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Sample records for raske overvaegtige er

  1. Somatic Activation of rasK Gene in a Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feig, L. A.; Bast, R. C.; Knapp, R. C.; Cooper, G. M.

    1984-02-01

    A tumor isolate from a patient with serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary contained an activated rasK gene detected by transfection of NIH/3T3 cells. In contrast, DNA from normal cells of the same patient lacked transforming activity, indicating that activation of this transforming gene was the consequence of somatic mutation in the neoplastic cells. The transforming gene product displayed an electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels that differed from the mobilities of rasK transforming proteins in other tumors, indicating that a previously undescribed mutation was responsible for activation of rasK in this ovarian carcinoma.

  2. Going to the ER

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

  3. [ER stress and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Various stresses cause the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For this serious "ER stress", cells have unfolded protein responses (UPR) consisting of the translation block, the induction of chaperones, and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). If cells do not overcome the ER stress by UPR, ER-mediated apoptosis occurs. Recent reports showed that several diseases, such as ischemic diseases, viral infections, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases, are caused by ER stress. In psychiatric disorders, it was recently reported that ER stress is involved in bipolar disorders. There were reports that drugs for bipolar disorders induce chaperones, that polymorphism of the molecule of ER stress is significantly related to the bipolar disorder, and that the causal gene of the autosomal recessive disease having mood disorder as a phenotype is induced by ER stress. Another report showed that ER stress is involved in sleep disturbances. PMID:19326810

  4. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data above 95 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. At this altitude the aircraft provides a stable platform for Earth imagery, atmospheric research, and electronic sensor development. Because the ER-2 can fly so high, its sensors 'mimic' sensors carried aboard orbiting satellites. For most missions the ER-2 operates at altitudes between 65,000 feet and 70,000 feet. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches a cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within 20 minutes. Typical cruise speed is 410 knots. The range for a normal 6-hour mission is 2,200 nautical miles (4,070 kilometers), which yields 5 hours of data collection at high altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions of up to 8 hours and ranges of up to 3,000 nautical miles (5,500 kilometers). The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds (1,179 kilograms) distributed in the equipment bay, nose area, and wing pods. In 1991, NASA launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as an environmental system, now called the Earth Science Enterprise. By using satellites and other tools like the ER-2 to intensively study the Earth, NASA hopes to expand human understanding of how natural processes affect people and how people might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, the ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA ER-2 aircraft have played an important role in Earth Science research, like studying ozone depletion over Antarctica and the Arctic. In August and September 1987 an ER-2 traveled to Punta Arenas, Chile, to conduct overflights of the Antarctic. Results from this study provided information suggesting that human-made chemical compounds, specifically chloro-fluorocarbons, caused enormous ozone depletion over the Antarctic region. Subsequent deployments have continued the study of the production and loss of ozone in the polar stratosphere. Atmospheric experiments were flown from Stavanger, Norway in January and February 1989 north of the Arcti

  5. Reciprocal Regulation of ER? and ER? Stability and Activity by Diptoindonesin G.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zibo; Wang, Lu; James, Taryn; Jung, Youngeun; Kim, Ikyon; Tan, Renxiang; Hoffmann, F Michael; Xu, Wei

    2015-12-17

    ER? is regarded as a "tumor suppressor" in breast cancer due to its anti-proliferative effects. However, unlike ER?, ER? has not been developed as a therapeutic target in breast cancer due to loss of ER? in aggressive cancers. In a small-molecule library screen for ER? stabilizers, we identified Diptoindonesin G (Dip G), which significantly increases ER? protein stability while decreasing ER? protein levels. Dip G enhances the transcription and anti-proliferative activities of ER?, while attenuating the transcription and proliferative effects of ER?. Further investigation revealed that instead of targeting ER, Dip G targets the CHIP E3 ubiquitin ligase shared by ER? and ER?. Thus, Dip G is a dual-functional moiety that reciprocally controls ER? and ER? protein stability and activities via an indirect mechanism. The ER? stabilization effects of Dip G may enable the development of ER?-targeted therapies for human breast cancers. PMID:26670079

  6. Human T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression reflect ER?/ER? ratios in rat and human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Evers, N M; van de Klundert, T M C; van Aesch, Y M; Wang, S; de Roos, W K; Romano, A; de Haan, L H J; Murk, A J; Ederveen, A G H; Rietjens, I M C M; Groten, J P

    2013-09-01

    T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression and constant ER? expression can be used to investigate effects of varying ER?/ER? ratios on estrogen-induced cellular responses. This study defines conditions at which ER?/ER? ratios in T47D-ER? cells best mimic ER?/ER? ratios in breast and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in vivo in rat as well as in human. Protein and mRNA levels of ER? and ER? were analyzed in T47D-ER? cells exposed to a range of tetracycline concentrations and compared to ER? and ER? levels found in breast, prostate, and uterus from rat and human origin. The ER?/ER? ratio in T47D-ER? cells exposed to >150ng/ml tetracycline is comparable to the ratio found in rat mammary gland and in human breast tissue. The ER?/ER? ratio of other estrogen-sensitive rat and human tissues can also be mimicked in T47D-ER? cells. The ER?/ER? ratio found in MCF-7 and native T47D breast cancer cell lines did not reflect ratios in analyzed rat and human tissues, which further supports the use of T47D-ER? cells as model for estrogen-responsive tissues. Using 17?-estradiol and the T47D-ER? cells under the conditions defined to mimic various tissues it could be demonstrated how these different tissues vary in their proliferative response. PMID:23680332

  7. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  8. Coexpression of ER with ER and Progestin Receptor Proteins in the Female Rat Forebrain: Effects of

    E-print Network

    of the recently cloned, ER , overlaps with both ER and PgR. To determine whether ER is found within ER - or Pg) AND PROGESTINS are involved in the regulation of many reproductive functions (1). Al- though receptors for E (ER demonstrated that progesterone can alter the expression of ER mRNA in human breast tumors (12) and monkey

  9. [Optical parameters of Er3+ in Er3+ : YVO4].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Liu, Da-he; Song, Zeng-fu; Li, Yong-liang; Li, Song; Zeng, Yong-zhi; Wu, Zheng-long; Zhang, Chun-lin; Wang, Ya-fei; Guo, Jing-hua

    2010-07-01

    In the present paper the authors firstly measured the absorption spectra of Er3+ in the sample Er3+ : YVO4 (0.5%), then calculated the intensity parameters are calculated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. After that the authors dealed with some predicted spectroscopic parameters, such as the oscillator strength, spontaneous radiative transition rate, branching ratio and integrated emission cross section. And Er : YVO4 crystal application value has been analyzed with the optical parameters. Especially there are large oscillator strengths and large integrated emission cross sections in the transitions of 4 I1/2 --> 4 I15/2, 2 H11/2 --> 4I15/2, 4S3/2 --> 4 I15/2, and 4F9/2 --> 4 I15/2. So, they are more worth of attention. Moreover, by comparing the Er-doped yttrium vanadate crystal and other Er-doped crystal optical properties, the authors can see the advantages of YVO4 as laser crystal. Finally, the authors discussed the splitting of the energy levels of Er3+ in the crystal YVO4 based on the group theory. PMID:20827958

  10. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, V.; Korakakis, D.; Seehra, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er2O3, or Er3+ substituting for Al3+, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K-300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er2O3 and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er3+ substituting for Al3+ in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er3+ vs. Al3+explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  11. 49ER ID CARD A 49ER ID CARD ALLOWS

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Jiancheng

    and programs · Athletic events and recreational facilities · Computer labs · Student Health Center It's also Services · Atkins Library · All dining locations · Outtakes convenience store and SoVi Market + Bakery · Sports and theater concessions Four ways to deposit funds onto the 49er Account: 1. Online at aux

  12. The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 and both ER isoforms

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Jack

    The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 20 January 2007 Abstract Estrogen hormones interact with cellular ERs to exert their biological acid; ER, estrogen receptor; ER, ER alpha; ER, ER beta; EtdBr, ethidium bromide; eGFP, enhanced green

  13. Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er.

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

    2010-05-01

    The stable and neutron-rich isotopes 168Er, 170Er, and 172Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic 136Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K?=4- isomeric intrinsic states in both 168Er and 170Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in 172Er. In 170Er, the identification of a K?=6- band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4- band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The gK-gR values for the 4- bands deduced from the in-band ?-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in 168Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in 170Er, and a two-proton configuration in 172Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6+ isomer in 172Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6+ and 7- two-neutron structures known in the isotone 174Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6+ isomer occurs through the newly identified 4- isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4- and 6+ isomers in 172Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

  14. Kongsberg Gruppen er et multinasjonalt, kunnskapsbasert

    E-print Network

    Gerhardy, Philipp

    Applikasjonsutviklere til Oppdragsplanlegging Missile Systems er en divisjon i Kongsberg Defence Systems som er et avanserte sjømålsmissiler. Vi har inngått kontrakter for leveranser av Naval Strike Missile (NSM) til Norge

  15. ER morphology: sculpting with XendoU.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guohua; Blackstone, Craig

    2014-12-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sheet membranes are covered with ribosomes and RNAs that are involved in protein synthesis. A new study reveals that a calcium-activated endoribonuclease of the EndoU protein family promotes the formation of tubular ER networks, contributing to dynamic shaping of the ER in cells. PMID:25514011

  16. Estrogen Receptor (ER) Modulates ER Responses to Estrogens in the Developing Rat Ventromedial Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Estrogen Receptor (ER) Modulates ER Responses to Estrogens in the Developing Rat Ventromedial of estrogen receptor (ER) are well documented, whereas the functions of ER are not yet fully elucidated. Here interactions may regulate the effects of estrogens on neural development and reveal the neonatal brain

  17. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

  18. Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

  19. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C

    2013-12-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. PMID:23850759

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  2. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-12-07

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+}, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2?K–300?K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2?K up to H?=?90?kOe are presented. The presence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+} in AlN:Er at a concentration x?=?1.08% in agreement with x?=?0.94%?±?0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er{sup 3+} vs. Al{sup 3+}explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  3. Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.

    2010-05-15

    The stable and neutron-rich isotopes {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic {sup 136}Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K{sup p}i=4{sup -} isomeric intrinsic states in both {sup 168}Er and {sup 170}Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in {sup 172}Er. In {sup 170}Er, the identification of a K{sup p}i=6{sup -} band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4{sup -} band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The g{sub K}-g{sub R} values for the 4{sup -} bands deduced from the in-band gamma-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in {sup 168}Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in {sup 170}Er, and a two-proton configuration in {sup 172}Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6{sup +} isomer in {sup 172}Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6{sup +} and 7{sup -} two-neutron structures known in the isotone {sup 174}Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6{sup +} isomer occurs through the newly identified 4{sup -} isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4{sup -} and 6{sup +} isomers in {sup 172}Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

  4. JMJD6 Regulates ER? Methylation on Arginine

    PubMed Central

    Poulard, Coralie; Rambaud, Juliette; Hussein, Nader; Corbo, Laura; Le Romancer, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    ER? functions are tightly controlled by numerous post-translational modifications including arginine methylation, which is required to mediate the extranuclear functions of the receptor. We report that upon oestrogenic stimulation, JMJD6, the only arginine demethylase described so far, interacts with and regulates methylated ER? (metER?) function. Moreover, by combining the silencing of JMJD6 with demethylation assays, we show that metER? is a new substrate for JMJD6. We propose that the demethylase activity of JMJD6 is a decisive regulator of the rapid physiological responses to oestrogen. PMID:24498420

  5. DOE/ER/307238 September 2, 1986

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    DOE/ER/3072­38 September 2, 1986 DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF NONLINEAR QUANTUM. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2­1b. The Mass­Shift Effect

  6. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  7. Processing effects on microstructure in Er and ErD2 thin-films.

    SciTech Connect

    Kammler, Daniel R.; Parish, Chad; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brewer, Luke N.

    2010-04-01

    Erbium metal thin-films have been deposited on molybdenum-on-silicon substrates and then converted to erbium dideuteride (ErD{sub 2}). Here, we study the effects of deposition temperature ({approx}300 or 723 K) and deposition rate (1 or 20 nm/s) upon the initial Er metal microstructure and subsequent ErD{sub 2} microstructure. We find that low deposition temperature and low deposition rate lead to small Er metal grain sizes, and high deposition temperature and deposition rate led to larger Er metal grain sizes, consistent with published models of metal thin-film growth. ErD{sub 2} grain sizes are strongly influenced by the prior-metal grain size, with small metal grains leading to large ErD{sub 2} grains. A novel sample preparation technique for electron backscatter diffraction of air-sensitive ErD{sub 2} was developed, and allowed the quantitative measurement of ErD{sub 2} grain size and crystallographic texture. Finer-grained ErD{sub 2} showed a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture, whereas larger grained ErD{sub 2} had only weak texture. We hypothesize that this inverse correlation may arise from improved hydrogen diffusion kinetics in the more defective fine-grained metal structure or due to improved nucleation in the textured large-grain Er.

  8. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  9. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  10. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  11. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit.

    PubMed

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-08-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability. PMID:20354141

  12. The effect of glucuronidation on isoflavone induced estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mediated coregulator interactions.

    PubMed

    Beekmann, Karsten; de Haan, Laura H J; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Houtman, René; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-11-01

    Non-prenylated isoflavone aglycones are known to have phyto-estrogenic properties and act as agonistic ligands on ER? and ER? due to their structural resemblance to 17?-estradiol (E2). Genistein and daidzein are the two main dietary isoflavones; upon uptake they are extensively metabolized and exist nearly exclusively as their conjugated forms in biological fluids. Little is known about the effect of conjugation on the intrinsic estrogenic activities of these isoflavones. To characterize and compare the intrinsic estrogenic activities of genistein and daidzein, and their respective 7-O-glucuronide metabolites a cell-free assay system was employed that determines the ligand-induced changes in ER?- and ER?-ligand binding domain (LBD) interactions with 154 different binding motifs derived from 66 different nuclear receptor coregulators. The glucuronides were 8 to 4400 times less potent than their respective aglycones to modulate ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD-coregulator interactions. Glucuronidation changed the preferential activation of genistein from ER?-LBD to ER?-LBD and further increased the slightly preferential activation of daidzein for ER?-LBD. The tested isoflavone compounds were less potent than E2 (around 5 to 1580 times for the aglycones) but modulated the LBD-coregulator interactions in a manner similar to E2. Our results show that genistein and daidzein remain agonistic ligands of ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD in their conjugated form with a higher relative preference for ER?-LBD than the corresponding aglycones. This shift in receptor preference is of special interest as the preferential activation of ER? is considered one of the possible modes of action underlying the supposed beneficial instead of adverse health effects of isoflavones. PMID:26361015

  13. Prevention of Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Estrogens Requires ER? Activation Function-2 (ER?AF-2), Whereas ER?AF-1 Is Dispensable

    PubMed Central

    Handgraaf, Sandra; Riant, Elodie; Fabre, Aurélie; Waget, Aurélie; Burcelin, Rémy; Lière, Philippe; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-François; Gourdy, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial metabolic actions of estrogen-based therapies are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?), a nuclear receptor that regulates gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs): AF-1 and AF-2. Using mouse models deleted electively for ER?AF-1 (ER?AF-1°) or ER?AF-2 (ER?AF-2°), we determined their respective roles in the actions of estrogens on body composition and glucose homeostasis in response to either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). ER?AF-2° males and females developed accelerated weight gain, massive adiposity, severe insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance—quite reminiscent of the phenotype observed in mice deleted for the entire ER? protein (ER??/?). In striking contrast, ER?AF-1° and wild-type (wt) mice shared a similar metabolic phenotype. Accordingly, 17?-estradiol administration regulated key metabolic genes in insulin-sensitive tissues and conferred a strong protection against HFD-induced metabolic disturbances in wt and ER?AF-1° ovariectomized mice, whereas these actions were totally abrogated in ER?AF-2° and ER??/? mice. Thus, whereas both AFs have been previously shown to contribute to endometrial and breast cancer cell proliferation, the protective effect of estrogens against obesity and insulin resistance depends on ER?AF-2 but not ER?AF-1, thereby delineating new options for selective modulation of ER?. PMID:23903353

  14. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.; Shen, Huahai; Peng, Shuming; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

  15. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  16. Molecular Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of SNIPER(ER) That Induces Proteasomal Degradation of ER?.

    PubMed

    Okuhira, Keiichiro; Demizu, Yosuke; Hattori, Takayuki; Ohoka, Nobumichi; Shibata, Norihito; Kurihara, Masaaki; Naito, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of protein stability using small molecules has a great potential for both basic research and clinical therapy. Based on our protein knockdown technology, we recently developed a novel small molecule SNIPER(ER) that targets the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This chapter describes the design and synthesis of SNIPER(ER) compounds, and methods for the evaluation of their activity in cellular system. PMID:26585163

  17. EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg

    E-print Network

    Matrajt, Graciela

    EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg #12;mastEr of NursiNg (mN) The UniversiTy of WashingTon BoThell MasTer of nUrsing prograM prepares nurses for advanced leadership roles in health care practice and elective credits support a wide range of nursing interests that allow a custom fit to your individual goals

  18. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  19. Wiki'er og Wikipedia Finn Arup Nielsen

    E-print Network

    Wiki'er og Wikipedia Finn °Arup Nielsen DTU Compute Technical University of Denmark April 23, 2013 #12;Wiki'er og Wikipedia Resum´e Wiki'er er efterh°anden alle vegne. De nyeste udviklinger muliggør struk- turering af data, s°a man kan opbygge sin egne specialiserede wiki-baserede database eller trække

  20. [The function of ER? in male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu-Hang; Wei, Jin-Hua; Li, Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs), including two sub-types ER? and ER?, belong to the steroid hormone superfamily of nuclear receptors. ER? distributes in the male reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the regulation of male reproduction through estrogen-dependent and -independent ways. In this article, we mainly reviewed the molecular structure, mode of action and location of ER? in the male reproductive system, and explored the mechanism of ER? in regulating the male reproductive system by analyzing different animal models of disrupted ER?. PMID:25872345

  1. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20–50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole. PMID:26181331

  2. 2. Oracle Designer I: ER-Diagrams 2-1 Part 2: ER-Diagrams

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    2. Oracle Designer I: ER-Diagrams 2-1 Part 2: ER-Diagrams in Oracle Designer References: · Barker. · Koletzke/Dorsey: Oracle Designer Handbook, 2nd Edition. ORACLE Press, 1998, ISBN 0-07-882417-6, ca. $40. · A. Lulushi: Inside Oracle Designer/2000. Prentice Hall, 1998, ISBN 0-13-849753-2, ca. $50. · Oracle

  3. a Dynamic Study of AN Electro-Rheological (er) Clutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

    Electro-rheological (ER) fluid devices are smart actuators that possess several advantages such as controllable output dynamics and fast speed of response. Due to these output capabilities, an ER clutch is studied for the possibility of actuating the robotic arm. This is achieved by laying a few objectives. The main focus of this paper is to perform model validations of an ER velocity response of this ER clutch. Next, it is aimed to determine a method for rapid energization and de-energization of the ER output velocity for delivering fast start-stop robotic motions. The third aim is to employ the trend study on the ER output velocity response in order to define suitable input parameters for optimum ER robotic performances. The final aim is to determine the reliability of the tested ER fluids shearing in the ER clutch for long-term robotic applications.

  4. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving...

  5. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving...

  6. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried...

  7. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried...

  8. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried...

  9. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving...

  10. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried...

  11. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving...

  12. 20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced...Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving...

  13. 20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced...and after 1978 and the widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried...

  14. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  15. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  16. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ER?) and Beta (ER?): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  17. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  18. DOE/ER-0214 February 1985

    E-print Network

    DOE/ER-0214 Magnetic Program Fusion Plan February 1985 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Research Washington, D.C. 20585 #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Research February 1985, available resources, and the nation's need for future energy sources. #12;PREFACE During the past few years

  19. The QuEChERS revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  20. ER and vacuoles: never been closer

    PubMed Central

    Viotti, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the gateway for intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins, soluble cargoes and lipids. In all eukaryotes, the best described mechanism of exiting the ER is via COPII-coated vesicles, which transport both membrane proteins and soluble cargoes to the cis-Golgi. The vacuole, together with the plasma membrane, is the most distal point of the secretory pathway, and many vacuolar proteins are transported from the ER through intermediate compartments. However, past results and recent findings demonstrate the presence of alternative transport routes from the ER towards the tonoplast, which are independent of Golgi- and post-Golgi trafficking. Moreover, the transport mechanism of the vacuolar proton pumps VHA-a3 and AVP1 challenges the current model of vacuole biogenesis, pointing to the endoplasmic reticulum for being the main membrane source for the biogenesis of the plant lytic compartment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on the transport routes towards the vacuole and discusses the possible mechanism of vacuole biogenesis in plants. PMID:24550928

  1. for Pulsed Power & erElectronics|Texas

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Cente r for Pulsed Power & Po w erElectronics|Texas T ech University|Lubbock ,TX The Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Texas Tech for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics The Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics started as a Plasma

  2. http://er.aera.net Educational Researcher

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    the educational potential of games (Gee, 2003; Shaffer, 2007; Squire, 2006; Steinkeuhler, 2006), and we are seeinghttp://er.aera.net Educational Researcher http://edr.sagepub.com/content/39/7/525 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.3102/0013189X10386593 2010 39: 525EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER

  3. European Space Agency, ERS-1 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, A.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives selected for ERS-1 which are primarily intended to facilitate the exploitation of coastal oceans, including ice infested waters, and to facilitate the development of improved global weather information through the provision of information on the weather conditions over the oceans of the word are outlined. Additionally, land objectives will be addressed using the synthetic aperture radar incorporated in the payload.

