the ER membrane, proteasome binding to Sec61?L7 channels, and formation of hetero-heptameric Sec complexes were not affected. Conclusions We conclude that L7 of Sec61p is required for initiation of posttranslational soluble protein import into and misfolded soluble protein export from the ER, suggesting a key role for L7 in transverse gating of the Sec61 channel. PMID:24314051

2013-01-01

409

Influence of doping concentration on microstructure evolution and sintering kinetics of Er:YAG transparent ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) transparent ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated from powder mixtures of ?-Al2O3, Y2O3, and Er2O3 with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids by solid-state reactive sintering. The sintering temperatures were from 1500 C up to 1750 C. Densification, microstructure evolution and optical transparency of Er:YAG ceramics with different doping concentrations were examined. For all the doping concentration, fully dense Er:YAG transparent ceramics with homogeneous grain size distributions around 20-23 ?m were obtained by sintering at 1750 C for 50 h, whose transmittances were all above 83% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. The grain growth kinetic of Er:YAG ceramics was also investigated as a function of erbium content. The calculated activation energies for grain growth of the 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 at%Er:YAG ceramics were 779, 855, 805, and 861 kJ/mol, respectively. The luminescence spectra were also measured and discussed.

Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Ivanov, Maxim; Ba, Xuewei; Yuan, Yong; Lin, Li; Chen, Min; Liu, Wenbin; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Chen, Haohong; Pan, Yubai; Cheng, Xiaonong; Guo, Jingkun

2014-11-01

410

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits ER stress and renal fibrosis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling. Therefore, modulation of ER stress may serve as one of the possible therapeutic approaches to renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed ER stress induced by chemical ER stress inducers [tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG)] and also nonchemical inducers in tubular HK-2 cells. We further investigated the in vivo effects of AMPK on ER stress and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, small interfering (si)RNA experiments, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed TM- or TG-induced ER stress, as shown by the inhibition of TM- or TG-induced upregulation of glucose-related protein (GRP)78 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2? through induction of heme oxygenase-1. Metformin inhibited TM- or TG-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions as well. Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) blocked the effect of metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1? riboside (another AMPK activator) exerted the same effects as metformin. Transfection with siRNA targeting AMPK blocked the effect of metformin. Consistent with the results of cell culture experiments, metformin reduced renal cortical GRP78 expression and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in a mouse model of ER stress-induced acute kidney injury by TM. Activation of AMPK also suppressed ER stress by transforming growth factor-?, ANG II, aldosterone, and high glucose. Furthermore, metformin reduced GRP78 expression and renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, AMPK may serve as a promising therapeutic target through reducing ER stress and renal fibrosis. PMID:25428127

Kim, Hyosang; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Joon-Seok; Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Miyeon; Min, Ji Yeon; Lee, Sang Koo

2015-02-01

411

ER? regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ER? and ER?, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ER? stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ER? inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ER? in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ER?. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ER? treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ER? group.

Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

2012-03-01

412

Effect of Er:YAG laser on enamel demineralization around restorations.  

PubMed

This study evaluates in situ the effect of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser parameters on the development of caries-like lesions adjacent to dental restorations. One hundred fifty bovine enamel slabs were randomly allocated among 15 volunteers. The specimens were subdivided into ten groups: nine experimental groups prepared with Er:YAG laser (300mJ output, frequency of 2, 4 or 6Hz, water flow rate of 2.0, 5.0, or 8.0mL/min) and one control group (high-speed handpiece). The prepared cavity was restored with a composite resin, and the slabs were mounted on palatal appliance to be installed in the volunteers to the cariogenic challenge. After this, the specimens were sectioned to the longitudinal microhardness measurements. Data were submitted to Friedman and Wilcoxon paired tests. All groups prepared with Er:YAG laser demonstrated microhardness values higher than those prepared with high-speed handpiece, which showed the lowest microhardness values (24.86). The group prepared with Er:YAG laser (2Hz-2.0mL/min) showed the highest microhardness values (152.43), followed by those prepared with Er:YAG laser (2Hz-5.0mL/min) (133.08) and Er:YAG laser (2Hz-8.0mL/min) (91.61), respectively. The groups Er:YAG laser with 4 and 6Hz of frequency and water flow rates of 2.0, 5.0, and 8.0mL/min showed microhardness values lower than the groups cited above and showed statistical similarity among them. The Er:YAG laser parameters employed to cavity preparation influenced the acid resistance of the irradiated substrate, and the Er:YAG laser was capable to control the development of caries-like lesions around composite resin restorations. PMID:24522657