  4. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. PERK is required at the ER-mitochondrial contact sites to convey apoptosis after ROS-based ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Verfaillie, T; Rubio, N; Garg, A D; Bultynck, G; Rizzuto, R; Decuypere, J-P; Piette, J; Linehan, C; Gupta, S; Samali, A; Agostinis, P

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathologies and as a mechanism contributing to cancer cell death in response to therapeutic agents. In several instances, oxidative stress and the onset of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occur together; yet, the molecular events linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) to ER stress-mediated apoptosis are currently unknown. Here, we show that PERK (RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase), a key ER stress sensor of the unfolded protein response, is uniquely enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). PERK?/? cells display disturbed ER morphology and Ca2+ signaling as well as significantly weaker ER-mitochondria contact sites. Re-expression of a kinase-dead PERK mutant but not the cytoplasmic deletion mutant of PERK in PERK?/? cells re-establishes ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and mitochondrial sensitization to ROS-mediated stress. In contrast to the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin, during ROS-mediated ER stress, PERK contributes to apoptosis twofold by sustaining the levels of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and by facilitating the propagation of ROS signals between the ER and mitochondria through its tethering function. Hence, this study reveals an unprecedented role of PERK as a MAMs component required to maintain the ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and propel ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, it suggests that loss of PERK may cause defects in cell death sensitivity in pathological conditions linked to ROS-mediated ER stress. PMID:22705852

  6. Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, A V; Popov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

    2010-08-03

    The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

  7. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+, Yb3 + and Er3 + /Yb3+ doped metaphosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Speghini, A; Francini, R; Martinez, A; Tavernese, M; Bettinell, M

    2001-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopies of Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Ca(PO3)2, Sr(PO3)2 and Ba(PO3)2 glasses have been studied. From the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the spontaneous emission probabilities of some relevant transitions and the radiative lifetimes of several excited states of Er3+ have been calculated. The decay curves of the Er3+ emission at 1.5 microm have been measured at different temperatures. The data have been fitted using a stretched exponential function and the obtained experimental lifetimes have been compared with the calculated radiative lifetimes. The difference between the experimental and calculated lifetimes is attributed to the presence of traces of OH groups in the host glasses. The absolute OH content in some glasses has been determined from the infrared spectra. The emission spectra at 1.5 microm of the Er3+ ion in the codoped glasses have been measured at different temperatures. The integrated emission intensities decrease significantly on passing from room temperature to 13 K, suggesting a temperature dependence of the rate of the energy transfer process between Yb3+ and Er3+. PMID:11666080

  8. Ecient Algorithms for Bu er Allocation James E. Schor

    E-print Network

    Gershwin, Stanley B.

    EÆcient Algorithms for Bu#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor Bachelor of Science, University#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer, Department of Mechanical Engineering #12; EÆcient Algorithms for Bu#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor

  9. ER71 directs mesodermal fate decisions during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Tara L.; Kweon, Junghun; Diekmann, Mackenzie A.; Belema-Bedada, Fikru; Song, Qingfeng; Bowlin, Kathy; Shi, Xiaozhong; Ferdous, Anwarul; Li, Tongbin; Kyba, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Er71 mutant embryos are nonviable and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. To further define the functional role for ER71 in cell lineage decisions, we generated genetically modified mouse models. We engineered an Er71-EYFP transgenic mouse model by fusing the 3.9 kb Er71 promoter to the EYFP reporter gene. Using FACS and transcriptional profiling, we examined the EYFP+ population of cells in Er71 mutant and wild-type littermates. In the absence of ER71, we observed an increase in the number of EYFP-expressing cells, increased expression of the cardiac molecular program and decreased expression of the hemato-endothelial program, as compared with wild-type littermate controls. We also generated a novel Er71-Cre transgenic mouse model using the same 3.9 kb Er71 promoter. Genetic fate-mapping studies revealed that the ER71-expressing cells give rise to the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the wild-type background. In the absence of ER71, these cell populations contributed to alternative mesodermal lineages, including the cardiac lineage. To extend these analyses, we used an inducible embryonic stem/embryoid body system and observed that ER71 overexpression repressed cardiogenesis. Together, these studies identify ER71 as a critical regulator of mesodermal fate decisions that acts to specify the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages at the expense of cardiac lineages. This enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern mesodermal fate decisions early during embryogenesis. PMID:21989919

  10. ER QUALITY CONTROL CAN LEAD TO RETROGRADE TRANSPORT FROM THE ER LUMEN TO THE CYTOSOL AND THE NUCLEOPLASM IN

    E-print Network

    ER QUALITY CONTROL CAN LEAD TO RETROGRADE TRANSPORT FROM THE ER LUMEN TO THE CYTOSOL contributed equally Running title: GFP illuminates ER quality control Key Words: GFP, ERAD, Quality Control, Secretory Pathway. Word count: 9631 1 #12;SUMMARY Quality control in the secretory pathway is a fundamental

  11. Optical properties of Er(3+)-doped oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2016-02-15

    Er(3+)-singly doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped 50SiO2-(50-x)BaF2-xZnF2(SBZx) oxyfluoride glasses are prepared and the optical properties of Er(3+)-singly doped glasses are investigated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. Bright green and red upconversion luminescence of Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped glasses is obtained under 980nm excitation. Furthermore, factors affecting this phenomenon such as glass composition, doping concentration of Er(3+) and Yb(3+) ions, and pump power are discussed in details. PMID:26613336

  12. Optical properties of RbMnF3:Er3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, M. V.; Sibley, W. A.

    1980-03-01

    Absorption, emission, excitation, and lifetime data are presented for RbMnF3:Er3+. Evidence for Mn2+ --> Er3+ energy transfer was found from the Er3+ excitation spectra and the temperature dependence of the Mn2+ and Er3+ emissions. The presence of Er3+ in the lattice slightly changed the temperature dependence of the Mn2+ lifetime. Radiative and radiationless transitions are discussed in terms of the model of Flaherty and Di Bartolo and the quantum-mechanical single-configuration coordinate model of Struck and Fonger.

  13. Brain activity during complex imagined gait rasks in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kristen A.; Duncan, Ryan; Perlmutter, Joel; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Motor imagery during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows assessment of brain activity during tasks, like walking, that cannot be completed in a scanner. We used gait imagery to assess the neural pathophysiology of locomotion in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods Brain activity was measured in five locomotor regions (supplementary motor area (SMA), globus pallidus (GP), putamen, mesencephalic locomotor region, cerebellar locomotor region) during simple (forward) and complex (backward, turning) gait imagery. Brain activity was correlated to overground walking velocity. Results Across tasks, PD exhibited reduced activity in the globus pallidus compared to controls. People with PD, but not controls, exhibited more activity in the SMA during imagined turning compared to forward or backward walking. In PD, walking speed was correlated to brain activity in several regions. Conclusions Altered SMA activity in PD during imagined turning may represent compensatory neural adaptations during complex gait. The lowered activity and positive correlation to locomotor function in GP suggests reduced activity in this region may relate to locomotor dysfunction. Significance This study elucidates changes in neural activity during gait in PD, underscoring the importance of testing simple and complex tasks. Results support a positive relationship between activity in locomotor regions and walking ability. PMID:24210997

  14. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  15. Calibration: Practical experience with ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louet, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurement parameters are radar backscattering, target position, target speed, and polarization. SAR calibration facilitates quantitative measurements needed to derive geophysical parameters of the area under observation from basic SAR measurements (e.g. soil moisture, biomass, ocean wave energy, ocean currents, ice type, and ice flow).

  16. Bonded stripline power splitter for ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M. Q.

    1984-08-01

    Four nominally identical bonded stripline power splitters were developed for the ERS-1 antenna. The two dielectric sheets involved in fabricating the triplate sandwich are fused together. The possibility of warping or air gaps developing due to plastic flow deformations under pressure is eliminated. The ground planes are plated on the dielectric including the edges. This provides a very effective RF seal. Plated through holes are used to electrically interconnect the ground planes without using screws as inductive posts.

  17. Room-Temperature Photoluminescence from Er3+ in Si-Er-O and Si-Ge-Er-O Thin Films at High Erbium Concentrations

    E-print Network

    Abedrabbo, Sufian; 10.1680/emr.11.00002

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that photoluminescence from Er3+ impurities in silicon is severely limited at room temperature by non-radiative relaxation and solid solubility; and room temperature emission from Er3+ in oxide-based hosts becomes diminished at high erbium concentrations. This work presents studies of thin films (0.2 micron thick) prepared by vacuum co-evaporation from elemental sources (Er, Si and Si/Ge) followed by vacuum annealing (600 degrees C); materials of this type, which are produced with high Er3+ concentrations, are shown to be capable of yielding strong room-temperature photoluminescence. Alloy films of Si-Er-O and Si-Ge-Er-O, containing (20 +/- 2) at. % Er and incorporating (16 +/- 2) at. % O (introduced via vacuum scavenging reactions), exhibit emission bands with dominant components at 1.51 and 1.54 micron (~0.04-micron overall spectral widths). Results are discussed in terms of Er-O complex formation and effects of local randomness on cooperative inter-Er3+ energy transfer among therma...

  18. ER chaperones in mammalian development and human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Min; Lee, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    The field of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells has expanded rapidly during the past decade, contributing to understanding of the molecular pathways that allow cells to adapt to perturbations in ER homeostasis. One major mechanism is mediated by molecular ER chaperones which are critical not only for quality control of proteins processed in the ER, but also for regulation of ER signaling in response to ER stress. Here we summarized the properties and functions of GRP78/BiP, GRP94/gp96, GRP170/ORP150, GRP58/ERp57, PDI, ERp72, calnexin, calreticulin, EDEM, Herp and co-chaperones SIL1 and P58IPK and their role in development and diseases. Many of the new insights are derived from recently constructed mouse models where the genes encoding the chaperones are genetically altered, providing invaluable tools for examining the physiological involvement of the ER chaperones in vivo. PMID:17481612

  19. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. PMID:26440125

  20. ER and Golgi stresses increase ER-Golgi SNARE Syntaxin5: Implications for organelle stress and ?APP processing.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kei; Saito, Ayako; Mishima, Tatsuya; Akagawa, Kimio

    2015-09-14

    Unresolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes neuronal death and has been implicated in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms by which stress signals propagate from the ER through the Golgi apparatus and their effects on the transport and processing of AD-related proteins, such as ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP), are unknown. We recently found that in the NG108-15 cell line, ER stress upregulates ER-Golgi-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (ER-Golgi SNAREs) Syx5 and Bet1. In the present study, we examined the effects of apoptosis and ER stress inducers on the expression of ER-Golgi SNARE proteins and cell viability in a primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons. An apoptosis inducer significantly downregulated the expression of ER-Golgi SNARE Syx5. ER-stress inducers upregulated the expression of Syx5 isoforms and Bet1 proteins via de novo synthesis of their mRNA transcripts. Knockdown of Syx5 during apoptosis or ER stress induction enhanced vulnerability of neurons. Additionally, we examined the effects of Golgi stress on Syx5 expression and ?APP processing. Golgi stress also induced upregulation of ER-Golgi SNARE Syx5, and concomitantly, suppressed amyloid-? peptide secretion. These findings suggest that Syx5 is a potential stress responsive factor that participates in ?APP processing and the survival pathways of neuronal cells. PMID:26219982

  1. Effects of Endogenous Ovarian Estrogen Versus Exogenous Estrogen Replacement on Blood Flow and ER? and ER? Levels in the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ablove, Tova S.; Austin, Jason L.; Phernetton, Terry M.; Magness, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the effect of endogenous estrogen versus estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on bladder blood flow (BBF) and estrogen receptors (ERs). Methods BBF was determined with radio-labeled microspheres in luteal, follicular, pregnant, oophorectomized (Ovx) sheep, and Ovx sheep with ERT. Estrogen receptors (ER?, ER?) were quantified using Western blot analysis. Results Compared to luteal and follicular ewes, BBF was reduced in pregnancy and following oophorectomy. Estrogen replacement therapy in Ovx sheep restored BBF to luteal levels. Estrogen receptor ? predominated, whereas ER? was not detectable. Estrogen receptor-? levels were unaffected by the ovarian cycle and increased in pregnancy, as well as in Ovx sheep with and without chronic ERT. Conclusion The combination of diminished BBF and elevated ER? levels in both pregnant and Ovx sheep suggests an inverse relationship between BBF and ER? in the bladder. Although chronic ERT in Ovx sheep restored BBF, it did not restore ER? back to luteal levels. PMID:19535742

  2. ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling positively regulates ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Wang, Mo-Lin; Zheng, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li-Jiang; Wang, Zhao-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) play important roles in breast cancer occurrence, recurrence and metastasis. However, the role of estrogen signaling, a signaling pathway important in development and progression of breast cancer, in regulation of BCSC has not been well established. Previously, we identified and cloned a variant of estrogen receptor ?, ER-?36, with a molecular weight of 36 kDa. ER-?36 lacks both transactivation domains AF-1 and AF-2 of the 66 kDa full-length ER-? (ER-?66) and mediates rapid estrogen signaling to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells. In this study, we aim to investigate the function and the underlying mechanism of ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling in growth regulation of the ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF7 and T47D as well as the variants with different levels of ER-?36 expression were used. The effects of estrogen on BCSC's abilities of growth, self-renewal, differentiation and tumor-seeding were examined using tumorsphere formation, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorence staining and in vivo xenograft assays. The underlying mechanisms were also studied with Western-blot analysis. We found that 17-?-estradiol (E2?) treatment increased the population of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells while failed to do so in the cells with knocked-down levels of ER-?36 expression. Cells with forced expression of recombinant ER-?36, however, responded strongly to E2? treatment by increasing growth in vitro and tumor-seeding efficiency in vivo. The rapid estrogen signaling via the AKT/GSK3? pathway is involved in estrogen-stimulated growth of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. We concluded that ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling plays an important role in regulation and maintenance of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. PMID:24558373

  3. ER?36 - Another piece of the estrogen puzzle.

    PubMed

    So?tysik, Kamil; Czekaj, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Although the nuclear action of estrogen receptors (ER) is a well-known fact, evidence supporting membrane estrogen receptors is steadily accumulating. New ER variants of unrecognized function have been discovered. ER? is a product of the ESR1 gene. It serves not only as a template for the full-length 66kDa protein, but also for smaller isoforms which exist as independent receptors. The recently discovered ER?36 (36kDa), consisting of 310 amino acids of total 595 ER?66 protein residues, is an example of that group. The transcription initiation site is identified in the first intron of the ESR1 gene. C-Terminal 27 amino acids are encoded by previously unknown exon 9. The presence of this unique C-terminal sequence creates an opportunity for the production of selective antibodies. ER?36 has been shown to have a high affinity to the cell membrane and as much as 90% of the protein can be bound with it. Post-translational palmitoylation is suspected to play a crucial role in ER?36 anchoring to the cell membrane. In silico analysis suggests the existence of a potential transmembrane domain in ER?36. ER?36 was found in most cells of animals at various ages, but its exact physiological function remains to be fully elucidated. It seems that cells traditionally considered as being deprived of ER are able to respond to hormonal stimulation via the ER?36 receptor. Moreover, ER?36 displays unique pharmacological properties and its action may be behind antiestrogen resistance. The use of ER?36 in cancer diagnosis gives rise to great expectations. PMID:26522827

  4. Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-?m eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

  5. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  6. The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS. PMID:24910594

  7. ER-resident Gi2 protein controls sar1 translocation onto the ER during budding of transport vesicles.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Umadome, Haruka; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Komori, Masayuki; Matsuo, Saburo

    2011-09-01

    In our previous study, fluoride ([AlF(4) ](-) ) disturbed ER-to-Golgi transport through the activation of ER-resident heterotrimeric G protein (ER-G protein). Therefore, ER-G protein may be implicated in ER-to-Golgi transport at the early stage prior to coat protein assembly. Sar1 translocation onto the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is suppressed by non-selective protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting the participation of H89-sensitive kinase in this process. To investigate the involvement of ER-G protein in ER-to-Golgi transport, the effect of G(i) protein activator (mastoparan 7) was examined on Sar1 translocation onto the ER in a cell-free system consisting of microsome membrane and cytosol. Sar1 translocation onto the microsome membrane was induced by addition of GTP?S in the cell-free system. Translocation of Sar1 by GTP?S was suppressed significantly by both H89 and mastoparan 7. Mastoparan 7 suppressed the translocation of Sar1 onto the microsome membrane with dosage dependency, but mastoparan 17, the inactive analog of mastoparan 7, had no effect on Sar1 translocation. The suppressive effect of mastoparan 7 was recovered by treatment with pertussis toxin (IAP). Moreover, G(i2) protein was detected on the microsome membrane by western blotting for heterotrimeric G(i) proteins. These results indicate that ER-G(i2) protein modulated Sar1 translocation onto the ER, suggesting that ER-resident G(i2) protein is an important negative regulator of vesicular transport at the early stage of vesicle formation before coat protein assembly on the ER. PMID:21480366

  8. ERS-1: 18 months in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louet, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of the ERS-1 mission outline initial objectives, the orbit configuration, the instrumentation, the international cooperation, and the objectives still to be achieved. Graphs of specified performances include orbit control, inclination correction, solar array power, satellite stability, AMI performance verification, SAR radiometric stability, and RA performance stability. Also displayed are the number of planned (for November 92 through February of 93) and acquired SAR frames of the mission for each of the various sites throughout Europe and the world. A map locating these chosen sites is also included.

  9. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  10. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Er (III) with diantipyrylmethane.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S

    2001-02-01

    The optimum fluorescence conditions for erbium (III) are obtained by irradiating this lanthanide at 435 nm in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution at pH = 8 (lambdaem = 510 nm). The method proposed is satisfactory for the determination of erbium (III) in the range of 0.001 to 1 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation 0.02 microg ml(-1) Er (III) in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution is 1.1%. The effect of other rare earths upon the intensity of the fluorescence emitted by erbium (III) is discussed. PMID:11206569

  11. DOE/ER/3072-38 September 2, 1986

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    DOE/ER/3072-38 September 2, 1986 DRAFT PROPOSAL FOR EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF NONLINEAR QUANTUM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2-1b. The Mass-Shift Effect

  12. ER-associated degradation: Protein quality control and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiano, Annamaria; Foresti, Ombretta

    2014-01-01

    Even with the assistance of many cellular factors, a significant fraction of newly synthesized proteins ends up misfolded. Cells evolved protein quality control systems to ensure that these potentially toxic species are detected and eliminated. The best characterized of these pathways, the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), monitors the folding of membrane and secretory proteins whose biogenesis takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). There is also increasing evidence that ERAD controls other ER-related functions through regulated degradation of certain folded ER proteins, further highlighting the role of ERAD in cellular homeostasis. PMID:24637321

  13. Cyclopia Extracts Act as ER? Antagonists and ER? Agonists, In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Koch; Mortimer, Morné; Louw, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy associated risks, and the concomitant reluctance of usage, has instigated the search for new generations of estrogen analogues that would maintain estrogen benefits without associated risks. Furthermore, if these analogues display chemo-preventative properties in breast and endometrial tissues it would be of great value. Both the selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as the selective estrogen receptor subtype modulators have been proposed as estrogen analogues with improved risk profiles. Phytoestrogen containing extracts of Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare Honeybush tea may serve as a source of new estrogen analogues. In this study three extracts, P104, SM6Met, and cup-of-tea, from two species of Cyclopia, C. genistoides and C. subternata, were evaluated for ER subtype specific agonism and antagonism both in transactivation and transrepression. For transactivation, the Cyclopia extracts displayed ER? antagonism and ER? agonism when ER subtypes were expressed separately, however, when co-expressed only agonism was uniformly observed. In contrast, for transrepression, this uniform behavior was lost, with some extracts (P104) displaying uniform agonism, while others (SM6Met) displayed antagonism when subtypes were expressed separately and agonism when co-expressed. In addition, breast cancer cell proliferation assays indicate that extracts antagonize cell proliferation in the presence of estrogen at lower concentrations than that required for proliferation. Furthermore, lack of uterine growth and delayed vaginal opening in an immature rat uterotrophic model validates the ER? antagonism of extracts observed in vitro and supports the potential of the Cyclopia extracts as a source of estrogen analogues with a reduced risk profile. PMID:24223909

  14. Validation of ERS-1 environmental data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodberlet, Mark A.; Swift, Calvin T.; Wilkerson, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the launch-version algorithms used by the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive wind field and ocean wave estimates from measurements of sensors aboard the European Remote Sensing satellite, ERS-1, has been accomplished through comparison of the derived parameters with coincident measurements made by 24 open ocean buoys maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). During the period from November 1, 1991 through February 28, 1992, data bases with 577 and 485 pairs of coincident sensor/buoy wind and wave measurements were collected for the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) and Radar Altimeter (RA) respectively. Based on these data, algorithm retrieval accuracy is estimated to be plus or minus 4 m/s for AMI wind speed, plus or minus 3 m/s for RA wind speed and plus or minus 0.6 m for RA wave height. After removing 180 degree ambiguity errors, the AMI wind direction retrieval accuracy was estimated at plus or minus 28 degrees. All of the ERS-1 wind and wave retrievals are relatively unbiased. These results should be viewed as interim since improved algorithms are under development. As final versions are implemented, additional assessments should be conducted to complete the validation.

  15. Ltc1 is an ER-localized sterol transporter and a component of ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contacts.

    PubMed

    Murley, Andrew; Sarsam, Reta D; Toulmay, Alexandre; Yamada, Justin; Prinz, William A; Nunnari, Jodi

    2015-05-25

    Organelle contact sites perform fundamental functions in cells, including lipid and ion homeostasis, membrane dynamics, and signaling. Using a forward proteomics approach in yeast, we identified new ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contacts specified by an uncharacterized protein, Ylr072w. Ylr072w is a conserved protein with GRAM and VASt domains that selectively transports sterols and is thus termed Ltc1, for Lipid transfer at contact site 1. Ltc1 localized to ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contacts via the mitochondrial import receptors Tom70/71 and the vacuolar protein Vac8, respectively. At mitochondria, Ltc1 was required for cell viability in the absence of Mdm34, a subunit of the ER-mitochondria encounter structure. At vacuoles, Ltc1 was required for sterol-enriched membrane domain formation in response to stress. Increasing the proportion of Ltc1 at vacuoles was sufficient to induce sterol-enriched vacuolar domains without stress. Thus, our data support a model in which Ltc1 is a sterol-dependent regulator of organelle and cellular homeostasis via its dual localization to ER-mitochondria and ER-vacuole contact sites. PMID:25987606

  16. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y.; Burnette, Dylan T.; Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  17. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y; Burnette, Dylan T; Patterson, George H; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  18. Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

  19. Environmental and Resource Studies (ERS) Program Formal Degree Options

    E-print Network

    Fox, Michael

    major, or minor B.Sc. in Water Sciences 4 years; single major B.Sc. in Environmental Chemistry 3 or 4Environmental and Resource Studies (ERS) Program Formal Degree Options Bachelor of Environmental-University DegreesOffered through the ERS Program B.Sc. in Environmental & Resource Science 4 years; single/joint1

  20. Observation of temperature-independent internal Er3+ relaxation efficiency

    E-print Network

    Kik, Pieter

    ., Orlando, Florida 32816, USA Received 20 February 2009; accepted 30 May 2009; published online 18 June 2009 absorption,9,10 NC-related scattering losses,11 and the low density of sensitized Er3+ ions6 inherent to Er or using pulsed excitation with the 355 nm line of a neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser

  1. How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Flu Center > When to Get Help > How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma Print ... sleep Your asthma action plan should tell you how to handle early signs of a flare-up. This ...

  2. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  3. FOXK2 Transcription Factor Suppresses ER?-positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth Through Down-Regulating the Stability of ER? via mechanism involving BRCA1/BARD1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Jia, Zhaojun; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhaowei; Hu, Gaolei; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Min; Wu, Huijian

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of breast cancer development. Identification of molecules that regulate the function of ERs may facilitate the development of more effective breast cancer treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 interacted with ER?, and inhibited ER?-regulated transcriptional activities by enhancing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ER?. This process involved the interaction between FOXK2 and BRCA1/BARD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of ER?. FOXK2 interacted with BARD1 and acted as a scaffold protein for BRCA1/BARD1 and ER?, leading to enhanced degradation of ER?, which eventually accounted for its decreased transcriptional activity. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of FOXK2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of ER?, decreased the transcription of ER? target genes, and suppressed the proliferation of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. In contract, knockdown of FOXK2 in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation. However, when ER? was also knocked down, knockdown of FOXK2 had no effect on cell proliferation. These findings suggested that FOXK2 might act as a negative regulator of ER?, and its association with both ER? and BRCA1/BARD1 could lead to the down-regulation of ER? transcriptional activity, effectively regulating the function of ER?. PMID:25740706

  4. ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL and TOGA ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

  5. ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite-Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL (S-band Polarimetric Radar) and TOGA (Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere) ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

  6. Pubertal BPA exposure changes central ER? levels in female mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng J; Fang, Qian Q; Tai, Fa D

    2015-09-01

    Despite many studies on the effects of perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the brain, its effects on brain estrogen receptor (ER?) expression during puberty remain unclear. Here, mice were injected subcutaneously with BPA (50?g/kg), estradiol (10?g 17?-E2/kg) or oil (0.05ml sesame oil) daily during puberty (postnatal days 23-30). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine changes in ER? immunoreactive neurons in different brain regions. Compared to control animals, pubertal exposure to BPA significantly increased ER? immunoreactive neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) in females. E2 exposure during puberty also increased ER? immunoreactive neurons in the lateral septum (LS) of females. No effect was detected in males. These results indicate that the effects of estrogenic chemicals on ER? immunoreactive neurons are sex-dependent. PMID:26361328

  7. TERT attenuated ER stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Inoue, Yuki; Nakatsu, Kanako; Matsushima, Naomi; Kiyose, Noriko; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-05-01

    Tumor cells are frequently encountered in nutrient-deprived areas, though the mechanisms underlying their survival are unclear. In the present study, we found that depriving cells of glucose caused endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in a breast cancer cells line, MCF-7, and that specific activation of ER stress increased telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression. TERT expression would function in counteracting against the stress because over-expression of TERT diminished ER stress-induced cell death. Therefore, the results provide evidence for the underlying mechanisms of tumor progression in stressed conditions, highlighting that ER stress induces TERT expression to withstand environmental stress, a mechanism which we termed the "ER stress-TERT axis". PMID:24746472

  8. Linking ER Stress to Autophagy: Potential Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Verfaillie, Tom; Salazar, Maria; Velasco, Guillermo; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Different physiological and pathological conditions can perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a condition known as ER stress. ER stress activates a complex intracellular signal transduction pathway, called unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is tailored essentially to reestablish ER homeostasis also through adaptive mechanisms involving the stimulation of autophagy. However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR and autophagy into cell death promoting mechanisms. Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies have been linked to the induction of ER stress in cancer cells, suggesting that strategies devised to stimulate its prodeath function or block its prosurvival function, could be envisaged to improve their tumoricidial action. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the final outcome of UPR and autophagy activation by chemotherapeutic agents, will offer new opportunities to improve existing cancer therapies as well as unravel novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:20145727

  9. SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: Calcium and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Csordás, György; Hajnóczky, György

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca2+ and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function. PMID:19527680

  10. Effects of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence in silicon-rich silicon oxide/Er-doped silica multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Soo; Jhe, Ji-Hong; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung H.; Kim, Kyung Joong; Moon, Dae Won

    2006-10-30

    The effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence is investigated by using multilayers of 2.5 nm thin SiO{sub x} (x<2) and 10 nm thin Er-doped silica (SiO{sub 2}:Er). By separating excess Si and Er atoms into separate, nanometer-thin layers, the effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on np-Si sensitized Er{sup 3+} luminescence could be investigated while keeping the microscopic Er{sup 3+} environment the same. The authors find that while the presence of np-Si is necessary for efficient sensitization, the overall quality of np-Si layer has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence. On the other hand, intrusion of np-Si into Er-doped silica layers leads to deactivation of np-Si/Er{sup 3+} interaction, suggesting that there is a limit to excess Si and Er contents that can be used.

  11. 10/2/2014 ER Advertising Information http://uwpress.wisc.edu/journals/journals/er_ads.html 1/2

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    10/2/2014 ER Advertising Information http://uwpress.wisc.edu/journals/journals/er_ads.html 1 Ecological Restoration Advertising Rates and Deadlines Click here to download a printable pdf document of this page. You may also be interested in advertising in Native Plants Journal or in placing your business

  12. Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli

    E-print Network

    Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli Be´atrice Gre -, and mating-induced Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in neurons in which mating stimulation reliably increases, or received 15 intromissions. In the rostral medial preoptic area, Fos-ir was induced by mounts alone

  13. ER quality control can lead to retrograde transport from the ER lumen to the cytosol and the nucleoplasm in plants

    E-print Network

    ER quality control can lead to retrograde transport from the ER lumen to the cytosol-mail fbrandizzi@brookes.ac.uk). y Both laboratories contributed equally. Summary Quality control in the secretory by proteasome inhibitors. Keywords: GFP, ERAD, quality control, secretory pathway. Introduction As nascent

  14. Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

    2011-11-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers. PMID:22413290

  15. Structure and Dynamics of ER: Minimal Networks and Biophysical Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

  16. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  17. ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Martin; Petralia, Ronald S.; Kaniakova, Martina; Sans, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases. PMID:25505872

  18. Absorption and photoluminescence properties of Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.F.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Lee, Y.P.

    2004-11-01

    Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses with various concentrations of Er and Yb were fabricated. The absorption and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured and analyzed. For the Er- doped soda-slilicate glasses, the optimum Er concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm turns out to be 0.5 at. %, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectrum increases from 18 to 26 nm, with the increase of the concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 at. %. The PL intensity of Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate glasses with an Er concentration of 0.5 at. % is enhanced approximately by four times, and the optimum Yb concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm is analyzed to be 3.0 at. %. The PL spectrum becomes broader with increasing the Yb concentration, up to a FWHM of 80 nm at 6.0 at. %. Yb. The relation between the absorption and PL spectra, together with the mechanism of PL broadening, has also been addressed.

  19. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7?K?Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7?K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  20. Two Mammalian Sec16 Homologues Have Nonredundant Functions in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Export and Transitional ER Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

    2007-01-01

    Budding yeast Sec16 is a large peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that functions in generating COPII transport vesicles and in clustering COPII components at transitional ER (tER) sites. Sec16 interacts with multiple COPII components. Although the COPII assembly pathway is evolutionarily conserved, Sec16 homologues have not been described in higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that mammalian cells contain two distinct Sec16 homologues: a large protein that we term Sec16L and a smaller protein that we term Sec16S. These proteins localize to tER sites, and an N-terminal region of each protein is necessary and sufficient for tER localization. The Sec16L and Sec16S genes are both expressed in every tissue examined, and both proteins are required in HeLa cells for ER export and for normal tER organization. Sec16L resembles yeast Sec16 in having a C-terminal conserved domain that interacts with the COPII coat protein Sec23, but Sec16S lacks such a C-terminal conserved domain. Immunoprecipitation data indicate that Sec16L and Sec16S are each present at multiple copies in a heteromeric complex. We infer that mammalian cells have preserved and extended the function of Sec16. PMID:17192411

  1. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  2. ER Ca2+ dysregulation and ER stress following in vitro neuronal ischemia: role of Na+-K+-Cl? cotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinzhi; Kintner, Douglas B.; Luo, Jing; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio; Sun, Dandan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of Na+-K+-Cl? cotransporter (NKCC1) in conjunction with Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ homeostasis and ER stress development in primary cortical neurons following in vitro ischemia. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation (REOX) caused a rise in [Na+]cyt which was accompanied by an elevation in [Ca2+]cyt. Inhibition of NKCC1 with its potent inhibitor bumetanide abolished the OGD/REOX-induced rise in [Na+]cyt and [Ca2+]cyt. Moreover, OGD significantly increased Ca2+ER accumulation. Following REOX, a biphasic change in Ca2+ER occurred with an initial release of Ca2+ER which was sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibition and a subsequent refilling of Ca2+ER stores. Inhibition of NKCC1 activity with its inhibitor or genetic ablation prevented the release of Ca2+ER. A similar result was obtained with inhibition of reversed mode operation of NCX (NCXrev). OGD/REOX also triggered a transient increase of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-form of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2?), and cleaved caspase 12 proteins. Pretreatment of neurons with NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide inhibited upregulation of GRP78 and attenuated the level of cleaved caspase 12 and p-eIF2?. Inhibition of NKCC1 reduced cytochrome C release and neuronal death. Taken together, these results suggest that NKCC1 and NCXrev may be involved in ischemic cell damage in part via disrupting ER Ca2+ homeostasis and ER function. PMID:18507737

  3. Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J.; Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2007-01-05

    A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

  4. ER-mitochondria contacts as sites of mitophagosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Böckler, Stefan; Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Mitophagy is a degradative process that adapts the quantity and quality of mitochondria to the cellular needs. Mitochondria destined for degradation are marked by specific receptors that recruit the core autophagic machinery to the organellar surface. The organelle is then enclosed by a phagophore (PG) which fuses with the lysosome or vacuole where the mitochondrion is degraded. In spite of significant progress in recent years, several parts of the molecular machinery of mitophagy remain unknown. We used yeast as a model organism to screen for novel components and identified the mitochondria-ER tether ERMES (ER-mitochondria encounter structure) as a major player contributing to mitophagy and formation of mitophagosomes. Tethering of mitochondria to the ER appears to be important to supply the growing PG with lipids synthesized in the ER. PMID:24905224

  5. ER-mitochondria contacts as sites of mitophagosome formation.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Stefan; Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-07-01

    Mitophagy is a degradative process that adapts the quantity and quality of mitochondria to the cellular needs. Mitochondria destined for degradation are marked by specific receptors that recruit the core autophagic machinery to the organellar surface. The organelle is then enclosed by a phagophore (PG) which fuses with the lysosome or vacuole where the mitochondrion is degraded. In spite of significant progress in recent years, several parts of the molecular machinery of mitophagy remain unknown. We used yeast as a model organism to screen for novel components and identified the mitochondria-ER tether ERMES (ER-mitochondria encounter structure) as a major player contributing to mitophagy and formation of mitophagosomes. Tethering of mitochondria to the ER appears to be important to supply the growing PG with lipids synthesized in the ER. PMID:24905224

  6. Fron%ers in Biological Sciences Seminar Series

    E-print Network

    abundance and expression. Results indicate that soil microbial communities are responsive to climate change Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Climate change has unknown consequences for the vast reservesFron%ers in Biological Sciences Seminar Series Illumination of Impact of Climate

  7. Dietary Supplements Land Thousands in The ER Each Year

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the ER Each Year Weight-loss products, energy boosters are common culprits, study finds To use ... to supplements marketed for weight loss or boosting energy, Geller said. Those supplements -- which include ingredients like ...

  8. Optical amplification in Er/Yb silicate slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruimin; Wang, Bing; Wang, Xingjun; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Lingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-05-01

    Active slot waveguides were fabricated by embedding low-index Er/Yb silicate material in high-index silicon. A 1.7 dB signal enhancement at 1.53 µm in a 6 mm-long slot waveguide was observed through 1476 nm pumping. The peak Er emission cross-section is determined as 7.53×10(-21)??cm2 and the excited Er ion fraction is 0.17. Our experiment shows that the defects in upper c-Si of Si-on-insulator (SOI) and deposited ?-Si distorts photoluminescence spectrum and prevents further optical amplification. This negative effect can be partly corrected through annealing treatment, which allows better propagation of the pump light, therefore, stronger excitation in the sandwiched Er/Yb silicate. The defects also affect the 1.53 µm decay curve and are the dominant lifetime reduction mechanism in the active slot waveguide. PMID:22555693

  9. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ErCo(2).

    PubMed

    Das, Sitikantha D; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K; Bapat, R D; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2009-07-22

    We have investigated the magnetic behavior of the nanocrystalline form of a well-known Laves phase compound, ErCo(2)-the bulk form of which has been known to undergo an interesting first-order ferrimagnetic ordering near 32 K-synthesized by high-energy ball-milling. It is found that, in these nanocrystallites, Co exhibits ferromagnetic order at room temperature, as inferred from the magnetization data. However, the magnetic transition temperature for the Er sub-lattice remains essentially unaffected suggesting the (Er)4f-Co(3d) coupling is weak on Er magnetism. The net magnetic moment as measured at high fields, for example at 120 kOe, is significantly reduced with respect to that for the bulk in the ferrimagnetically ordered state and possible reasons are outlined for this. We have also compared the magnetocaloric behavior for the bulk and for nanoparticles. PMID:21828543

  10. Do disfluencies, like, heighten listeners' attention to, er... upcoming speech? 

    E-print Network

    Jamal, Anisa

    2011-06-29

    A speaker’s disfluencies (such as ums and ers) have effects on a listener’s immediate understanding and lasting representation of an utterance. One suggested effect is that disfluencies heighten listeners’ attention to ...

  11. Kids' ER Visits for Medicine Overdoses Dropping: Report

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_154521.html Kids' ER Visits for Medicine Overdoses Dropping: Report Education, prevention messages, safer packaging ... of emergency room visits involved ingestion of one medicine. Nearly half involved prescription pills, tablets or capsules. ...

  12. Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sunghwan

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers ...

  13. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1? and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1? secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1? secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of inflammation-mediated liver injury in chronic liver diseases. Inhibition of ER-dependent inflammasome activation and cell death pathways may represent a potential therapeutic approach in chronic liver diseases. PMID:26355342

  14. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death.

    PubMed

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1? and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1? secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1? secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of inflammation-mediated liver injury in chronic liver diseases. Inhibition of ER-dependent inflammasome activation and cell death pathways may represent a potential therapeutic approach in chronic liver diseases. PMID:26355342

  15. Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Memantine ER/Donepezil: A Review in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    A once-daily, fixed-dose combination of memantine extended-release (ER)/donepezil 28/10 mg (Namzaric™) is available in the USA for patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) on stable memantine and donepezil therapy. The fixed-dose formulation is bioequivalent to coadministration of the individual drugs. In a 24-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate to severe AD, addition of memantine ER 28 mg once daily to stable cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, global clinical status, dementia behaviour and semantic processing ability, although between-group differences on a measure of daily function did not significantly differ. In subgroup analyses in donepezil-treated patients, add-on memantine ER was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, dementia behaviour and semantic processing, although there were no significant between-group differences on measures of global clinical status and daily function. Memantine ER plus ChEI combination therapy was generally well tolerated in the phase III trial, with diarrhoea, dizziness and influenza occurring at least twice as often with add-on memantine ER as add-on placebo in donepezil-treated patients. Thus, memantine ER plus donepezil combination therapy is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with moderate to severe AD. The fixed-dose combination is potentially more convenient than coadministration of the individual agents. PMID:26519339

  19. Hepatoprotective role of Sestrin2 against chronic ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Insook; Semple, Ian A.; Kim, David N.; Kim, Myungjin; Nam, Myeongjin; Zhang, Deqiang; Yin, Lei; Lee, Jun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBP?). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically-induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in liver of WT mice, can provoke Sestrin2-deficient mice to develop severe ER stress-associated liver pathologies such as extensive liver damage, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. These pathologies are suppressed by liver-specific Sestrin2 reconstitution, mTORC1 inhibition or chemical chaperone administration. The Sestrin2-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) may be a general protective mechanism against ER stress-associated diseases. PMID:24947615

  20. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    SciTech Connect

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-06-25

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-L{alpha}, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  1. Visiting the ER: the endoplasmic reticulum as a target for therapeutics in traffic related diseases.

    PubMed

    Aridor, Meir

    2007-08-10

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central processor that controls the expression of functional proteins, required for the communication of the cell with the external environment. Plasma membranes receptors, ion channels, secreted hormones, catabolic and metabolic enzymes are folded and assembled in the ER. Key metabolic functions are also regulated from the ER. Molecular quality control monitors ER processing activities and co-ordinates these activities with cell and organism demands. Recent understandings of the molecular basis for ER processing activities illuminate the key role of the ER in the development of a variety of diseases. ER derived diseases include specific genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis or highly prevalent diseases including diabetes and a range of neurodegenerative diseases. ER processing also plays a key role in the development of cancer. This review summarizes the molecular basis for ER processing functions and current avenues in ER-targeted drug development. PMID:17681635

  2. ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

  3. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 ?s at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 ?m diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was used during irradiation, there was a high chance that the veneer would fractured during debonding. However if samples were not stored in water and only air spray was used, 75% of the veneers could be removed without any fracture. The use of an Er:YAG laser can be effective in not only debonding porcelain veneers and preserving tooth structure, but also in maintaining veneer integrity.

  4. ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

  5. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3?mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits. PMID:25359175

  6. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  7. ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts estrogen-signaling through up-regulation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2013-07-15

    ?(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that ?(9)-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17?-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from ?(9)-THC's ability to inhibit E2-liganded ER? activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) ?(9)-THC up-regulates ER?, a repressor of ER?, inhibiting the expression of E2/ER?-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) ?(9)-THC induction of ER? modulates E2/ER? signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that ?(9)-THC's antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ER? disruption of E2/ER? signaling. PMID:23718638

  8. HDLs Protect Pancreatic ?-Cells Against ER Stress by Restoring Protein Folding and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pétremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W.; Waeber, Gérard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect ?-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect ?-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote ?-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on ?-cells against ER stress-inducing factors. PMID:22399686

  9. Microtensile bond strength analysis of adhesive systems to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Moretto, Simone Gonçalves; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments (control, diamond bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser) on sound dentin surface morphology and on microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Sixteen dentin fragments were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?4), and different surface treatments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Ninety-six third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n?=?12) according to type of surface treatment and adhesive system: G1 = Control + Clearfil SE Bond (SE); G2 = Control + Single Bond (SB); G3 = diamond bur (DB) + SE; G4 = DB + SB, G5 = Er:YAG laser (2.94 ?m, 60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/cm(2)) + SE; G6 = Er:YAG + SB, G7 = Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 ?m, 50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/cm(2)) + SE; and G8 = Er,Cr:YSGG + SB. Composite blocks were bonded to the samples, and after 24-h storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to ?TBS test. Bond strength values (in megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (??=?0.05). G1 (54.69?±?7.8 MPa) showed the highest mean, which was statistically significantly higher than all the other groups (p?Er,Cr:YSGG treatment, in which the systems did not differ statistically from each other. Based on the irradiation parameters considered in this study, it can be concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation presented lower values than the control group; however, their association with self-etching adhesive does not have a significantly negative effect on sound dentin (?TBS values of >20 MPa). PMID:23354743

  10. Elevated Oestrogen Receptor Splice Variant ER??5 Expression in Tumour-adjacent Hormone-responsive Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Siân E.; Patel, Imran I.; Singh, Paras B.; Nicholson, Caroline M.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Gopala Krishna, R. K.; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to prostate or endometrial cancer is linked with obesity, a state of oestrogen excess. Oestrogen receptor (ER) splice variants may be responsible for the tissue-level of ER activity. Such micro-environmental regulation may modulate cancer initiation and/or progression mechanisms. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ER??3, ER??5, ER?2 and ER?5), plus the full-length parent isoforms ER? and ER?1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10) or endometrial cancer (n = 9)] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12) or endometrium (n = 9)], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12) vs. Indian (n = 15) benign prostate. All three tissue groups expressed the ER splice variants at similar levels, apart from ER??5. This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis for ER?2 in prostate tissue demonstrated that such splice variants are present in comparable, if not greater, amounts as the parent full-length isoform. This small pilot study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of ER splice variants in these tissue sites and suggests that ER??5 may be involved in progression of prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:21139866

  11. Luminescence enhancement in AlN(Er) by hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Hoemmerich, U.; Wu, X.; Wilson, R.G.; Schwartz, R.N.; Zavada, J.M.; Ren, F.

    1997-09-01

    Room-temperature Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence increases of a factor of 5 are observed for AlN(Er) samples treated in a {sup 2}H plasma at 200{degree}C for 30 min. The atomic deuterium passivates defects in the AlN, which normally provide alternative carrier recombination routes. Postdeuteration annealing at 300{degree}C for 20 min removes the luminescence enhancement by depassivating the nonradiative centers. The AlN(Er) provides a high degree of resistance to thermal quenching of luminescence as a function of temperature because of its wide band gap (6.2 eV), and hydrogenation is a simple method for maximizing the optical output in this materials system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. An ER-based Framework for Declarative Web Programming

    E-print Network

    Hanus, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We describe a framework to support the implementation of web-based systems intended to manipulate data stored in relational databases. Since the conceptual model of a relational database is often specified as an entity-relationship (ER) model, we propose to use the ER model to generate a complete implementation in the declarative programming language Curry. This implementation contains operations to create and manipulate entities of the data model, supports authentication, authorization, session handling, and the composition of individual operations to user processes. Furthermore, the implementation ensures the consistency of the database w.r.t. the data dependencies specified in the ER model, i.e., updates initiated by the user cannot lead to an inconsistent state of the database. In order to generate a high-level declarative implementation that can be easily adapted to individual customer requirements, the framework exploits previous works on declarative database programming and web user interface construct...