Colucci, Vivian; de Souza Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Serra, Mnica Campos; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

2015-05-01

413

Erbium environment on Er-doped silica and alumino-silicate glass films: An EXAFS study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-doped dielectric films are characterized by the emission of a photoluminescence signal at ? = 1.54 ?m, the main used in the optical telecommunications. The efficiency of the radiative emission is strongly related to the characteristics of the Er 3+ environment. Er-doped SiO 2 films (synthesized by rf-magnetron co-sputtering) and 87SiO 2:10Al 2O 3:3Na 2O silicate glass films doped with 0.5 mol% of Er (prepared by sol-gel route and subsequently doped with silver by Ag + ? Na + field-assisted solid-state ion exchange) were studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy performed at Er L III-edge (Italian beamline GILDA of the ESRF). In the silica samples the Er coordinates about 4.5 O atoms at a short distance ( R = 2.07-2.13 ), similar to the one observed in Er-doped glasses when the preparation conditions are far from the thermodynamical equilibrium. In alumino-silicate samples the first shell of atoms is formed of 5.5-7.5 O atoms at a distance of about 2.31 , showing a local structure similar to other Er-doped sol-gel glasses and glass-ceramics. A comparison between the first shell structure around Er ions and the different intensity of the photoluminescence emission suggests that the increase of the radiative emission upon thermal annealing is mainly related to the decrease of the defects number in the glass structure as a consequence of the annealing.

Cattaruzza, E.; Maurizio, C.; Visentin, L.; Trave, E.; Martucci, A.; Ali, S.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.

2010-02-01

414

Study of luminescence properties of novel Er3+ single-doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses.  

PubMed

The novel Er(3+) single-doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped tellurite glasses were prepared. The effect of Yb(2)O(3) concentration on absorption spectra, emission spectra and upconversion spectra of glasses were measured and investigated. The emission intensity, fluorescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) and upconversion luminescence of Er(3+) go up with the increasing concentration of Yb(3+) ions. The maximum FWHM of (4)I(13/2) --> (4)I(15/2) transition of Er(3+) is approximate 77 nm for 1.41 x 10(21)ions/cm(3) concentration of Yb(3+)-doped glass. The visible upconversion emissions at about 532, 546 and 659 nm, corresponding to the (2)H(11/2) --> (4)I(15/2), (4)S(3/2) --> (4)I(15/2) and (4)F(9/2) --> (4)I(15/2) transitions of Er(3+), respectively, were simultaneously observed under the excitation at 970 nm. Subsequently, the possible upconversion mechanisms and important role of Yb(3+) on the green and red emissions were discussed and compared. The results demonstrate that this kind of tellurite glass may be a potentially useful material for developing potential amplifiers and upconversion optical devices. PMID:15741130

Gao, Yuan; Nie, Qiu-Hua; Xu, Tie-Feng; Shen, Xiang

2005-04-01

415

Optical and structural properties of laser annealed Er-doped amorphous silicon thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-SiEr:H) thin films were deposited by cosputtering. After deposition, the samples were submitted to annealing treatments employing Ar+ and Nd-YAG lasers. Thermal anneals in a temperature-controlled furnace were also performed for comparison purposes. Photoluminescence, optical absorption in the infrared energy region, and Raman spectroscopies were carried out after each annealing treatment. Based on the experimental data, some mechanisms associated with the different annealing procedures and Er3+ ion excitation are proposed and discussed.

Bell, M. J. V.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Zanatta, A. R.

1999-07-01

416

Power scaling of resonantly pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though Yb-doped fiber lasers are known to be the most powerful and most efficient among all fiber lasers, recent successes in the eye-safe ~1.5?m Yb-Er-doped fiber lasers (where Er is excited through Yb-Er energy transfer) are quite impressive. Output power of Yb-Er fiber lasers reached ~300 W level and their optical-to-optical efficiency, for somewhat lower power levels, is exceeding 40% [2]. Nevertheless, as far as real eye safety is concerned, multi-hundred Watt Yb-Er fiber lasers typically carry in their output a significant fraction of competing 1-?m Yb emission, which totally compromises an eye-safe side of the application. Ultimate efficiency and thermal management of Yb-Er approach are also suffering due to: (i), inefficiency of Yb-Er energy transfer and, (ii), gigantic ~40% quantum defect of Er-doped fiber pumped at 9XX-nm. Presented here are very recent and successful results on power scaling of resonantly pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers. We are reporting an Ybfree Er-doped cladding-pumped fiber power scaling to ~50 W with ~57% optical-tooptical efficiency [6] in a few first experimental steps. This is clear manifestation of scaling potential of this most efficient approach to high power eye-safe fiber laser. The only competing approach to scalable eye-safe fiber laser implements Tm3+-doped fibers pumped at ~790 nm while relying on well known "2-for-1" process leading to quite efficient excitation of the ~2?m Tm3+ laser operation [4]. This approach has operational optical-to-optical efficiency quantum limit of ~75% [4], while resonantly pumped Ybfree Er-doped fiber laser's optical-to-optical efficiency quantum limit exceeds 95% due to its low-quantum-defect (QD) pump-lase scheme. Significant scaling potential of resonantly-pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers sets a path to an eye-safe fiber laser concept with drastically relaxed thermal management and nearly diffraction limited beam quality at ~kW-=-class power levels as well as high electrical to optical efficiency.

Dubinskii, M.; Zhang, J.; Ter-Mikirtychev, V.

2009-05-01

417

Spherical growth and surface-quasifree vibrations of Si nanocrystallites in Er-doped Si nanostructures.  

PubMed

Si-based Er-doped Si nanostructures were fabricated for exploring efficient light emission from Er ions and Si nanocrystallites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that Si nanocrystallites are spherically embedded in the SiO2 matrix. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis indicates that the Er centers are distributed at the surfaces of nanocrystallites surrounded by the SiO2 matrix. Low-frequency Raman scattering investigation shows that Lamb's theory can be adopted to exactly calculate the surface vibration frequencies from acoustic phonons confined in spherical Si nanocrystallites and the matrix effects are negligible. PMID:11290092

Wu, X L; Mei, Y F; Siu, G G; Wong, K L; Moulding, K; Stokes, M J; Fu, C L; Bao, X M

2001-04-01

418

Completion Report for Well ER-7-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

419

Stratospheric constituent trends from ER-2 profile data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trend analysis of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition's ER-2 profile data reveals an average decrease in N2O on potential temperature isentropes which can be attributed to diabatic cooling of inner vortex air. This conclusion is independently supported by radiative transfer computations. Trends in ozone and water vapor over the same period are not consistent with the magnitude of the diabatic descent. After accounting for the diabatic motion (estimated from N2O), an additional 0.44 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous O3 decrease above 440 K (about 20 km) is needed to balance the continuity equation. This ozone decrease suggests additional photochemical destruction of ozone in the presence of the high amounts of ClO observed during the mission. A 0.4 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous increase in H2O is also observed near 420 K (about 18 km) which may be due to the evaporation of ice crystals falling from higher, colder stratospheric layers.