  13. Update on the NASA ER-2 Doppler radar system (EDOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Dod, Louis R.; Miller, Lee; Craner, Michael; Vandemark, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An update on the development status of EDOP, a dual-beam Doppler weather radar to be flown on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, is presented. The EDOP system is an X-band Doppler radar with a dual-beam configuration in the ER-2 nose, such that one beam is nadir pointing and the other at an angle of 35 deg forward of the nadir. The dual beams, as used on ELDORA, directed at, e.g., 20 deg fore and aft of the normal to the fuselage, require only a linear rather than L-shaped flight pattern to compute air motions. On the ER-2, EDOP will essentially map out high-resolution time-height sections of reflectivity and vertical hydrometeor velocity from the nadir beam. Flying EDOP with other ground-based and airborne radars will also provide a more complete picture of the overall 3D precipitation and hydrometeor structure of storms.

  14. Crosstalk between ER stress and immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kepp, Oliver; Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Locher, Clara; Adjemian, Sandy; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Martins, Isabelle; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Michaud, Michael; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical findings suggest that tumor-specific immune responses may be responsible--at least in part--for the clinical success of therapeutic regimens that rely on immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers, including anthracyclines and oxaliplatin. The molecular pathways whereby some, but not all, cytotoxic agents promote bona fide ICD remain to be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, a central role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been revealed in all scenarios of ICD described thus far. Hence, components of the ER stress machinery may constitute clinically relevant druggable targets for the induction of ICD. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in the field of ICD research with a special focus on ER stress mechanisms and their implication for cancer therapy. PMID:23787159

  15. Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGF–VEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

  16. The Role of ER Bodies in Brassicaceae Resistance under Clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, S. M.; Kordyum, E. L.

    2013-02-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3– and 7–day old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. In the same time there were some differences in the ultrustructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time, the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivative of granular endoplasmic reticulum and contain a ?-glucosidase enzyme, to the influence of simulated microgravity that was demonstrated by increasing quantity and area of ER-bodies per cell section, as well as by higher variability of their shape under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of obtained data, a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is discussed.

  17. Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    2008-11-11

    The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

  18. Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J.

    2008-11-01

    The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of ? spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45? in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in 157,158,160Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65?. This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

  19. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ER ?-Mannosidase: A Reevaluation of the Role of the Enzyme on ER-associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Movsichoff, Federico; Castro, Olga A.; Parodi, Armando J.

    2005-01-01

    It has been postulated that creation of Man8GlcNAc2 isomer B (M8B) by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ?-mannosidase I constitutes a signal for driving irreparably misfolded glycoproteins to proteasomal degradation. Contrary to a previous report, we were able to detect in vivo (but not in vitro) an extremely feeble ER ?-mannosidase activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The enzyme yielded M8B on degradation of Man9GlcNAc2 and was inhibited by kifunensin. Live S. pombe cells showed an extremely limited capacity to demannosylate Man9GlcNAc2 present in misfolded glycoproteins even after a long residence in the ER. In addition, no preferential degradation of M8B-bearing species was detected. Nevertheless, disruption of the ?-mannosidase encoding gene almost totally prevented degradation of a misfolded glycoprotein. This and other conflicting reports may be best explained by assuming that the role of ER mannosidase on glycoprotein degradation is independent of its enzymatic activity. The enzyme, behaving as a lectin binding polymannose glycans of varied structures, would belong together with its enzymatically inactive homologue Htm1p/Mnl1p/EDEM, to a transport chain responsible for delivering irreparably misfolded glycoproteins to proteasomes. Kifunensin and 1-deoxymannojirimycin, being mannose homologues, would behave as inhibitors of the ER mannosidase or/and Htm1p/Mnl1p/EDEM putative lectin properties. PMID:16079177

  20. ERS-1 scatterometer measurements over the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freilich, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Backscatter cross section measurements from the ERS-1 Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) scatterometer were reprocessed to vector winds using the Freilich-Dunbar model function and a meteorologically aided ambiguity removal scheme. This consistent data set was used to examine the wind field over the Southern Ocean from 20 to 60 deg South. The large number of ERS-1 measurements allows relatively accurate calculation of annual mean wind, stress, and curl fields as well as overall statistics of the winds at mid to high southern latitudes. The long duration of the data time series allows preliminary examination of low frequency (semi annual) wind variability.

  1. Ocean wind field measurement performance of the ERS-1 scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans, P.; Schuessler, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Microwave Instrumentation (AMI), which will be implemented on the ERS-1, is a 5.3 GHz multipurpose radar for land surface imaging, ocean wave spectrum measurement and wind observations over oceans. The imaging and wave measurements apply Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques, while wind field detection is performed by the Scatterometer as part of the AMI. The Scatterometer system design was developed and optimized with the aid of a performance simulator. This paper, aimed at giving an overview, is presented about the: (1) ERS-1 Scatterometer system design; (2) Error budget; and the (3) Overall calibration concept.

  2. ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

    2011-12-01

    The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

  3. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

  4. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1979. He has accumulated more than 5,800 hours of flying time over a period of 33 years and is currently the oldest active U-2/ER-2 pilot.

  5. Clinical highlights from the 2011 ERS Congress in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Spruit, Martijn A.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Herth, Felix J.F.; Poletti, Venerino; Ley, Sebastian; Burghuber, Otto C.; Clini, Enrico; Cottin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on selected papers pertinent to the most important clinical problems in the field of respiratory medicine. Expert authors from the Clinical Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have selected updated reports related to presentations given at the 2011 ERS Annual Congress, which was held in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and attended by more than 20,000 participants. The hot topics and selected abstracts from the scientific groups of the Clinical Assembly are discussed here in the context of recent literature. PMID:22408196

  6. Data for the effects of ER and Golgi stresses on the ER-Golgi SNARE Syntaxin5 expression and on the ?APP processing in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kei; Saito, Ayako; Mishima, Tatsuya; Akagawa, Kimio

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the data for the effects of organelle stresses on the ER-Golgi-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (ER-Golgi SNAREs) syntaxin 5 (Syx5) in neuronal cells. Quantitative as well as qualitative data are presented here to verify the upregulation of Syntaxin 5 (Syx5) under ER and Golgi stresses in hippocampal neurons. Changes in the processing of ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) under ER stress were analyzed by immunological assays. In addition, our data shows the specific increase of Syx5 expression under ER and Golgi stresses. Interpretation of our data and further extensive insights into the role of Syx5 in ?APP processing under organelle stress can be found in "ER and Golgi stresses increase ER-Golgi SNARE Syntaxin5: Implications for organelle stress and ?APP processing" [1]. PMID:26504892

  7. Data for the effects of ER and Golgi stresses on the ER–Golgi SNARE Syntaxin5 expression and on the ?APP processing in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Kei; Saito, Ayako; Mishima, Tatsuya; Akagawa, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the data for the effects of organelle stresses on the ER–Golgi-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (ER–Golgi SNAREs) syntaxin 5 (Syx5) in neuronal cells. Quantitative as well as qualitative data are presented here to verify the upregulation of Syntaxin 5 (Syx5) under ER and Golgi stresses in hippocampal neurons. Changes in the processing of ?-amyloid precursor protein (?APP) under ER stress were analyzed by immunological assays. In addition, our data shows the specific increase of Syx5 expression under ER and Golgi stresses. Interpretation of our data and further extensive insights into the role of Syx5 in ?APP processing under organelle stress can be found in "ER and Golgi stresses increase ER-Golgi SNARE Syntaxin5: Implications for organelle stress and ?APP processing" [1]. PMID:26504892

  8. Effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on dentine hypersensitivity. Short-term clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2012-07-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful condition and is a clinical challenge due to the different treatment strategies available. High-intensity lasers have been studied as a possible option. The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study was to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on DH. The study group comprised 28 subjects who met the inclusion criteria. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify sensitivity before treatment as baseline, immediately before and immediately after treatment, and 1 week and 1 month after treatment. Teeth were assigned to four groups: group 1 control (no treatment), group 2 Er:YAG laser treatment (2 Hz/32.4 mJ/5.9 J/cm(2)), group 3 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.25 W/4.4 J/cm(2)), and group 4 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.50 W/ 8.9 J/cm(2)). Data were collected and submitted to statistical analysis for both evaporative (air) and mechanical (probe) stimulation. For both the air and probe stimulation no differences were observed between the pretreatment sensitivities. With the evaporative stimulus, the pain level immediately after treatment was reduced; however, after this the values remained stable. Irradiation with the Er:YAG laser was associated with the lowest level of pain. With the mechanical stimulus, group 4 showed the most pronounced decrease in pain immediately after treatment; however, by the end of the study, pain levels had increased. Groups 1, 2 and 3 showed a reduction in pain that was significantly different from that in group 4 after the 4 weeks of clinical follow up. Based on the results and within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that none of the laser treatments studied was capable of completely eliminating pain, but the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are suitable for the treatment of DH. PMID:21912983

  9. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2011-12-01

    This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

  10. Estrogen receptor ? exon 3-deleted mouse: The importance of non-ERE pathways in ER? signaling

    PubMed Central

    Maneix, Laure; Antonson, Per; Humire, Patricia; Rochel-Maia, Sabrina; Castañeda, Jessica; Omoto, Yoko; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    In 1998, an estrogen receptor ? (ER?) knockout (KO) mouse was created by interrupting the gene at the DNA binding domain (DBD) with a neocassette. The mutant females were subfertile and there were abnormalities in the brain, prostate, lung, colon, and immune system. In 2008, another ER? mutant mouse was generated by deleting ER? exon 3 which encodes the first zinc finger in the DBD. The female mice of this strain were unable to ovulate but were otherwise normal. The differences in the phenotypes of the two KO strains, have led to questions about the physiological function of ER?. In the present study, we created an ER? exon 3-deleted mouse (ER?-?ex3) and confirmed that the only observable defect was anovulation. Despite the two in-frame stop codons introduced by splicing between exons 2 and 4, an ER? protein was expressed in nuclei of prostate epithelial cells. Using two different anti-ER? antibodies, we showed that an in-frame ligand binding domain and C terminus were present in the ER?-?ex3 protein. Moreover, with nuclear extracts from ER?-?ex3 prostates, there was an ER?-dependent retardation of migration of activator protein-1 response elements in EMSA. Unlike the original knockout mouse, expression of Ki67, androgen receptor, and Dachshund-1 in prostate epithelium was not altered in the ER?-?ex3 mouse. We conclude that very little of ER? transcriptional activity depends on binding to classical estrogen response elements (EREs). PMID:25848008

  11. Estrogen receptor alpha-36 (ER-?36): A new player in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yi; Yin, Li

    2015-12-15

    Prevailing wisdom is that estrogen receptor (ER)-? mediated genomic estrogen signaling is responsible for estrogen-stimulated cell proliferation and development of ER-positive breast cancer. However, accumulating evidence indicates that another estrogen signaling pathway, non-genomic or rapid estrogen signaling, also plays an important role in mitogenic estrogen signaling. Previously, our laboratory cloned a 36?kDa variant of ER-?, ER-?36, and found that ER-?36 is mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. ER-?36 mediates rapid estrogen signaling and inhibits genomic estrogen signaling. In this review, we review and update the biological function of ER-?36 in ER-positive and -negative breast cancer, breast cancer stem/progenitor cells and tamoxifen resistance, potential interaction and cross-talk of ER-?36 with other ERs and growth factor receptors, and intracellular pathways of ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling. The potential function and underlying mechanism of ER-? in development of ER-positive breast cancer will also be discussed. PMID:25917453

  12. Total antioxidant status in plasma of breast cancer patients in relation to ER? expression

    PubMed Central

    Murawa, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Po?om, Karol; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAS) in breast cancer patients in relation to ER? expression. Material and methods The study group consisted of newly diagnosed consecutive female breast cancer patients (n = 41) and controls (n = 28) randomly selected from women with benign breast disease. TAS was determined with the ABTS reagent. Immunostaining for ER? was performed using polyclonal antibodies. ER?, PgR and HER-2 were measured routinely (immunostaining for ER? and PgR with monoclonal antibodies and EnVision detection system; immunohistochemical method/FISH for HER-2 expression). Results The plasma TAS was significantly decreased in the breast cancer patients in comparison to the controls independently of hormonal and lymph node status. The TAS level was not significantly different between breast cancer subgroups either in relation to the ER? expression (ER?+ vs. ER?–) or considering the steroid receptor status (ER?+, ER?+, Pg+ vs. ER?+, ER?–, Pg+) even in the selected lymph node negative subgroup. Similarly, HER-2 expression did not significantly affect the TAS concentration. A tendency towards higher TAS level in all ER? negative breast cancer subgroups was observed. Conclusions The results might confirm enhanced consumption of plasma antioxidants in breast cancer patients. The determination of ER? isoforms along with parameters of redox status might enable better understanding of their mutual influence. PMID:24592136

  13. Progress in Polar Oceans Research Using ERS-1 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.

    1994-01-01

    Data from ERS-1, especially from the AMI Image Mode, or SAR, have been particularly useful in providing data on ice type and motion and oceanic mesoscale features. These data have been used in studies of ocean and ice circulation, climate processes, convection, and have also proved useful in support of operations in ice covered seas.

  14. The Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    The Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G. Long Department evidence of rain surface per- turbation in recent studies of surface radar backscatter, the rain effects, and ECMWF data, we develop a low-order wind/rain backscatter model with inputs surface rain rate, incidence

  15. Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G: nie@mers.byu.edu Abstract--Using collocated ESCAT, TRMM PR, and ECMWF data, the effects of rain scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

  16. Vesicle-mediated ER export of proteins and lipids

    PubMed Central

    Gillon, Amanda D.; Latham, Catherine F.; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major site of synthesis of both lipids and proteins, many of which must be transported to other organelles. The COPII coat – comprised of Sar1, Sec23/24, Sec13/31 - generates transport vesicles that mediate the bulk of protein/lipid export from the ER. The coat exhibits remarkable flexibility in its ability to specifically select and accommodate a large number of cargoes with diverse properties. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of COPII vesicle production and describe recent advances that further our understanding of just how flexible COPII cargo recruitment and vesicle formation may be. Large or bulky cargo molecules (eg. collagen rods and lipoprotein particles) exceed the canonical size for COPII vesicles and seem to rely on the additional action of recently identified accessory molecules. Although the bulk of research has focused on the fate of protein cargo, the mechanisms and regulation of lipid transport is equally critical to cellular survival. From their site of synthesis in the ER, phospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols exit the ER, either accompanying cargo in vesicles or directly across the cytoplasm shielded by lipid transfer proteins. Finally, we highlight the current challenges to the field in addressing the physiological regulation of COPII vesicle production and the molecular details of how diverse cargoes, both proteins and lipids, are accommodated. PMID:22265716

  17. Comp 5311 Database Management Systems 1. Entity Relationship (ER) Model

    E-print Network

    Papadias, Dimitris

    We want to create database for a bank in which we store: · Customers (id, name, city). · Accounts1 Comp 5311 Database Management Systems 1. Entity Relationship (ER) Model Exercises #12;2 Example (number, balance) · Loans (number, amount) · Branches (name, city, assets) · Each customer can have any

  18. Plant Ecology VolumE 6, NumbEr 2,

    E-print Network

    Journal of Plant Ecology VolumE 6, NumbEr 2, PagEs 113­121 aPril 2013 doi:10.1093/jpe/rts022. There is an increasing recognition that different types of ecological processes that influence species richness that at small scales (1 m2 or less), ecological interactions are the most important processes controlling plant

  19. Easing scoring in ER and Ki67 breast cancer histopathological

    E-print Network

    stained breast cancer tissue samples. These samples are segmented to isolate the proliferating cells fromEasing scoring in ER and Ki­67 breast cancer histopathological images Gonzalo R. Ríos Muñoz Kongens.imm.dtu.dk IMM-M.Sc.-2012-91 #12;Summary (English) A technique for easing breast cancer scoring

  20. Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos Our work on active vision has by the idea of approaching vision for behavioural systems in the form of modules that are directly related, we present our views about the architecture of vision systems, about how to tackle the design

  1. Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization

    E-print Network

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

  2. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

  3. [Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped germanium bismuthate glass].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Ren, Guo-Zhong; Yang, Qi-Bin; Xu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Yun-Xin; Shang, Zhen-Gang

    2008-05-01

    Er(3+)-Doped Germanium Bismuthate Glass was fabricated and characterized. The absorption spectrum and up-conversion spectrum of glass were studied. The Judd-Oflet intensity parameters omega(t) (t = 2, 4, 6), determined based on Judd-Ofelt theory, were found to be omega2 = 3.35 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 1.34 x 10(-20) cm2, omega6 = 0.67 x 10(-20) cm2. Frequency up-conversion of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glass has been investigated. The up-conversion mechanisms are discussed under 808 nm and 980 nm excitation. Stimulated emission cross-section of 4I(13/2) --> 4I(15/2) transition was calculated by McCumber theory. Compared to other host glasses, the emission property of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glasses has advantage over those of silicate, phosphate and germinate glasses. Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuth glasses are promising upconversion optical and optic-communication materials. PMID:18720787

  4. Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, M. D.; Sibley, W. A.; Drexhage, M. G.; Brown, R. N.

    1983-06-01

    Optical-absorption, -emission, and -excitation spectra are presented for Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass. Measured oscillator strengths of the transitions between J manifolds at 300 and 15 K are compared with calculated electric and magnetic dipole oscillator strengths. Radiative rates for five luminescing states were calculated. The nonradiative rates from these excited states were determined by calculating the difference between the measured rates and the calculated radiative rates. The low-temperature nonradiative rates are in agreement with the phenomenological energy-gap law followed by rare-earth ions in a number of crystals and glasses. The temperature dependence of the lifetimes was analyzed using the Huang-Rhys theory of multiphonon emission. Values for the 4I112 radiative and nonradiative rates obtained by the above methods are compared with those obtained applying the method Flaherty and DiBartolo used to study MnF2: Er3+. The multiphonon emission rates in fluorozirconate glass are much lower than the rates for the same levels of Er3+ in oxide glasses. Measurements of the bandwidths of the ground and excited states of Er3+ and the nearly exponential decay of the emissions indicate a relatively narrow distribution of site symmetries compared to oxide glasses.

  5. The bi-join decomposition Fabien de Montgol er

    E-print Network

    Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7

    The bi-join decomposition Fabien de Montgol#28;er LIAFA, Université Paris 7, France fm@liafa.jussieu.fr Michaël Rao LITA, Université de Metz, France rao@sciences.univ-metz.fr 1 Introduction Graph decompositions are widely used in graph algorithm and graph theory. Well-known examples are Modular Decomposition, and its

  6. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

  7. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  8. Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People in the ER, Especially Young Males Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, ... on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)—often called “Spice” or “K2”—has become ...

  9. Minority Patients in ER Less Likely to Get Painkillers for Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Patients in ER Less Likely to Get Painkillers for Abdominal Pain ER waits are also longer ... to 30 percent less likely to receive narcotic painkillers. Overall, pain medications were given to 57 percent ...

  10. Description of Rotation Bands in 157,158Er at Ultrahigh Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Li

    2008-12-01

    Properties of the four rotation bands, 157Er(1,2) and 158Er(1,2), at ultrahigh spin are investigated within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the ?-ray energies and the dynamical moments of inertia in the rotation bands in 157Er and 158Er at ultrahigh spin are obtained. We theoretically predict that the competition between the anti-pairing and pairing effects may exist in 157Er(1,2) and 158Er(2) bands states. In 158Er(1) band state, the favoure-pairing effects may exist and the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry play a dominant role. There may be sphere coexisting with headecupole deformed in 158Er(1) rotation band state.

  11. 78 FR 4857 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant, Form I-360; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection...Collection: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable...

  12. 75 FR 48281 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-900ER Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...reported on any Model 737-900ER series airplanes, damage tolerance analysis shows potential for Model 737-900ER series airplanes...AMOC applies, notify your principal maintenance inspector (PMI) or principal avionics inspector (PAI), as...

  13. Mitofusin 2 in POMC neurons connects ER stress with leptin resistance and energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastián, David; Imbernón, Mónica; Castaño, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodríguez, Ignacio Castrillón; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

    2013-09-26

    Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establish MFN2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for MFN2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

  14. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows views of the ER-2, NASA's Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing. The presentation briefly reviews the successes of the ER-2, and what the facility provides.

  15. [Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ in Er3+ /Yb3+ co-doped LiNbO3 crystal].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dun-Chun; Zhang, De-Long; Cui, Yu-Ming; Chen, Cai-He

    2005-12-01

    At room temperature, alpha-polarized absorption spectra of as-grown and annealed Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped, Z-cut LiNbO3 single crystals, grown by using Czochralski method, were measured in the wavelength range of 300-1 650 nm. The spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were analysed by using Judd-Ofelt theory. The experimental values of the electron transition strengths of several major transitions from the ground state to excited-state manifolds were evaluated from the measured integrated absorption coefficients of Er3+. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were determined by using least square method. According to the fitted Judd-Ofelt parameters, the spontaneous emission rates, the fluorescence branch ratios from the excited-state manifolds J to the lower-lying manifolds J', as well as the radiative lifetimes of the excited states were numerically calculated. In addition, Yb3+ co-doping and thermal anneal effects on the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ were also considered in this work. PMID:16544470

  16. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 regulates Sec16A at ER exit sites to allow ER–Golgi export

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Jin; Yu, Jia; Xie, Chengsong; Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Chen, Xi; Wu, Junbing; Parisiadou, Loukia; Liu, Guoxiang; Sun, Lixin; Ma, Bo; Ding, Jinhui; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Huaibin

    2014-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other disorders. However, its normal physiological functions and pathogenic properties remain elusive. Here we show that LRRK2 regulates the anterograde ER–Golgi transport through anchoring Sec16A at the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES). LRRK2 interacted and co-localized with Sec16A, a key protein in the formation of ERES. Lrrk2 depletion caused a dispersion of Sec16A from ERES and impaired ER export. In neurons, LRRK2 and Sec16A showed extensive co-localization at the dendritic ERES (dERES) that locally regulate the transport of proteins to the dendritic spines. A loss of Lrrk2 affected the association of Sec16A with dERES and impaired the activity-dependent targeting of glutamate receptors onto the cell/synapse surface. Furthermore, the PD-related LRRK2 R1441C missense mutation in the GTPase domain interfered with the interaction of LRRK2 with Sec16A and also affected ER–Golgi transport, while LRRK2 kinase activity was not required for these functions. Therefore, our findings reveal a new physiological function of LRRK2 in ER–Golgi transport, suggesting ERES dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25201882

  17. Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining

    E-print Network

    Dalkilic, Mehmet

    Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining Mehmet M. Dalkilic a coherent framework for data mining in the relational model. Observing that data mining depends on two. The classi er indicates the target of the data mining investigation. The classi er may be di cult to express

  18. Mice expressing GFP and CreER in osteochondro progenitor cells in the periosteum

    E-print Network

    Mice expressing GFP and CreER in osteochondro progenitor cells in the periosteum Aya Kawanami GFP CreER Tamoxifen Osteochondro progenitor Fracture healing a b s t r a c t We generated Prx1CreER-GFP transgenic mice that express tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and GFP under the control of a 2.4 kb Prx1

  19. Glyceollins and dehydroglyceollins isolated from soybean act as SERMs and ER subtype-selective phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    van de Schans, Milou G M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Hamers, Astrid R M; Bovee, Toine F H; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    Seven prenylated 6a-hydroxy-pterocapans and five prenylated 6a,11a-pterocarpenes with different kinds of prenylation were purified from an ethanolic extract of fungus-treated soybean sprouts. The activity of these compounds toward both human estrogen receptors (hER? and hER?) was determined in a yeast bioassay and the activity toward hER? was additionally tested in an U2-OS based hER? CALUX bioassay. In the yeast bioassay, compounds with chain prenylation showed in general an agonistic mode of action toward hER?, whereas furan and pyran prenylation led to an antagonistic mode of action. Five of these antagonistic compounds had an agonistic mode of action in the U2-OS based hER? CALUX bioassay, implying that these compounds can act as SERMs. The yeast bioassay also identified 8 ER subtype-selective compounds, with either an antagonistic mode of action or no response toward hER? and an agonistic mode of action toward hER?. The ER subtype-selective compounds were characterized by 6a-hydroxy-pterocarpan or 6a,11a-pterocarpene backbone structure. It is suggested that either the extra D-ring or the increase in length to 12-13.5Å of these compounds is responsible for an agonistic mode of action toward hER? and, thereby, inducing ER subtype-selective behavior. PMID:26655113

  20. Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

  1. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  2. Photoluminescence of Gd2O3:Er – based materials for conversion of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Yu A.; Zatsepin, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    The spectral and luminescence properties of Er3+ activated Gd2O3 compacted powders have been investigated. There are several excitation channels of Er3+ luminescence: interband transitions, the energy transfer from Gd3+ ions and intracenter excitation. The quantum efficiency of the Er3+ ions luminescence under different excitation was calculated.

  3. 20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A claimant will have the...

  4. 20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A claimant will have the...

  5. 20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Divorced Spouse, Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A claimant will have the...

  6. ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter

    E-print Network

    Walter, Peter

    ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter Department is localized to the luminal (i.e., noncytoplasmic) face of the ER mem- brane, yet nuclear fusion must initiate of Sec63p, Sec71p, and Sec72p plays a central role in mediating nuclear mem- brane fusion and requires ER

  7. Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases are inserted co-translationally into the ER and contain different ER retrieval motifs at their carboxy termini.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Andrew W; Dyer, John M; Dhanoa, Preetinder K; Kim, Peter K; Andrews, David W; McNew, James A; Mullen, Robert T

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a prominent role in plant lipid metabolism and are located in various subcellular compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate the biogenesis of ER-localized membrane-bound FADs, we characterized the mechanisms responsible for insertion of Arabidopsis FAD2 and Brassica FAD3 into ER membranes and determined the molecular signals that maintain their ER residency. Using in vitro transcription/translation reactions with ER-derived microsomes, we show that both FAD2 and FAD3 are efficiently integrated into membranes by a co-translational, translocon-mediated pathway. We also demonstrate that while the C-terminus of FAD3 (-KSKIN) contains a functional prototypic dilysine ER retrieval motif, FAD2 contains a novel C-terminal aromatic amino acid-containing sequence (-YNNKL) that is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining localization in the ER. Co-expression of a membrane-bound reporter protein containing the FAD2 C-terminus with a dominant-negative mutant of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)1 abolished transient localization of the reporter protein in the Golgi, indicating that the FAD2 peptide signal acts as an ER retrieval motif. Mutational analysis of the FAD2 ER retrieval signal revealed a sequence-specific motif consisting of Phi-X-X-K/R/D/E-Phi-COOH, where -Phi- are large hydrophobic amino acid residues. Interestingly, this aromatic motif was present in a variety of other known and putative ER membrane proteins, including cytochrome P450 and the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex10p. Taken together, these data describe the insertion and retrieval mechanisms of FADs and define a new ER localization signal in plants that is responsible for the retrieval of escaped membrane proteins back to the ER. PMID:14690501

  8. Absorption cross section for the 4 I 15/2 ? 4 I 13/2 transition of Er3+ in Si:Er:O/SOI epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Krasil'nikova, L. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Andreev, B. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.

    2015-02-01

    Optical losses caused by the interaction of radiation with optically active Er3+ ions in epitaxial waveguide structures Si:Er/SOI have been directly measured. The cross section for the 4 I 13/2 ? 4 I 15/2 radiative transition in the Er3+ ion has been estimated as ?300 K ˜ 8 × 10-19 cm2 at T = 300 K and ?10 K ˜ 10-17 cm2 at T = 10 K.

  9. Estradiol-17?, and its CYP450- and COMT-Derived Metabolites Stimulate Proliferation in Uterine Artery ECs: Role of ER-? vs. ER-?

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Sheikh O.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Koch, Jill M.; Jiang, Yizhou; Zheng, Jing; Magness, Ronald R

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol-17? and its metabolites which are sequentially synthesized by cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to form 2 and 4-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2) and 2- and 4-Methoxestradiol (2-ME2, and 4-ME2) are elevated during pregnancy. We investigated whether CYP450s and COMT are expressed in uterine artery endothelial cells (UAECs) and if E2? and its metabolites modulate cell proliferation via ER-? and/or ER-? and play roles in physiologic uterine angiogenesis during pregnancy. Cultured ovine UAECs from pregnant (P-UAECs) and nonpregnant (NP-UAECs) ewes were treated with 0.1-100 nmol/L of E2?, 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, 2-ME2, and 4-ME2. ER-? or ER-? specificity was tested using ICI 182,780, ER-?-specific MPP, ER-? –specific PHTPP antagonists and their respective agonists ER-?-specific PPT and ER-? –specific DPN. Angiogenesis was evaluated using BrdU Proliferation Assay. Utilizing confocal microscopy and Western analyses to determine enzyme location and levels, we observed CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4 and COMT expression in UAECs; however, expressions were similar between NP-UAECs and P-UAECs. E2?, 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, and 4-ME2 treatments concentration-dependently stimulated proliferation in P-UAECs, but not NP-UAECs; 2-ME2 did not stimulate proliferation in either cell type. Proliferative responses of P-UAECs to E2? were solely mediated by ER-?, whereas responses to E2? metabolites were neither ER-? nor ER-? mediated. We demonstrate an important vascular role for E2?, its CYP450- and COMT-derived metabolites and ER-? in uterine angiogenesis regulation during pregnancy that may be dysfunctional in preeclampsia and other cardiovascular disorders. PMID:20212268

  10. Overexpression of ER? is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ER? specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ER? transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ER? is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) ? is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ER? suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ER? specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ER? positive PC3 cells and ER? transfected MCF-7 cells. ER? specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ER? specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ER? transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ER? was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ER? significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ER?. This result shows that unliganded ER? is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  11. Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P.; Venkatramu, V.; Kim, S. H.

    Combustion derived Er3+ -doped Y2O3 and Er3+/Yb3+co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er3+ -doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379 nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er3+ -doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978 nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb3+ addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er3+:Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er3+ -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb3+ ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb3+ ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er3+ has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed.

  12. Comparative analysis of ER stress response into HIV protease inhibitors: lopinavir but not darunavir induces potent ER stress response via ROS/JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Taura, Manabu; Kariya, Ryusho; Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Iwawaki, Takao; Amano, Masayuki; Suico, Mary Ann; Kai, Hirofumi; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okada, Seiji

    2013-12-01

    HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-induced ER stress has been associated with adverse effects. Although it is a serious clinical problem for HIV/AIDS patients, comparative analyses of ER stress induction by clinically used PIs have rarely been done. Especially, there is no report on the differential ER stress response between lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV), although these PIs are the most clinically used PIs. We show here that LPV induces the most potent CHOP expression, ER stress marker, among the 9 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PIs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, several human epithelial cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. LPV induced the most potent ROS production and JNK activation in 9 PIs. A comparison among the most clinically used PIs, ritonavir (RTV), LPV, and DRV, revealed that LPV potently and RTV moderately but not DRV induced ER stress via ROS-dependent JNK activation rather than proteasome inhibition. Finally, we analyzed ER stress induction in tissues of mice intraperitoneally injected with RTV, LPV, and DRV. RTV and LPV but not DRV showed ER stress induction in several mice tissues. In conclusion, we first identify LPV as the most potent ER stress inducing PI among 9 FDA-approved PIs in human cells, and although clinical verification is necessary, we show here that DRV has the advantage of less ROS and ER stress induction potential compared with LPV in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23973637

  13. Quantitative hormone therapy follow-up in an ER+/ER?KD mouse tumor model using FDG and [11C]-methionine PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is known to play an important role in the modulation of tumor response to hormone therapy. In this work, the effect of different hormone therapies on tumors having different ER? expression levels was followed up in vivo in a mouse model by PET imaging using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) and [11C]-methionine ([11C]-MET). A new model of MC7-L1 ER?-knockdown (ER?KD) tumor cell lines was designed as a negative estrogen receptor control to follow up the effects of changes in ER? expression on the early metabolic tumor response to different hormone therapies. Methods MC7-L1 (ER+) and MC7-L1 ER?-knockdown cell lines were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice and allowed to grow up to 4 mm in diameter. Animals were separated into 4 groups (n?=?4 or 5) and treated with a pure antiestrogen (fulvestrant), an aromatase inhibitor (letrozole), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (tamoxifen), or not treated (control). Tumor metabolic activity was assessed by PET imaging with FDG and [11C]-MET at days 0 (before treatment), 7, and 14 after the treatment. Tumor uptake of each radiotracer in %ID/g was measured for each tumor at each time point and compared to tumor growth. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to verify the expression of breast cancer-related genes (ER?, ErbB2, progesterone receptor (PR), and BRCA1) in each tumor cell lines. Results While both ER+ and ER?KD tumors had similar uptake of both radiotracers without treatment, higher uptake values were generally seen in ER?KD tumors after 7 and 14 days of treatment, indicating that ER?KD tumors behave in a similar fashion as hormone-unresponsive tumors. Furthermore, the ER?-specific downregulation induced a slight PR expression decrease and overexpression of BRCA1 and ErbB2. Conclusion The results indicate that the proposed ER+/ER?KD tumor-bearing mouse model is suitable to test pure antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitor therapies in vivo in a preclinical setting and could help to elucidate the impact of ER? levels on tumor response to hormone therapy. PMID:23140372

  14. Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Haritha, P; Venkatramu, V; Kim, S H

    2014-05-21

    Combustion derived Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)co-doped Y2O3 powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser excited spectroscopy. Formation of Y2O3 phosphor was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The vibrational properties of Y2O3 powder was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra of Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders were studied under 379nm excitation. The strong up-conversion luminescence for Er(3+) -doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped Y2O3 powders have been observed under 978nm laser excitation. The effect of Yb(3+) addition on optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):Y2O3 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity has been enhanced when Er(3+) -doped Y2O3 is co-doped with Yb(3+) ions. The effect of co-doping of Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence intensity of Er(3+) has been studied and the mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity is discussed. PMID:24682034

  15. Er:YSGG 1.643{mu} laser at 300K

    SciTech Connect

    Spariosu, K.; Birnbaum, M.; Kokta, M.

    1994-12-31

    The {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} laser action in Er{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}0{sub 12} (Er:YSGG) at room temperature is described. The authors obtained 1.643 {mu}m laser action from a 1cm long 0.7%Er(3%Yb,1%Cr):YSGG crystal with a 20mJ pump threshold and an 8% slope efficiency utilizing an Er:glass 1.532{mu} pump laser. Further work is in progress to improve the Er:YSGG laser performance.

  16. Enhancement of 1536 nm emission of Er doped ZnO nanopowder by Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, Reza; Poor, Hamid-Reza Bahari; Rebelo, Avito; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2014-06-01

    Er, Er-Ag and Er-Mg co-doped ZnO nanopowders were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared samples were studied by XRD and SEM, respectively. The effect of Ag and Mg on visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders have been systematically investigated. We found that Mg did not change the visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders. But, addition of Ag drastically decreases the visible emission and enhances the IR emission at 1536 nm.

  17. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  18. Mitochondrial ER contacts are crucial for mitophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Stefan; Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-02-24

    Damaged and superfluous mitochondria are removed from the cell by selective autophagy, a process termed mitophagy. This serves to maintain the proper quantity and quality of the organelle. Mitophagy is executed by an evolutionarily conserved pathway, many components of which were first discovered and characterized in yeast. In a systematic screen of a yeast deletion collection, we identified ERMES, a complex connecting mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as an important factor contributing to the selective degradation of mitochondria. We show that efficient mitophagy depends on mitochondrial ER tethering. ERMES colocalizes with sites of mitophagosome biogenesis and affects the formation of the isolation membrane that engulfs the organelles destined for degradation. These results provide insights into the cellular mechanisms that govern organelle homeostasis. PMID:24530295

  19. Low Temperature Magnetic Anomalies in Er5Si3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Niharika; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

    2011-07-01

    We present here the results of magnetic measurements on Er5Si3, a compound crystallizing in Mn5Si3 type hexagonal structure. The magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization data reveal that there is a field induced transition near the critical field of 10 kOe below TN. The low field state (ground state) is antiferromagnetic as inferred from the peak in magnetic susceptibility and linear magnetization behavior with field below 10 kOe. It is interesting to note that the paramagnetic Curie temperature is positive with magnitude nearly same as that of TN, suggesting the existence of a strong ferromagnetic component. The saturation magnetization attains a value of 7?B/Er at 1.8 K.

  20. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, T.

    2015-12-01

    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er3+:Y2O3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er (4I11/2?????4I13/2?????4I15/2) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13?W at 1.6 and 2.7 ?m, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ~980?nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime.

  1. Ice sheet topography from retracked ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Dimarzio, John; Seiss, Timothy

    1994-01-01

    An objective of the ERS-1 radar altimeter is to measure the surface topography of the polar ice sheets to a precision on the order of a meter. ERS-1 Waveform Altimeter Product (WAP) data was corrected for several processing errors. A range correction from the WAP waveforms, using the multiparameter retracking algorithm to account for range tracking limitations inherent to radar altimetry, was derived. From crossover analysis, the resulting precision is shown to be about 2.1 m in ocean mode and 2.2 m in ice mode. A topography map, produced with 23 days of corrected data, shows details of the western part of west Antarctic ice sheet and part of the Ross ice shelf including ice divides, ice stream boundaries, and ice shelf grounding lines.

  2. Completion report for well ER-30-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

  3. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-06-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  4. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  5. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped ?-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, T.; Pavlacka, R.; Gilde, G.; Dubinskii, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of comprehensive spectroscopic study of the recently successfully synthesized nanopowders and fully densified transparent ceramics of Er3+-doped ?-Al2O3 (corundum). Fluorescence and excitation spectra in a range of temperatures of 10-300 K were used to infer the energy level schemes of the ground state and the first three excited Er3+ multiplets (4I15/2, 4I13/2, 4I11/2, and 4I9/2) in this material. Obtained experimental data also allowed us to assess this material as a potential gain medium for high power laser applications in anticipation that it becomes available in the low-loss grain-aligned ceramic or single crystalline form in the near future.

  6. ER-2 mountain wave encounter over Antarctica: Evidence for blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Bacmeister, J.T. ); Schoeberl, M.R.; Lait, L.R.; Newman, P.A. ); Gary, B. )

    1990-01-01

    A three dimensional linear model of orographically forced gravity waves (mountain waves) using realistic topography is used to simulate a high altitude (20 km) ER-2 encounter with a large mountain wave over Alexander Island (72{degree}W, 69{degree}-72{degree}S). Reasonable agreement between the linear model and observations is obtained if the effects of low-level flow blocking are taken into account.

  7. Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2014-02-01

    The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

  8. Slug contributes to cancer progression by direct regulation of ER? signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LI, YOUQIANG; WU, YANYUAN; ABBATIELLO, THOMAS C.; WU, WARREN L.; KIM, JU RI; SARKISSYAN, MARIANNA; SARKISSYAN, SUREN; CHUNG, SEYUNG S.; ELSHIMALI, YAHYA; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT V.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the most effective treatment for breast cancer. However, this treatment eventually fails as the tumor develops resistance. Although reduced expression of ER-? is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-? downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. The present study shows that Slug has an inverse relationship with ER? in breast and prostate cancer patient samples. Also the inhibition of Slug blocks mammary stem cell activity in primary mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize that Slug may be a key transcription factor in the regulation of ER? expression. To understand the Slug-ER? signaling pathway, we employed resistant cell line MCF-TAMR (ER? relatively negative) derived from its parental MCF-7 (ER? positive) cell line and assessed changes in cell phenotype, activity and response to therapy. Conversely, we performed knockdown of Slug in the high-Slug expressing cell line MDA-MB-231 and assessed reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype. Microarray analysis showed that Slug is overexpressed in high grade breast and prostate cancer tissues. Additionally, Slug overexpression leads to drug resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slug binds directly to ER? promoter E-boxes and represses ER? expression. This resulted in decrease in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that Slug, by regulation of ER? expression, contributes to tumor progression and could serve as an important target for cancer therapy. PMID:25652255

  9. Slug contributes to cancer progression by direct regulation of ER? signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Youqiang; Wu, Yanyuan; Abbatiello, Thomas C; Wu, Warren L; Kim, Ju Ri; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Sarkissyan, Suren; Chung, Seyung S; Elshimali, Yahya; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-04-01

    Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the most effective treatment for breast cancer. However, this treatment eventually fails as the tumor develops resistance. Although reduced expression of ER-? is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-? downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. The present study shows that Slug has an inverse relationship with ER? in breast and prostate cancer patient samples. Also the inhibition of Slug blocks mammary stem cell activity in primary mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize that Slug may be a key transcription factor in the regulation of ER? expression. To understand the Slug-ER? signaling pathway, we employed resistant cell line MCF-TAMR (ER? relatively negative) derived from its parental MCF-7 (ER? positive) cell line and assessed changes in cell phenotype, activity and response to therapy. Conversely, we performed knockdown of Slug in the high-Slug expressing cell line MDA-MB-231 and assessed reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype. Microarray analysis showed that Slug is overexpressed in high grade breast and prostate cancer tissues. Additionally, Slug overexpression leads to drug resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slug binds directly to ER? promoter E-boxes and represses ER? expression. This resulted in decrease in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that Slug, by regulation of ER? expression, contributes to tumor progression and could serve as an important target for cancer therapy. PMID:25652255

  10. ER Stress-Induced Clearance of Misfolded GPI-Anchored Proteins via the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Ajinkya, Monica; Bhat, Savithri; Itakura, Eisuke; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proteins destined for the cell surface are first assessed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper folding before release into the secretory pathway. This ensures that defective proteins are normally prevented from entering the extracellular environment, where they could be disruptive. Here, we report that, when ER folding capacity is saturated during stress, misfolded glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins dissociate from resident ER chaperones, engage export receptors, and quantitatively leave the ER via vesicular transport to the Golgi. Clearance from the ER commences within minutes of acute ER stress, before the transcriptional component of the unfolded protein response is activated. These aberrant proteins then access the cell surface transiently before destruction in lysosomes. Inhibiting this stress-induced pathway by depleting the ER-export receptors leads to aggregation of the ER-retained misfolded protein. Thus, this rapid response alleviates the elevated burden of misfolded proteins in the ER at the onset of ER stress, promoting protein homeostasis in the ER. PMID:25083867

  11. Effects of site substitutions and concentration on upconversion luminescence of Er(3+)-doped perovskite titanate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Hao, Jianhua; Mak, Chee Leung; Wei, Xianhua

    2011-01-31

    Upconversion photoluminescence (PL) of Er(3+)-doped BaTiO3 (BTO) with perovskite ABO3 structure is studied in terms of Er3+ substitutions for Ba (A-) and Ti (B-site) with different Er3+ doping concentrations. PL quenching with an increase Er3+ doping concentration is investigated based on the structural change and energy transfer of cross-relaxation process in BTO: Er, i.e. (2)H(11/2) + (4)I(15/2) ? (4)I(9/2) + (4)I(13/2). Temperature dependence of the PL in BTO: Er is revealed, which is associated with phase transitions of BTO host. The results imply that the emission from substituted Er3+ ions may be used as a structural probe for the ferroelectric titanates. PMID:21368996

  12. USP14 inhibits ER-associated degradation via interaction with IRE1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Atsushi; Kadowaki, Hisae; Maruyama, Takeshi; Takeda, Kohsuke; Nishitoh, Hideki Ichijo, Hidenori

    2009-02-20

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess the ER quality control systems, the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt to ER stress. IRE1{alpha} is one of the ER stress receptors and mediates the UPR. Here, we identified ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 14 as a binding partner of IRE1{alpha}. USP14 interacted with the cytoplasmic region of IRE1{alpha}, and the endogenous interaction between USP14 and IRE1{alpha} was inhibited by ER stress. Overexpression of USP14 inhibited the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and USP14 depletion by small interfering RNA effectively activated ERAD. These findings suggest that USP14 is a novel player in the UPR by serving as a physiological inhibitor of ERAD under the non-stressed condition.

  13. Donor-State-Enabling Er-Related Luminescence in Silicon: Direct Identification and Resonant Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Izeddin, I.; Klik, M. A. J.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Vinh, N. Q.; Bresler, M. S.

    2007-08-17

    We conclusively establish a direct link between formation of an Er-related donor gap state and the 1.5 {mu}m emission of Er in Si. The experiment is performed on Si/Si ratio Er nanolayers where a single type of Er optical center dominates. We show that the Er emission can be resonantly induced by direct pumping into the bound exciton state of the identified donor. Using two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser we determine the ionization energy of the donor-state-enabling Er excitation as E{sub D}{approx_equal}218 meV. We demonstrate quenching of the Er-related emission upon ionization of the donor.