Schoeberl, Mark R.; Proffitt, Michael H.; Kelly, Ken K.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, Jim R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Chan, K. Roland

1990-01-01

420

High-gain resonance Er:glass amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and compact hybrid resonant amplifier has been demonstrated for further scaling energy/power level from 1.55 ?m fiber lasers by using Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass. The seed laser is a pulse shaping fiber laser at an eye safe wavelength of 1.55 ?m. The wavelength was temperature controllable and was stabilized at one of amplifier's resonance wavelengths. Pulse shaping technology provides a vital solution in generating different input wave formats, for both CW and pulsed outputs. For Pulsed amplification, the pulse duration can be varied from microsecond to nanosecond and repetition rate from a few Hz to 250 kHz. Gain as high as 20 dB was obtained for nanosecond pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate, comparing with a single pass gain of only 0.64 dB. High OSNR, high extinction ratio and low background noise were also achieved at this low repetition rate by our new amplification method. In our CW input experiment, an optical conversion efficiency of up to 20% was obtained. This new optical amplifier is very compact. The size of the amplifier is less than 5 mm. It has a great potential for broad applications.

Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

2011-02-01

421

Crystal field and magnetic properties of ErH3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) times 10 to the minus 6 Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is of the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

422

CARM1 is an important determinant of ER?-dependent breast cancer cell differentiation and proliferation in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Breast cancers with estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression are often more differentiated histologically than ER?-negative tumors, but the reasons for this difference are poorly understood. One possible explanation is that transcriptional cofactors associated with ER? determine the expression of genes which promote a more differentiated phenotype. In this study, we identify one such cofactor as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), a unique coactivator of ER? that can simultaneously block cell proliferation and induce differentiation through global regulation of ER?-regulated genes. CARM1 was evidenced as an ER? coactivator in cell-based assays, gene expression microarrays, and mouse xenograft models. In human breast tumors, CARM1 expression positively correlated with ER? levels in ER-positive tumors but was inversely correlated with tumor grade. Our findings suggest that coexpression of CARM1 and ER? may provide a better biomarker of well-differentiated breast cancer. Furthermore, our findings define an important functional role of this histone arginine methyltransferase in reprogramming ER?-regulated cellular processes, implicating CARM1 as a putative epigenetic target in ER-positive breast cancers. PMID:21282336

Al-Dhaheri, Mariam; Wu, Jiacai; Skliris, Georgios P; Li, Jun; Higashimato, Ken; Wang, Yidan; White, Kevin P; Lambert, Paul; Zhu, Yuerong; Murphy, Leigh; Xu, Wei

2011-03-15

423

Oxidant Stress and Mitochondrial Signaling Regulate Reversible Changes of ER? Expression and Apoptosis in Aging Mouse Glomeruli and Mesangial Cells  

PubMed Central

Estrogen actions are largely dependent on the intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) levels. During aging the decline of estrogens or ER leads to a loss in antiinflammatory protection and an increase in oxidant stress due to changes in mitochondrial function. Estrogens/ER may also coordinate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria through ERK activation, which paradoxically decreases ER expression. The changes in ER expression and transcriptional activation that occur with aging as well as the mitochondria-to-nuclear signaling pathways have not been studied in the glomerulus. We found that ER expression and transcriptional activation decreased with age. Whereas ER levels decreased by greater than 90%, serum 17?-estradiol levels decreased by less than 30%, suggesting alternative mechanisms for ER decrease. Because we postulated that this was due in part to age-related oxidant stress, we treated mesangial cells (MCs) with ethidium bromide (EtBr) to deplete mitochondria. EtBr treatment resulted in decreased ERK activation and reactive oxygen species, which were associated with increased ER? expression and transcriptional activation in old MCs. EtBr treatment also decreased apoptosis and caspase-9 protein expression in old MCs. These data suggest that loss of several of the functions of 17?-estradiol during aging could be mainly due to decreased ER? expression, that the ER loss is reversible by reducing reactive oxygen species, and that mitochondrial retrograde signaling plays a role in this regulation. PMID:23027807