  14. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

  15. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Charles E. (Bellevue, WA); Furu, Laurence H. (Modesto, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  16. Post examination of copper ER sensors exposed to bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Rosborg, Bo; Legat, Andraž

    2015-04-01

    Copper corrosion in saline solutions under oxic conditions is one of concerns for the early periods of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories. The main aim of the study was to investigate the corrosion behaviour of copper during this oxic period. The corrosion rate of pure copper was measured by means of thin electrical resistance (ER) sensors that were placed in a test package containing an oxic bentonite/saline groundwater environment at room temperature for a period of four years. Additionally, the corrosion rate was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements that were performed on the same ER sensors. By the end of the exposure period the corrosion rate, as estimated by both methods, had dropped to approximately 1.0 ?m/year. The corrosion rate was also estimated by the examination of metallographic cross sections. The post examination tests which were used to determine the type and extent of corrosion products included different spectroscopic techniques (XRD and Raman analysis). It was confirmed that the corrosion rate obtained by means of physical (ER) and electrochemical techniques (EIS) was consistent with that estimated from the metallographic cross section analysis. The corrosion products consisted of cuprous oxide and paratacamite, which was very abundant. From the types of attack it can be concluded that the investigated samples of copper in bentonite underwent uneven general corrosion.

  17. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-02-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

  18. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  19. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  20. Completion report for Well ER-19-1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) project at the NTS. The goals of the UGTA project include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, migration rates, and quality at the NTS. An additional major objective of drilling Well ER-19-1 was to develop dual-wall, reverse-circulation drilling technology for use on small-diameter wells at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

  1. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, A.; Al-Saleh, M.; Azkargorta, J.; Morea, R.; Gonzalo, J.; Arriandiaga, M. A.; Fernandez, J.; Balda, R.

    2013-09-01

    In this work we report the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses in the 46.6TeO2-18.2ZnO-35.2ZnF2 system for different ErF3 concentrations between 0.5 and 3 wt%. Absorption and emission spectra and lifetimes have been measured in the visible and near infrared regions. Judd-Ofelt analysis has been performed to estimate the radiative transition probabilities. The high content of ZnF2 in this glass decreases the covalency degree in rare-earth site and results in a lower value of ?2 if compared with zinc tellurite glasses. The infrared emissions at 1532 nm are broader by nearly 30 nm in these glasses if compared to silica glass. This broad emission together with the high values of the stimulated emission cross-section and lifetime of level 4I13/2 make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. The decays from level 4I13/2 are single exponentials for all concentrations which indicates a fast energy diffusion between Er3+ ions. Similar values for the critical radius and energy transfer microparameter are obtained for the different concentrations, which supports the dipole-dipole transfer hypothesis.

  2. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  3. Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7?×?1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1?×?10-15 cm2/s at 1,250°C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

  4. STIM1 Is a Novel Component of ER-Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites

    PubMed Central

    Agaisse, Hervé; Derré, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs), where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion. Here, we identify STIM1 as a novel component of ER-Inclusion MCSs. STIM1, an ER calcium (Ca2+) sensor that relocate to ER-Plasma Membrane (PM) MCSs upon Ca2+ store depletion, associated with C. trachomatis inclusion. STIM1, but not the general ER markers Rtn3C and Sec61ß, was enriched at the inclusion membrane. Ultra-structural studies demonstrated that STIM1 localized to ER-Inclusion MCSs. Time-course experiments showed that STIM1, CERT and VAPB co-localized throughout the developmental cycle. By contrast, Orai1, the PM Ca2+ channel that interacts with STIM1 at ER-PM MCSs, did not associate with C. trachomatis inclusion. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, a pool of STIM1 relocated to ER-PM MCSs, while the existing ER-Inclusion MCSs remained enriched in STIM1. Finally, we have identified the CAD domain, which mediates STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as the minimal domain required for STIM1 enrichment at ER-Inclusion MCSs. Altogether this study identifies STIM1 as a novel component of ER-C. trachomatis inclusion MCSs. We discuss the potential role(s) of STIM1 during the infection process. PMID:25915399

  5. Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najar, Adel; Omi, Hiroo; Tawara, Takehiko

    2014-07-01

    Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2- x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2- x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2- x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7 × 1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1 × 10-15 cm2/s at 1,250°C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices.

  6. Demineralization of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared enamel cavities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Apel, C; Schäfer, C; Gutknecht, N

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish whether cavity preparation by means of an erbium laser with efficient water cooling is capable of reducing the susceptibility of the prepared dental enamel to demineralization and thus of achieving a potential caries-protective effect in the region of cavity margins. To this end, cavities limited to the enamel were prepared in the crowns of 10 teeth each using an Er:YAG (lambda = 2,940 nm) and an Er,Cr:YSGG laser (lambda = 2,780 nm). A control cavity prepared conventionally with a diamond drill in the same occlusal zone was assigned to each of these cavities. The specimens were then subjected to a pH-cycling caries model. Analysis was performed by quantitatively measuring the demineralization front under a polarized-light microscope. The results of the study showed that enamel cavities prepared with the erbium lasers used display a statistically significant acceleration of demineralization compared to conventionally prepared cavities (p < 0.01). The Er:YAG laser cavities revealed demineralization to a depth of 133.9 (SD 25.7) microm, while the value observed with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser was 133.8 (SD 25.8) microm. The depth of demineralization in the control groups was only 77.4 (SD 13.8) microm and 79.3 (SD 37.6) microm. No difference could be found between the two lasers (p = 0.98). Based on these in vitro tests, it cannot be assumed that use of the erbium laser for cavity preparation offers any advantages in terms of resistance to secondary caries in clinical practice. PMID:12566637

  7. COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

  8. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe2-ErAl2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wik, J.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.; Miller, M.

    2015-03-01

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe2-xAlx Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36 ? x ? 1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36 ? x < 0.75 and 1.4 ? x ? 2.0. For the intermediate compositions with 0.75 ? x ? 1.4, the hexagonal C14 structure is observed. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature TC decreases from 275 to 28 K as the Al content increases from x = 0.36 to x = 1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2 T, the maximum entropy change is 6 J/kg K at T = 28 K for the composition with x = 1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  9. BODIPY-Coumarin Conjugate as an Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Fluidity Sensor and Its Application to ER Stress Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyeon; Yang, Zhigang; Wi, Youngjin; Kim, Tae Woo; Verwilst, Peter; Lee, Yun Hak; Han, Ga-In; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2015-12-16

    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-selective chemosensor composed of BODIPY and coumarin moieties and a long alkyl chain (n-C18) was synthesized. The emission ratio of BODIPY to coumarin depends on the solution viscosity. The probe is localized to the ER membrane and was applied to reveal the reduced ER membrane fluidity under ER stress conditions. PMID:26588433

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW VOLUM E 187, NUM B ER 2 10 NOVEM B ER 1969 Anomalous Ultrasonic Attenuation above the Magnetic Critical Point*t

    E-print Network

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    in the attenuation coefFicient. For longitudinal sound waves above the magnetic transition, this anomaly was obPHYSICAL REVIEW VOLUM E 187, NUM B ER 2 10 NOVEM B ER 1969 Anomalous Ultrasonic Attenuation above is used to describe the rise in the ultrasonic attenuation as a material approaches its magnetic

  11. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement. PMID:26047019

  12. Magnetic and spectral properties of the multisublattice oxides SrY2O4:Er3 + and SrEr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, B. Z.; Nikitin, S. I.; Mumdzhi, I. E.; Zverev, D. G.; Yusupov, R. V.; Gilmutdinov, I. F.; Batulin, R.; Gabbasov, B. F.; Kiiamov, A. G.; Adroja, D. T.; Young, O.; Petrenko, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    SrEr2O4 is a geometrically frustrated magnet which demonstrates rather unusual properties at low temperatures including a coexistence of long- and short-range magnetic order, characterized by two different propagation vectors. In the present work, the effects of crystal fields (CFs) in this compound containing four magnetically inequivalent erbium sublattices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. We combine the measurements of the CF levels of the Er3 + ions made on a powder sample of SrEr2O4 using neutron spectroscopy with site-selective optical and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements performed on single-crystal samples of the lightly Er-doped nonmagnetic analog, SrY2O4 . Two sets of CF parameters corresponding to the Er3 + ions at the crystallographically inequivalent lattice sites are derived which fit all the available experimental data well, including the magnetization and dc susceptibility data for both lightly doped and concentrated samples.

  13. Loss of Clcc1 Results in ER Stress, Misfolded Protein Accumulation, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yichang; Jucius, Thomas J.; Cook, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Folding of transmembrane and secretory proteins occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transportation to the cell surface and is monitored by the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates the UPR that restores ER homeostasis by regulating gene expression that leads to an increase in the protein-folding capacity of the ER and a decrease in the ER protein-folding load. However, prolonged UPR activity has been associated with cell death in multiple pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Here, we report a spontaneous recessive mouse mutation that causes progressive cerebellar granule cell death and peripheral motor axon degeneration. By positional cloning, we identify the mutation in this strain as a retrotransposon insertion in the Clcc1 gene, which encodes a putative chloride channel localized to the ER. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C3H/HeSnJ inbred strain has late onset cerebellar degeneration due to this mutation. Interestingly, acute knockdown of Clcc1 expression in cultured cells increases sensitivity to ER stress. In agreement, GRP78, the major HSP70 family chaperone in the ER, is upregulated in Clcc1-deficient granule cells in vivo, and ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in these neurons before their degeneration. These data suggest that disruption of chloride homeostasis in the ER disrupts the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to eventual neuron death. PMID:25698737

  14. The endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL regulates ER morphology and crosstalk with mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Marini, E S; Giampietri, C; Petrungaro, S; Conti, S; Filippini, A; Scorrano, L; Ziparo, E

    2015-01-01

    Components of the death receptor-mediated pathways like caspase-8 have been identified in complexes at intracellular membranes to spatially restrict the processing of local targets. In this study, we report that the long isoform of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL), a well-known inhibitor of the extrinsic cell death initiator caspase-8, localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). ER morphology was disrupted and ER Ca2+-release as well as ER-mitochondria tethering was decreased in c-FLIP?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Mechanistically, c-FLIP ablation resulted in enhanced basal caspase-8 activation and in caspase-mediated processing of the ER-shaping protein reticulon-4 (RTN4) that was corrected by re-introduction of c-FLIPL and caspase inhibition, resulting in the recovery of a normal ER morphology and ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Thus, the caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL emerges as a component of the MAMs signaling platforms, where caspases appear to regulate ER morphology and ER-mitochondria crosstalk by impinging on ER-shaping proteins like the RTN4. PMID:25501600

  15. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  16. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  17. When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility. PMID:24926295

  18. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)–based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  19. A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER–mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER–mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER–mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

  20. First name ast name atri ati n n m er Exercise 1 (2+2+2 points)

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    trees n ntainin a es in t e inner n es data Tree a = Leaf | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a) nsi er t e tree 3 nsi er t e in ata t e e arati n r nat ra n m ers data Nats = Zero | Succ Nats ra i a re resentati ea Node # # # # #12; First name ast name atri ati n n m er 4 Exercise 2 (2+3 points) nsi er t e

  1. Over-expression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A in the endoplasmic reticulum increases resistance to oxidative and ER stresses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Yongjoon; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Oh, Su Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2014-05-01

    MsrA and MsrB catalyze the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine-R-sulfoxide, respectively, to methionine in different cellular compartments of mammalian cells. One of the three MsrBs, MsrB3, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-type enzyme critical for stress resistance including oxidative and ER stresses. However, there is no evidence for the presence of an ER-type MsrA or the ER localization of MsrA. In this work, we developed an ER-targeted recombinant MsrA construct and investigated the potential effects of methionine-S-sulfoxide reduction in the ER on stress resistance. The ER-targeted MsrA construct contained the N-terminal ER-targeting signal peptide of human MsrB3A (MSPRRSLPRPLSLCLSLCLCLCLAAALGSAQ) and the C-terminal ER-retention signal sequence (KAEL). The over-expression of ER-targeted MsrA significantly increased cellular resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The ER-targeted MsrA over-expression also significantly enhanced resistance to dithiothreitol-induced ER stress; however, it had no positive effects on the resistance to ER stresses induced by tunicamycin and thapsigargin. Collectively, our data suggest that methionine-S-sulfoxide reduction in the ER compartment plays a protective role against oxidative and ER stresses. PMID:24777495

  2. ER-2 mountain wave encounter over Antarctica - Evidence for blocking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Gary, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Orographically forced large-amplitude gravity waves (mountain waves) encountered during the AAOE experiment by ER-2 on September 22, 1987 over Alexander Island (73-70 deg W, 69-72 deg S) were analyzed using a three-dimensional steady-state model of stratified flow over realistic topography, similar to the model used by Smith (1980). Taking into account the effects of low-level flow blocking, reasonable agreement was obtained between the model and observations, indicating that blocking may be an important feature of real flow over topography.

  3. [Crystal growth and spectroscopy of Er/Yb:KGW crystal].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao-jie; Tu, Chao-yang; Li, Jian-fu; Wu, Bai-chang; Huang, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The Er3 /Yb3+:KGW crystal with the dimensions of 30 mm x 25 mm x 15 mm was grown from K2W2O7 solvent by modified Czochralski method. The absorption spectrum was measured at room temperature and its absorption peaks were assigned. The emission spectrum was obtained under the excitation of 980 nm. There are two broad emission bands at 1024 and 1535 nm, whose FHWM are 60 and 36 nm respectively. It shows that this crystal is suitable for InGaAs LD pumping, and may be a promising laser crystal tunable at near 1 024 and 1 535 nm. PMID:16379283

  4. A sex attractant for the scarab beetle Anomala solida Er.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós; Subchev, Mitko; Sredkov, Ivan; Szarukán, István; Leal, Walter

    2003-07-01

    (R, Z)-5-(-)-(Oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one (R-buibuilactone) attracted male Anomala solida Er. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), a vineyard and orchard pest in Southeastern Europe. The presence of the corresponding (S) enantiomer or of 2-(E)-nonen-1-ol (a frequently found pheromone component in other Anomala spp.) in the bait did not influence catches. Traps baited with (R, Z)-5-(-)-(oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one were successfully used for monitoring the flight of A. solida, and may have practical applications for detection, monitoring, and mass trapping of the pest. PMID:12921442

  5. Completion report for well ER-3-2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-3-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) at the Nevada Test Site. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling Program and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The well will become part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) monitoring well network.

  6. The active microwave instrument (AMI) for ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theile, B.; Dieterle, G.; McMillan, I. W.

    1983-10-01

    The performance parameters and hardware, including circuitry, of the active microwave imaging systems to be installed on the ESA ERS-1 remote sensing satellite are described. The microwave system will function at 5.3 GHz in three measuring modes, imaging, wave sensing and spectra, and wind vector detection. Each image pixel will represent 15 m resolution, with the ground swatch being 80 km. Data will be generated in either SAR or scatterometer modes. The image signal path in the processing circuitry is traced for each mode. Details of the RF subsystem, the antennas, the high power amplifier, an automated calibrator, the power conditioner, and the scatterometer processor are provided.

  7. An Er:YAG blood sampling skin puncher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, D.; Ristici, Esofina; Mustata, Marina; Miclos, S.; Rusu, M.; Radu, C.; Savu, V.

    2007-08-01

    Generally, the beam distribution in the tissue in interaction with a pulsed laser is defined by the optical properties (effective scattering and absorption coefficient). A special Er:YAG device used for blood sampling without any pain is presented. Our device emitting on 2940 nm has a special function. It can give four energy levels for four types of skin. At 3000 nm there is an absorption peak in water, and the absorption in tissue is intense and the vaporization is immediate and superficial without surrounding damages. Additionally, the very short duration of the pulse (a few hundred microseconds) avoids the phenomenon of thermal diffusion.

  8. T lymphocytes in rat germinal centres belong to an ER3+ subpopulation of CD4+ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vonderheide, R H; Hunt, S V

    1990-01-01

    Two-colour immunofluorescence histochemistry showed directly that greater than 90% of CD4+ germinal centre T cells in rat spleen or lymph node examined 7 days after immunization bear the antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) ER3. By contrast, only 30-40% of all thoracic duct or lymph node CD4+ cells were ER3+, as determined by two-colour flow cytometry. CD8+ cells were ER3+, but nearly all B cells were ER3-. Thus, germinal centre T cells belong to a subpopulation of CD4+ cells. Because only 25-30% of CD4+ cells that lack higher molecular weight forms of CD45 (i.e. mAb MRC OX32 cells, equivalent to MRC OX22 cells) express ER3, the CD4+ subpopulations defined by ER3 are neither identical nor complementary to the subsets defined by restricted expression of CD45 epitopes. Images Figure 1 PMID:1970805

  9. Luminescence properties of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped glasses in the VUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanoi, Kohei; Murata, Takahiro; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fujino, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Satoh, Nakahiro; Kan, Hirofumi

    2013-09-01

    We report the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of APLF + Nd and APLF + Er glass, with composition 20Al(PO3)3-80LiF + 1NdF3 and + 1ErF3 (in mol%). APLF + Nd and APLF + Er have a dominant fluorescence peak at 185 nm and 168 nm with decay times of 4.5 ns and 5.8 ns, respectively. Fluorescence from APLF + Nd is attributed to 4f25d ? 4f3 transitions in neodymium (Nd) while fluorescence from APLF + Er is due to spin allowed transition in erbium (Er). This is the first report of VUV fluorescence from rare earth ions doped in glass hosts, which could provide the basis for mass production of VUV emitting materials. Our results also suggest the potential of using APLF + Nd and APLF + Er as neutron scintillators during inertial confinement fusion.

  10. Effect of Fe doping on the magnetic ordering temperature of ErMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, Anju; Satapathy, S.; Phase, D. M.; Varma, K. B. R.; Gupta, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effect of Fe doping on structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of hexagonal ErMnO3 system. For 50% doping of Fe on Mn site in ErMnO3 modulated its crystallographic structure from hexagonal to orthorhombic phase. Accompanied with the structural phase transition in ErMnO3, the magnetic properties are effectively modified. The Fe doped samples exhibit enhancement in antiferromagnetic ordering Néel temperature (TN) from 77 K (ErMnO3) to 280 K (ErFe0.5Mn0.5O3). The anomalies observed in the dielectric constant around TN in doped ErMnO3 samples indicate the coupling between electric and magnetic order parameters.

  11. How to prep & show your GOAT May 2, 2015 forNovice4H'ers

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    How to prep & show your GOAT May 2, 2015 forNovice4H'ers What: This one day workshop will teach the novice 4-H'er how to groom and prepare a goat for show and how to properly handle a goat while in the show ring. Who: 4H'ers new to the goat project When: Saturday, May 2, 2015 Where: 75 Critchett Road

  12. LY12265ER PRE July 24, 2011 14:25 Important Notice to Authors

    E-print Network

    Holcman, David

    LY12265ER PRE July 24, 2011 14:25 Important Notice to Authors Physical Review E has recently in Physical Review E. The Article ID is LY12265ER. To print the pdf proof full size, be sure that you have@aptaracorp.com Subject: LY12265ER proof corrections r Fax: Return this proof with corrections to +1.703.352.8862. Write

  13. Structure and radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlore Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0-0.667)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Y.; Xu, C. P.; Fu, E. G.; Wen, J.; Liu, C. G.; Zhang, K. Q.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Er-stuffed pyrochlore series Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0, 0.162, 0.286, 0.424 and 0.667) were synthesized using conventional ceramic processing procedures. The structure of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 is effectively tailored by the Er stuffing level (x). In order to study the radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlores, irradiation experiments were performed with 400 keV Ne2+ ions to fluences ranging from 5 × 1014 to 3.0 × 1015 ions/cm2 at cryogenic condition. Irradiation induced microstructural evolution was examined using a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the irradiated layer of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 undergoes significant lattice disordering and swelling at fluences of ?1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 and amorphization at fluences of ?1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The radiation effect depends strongly on the chemical compositions of the samples. Both the lattice swelling percentage and the amorphous fraction decrease with increasing x. The experimental results are discussed in the context of cation antisite defect. The defect formation energy which varies as a function of x is responsible for the difference in the structural behaviors of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 under 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation.

  14. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe{sub 2}-ErAl{sub 2} system

    SciTech Connect

    ?wik, J. Miller, M.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.

    2015-03-28

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36???x???1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36???x?ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature T{sub C} decreases from 275 to 28?K as the Al content increases from x?=?0.36 to x?=?1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2?T, the maximum entropy change is 6?J/kg K at T?=?28?K for the composition with x?=?1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x} intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  15. ER? inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing Bmi1 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiao-Long; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Jing-Wen; Luo, Xiang-Rong; Qiu, Si-Qi; Xi, Di-Di; Huang, Wen-He; Du, Cai-Wen; Man, Kwan; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In human breast cancer, estrogen receptor-? (ER?) suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness, two crucial parameters for tumor metastasis; however, the underlying mechanism by which ER? regulates these two processes remains largely unknown. Bmi1, the polycomb group protein B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog, regulates EMT transition, maintains the self-renewal capacity of stem cells, and is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In the present study, ER? upregulated the expression of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, in breast cancer cells through the transcriptional down-regulation of Bmi1. Furthermore, ER? overexpression suppressed the migration, invasion, and EMT of breast cancer cells. Notably, overexpression of ER? significantly decreased the CD44high/CD24low cell population and inhibited the capacity for mammosphere formation in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of Bmi1 attenuated the ER?-mediated suppression of EMT and cell stemness. Immunohistochemistry revealed an inverse association of ER? and Bmi1 expression in human breast cancer tissue. Taken together, our findings suggest that ER? inhibits EMT and stemness through the downregulation of Bmi1. PMID:26023734

  16. Specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in epitaxial Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, K. E. Kryzhkov, D. I.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2014-12-15

    The specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy (SMBE) are studied. In Si:Er/Si diode structures containing precipitation-type emitting centers, a resonance photoresponse at the wavelength ? ? 1.5 ?m is observed, which is indicative of the nonradiative relaxation of Er3+ ions via the energy back-transfer mechanism. Saturation of the erbium-related photocurrent is for the first time observed at high temperatures. This allows estimation of the concentration of Er centers that undergo relaxation via the above-mentioned back-transfer mechanism (N{sub 0} ? 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}). In terms of order of magnitude, the estimated concentration N{sub 0} corresponds to the concentration of optically active Er ions upon excitation of the Si:Er layers by means of the recombination mechanism. The features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er/Si structures with different types of emitting centers are analyzed.

  17. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Disrupts Estrogen-Signaling through Up-Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?)