Pereira-Simon, Simone; Xia, Xiaomei; Catanuto, Paola

2012-01-01

424

ER? positively regulated DNMT1 expression by binding to the gene promoter region in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ER) are expressed in approximately 65% of human breast cancer. Clinical trials and retrospective analyses showed that ER-positive (ER+) tumors were more vulnerable to development of chemotherapy resistance than ER-negative (ER-) tumors. The underlying mechanism is still to be elucidated. Aberrant DNA methylation has been recognized to be associated with cancer chemotherapy resistance. Recently, steroid hormone and their receptors have been found to be involved in the regulation of methyltransferases (DNMTs) and thereby contribute to chemotherapy resistance. The purpose of this study is to explore whether ER? could directly regulate the DNMTs expression. We first analyzed the methylation alterations and its correlation with the expression levels of three types of DNMTs in our established paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer lines, MCF-7(ER+)/PTX and MDA-MB-231(ER-)/PTX cell lines, using qMSP, real-time PCR and Western blot. Then we determined the function of ER? in regulation of DNMT1 using luciferase report gene systems. Our data demonstrated for the first time that ER? could upregulate DNMT1 expression by directly binding to the DNMT1 promoter region in MFC-7(ER+)/PTX cells. PMID:22975348

Shi, Jun-Feng; Li, Xing-Jia; Si, Xin-Xin; Li, An-Di; Ding, Hai-Jian; Han, Xiao; Sun, Yu-Jie

2012-10-12

425

ER stress response in NG108-15 cells involves upregulation of syntaxin 5 expression and reduced amyloid ? peptide secretion.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer?s disease (AD). We previously showed that manipulation of the ER-Golgi-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (ER-Golgi SNARE) syntaxin 5 (Syx5) causes changes in Golgi morphology and the processing of AD-related proteins. To understand the pathophysiologic significance of these phenomena, we examined whether the expression of Syx5 is altered by ER stress. De novo synthesis of ER-Golgi SNARE Syx5 and Bet1 was induced by various ER stressors. Elevated expression of Syx5 and Bet1 was associated with increased levels of these proteins in vesicular components, including ER-Golgi-intermediate-compartment/vesicular tubular clusters. In addition, ER stress diminished amyloid ? (A?) peptide secretion. Knockdown of Syx5 expression enhanced the secretion of A? peptides under condition without ER stress. Moreover, diminished A? peptide secretion resulting from ER stress was significantly reversed by Syx5 knockdown. These findings suggest that Syx5 plays important roles in ?-amyloid precursor protein processing and in the ER stress response that precedes apoptotic cell death and may be involved in the crosstalk between these two pathways. PMID:25596448

Suga, Kei; Saito, Ayako; Akagawa, Kimio

2015-03-01

426

Preparation and visible emission of Er-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 powder.  

PubMed

Er(3+)-doped 12CaO x 7Al2O3 (C12A7:Er3+) powders were prepared using the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectra and absorption spectra showed that C12A7:Er3+ powder had been obtained. Sharp and intense Er(3+)-related emission from C12A7:Er3+ powder with different Er3+ concentrations in the visible region at room temperature was investigated by analyzing the local structure of Ca atoms in C12A7, and it revealed that cation sites with low symmetry of the host were beneficial to the photoluminescence of Er3+ ions. The emission lines were attributed to two types of Er3+ centers, isolated Er3+ ions and complex centers formed by aggregation of Er3+ ions. The PL intensity might be affected by free oxygen species relative to Er3+ ions formed by charge compensation. The inverse temperature dependent luminescence from the upper level of 2H11/2 state and that from the lower level of 4S3/2 state implied that the thermalization or thermal equilibrium of electrons between the two closely emission states occurred. PMID:18468174

Wang, D; Liu, Y X; Liu, Y C; Xu, C S; Shao, C L; Li, X H

2008-03-01

427

Reduction of the 1.55 m Er3+ emission band half-width in Er doped and Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier papers the authors have shown by XRD measurements and HRTEM imaging/SAED (selected area electron diffraction)/STEM imaging/EDS X-ray spectra that erbium or erbium/ytterbium-enriched nano-crystals are formed in erbium doped and erbium/ytterbium co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers by their controlled heat-treatment. By the analysis of XRD, HRTEM and SAED patterns three crystalline compounds have been identified (Pb5Al3F19, Er4F2O11Si3, Er3FO10Si3). Additionally, STEM imaging combined with EDS X-ray analysis revealed higher erbium/ytterbium content in nano-crystals than in glassy host. According to several reports on homogeneous/inhomogeneous broadening of emission lines we can expect in glass-ceramics material the distinct reduction of the 1.55 ?m Er3+ linewidth (FWHM) as a consequence of structurally ordered (crystalline) vicinity of erbium ions in glass-ceramics fibers. Additionally the Stark splitting of Er3+ ions sub-levels should be observed due to the crystalline electric field surrounding the erbium ion, which lifts the atomic state degeneracy, however identified crystals possess rather low symmetry (monoclinic or triclinic unit cell).

Augustyn, E.; ?elechower, M.; Czerska, E.; ?widerska, M.; Soza?ska, M.

2014-05-01

428

Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa  

SciTech Connect

Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute MesaOasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

NSTec Environmental Management

2011-02-28

429

Arctic geodynamics: Continental shelf and deep ocean geophysics. ERS-1 satellite altimetry: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall review of the Arctic Geodynamics project is presented. A composite gravity field model of the region based upon altimetry data from ERS-1, Geosat, and Seasat is made. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 deg. Both areas contain large continental shelf areas, passive margins, as well as recently formed deep ocean areas. Until ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents sea, portions of the Arctic ocean, and the Norwegian sea north of Iceland are shown. The gravity anomalies around Svalbard (Spitsbergen) and Bear island are particularly large, indicating large isostatic anomalies which remain from the recent breakup of Greenland from Scandinavian. Recently released gravity data from the Armed Forces Topographic Service of Russia cover a portion of the Barents and Kara seas. A comparison of this data with the ERS-1 produced gravity field is shown.

Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.; Marquart, Gabriele; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

1993-01-01

430

A REACTIVITY PATTERN OF DISCRIMINATION OF ER AGONISM AND ANTAGONISM BASED ON 3-D MOLECULAR ATTRIBUTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Various models have been developed to predict the relative binding affinity (RBA) of chemicals to estrogen receptors (ER). These models are important for prioritizing chemicals for screening in biological assays assessing the potential for endocrine disruption. One shortcoming of...

431

Temperature dependence of sensitized Er3+ luminescence in silicon-rich oxynitride films  

PubMed Central

The temperature dependence of sensitized Er3+ emission via localized states and silicon nanoclusters has been studied to get an insight into the excitation and de-excitation processes in silicon-rich oxynitride films. The thermal quenching of Er3+ luminescence is elucidated by terms of decay time and effective excitation cross section. The temperature quenching of Er3+ decay time demonstrates the presence of non-radiative trap states, whose density and energy gap between Er3+4I13/2 excited levels are reduced by high-temperature annealing. The effective excitation cross section initially increases and eventually decreases with temperature, indicating that the energy transfer process is phonon assisted in both samples. PMID:25258608

2014-01-01

432

An ER-Mitochondria Tethering Complex Revealed by a Synthetic Biology Screen  

PubMed Central

Communication between organelles is an important feature of all eukaryotic cells. To uncover components involved in mitochondria/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions, we screened for mutants that could be complemented by a synthetic protein designed to artificially tether the two organelles. We identified the Mmm1/Mdm10/Mdm12/Mdm34 complex as a molecular tether between ER and mitochondria. The tethering complex was composed of proteins resident of both ER and mitochondria. With the use of genome-wide mapping of genetic interactions, we showed that the components of the tethering complex were functionally connected to phospholipid biosynthesis and calcium-signaling genes. In mutant cells, phospholipid biosynthesis was impaired. The tethering complex localized to discrete foci, suggesting that discrete sites of close apposition between ER and mitochondria facilitate interorganelle calcium and phospholipid exchange. PMID:19556461

Kornmann, Benot; Currie, Erin; Collins, Sean R.; Schuldiner, Maya; Nunnari, Jodi; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Walter, Peter

2010-01-01

433

Intense 2.7 m emission of Er3+-doped water-free fluorotellurite glasses.  