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that ?9-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17?-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from ?9-THC’s ability to inhibit E2-liganded ER? activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) ?9-THC up-regulates ER?, a repressor of ER?, inhibiting the expression of E2/ER?-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) ?9-THC induction of ER? modulates E2/ER? signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that ?9-THC’s antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ER? disruption of E2/ER? signaling. PMID:23718638

  18. Examination of ferroelectric and magnetic properties of hexagonal ErFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hiroko; Nozue, Tomoya; Nakamura, Shin; Fukunaga, Mamoru; Fuwa, Akio

    2015-10-01

    Hexagonal ErFeO3 (h-ErFeO3) thin films were fabricated by a pulsed laser deposition method. X-ray diffraction experiments confirmed that single-phase h-ErFeO3 thin films were successfully obtained and were c axis-oriented. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by D-E hysteresis loop measurement at room temperature and the magnitude of spontaneous polarization was estimated to be 200 nC/cm2. A weak ferromagnetism appeared below 120 K and dielectric constants started to exhibit magnetic field dependence. These observations demonstrate the coexistence of ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism in h-ErFeO3 thin films.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  20. Estrogen receptor (ER) subtype agonists alter monoamine levels in the female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Laura S; Zafian, Peter T; Gautreaux, Claris; Gordon, Marisa; Alves, Stephen E; Correa, Lucia; Lorrain, Daniel S; Hickey, Gerard J; Luine, Victoria

    2010-11-01

    We assessed the effects of subtype-selective ER agonists on monoamine levels in discrete regions of the female rat brain. Ovariectomized (ovx) rats were treated for 4 days with vehicle, 17?-estradiol (E; 0.05mg/kg), an ER? agonist (C19; 3mg/kg) or an ER? agonist (PPT; 3mg/kg) and samples from brain regions were assessed for monoamines and metabolites. We also assessed effects of ER? modulation on baseline and fenfluramine-induced release of monoamines in hippocampus using microdialysis. In the first study, E and the ER? agonist increased norepinephrine in cortex and all three ER ligands increased it in the ventral hippocampus. Changes in levels of the noradrenergic metabolite, MHPG and the dopaminergic metabolite, DOPAC were noted in brain areas of ER ligand-treated animals. E also increased levels of 5HIAA in three brain areas. In the microdialysis study, there were no differences among groups in baseline levels of monoamines. However, E and the ER? agonist increased levels of the dopaminergic metabolite, HVA following fenfluramine. In summary, activation of the two nuclear ERs with selective agonists affects monoamine and metabolite levels in discrete brain areas, a number of which are known to play key roles in cognitive and affective function. PMID:20800684

  1. Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ER??/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaotang; Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Cheng, Guojun; Andersson, Leif C.; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2010-01-01

    At 2 years of age, 100% (23/23) of ER??/? female mice have developed large pituitary and ovarian tumors. The pituitary tumors are gonadotropin-positive and the ovarian tumors are sex cord (less differentiated) and granulosa cell tumors (differentiated and estrogen secreting). No male mice had pituitary tumors and no pituitary or ovarian tumors developed in ER??/? mice or in ER???/? double knockout mice. The tumors have high proliferation indices, are ER?-positive, ER?-negative, and express high levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD3. Mice with granulosa cell tumors also had hyperproliferative endometria. The cause of the pituitary tumors appeared to be excessive secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus resulting from high expression of NPY. The ovarian phenotype is similar to that seen in mice where inhibin is ablated. The data indicate that ER? plays an important role in regulating GnRH secretion. We suggest that in the absence of ER?, the proliferative action of FSH/SMAD3 is unopposed and the high proliferation leads to the development of ovarian tumors. The absence of tumors in the ER???/? mice suggests that tumor development requires the presence of ER?. PMID:20308571

  2. ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin N; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Pierce, Joseph P; Morgan, Donald A; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

    2012-11-01

    Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II-dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II-induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II-dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

  3. MappERS-C and MappERS-V. The crowd source for prevention and crisis support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities within natural hazards at local/regional levels involve citizens and volunteers as first actors of civil protection and territorial management. The prevention implicates the capacities of professional operators and technical volunteers, but the priority implies now the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. The involvement of population creates context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management, skipping the limit to face risks only when they have to bear impacts on their lives. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone applications and sensors, with geo-tagged information, detailed gathered parameters, field-check survey in a contest of geospatial response. The process of development includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring as long term objective (raising public awareness and participation). The project deals with the development and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to Android SDK environment. A first research described a desk-based investigation on consequences of disasters impacts and costs of prevention strategies in pilot countries. Furthermore a review of state-of-the-art of database management systems (DBMS) in pilot countries and involvement of volunteers/citizens in data collection/monitoring collected basic info on data structure for the development. A desk-based research proposed communication methods/graphic solutions within mobile technologies for disaster management in pilot countries and available smartphone applications linked to centralized web/server database. A technical review is compulsory for a useful design-line for MappERS development, and it is linked with on-site feedback about volounteers and citizens needs within pilot groups activities. The app modules will be later re-designed according to the methodological and technical feedback gained during pilot study. Training curricula for citizens are planned to increase awareness, skills on smart phone utilities and efficient jargon for hazard contest. The expected results are: a) an easy-to-use interface for "human-data" in crisis support, b) a maximised utility of peer-produced data gathering, c) the development of human resources as technical tools d) a self-based awareness improvement.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-8-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

  5. The ER stress factor XBP1s prevents amyloid-? neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Tinto, Sergio; Zhang, Yan; Sanchez-Garcia, Jonatan; Gomez-Velazquez, Melisa; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. A prominent pathologic hallmark in the AD brain is the abnormal accumulation of the amyloid-? 1–42 peptide (A?), but the exact pathways mediating A? neurotoxicity remain enigmatic. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced during AD, and has been indirectly implicated as a mediator of A? neurotoxicity. We report here that A? activates the ER stress response factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in transgenic flies and in mammalian cultured neurons, yielding its active form, the transcription factor XBP1s. XBP1s shows neuroprotective activity in two different AD models, flies expressing A? and mammalian cultured neurons treated with A? oligomers. Trying to identify the mechanisms mediating XBP1s neuroprotection, we found that in PC12 cells treated with A? oligomers, XBP1s prevents the accumulation of free calcium (Ca2+) in the cytosol. This protective activity can be mediated by the downregulation of a specific isoform of the ryanodine Ca2+ channel, RyR3. In support of this observation, a mutation in the only ryanodine receptor (RyR) in flies also suppresses A? neurotoxicity, indicating the conserved mechanisms between the two AD models. These results underscore the functional relevance of XBP1s in A? toxicity, and uncover the potential of XBP1 and RyR as targets for AD therapeutics. PMID:21389082

  6. Modeling of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, Juan A.; G?l?tu?, Ramona

    2015-03-01

    The performance of a highly Yb3+/Er3+-codoped phosphate glass add-drop microring resonator is numerically analyzed. The model assumes resonant behaviour of both pump and signal powers and the dependences of pump intensity build-up inside the microring resonator and of the signal transfer functions to the device through and drop ports are evaluated. Detailed equations for the evolution of the rare-earth ions levels population densities and the propagation of the optical powers inside the microring resonator are included in the model. Moreover, due to the high dopant concentrations considered, the microscopic statistical formalism based on the statistical average of the excitation probability of the Er3+ ion in a microscopic level has been used to describe energy-transfer inter-atomic mechanisms. Realistic parameters and working conditions are used for the calculations. Requirements to achieve amplification and laser oscillation within these devices are obtainable as a function of rare earth ions concentration and coupling losses.

  7. Properties of the rotational bands in {sup 161}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Zhang, N. T.; Zhou, H. B.; Li, G. S.; Wang, H. X.; Ding, B.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M. L.; Ma, F.; Fang, Y. D.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X.; Zhu, L. H.; Wu, X. G.

    2011-03-15

    High-spin states in {sup 161}Er have been studied experimentally using the {sup 150}Nd({sup 16}O,5n) reaction at a beam energy of 86 MeV. The 5/2{sup +}[642], 3/2{sup -}[521], and 11/2{sup -}[505] bands are extended up to high-spin states, and particularly the {alpha}=-1/2 branch of the ground state 3/2{sup -}[521] band is revised significantly. The relatively enhanced E1 transitions from the 3/2{sup -}[521] band to the 5/2{sup +}[642] band are observed. The band properties are analyzed within the framework of a triaxial particle-rotor model, and near-prolate shape and triaxial deformation are proposed to the 3/2{sup -}[521] and 5/2{sup +}[642] bands, respectively. Signature inversion occurs in the 3/2{sup -}[521] band after the band crossing in {sup 161}Er, and the systematics of the signature inversion associated with the 3/2{sup -}[521] configuration are discussed. By analyzing the properties of the relatively enhanced E1 transitions, it is found that the R(E1/E2) values show angular momentum dependence before the band crossing, and these enhanced E1 transitions could be attributed to octupole softness.

  8. Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrano, J. J.; Torrisi, L.; Campagna, E.; Rapisarda, E.; Finocchiaro, I.; Olivi, G.

    An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 ? m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 ? s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air/water atomizer spray. Extracted teeth were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath, stored in saline solution, and dried and weighed before each laser treatment. The laser irradiation was performed for 10 s using a 600 ? m focused beam. Each sample was irradiated varying the air/water ratio of the integrated nebulizer spray. After the treatment, the samples were again weighed and produced craters were analyzed with a profilometric system. The crater volume permitted to evaluate the laser ablation yield. Teeth treated with an air/water spray ratio of 95-80% resulted in greatest average quantity of tissue ablation. This investigation confirmed the high efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the ablation of dental hard tissues showing the fundamental role of the water spray, which plays a fundamental role in the quantitative and qualitative modifications of the hard tissue treated, as it will be discussed in detail.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  10. Pin1 Modulates ER? Levels in Breast Cancer through Inhibition of Phosphorylation-dependent Ubiquitination and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, Prashant; Schalper, Kurt A.; Solodin, Natalia M.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Lu, Kun Ping; Rimm, David L.; Alarid, Elaine T.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer. Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Since Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:23542176

  11. Er-doped sesquioxides for 1.5-micron lasers - spectroscopic comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Larry D.; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay

    2013-05-01

    Due to the favorable thermal properties of sesquioxides as hosts for rare earth laser ions, we have recently studied the spectroscopy of Er:Lu2O3 in the 1400-1700 nm wavelength range, and here report its comparison with our earlier results on Er:Y2O3 and Er:Sc2O3. These studies include absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and inference of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections, all as a function of temperature. At room temperature, optical absorption limits practical laser operation to wavelengths longer than about 1620 nm. In that spectral range, the strongest stimulated emission peak is that at 1665 nm in Er:Sc2O3, with an effective cross section considerably larger than those of Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3. At 77K, the absorption is weak enough for efficient laser operation at considerably shorter wavelengths, where there are peaks with much larger stimulated emission cross sections. The three hosts all have peaks near 1575-1580 nm with comparably strong cross sections. As we have reported earlier, it is possible to lase even shorter wavelengths efficiently at this temperature, in particular the line at 1558 nm in Er:Sc2O3. Our new spectroscopic studies of Er:Lu2O3 indicate that its corresponding peak, like that of Er:Sc2O3, has a less favorable ratio of stimulated emission to absorption cross sections. Reasons for the differences will be discussed. We conclude that for most operating scenarios, Er:Sc2O3 is the most promising of the Er-doped sesquioxides studied for laser operation around 1.5-1.6 microns.

  12. Genetic variants of ApoE and ApoER2 differentially modulate endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Victoria; Konaniah, Eddy S.; Herz, Joachim; Gerard, Robert D.; Jung, Eunjeong; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Ahmed, Mohamed; Hui, David Y.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2014-01-01

    It is poorly understood why there is greater cardiovascular disease risk associated with the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE) allele vs. apoE3, and also greater risk with the LRP8/apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) variant ApoER2-R952Q. Little is known about the function of the apoE–ApoER2 tandem outside of the central nervous system. We now report that in endothelial cells apoE3 binding to ApoER2 stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and endothelial cell migration, and it also attenuates monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion. However, apoE4 does not stimulate eNOS or endothelial cell migration or dampen cell adhesion, and alternatively it selectively antagonizes apoE3/ApoER2 actions. The contrasting endothelial actions of apoE4 vs. apoE3 require the N-terminal to C-terminal interaction in apoE4 that distinguishes it structurally from apoE3. Reconstitution experiments further reveal that ApoER2-R952Q is a loss-of-function variant of the receptor in endothelium. Carotid artery reendothelialization is decreased in ApoER2?/? mice, and whereas adenoviral-driven apoE3 expression in wild-type mice has no effect, apoE4 impairs reendothelialization. Moreover, in a model of neointima formation invoked by carotid artery endothelial denudation, ApoER2?/? mice display exaggerated neointima development. Thus, the apoE3/ApoER2 tandem promotes endothelial NO production, endothelial repair, and endothelial anti-inflammatory properties, and it prevents neointima formation. In contrast, apoE4 and ApoER2-R952Q display dominant-negative action and loss of function, respectively. Thus, genetic variants of apoE and ApoER2 impact cardiovascular health by differentially modulating endothelial function. PMID:25197062

  13. A Surfactant Bridge Model for the Nonlinear Electrorheological Effects of Surfactant-Activated ER Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Dae

    2001-04-15

    In surfactant-activated electrorheological (ER) suspensions it is observed that the ER response shows linear ER behavior (F~E(2)) at small surfactant concentrations and nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1) at large surfactant concentrations. Here, a surfactant bridge model is developed to explain the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions. The model shows that the formation and size of a surfactant bridge depend on various variables, especially the electric field strength, the surfactant surface tension, and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants on particles. The predicted dependence of the formation and size of a surfactant bridge on the electric field strength and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants is consistent with the observations. Also, the model indicates that there is a critical minimum electric field E(crit) for the formation of a surfactant bridge, and the estimated E(crit) shows good agreement with the observations. The force acting between particles is composed of the electrostatic force and force associated with surface tension. However, it is found that the contribution of the force associated with surface tension can be ignored and the electrostatic force is dominant regardless of the formation of surfactant bridges between particles. When surfactant bridges are formed between particles, the predicted force shows nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1), consistent with the observed nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations. When no surfactant bridge is formed, the predicted force is proportional to the electric field squared (F~E(2)), consistent with the interfacial polarization. The model can successfully predict the nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations, confirming that the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions arises from the observed formation of surfactant bridges between particles. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401368

  14. Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system

    SciTech Connect

    Antonson, P.; Omoto, Y.; Humire, P.; Gustafsson, J.-A.; Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

  15. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

  16. Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si P. H. Citrin and P. A. Northrup

    E-print Network

    Cincinnati, University of

    and other rare-earth RE dopants for several reasons,2 among them being the absence of near-IR emission implications on future studies of GaN doped with Er and other RE metals. Following procedures described

  17. Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: II. Collinear components and ferrimagnetic compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowlam, N.; Wildes, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetization measurements on an Fe64Er19B17 glass and polarized-beam neutron scattering measurements on Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 were described in part I. The finite spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using a sperimagnetic structure based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The temperature variation of the cross sections of Fe64Er19B17 suggested that a compensated sperimagnetic phase existed at Tcomp. The analysis of the non-spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections is described here in part II. Two spin-dependent total structure factors S±±(Q) were defined from these cross sections and, despite the limited range of the data 0.5 Å-1 < Q < 6.5 Å-1, their Fourier transform gave reliable spin-dependent radial distribution functions RDF±±(r). These were interpreted in terms of the atomic pair correlation functions {\\rho }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }(r) and their weighting factors {\\omega }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }. The data on Fe64Er19B17 at 1.5 K showed, for example, how the directions of the magnetic sublattices can be defined uniquely. The analysis of the RDF±±(r) for Fe64Er19B17 at 112 K confirmed that the mean collinear components of the magnetic moments \\langle {\\mu }_{{Er}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle , \\langle {\\mu }_{{Fe}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle are zero on both sublattices in the compensated sperimagnetic structure at Tcomp. The pre-peak in the spin-dependent total structure factors at 112 K showed that it originated in the atomic structure and it may involve Fe-Er-Fe ‘collineations’ at a radial distance of ?6.0 Å. Finally, the RDF±±(r) of Fe64Er19B17 at 180 K and of Fe78Er5B17 at 2 K show that both glasses have the (?Fe UP:?Er DOWN) structure like the (Fe,Tb)83B17 collinear ferrimagnets.

  18. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

  19. Er Mossbauer spectroscopy study of magnetic ordering in a spinel-based potential spin-ice system: CdEr2S4

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Dominic

    to that of the corresponding pyrochlores (Er2Sn2O7 and Er2Ti2O7) where no magnetic effects are seen down to 1.56 K. The clearly with the pyrochlore crystal structure1,2 (e.g., the rare earth stannates R2Sn2O7 and titanates R2Ti2O7), but questions and while they share the same basic structure as the pyrochlore systems (the magnetic ions form a network

  20. Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er(3+)-doped and Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped Li(3)Ba(2)La(3)(WO(4))(8) crystals. The Er(3+): Li(3)Ba(2)La(3)(WO(4))(8) crystal with dimensions of 56 mm × 28 mm × 9 mm and Er(3+)/Yb(3+): Li(3)Ba(2)La(3)(WO(4))(8) crystal with dimensions of 52 mm × 24 mm × 8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er(3+)/Yb(3+): Li(3)Ba(2)La(3)(WO(4))(8) crystal has much better optical properties than the Er(3+): Li(3)Ba(2)La(3)(WO(4))(8) crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

  1. Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

  2. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers’ coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  3. A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jeffrey M.; Maillet, Marjorie; Vanhoutte, Davy; Schloemer, Aryn; Sargent, Michelle A.; Blair, N. Scott; Lynch, Kaari A.; Okada, Tetsuya; Aronow, Bruce J.; Osinska, Hanna; Prywes, Ron; Lorenz, John N.; Mori, Kazutoshi; Lawler, Jack; Robbins, Jeffrey; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Thrombospondin (Thbs) proteins are induced in sites of tissue damage or active remodeling. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is also prominently induced with disease where it regulates protein production and resolution of misfolded proteins. Here we describe a novel function for Thbs’ as ER resident effectors of an adaptive ER stress response. Thbs4 cardiac-specific transgenic mice were protected from myocardial injury while Thbs4?/? mice were sensitized to cardiac maladaptation. Thbs induction produced a unique profile of adaptive ER stress response factors and expansion of the ER and downstream vesicles. The type-3 repeat domain in Thbs’ bind the ER luminal domain of activating transcription factor 6? (Atf6?) to promote its nuclear shuttling. Thbs4?/?mice failed to show activation of Atf6? and other ER stress response factors with injury, and Thbs4-mediated protection was lost when Atf6? was deleted. Hence, Thbs’ can function inside the cell during disease/remodeling to augment ER function and protect through a mechanism involving regulation of Atf6?. PMID:22682248

  4. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

  5. Configuration Analysis of the ERS Points in Large-Volume Metrology System.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhangjun; Yu, Cijun; Li, Jiangxiong; Ke, Yinglin

    2015-01-01

    In aircraft assembly, multiple laser trackers are used simultaneously to measure large-scale aircraft components. To combine the independent measurements, the transformation matrices between the laser trackers' coordinate systems and the assembly coordinate system are calculated, by measuring the enhanced referring system (ERS) points. This article aims to understand the influence of the configuration of the ERS points that affect the transformation matrix errors, and then optimize the deployment of the ERS points to reduce the transformation matrix errors. To optimize the deployment of the ERS points, an explicit model is derived to estimate the transformation matrix errors. The estimation model is verified by the experiment implemented in the factory floor. Based on the proposed model, a group of sensitivity coefficients are derived to evaluate the quality of the configuration of the ERS points, and then several typical configurations of the ERS points are analyzed in detail with the sensitivity coefficients. Finally general guidance is established to instruct the deployment of the ERS points in the aspects of the layout, the volume size and the number of the ERS points, as well as the position and orientation of the assembly coordinate system. PMID:26402685

  6. A Hands-On Approach to Teaching Protein Translation & Translocation into the ER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBonte, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The process of protein translation and translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can often be challenging for introductory college biology students to visualize. To help them understand how proteins become oriented in the ER membrane, I developed a hands-on activity in which students use Play-Doh to simulate the process of protein…

  7. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an...

  8. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity component is an...

  9. Efficient energy transfer from Si clusters to Er3+ in complex silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebour, Y.; Pellegrino, P.; García, C.; Moreno, J. A.; Garrido, B.

    2006-10-01

    We present an extensive study of the structural and optical emission properties in aluminum silicates and soda-lime silicates codoped with Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) and Er. Si excess of 5 and 15at.% and Er concentrations ranging from 2×1019 up to 6×1020cm-3 were introduced by ion implantation. Thermal treatments at different temperatures were carried out before and after Er implantation. Structural characterization of the resulting structures was performed to obtain the layer composition and the size distribution of Si clusters. A comprehensive study has been carried out of the light emission as a function of the matrix characteristics, Si and Er contents, excitation wavelength, and power. Er emission at 1540nm has been detected in all coimplanted glasses, with similar intensities. We estimated lifetimes ranging from 2.5to12ms (depending on the Er dose and Si excess) and an effective excitation cross section of about 1×10-17cm2 at low fluxes that decreases at high pump power. By quantifying the amount of Er ions excited through Si-nc we find a fraction of 10% of the total Er concentration. Upconversion coefficients of about 3×10-18cm-3s-1 have been found for soda-lime glasses and one order of magnitude lower in aluminum

  10. Green emission from Er-doped GaN powder Huaqiang Wu,a

    E-print Network

    Lipson, Michal

    NH3. The yield of the powder synthesis is greater than 99% within 1 h. No residual Ga or Er metal can be observed visually. No etching step is necessary to remove unreacted metals. The powder chunk can be movedGreen emission from Er-doped GaN powder Huaqiang Wu,a Carl B. Poitras, Michal Lipson, and Michael G

  11. Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Evidence for the ER =EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibyan, Hrant; Penna, Robert F.

    2014-03-01

    If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER =EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area of Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges (or wormholes) connecting them. We show that the geometrical entropy of classical ER bridges satisfies the subadditivity, triangle, strong subadditivity, and Cadney-Linden-Winter inequalities. These are nontrivial properties of entanglement entropy, so this is evidence for ER =EPR. We further show that the entanglement entropy associated with classical ER bridges has nonpositive tripartite information. This is not a property of entanglement entropy, in general. For example, the entangled four qubit pure state |GHZ4?=(|0000?+|1111?)/?2 has positive tripartite information, so this state cannot be described by a classical ER bridge. Large black holes with massive amounts of entanglement between them can fail to have a classical ER bridge if they are built out of |GHZ4? states. States with nonpositive tripartite information are called monogamous. We conclude that classical ER bridges require monogamous EPR correlations.