PubMed

By physical and chemical dehydration techniques, a group of Er3+-doped water-free fluorotellurite glasses with a composition of 60TeO2-30ZnF2-10NaF(TZNF60,mol%)+x Er2O3(wt%,x=0~1.5) were fabricated. Under 978 nm excitation, the 4I(11/2)?4I(13/2) emission of Er3+ ions in TZNF60-glass was investigated: ?(f) is of 1.07~1.93 ms and emission bandwidth is about 163 nm at 2.71 m, which benefits from the absence of OH groups and the decreased phonon energy with the addition of fluorides. In contrast, 1.25Er-TZNF60 glass is proposed to be a promising material for mid-infrared fiber lasers at around 2.7 m. PMID:23381273

Zhan, Huan; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Jianli; Lin, Aoxiang

2012-08-15

434

Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space.

NGUYEN, D.M.

1999-11-05

435

Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space.

NGUYEN, D.M.

1999-11-09

436

ER Patients with Chest Pain May Not Always Need Heart Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ER Patients With Chest Pain May Not Always Need Heart ... Services MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For patients seen in emergency rooms solely for chest pain, ...

437

Robot Arm Control Using AN Electro-Rheological (er) Clutch-Brake Mechanism:. Model Validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robot arm positioning is an important factor in the robotic process. However, the robot manipulator experiences positioning inaccuracies. This positioning error is due to the dynamic inefficiencies of its actuator: DC servomotor. In a bid to resolve this actuator problem, an electro-rheological (ER) clutch-brake mechanism is employed. This clutch-brake mechanism can actuate and halt the motion of the robot arm. This rotary mechanism consists of two similar clutches that are driven to rotate in the opposite directions and an individual ER brake that provides braking torques to halt the manipulator at the required positions. The main aim of this paper is to establish a control strategy for the ER actuated robot arm by means of model validation with the experimental results. This study is conducted to understand the ER robotic positioning control for future applications.

Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

438

Aberrant substrate engagement of the ER translocon triggers degradation by the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase  

E-print Network

Little is known about quality control of proteins that aberrantly or persistently engage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized translocon en route to membrane localization or the secretory pathway. Hrd1 and Doa10, the ...

Greenblatt, Wesley H.

439

Electrical properties of Si:Er/Si layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Temperature dependences of the concentration and electron Hall mobility in Si:Er/Sr epitaxial layers grown at T = 600 deg. C and annealed at 700 or 900 deg. C have been investigated. The layers were grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy in vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} Pa). The energy levels of Er-related donor centers are located 0.21-0.27 eV below the bottom of the conduction band of Si. In the range 80-300 K, the electron Hall mobility in unannealed Si:Er epitaxial layers was lower than that in Czochralski-grown single crystals by a factor of 3-10. After annealing the layers, the fraction of electron scattering from Er donor centers significantly decreases.

Belova, O. V.; Shabanov, V. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Kuznetsov, O. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Yablonskii, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kuznetsov, V. P., E-mail: Kuznetsov_VP@mail.ru; Kornaukhov, A. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Andreev, B. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

440

Electrical properties of Si:Er/Si layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

Temperature dependences of the concentration and electron Hall mobility in Si:Er/Sr epitaxial layers grown at T = 600 Degree-Sign C and annealed at 700 or 900 Degree-Sign C have been investigated. The layers were grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy in vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} Pa). The energy levels of Er-related donor centers are located 0.21-0.27 eV below the bottom of the conduction band of Si. In the range 80-300 K, the electron Hall mobility in unannealed Si:Er epitaxial layers was lower than that in Czochralski-grown single crystals by a factor of 3-10. After annealing the layers, the fraction of electron scattering from Er donor centers significantly decreases.

Belova, O. V.; Shabanov, V. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Kuznetsov, O. A. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Yablonskii, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kuznetsov, V. P., E-mail: Kuznetsov_VP@mail.ru; Kornaukhov, A. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Andreev, B. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15