  12. The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Dianne S.

    2014-01-01

    How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER. PMID:25287301

  13. Filire Energies Marines Renouvelables en Pays de la Loire SEM-REV, 1er

    E-print Network

    Matias, Catherine

    Filière Energies Marines Renouvelables en Pays de la Loire SEM-REV, 1er site français d'essai en Energies Marines Renouvelables en Pays de la Loire SEM-REV, 1er site français d'essai en mer pour les EMR énergies marines renouvelables (EMR) au monde, raccordé au réseau électrique, disposant de toutes les

  14. Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

    2014-09-28

    The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 ?m has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O? and N?, have been investigated. It was found that only in O? the Bi³? valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi? metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O?. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi?? absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m.

  15. Excited state cross sections for Er-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemon, Stanley A.; Lambert, Gary M.; Miniscalco, William J.; Davies, Richard W.; Hall, Bruce T.; Folweiler, Robert C.; Wei, Ta-Sheng; Andrews, Leonard J.; Singh, Mahendra P.

    1991-01-01

    Excited-state-absorption (ESA) cross sections were determined for the region between 760 and 900 nm for Er-doped fluorophosphate phosphate and silicate glasses. Measurements were performed on multimode fibers pumping at 647 nm with powers 1 . 5 Wto invert the population into the saturation regime. Over much of the 800-nm band ground-state-absorption (GSA) cross sections are equal to or greater than ESA cross sections. For comparison ESA was also measured for singlemode Al/P-doped silica fiber. The cross sections were incorporated into an amplifier model and the phosphate and fluorophosphate glasses were found to provide higher gain than silica for pumping in the 800-nm band. Photoexcited fluorozirconates were found to have substantial populations in the first four excited states and ESA transitions originating from these states are identified.

  16. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  17. Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

    1997-12-01

    Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

  18. Clinical evaluation of Er:YAG laser caries treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1997-05-01

    To prepare the enamel, the energy used was mainly 345 mJ and repetition rate 2 Hz, for dentine the optimal energy of Er:YAG drilling machine was 200 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 2 Hz, depending on cavity depth. Subject of treatment were caries of enamel and dentine and it was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings. The average number of pulses was 111.22, ranging from 16 to 489. During preparation, vibrations of microexplosions were felt by 8 patients, however, neither pain or unpleasant sensations were experienced. The filling materials used were composite resins and glassionomer cements. Their clinical evaluation 6 months post insertion was similar to that of the classical drilling system.

  19. Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland using ERS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland glaciers was calculated at the grounding line using ERS radar interferometry data acquired during the tandem phase. The resulting estimates exceed the production of icebergs at the glacier fronts by a factor of 3.5. This large decrease in ice flux is attributed to extensive melting at the underside of the floating sections. When compared to the predicted grounding line ice discharge of an ice sheet in balance, the results show an excess of 28 cubic km/yr of ice lost to the ocean. The north and northeast sectors of the Greenland ice sheet are therefore thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise.

  20. FINAL REPORT DOE/ER/63705-1

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Street; F.L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

    2005-10-31

    Our DOE project is one of the efforts that comprised the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program [VTMX] of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy and was supported originally by DOE grant ER 62847. The Advanced Regional Prediction System [ARPS] computer code was used to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. This continuation grant was designed to allow us to complete our work on VTMX. The primary outcome of this grant was the completion of the dissertation of Dr. Ying Chen. In that work, several turbulence models were tested, a new surface vegetation model was developed, and Weather Research and Forecast code simulations were compared with ARPS runs.

  1. Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

  2. ER Stress Response in Human Cellular Models of Senescence.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gouveia, Alexandra Monteiro; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The aging process is characterized by progressive accumulation of damaged biomolecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, as result of increased oxidative stress accompanying cellular senescence. In agreement, we hypothesized that WI-38 human cellular models of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-SIPS) or copper sulfate (CuSO4-SIPS) would present endoplasmic reticulum chaperoning mechanisms impairment and unfolded protein response activation. Results show that in replicative senescence and CuSO4-SIPS, immunoglobulin binding protein, calnexin, protein disulfide isomerase, and ER oxireductin-1 levels adjust to restore proteostasis and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)-, and pancreatic ER kinase (PERK)-mediated unfolded protein response are activated. However, H2O2-SIPS does not exhibit IRE1 and ATF6 pathways activation but a PERK-mediated upregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, showing that CuSO4-SIPS mimics better the endoplasmic reticulum molecular events of replicative senescence than H2O2-SIPS. Moreover, unfolded protein response activation is required for both SIPS models induction, because PERK and IRE1 inhibitors decreased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase appearance. In CuSO4-SIPS, the decrease in senescence levels is associated with PERK-driven, but IRE1 independent, cell cycle arrest while in H2O2-SIPS cell proliferation is PERK independent. These results add a step further on the molecular mechanisms that regulate senescence induction; moreover, they validate CuSO4-SIPS model as a useful tool to study cellular stress responses during aging, hoping to postpone age-related health decline. PMID:25149687

  3. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-12-01

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-18-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

  5. Si nanoparticle - Er{sup 3+} coupling through contact in as-deposited nanostructured films.

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Sanchez, S.; Roque, P. M.; Serna, R.; Petford-Long, A. K.

    2011-04-11

    The efficient excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions through contact with Si nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated. A nanostructured doping process has been developed that leads to contact between Si NPs formed in situ and optically-active Er{sup 3+} ions embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This is achieved by independent and consecutive deposition of the dopants and matrix. The Si NP-Er{sup 3+} contact regime enhances the probability of efficient interaction due to the local spatial overlap of the electronic states of the Er{sup 3+} and of the Si NP exciton, enabling energy transfer by interband exciton recombination. This leads to up to 53% of the Er{sup 3+} ions being excited in as-deposited films.

  6. The seipin complex Fld1/Ldb16 stabilizes ER-lipid droplet contact sites.

    PubMed

    Grippa, Alexandra; Buxó, Laura; Mora, Gabriel; Funaya, Charlotta; Idrissi, Fatima-Zahra; Mancuso, Francesco; Gomez, Raul; Muntanyà, Júlia; Sabidó, Eduard; Carvalho, Pedro

    2015-11-23

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are storage organelles consisting of a neutral lipid core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer and a set of LD-specific proteins. Most LD components are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that is often physically connected with LDs. How LD identity is established while maintaining biochemical and physical connections with the ER is not known. Here, we show that the yeast seipin Fld1, in complex with the ER membrane protein Ldb16, prevents equilibration of ER and LD surface components by stabilizing the contact sites between the two organelles. In the absence of the Fld1/Ldb16 complex, assembly of LDs results in phospholipid packing defects leading to aberrant distribution of lipid-binding proteins and abnormal LDs. We propose that the Fld1/Ldb16 complex facilitates the establishment of LD identity by acting as a diffusion barrier at the ER-LD contact sites. PMID:26572621

  7. Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G.

    2014-09-08

    Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

  8. Electronic and optical properties of Er doped in AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sanjun; Wang, Xueqing; Li, Jinming; Jia, Yu; Wang, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Using density functional theory combined GGA + U method, the structural, electronic and optical properties of rare earth Er substituted Al atom (ErAl) and its complex with neighboring N vacancy (ErAl-VN) in wurtzite AlN were investigated, respectively. Calculated results show that both defects induced quite localized Er-4f related defect donor levels in the band gap but had few effects on host electronic structures. Moreover, the calculated complex dielectric functions and other optical constants show that these two defects show clear bulk optical properties, only a small peak near the redshift edge appears for the complex defect. These results show that Er dopant AlN should be a good optical material candidate for optoelectronics application.

  9. Central ceramide-induced hypothalamic lipotoxicity and ER stress regulate energy balance.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Cristina; González-García, Ismael; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Jacas, Jordi; Morgan, Donald A; Serra, Dolors; Gallego, Rosalía; Gonzalez, Francisco; Casals, Núria; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key mechanism leading to obesity. Here, we demonstrate that ceramides induce lipotoxicity and hypothalamic ER stress, leading to sympathetic inhibition, reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, and weight gain. Genetic overexpression of the chaperone GRP78/BiP (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) abolishes ceramide action by reducing hypothalamic ER stress and increasing BAT thermogenesis, which leads to weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis. The pathophysiological relevance of this mechanism is demonstrated in obese Zucker rats, which show increased hypothalamic ceramide levels and ER stress. Overexpression of GRP78 in the VMH of these animals reduced body weight by increasing BAT thermogenesis as well as decreasing leptin and insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Overall, these data identify a triangulated signaling network involving central ceramides, hypothalamic lipotoxicity/ER stress, and BAT thermogenesis as a pathophysiological mechanism of obesity. PMID:25284795

  10. ER contact sites define the position and timing of endosome fission

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ashley A.; Chitwood, Patrick J.; Phillips, Melissa J.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endocytic cargo and Rab GTPases are segregated to distinct domains of an endosome. These domains maintain their identity until they undergo fission to traffic cargo. It is not fully understood how segregation of cargo or Rab proteins is maintained along the continuous endosomal membrane, or what machinery is required for fission. Endosomes form contact sites with the ER that are maintained during trafficking. Here, we show that stable contacts form between the ER and endosome at constricted sorting domains and that free diffusion of cargo is limited at these positions. We demonstrate that the site of constriction and fission for early and late endosomes is spatially and temporally linked to contact sites with the ER. Lastly, we show that altering ER structure and dynamics reduces the efficiency of endosome fission. Together these data reveal a surprising role for ER contact in defining the timing and position of endosome fission. PMID:25416943

  11. Photoluminescence of Er-doped silicon nanoparticles from sputtered SiO x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggemann, Daniel; Mustafa, Danilo; Tessler, Leandro R.

    2006-05-01

    We present a study of the Er 3+ photoluminescence from Er-doped thin SiO x films prepared by reactive RF sputtering from a silicon target partially covered by metallic erbium platelets in an Ar + O 2 atmosphere. Annealing at 1250 °C induces the formation of silicon nanocrystals and modifies the Er 3+ luminescence spectrum due to changes in the Er 3+ environment. The photoluminescence efficiency decreases by two orders of magnitude with nanoparticle formation. This decrease may be due to less efficient energy transfer processes from the nanocrystals than from the amorphous matrix, to the formation of more centro-symmetric Er 3+ sites at the nanocrystal surfaces or to very different optimal erbium concentrations between amorphous and crystallized samples.

  12. The Emerging Roles of Viroporins in ER Stress Response and Autophagy Induction during Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Torres, Jaume; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are small hydrophobic viral proteins that oligomerize to form aqueous pores on cellular membranes. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that viroporins serve important functions during virus replication and contribute to viral pathogenicity. A number of viroporins have also been shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or its associated membranous organelles. In fact, replication of most RNA viruses is closely linked to the ER, and has been found to cause ER stress in the infected cells. On the other hand, autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved “self-eating” mechanism that is also observed in cells infected with RNA viruses. Both ER stress and autophagy are also known to modulate a wide variety of signaling pathways including pro-inflammatory and innate immune response, thereby constituting a major aspect of host-virus interactions. In this review, the potential involvement of viroporins in virus-induced ER stress and autophagy will be discussed. PMID:26053926

  13. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Er2(Fe1 - x V x )17 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentev, P. B.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Gaviko, V. S.; Stashkova, L. A.

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetic anisotropy of the Er2(Fe1- x V x )17 compounds (with x = 0-0.05) have been studied. The Curie temperature ( T C) of the compounds has been found to increase as the vanadium concentration increases. It has been shown that the Er2(Fe1 - x V x )17 compounds have the easy-plane anisotropy in the temperature range from, 77 K to T C. Magnetization curves have been measured and the temperature dependences of the K 1 and K 2 anisotropy constants have been calculated. Contributions from the Er and Fe magnetic sublattices to the magnetic anisotropy constants were distinguished. An analysis of the obtained data allowed us to conclude that the cause for the existence of first-order magnetization processes in Er2Fe17 at low temperatures is a positive contribution from the Er sublattice to K 1 and a negative contribution from it to K 2.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Er:Yb3Al5O12 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Xu, Jialin; Liu, Wang; Lin, Hai; Liu, Yu; Wang, Dan; Zhai, Jian; Fu, Tiehan; Zhou, Hu; Li, Yusheng; Liu, Jinghe; Zeng, Fanming

    2015-12-01

    Er:Yb1Al5O12 (Er:YbAG) nanopowder was prepared by carbonate coprecipitation method. Highpurity Er:YbAG powder was obtained after calcination at as low as 1000°C with an average particle size of 70 nm. The Al-O-Yb phonon vibrations were investigated and the absorption band arisen from interaction between lattice vibration and photon in YbAG is located around 610 cm-1. A strong emission peak of powder was observed at 1.53 µm with 980 nm laser excitation. An energy transfer mechanism between Yb3+ and Er3+ states responsible for the peak emission was proposed. An optimum Er3+ dopant concentration was determined.

  15. Structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitride-ErN: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Santhosh, M.; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Kanagaprabha, S.; Iyakutti, K.

    2015-06-01

    The structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitride ErN is investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure ErN is stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that ErN is half metallic at normal pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) phase is observed in ErN. Ferromagnetic to non magnetic phase transition is predicted in ErN at high pressure.

  16. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, P. P.; Kennedy, J.; Ruck, B. J.; Leveneur, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted and annealed ZnO thin films. The effect of annealing in oxygen-deficient and oxygen-rich conditions was investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results revealed that the Er atoms are located at the implantation depth of around 13 nm, and annealing conditions had no adverse effect on the Er concentration in the layer. Raman spectroscopy results showed peak related to E2(high) mode of ZnO indicating enhanced crystalline quality of the Er implanted and annealed ZnO films. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results demonstrated pre-edge features in O K-edge which are attributed to the structural defects in the films. Room temperature magnetic ordering was observed in Er implanted and annealed films, and is mainly assigned to the intrinsic defects in ZnO.

  17. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca2+. Palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca2+ pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca2+ depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ER Ca2+ depletion through FAT/CD36 and PLC signaling, possibly contributing to podocyte injury. PMID:26583319

  18. RIPK1 promotes death receptor-independent caspase-8-mediated apoptosis under unresolved ER stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Estornes, Y; Aguileta, M A; Dubuisson, C; De Keyser, J; Goossens, V; Kersse, K; Samali, A; Vandenabeele, P; Bertrand, M J M

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and results in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims at restoring ER homeostasis. However, when the stress is too severe the UPR switches from being a pro-survival response to a pro-death one, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress-mediated death have remained incompletely understood. In this study, we identified receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)—a kinase at the crossroad between life and death downstream of various receptors—as a new regulator of ER stress-induced death. We found that Ripk1-deficient MEFs are protected from apoptosis induced by ER stressors, which is reflected by reduced caspase activation and PARP processing. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic role of Ripk1 is independent of its kinase activity, is not regulated by its cIAP1/2-mediated ubiquitylation, and does not rely on the direct regulation of JNK or CHOP, two reportedly main players in ER stress-induced death. Instead, we found that ER stress-induced apoptosis in these cells relies on death receptor-independent activation of caspase-8, and identified Ripk1 upstream of caspase-8. However, in contrast to RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of TNFR1, we did not find Ripk1 associated with caspase-8 in a death-inducing complex upon unresolved ER stress. Our data rather suggest that RIPK1 indirectly regulates caspase-8 activation, in part via interaction with the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1). PMID:25476903

  19. Enhancement of Er optical efficiency through bismuth sensitization in yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarangella, Adriana; Reitano, Riccardo; Franzò, Giorgia; Priolo, Francesco; Miritello, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The process of energy transfer (ET) between optically active ions has been widely studied to improve the optical efficiency of a system for different applications, from lighting and photovoltaics to silicon microphotonics. In this work, we report the influence of Bi on the Er optical emission in erbium-yttrium oxide thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering. We demonstrate that this host permits to well dissolve Er and Bi ions, avoiding their clustering, and thus to stabilize the optically active Er3+ and Bi3+ valence states. In addition, we establish the ET occurrence from Bi3+ to Er3+ by the observed Bi3+ PL emission decrease and the simultaneous Er3+ photoluminescence (PL) emission increase. This was further confirmed by the coincidence of the Er3+ and Bi3+ excitation bands, analyzed by PL excitation spectroscopy. By increasing the Bi content of two orders of magnitude inside the host, though the occurrence of Bi-Bi interactions becomes deleterious for Bi3+ optical efficiency, the ET process between Bi3+ and Er3+ is still prevalent. We estimate ET efficiency of 70% for the optimized Bi:Er ratio equal to 1:3. Moreover, we have demonstrated to enhance the Er3+ effective excitation cross section by more than three orders of magnitude with respect to the direct one, estimating a value of 5.3 × 10-18 cm2, similar to the expected Bi3+ excitation cross section. This value is one of the highest obtained for Er in Si compatible hosts. These results make this material very promising as an efficient emitter for Si-compatible photonics devices.

  20. Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Zhilan; Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Jimeng; Hu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer processes in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass. The Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ and Tm3+ are calculated, and the similar values indicate that the local environments of these two kinds of rare earth ions are almost the same. When the samples are pumped at 980 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Tm:3F4 ? 3H6 to Er:4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 increases with increased Er3+ and Tm3+ contents, indicating energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4. When the samples are pumped at 800 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Er:4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 to Tm:3H4 ? 3F4 increases with increased Tm2O3 concentration, indicating energy transfer from Tm:3H4 to Er:4I13/2. The rate equations are given to explain the variations. The microscopic and macroscopic energy transfer parameters are calculated, and the values of energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4 are found to be higher than those of the other processes. For the Tm singly-doped glass pumped at 800 nm and Er-Tm co-doped glass pumped at 980 nm, the pumping rate needed to realize population reversion is calculated. The result shows that when the Er2O3 doping level is high, pumping the co-doped glass by a 980 nm laser is an effective way of obtaining a low-threshold ˜2 ?m gain.

  1. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca(2+). Palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca(2+) pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca(2+) depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ER Ca(2+) depletion through FAT/CD36 and PLC signaling, possibly contributing to podocyte injury. PMID:26583319

  2. Homo skull KNM-ER 1470 The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry Volume 33, Number 1/2008 43

    E-print Network

    Rosenberger, Alfred H.

    Homo skull KNM-ER 1470 The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry Volume 33, Number 1/2008 43 architectural constraints and their importance for reconstructing the early Homo skull KNM-ER 1470 Timothy G

  3. ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—a controversial role of protein disulphide isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress, which could lead to neurodegeneration, and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes, are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a disulphide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS. PMID:25520620

  4. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; He, H. J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhuge, L. J.; Ye, C.; Wu, X. M.

    2015-05-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf2+ and Hf4+. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO2, HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 °C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power.

  5. Inhibitory role of ER? on anterior pituitary cell proliferation by controlling the expression of proteins related to cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pablo A; Petiti, Juan P; Wagner, Ignacio A; Sabatino, Maria E; Sasso, Corina V; De Paul, Ana L; Torres, Alicia I; Gutiérrez, Silvina

    2015-11-01

    Considering that the role of ER? in the growth of pituitary cells is not well known, the aim of this work was to determine the expression of ER? in normal and tumoral cells and to investigate its implications in the proliferative control of this endocrine gland, by analyzing the participation of cyclin D1, Cdk4 and p21. Our results showed that the expression of ER? decreased during pituitary tumoral development induced by chronic E2 stimulation. The 20 ± 1.6% of normal adenohypophyseal cells expressed ER?, with this protein being reduced in the hyperplastic/adenomatous pituitary: at 20 days the ER?+ population was 10.7 ± 2.2%, while after 40 and 60 days of treatment an almost complete loss in the ER? expression was observed (40d: 1 ± 0.6%; 60d: 2 ± 0.6%). The ER?/? ratio increased starting from tumors at 40 days, mainly due to the loss of ER? expression. The cell proliferation was analyzed in normal and hyperplastic pituitary and also in GH3?- and GH3?+ which contained different levels of ER? expression, and therefore different ER?/? ratios. The over-expression of ER? inhibited the GH3 cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and ER?. Also, the ER? activation by its agonist DPN changed the subcellular localization of p21, inducing an increase in the p21 nuclear expression, where it acts as a tumoral suppressor. These results show that ER? exerts an inhibitory role on pituitary cell proliferation, and that this effect may be partially due to the modulation of some key regulators of the cell cycle, such as cyclin D1 and p21. These data contribute significantly to the understanding of the ER effects in the proliferative control of pituitary gland, specifically related to the ER? function in the E2 actions on this endocrine gland. PMID:26282612

  6. 76 FR 63818 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 767-400ER Series Airplanes; Seats With Inflatable Lapbelts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...25-448-SC] Special Conditions: Boeing Model 767-400ER Series Airplanes; Seats With Inflatable...conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 767- 400ER series airplane. These airplanes...protection on passenger seats on Boeing Model 767-400ER series airplanes (hereafter...

  7. Pre-emptive Quality Control Protects the ER from Protein Overload via the Proximity of ERAD Components and SRP.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hisae; Nagai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Takeshi; Takami, Yasunari; Satrimafitrah, Pasjan; Kato, Hironori; Honda, Arata; Hatta, Tomohisa; Natsume, Tohru; Sato, Takashi; Kai, Hirofumi; Ichijo, Hidenori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-11-01

    Cells possess ER quality control systems to adapt to ER stress and maintain their function. ER-stress-induced pre-emptive quality control (ER pQC) selectively degrades ER proteins via translocational attenuation during ER stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. Here, we find that most newly synthesized endogenous transthyretin proteins are rerouted to the cytosol without cleavage of the signal peptide, resulting in proteasomal degradation in hepatocytes during ER stress. Derlin family proteins (Derlins), which are ER-associated degradation components, reroute specific ER proteins, but not ER chaperones, from the translocon to the proteasome through interactions with the signal recognition particle (SRP). Moreover, the cytosolic chaperone Bag6 and the AAA-ATPase p97 contribute to the degradation of ER pQC substrates. These findings demonstrate that Derlins-mediated substrate-specific rerouting and Bag6- and p97-mediated effective degradation contribute to the maintenance of ER homeostasis without the need for translocation. PMID:26565908

  8. PEX16 contributes to peroxisome maintenance by constantly trafficking PEX3 via the ER

    PubMed Central

    Aranovich, Alexander; Hua, Rong; Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Kim, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. However, its role in peroxisome maintenance is unclear. To explore ER involvement in the maintenance of peroxisomes, we redirect a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP), PEX3, to directly target to the ER using the N-terminal ER signal sequence from preprolactin. Using biochemical techniques and fluorescent imaging, we find that ER-targeting PEX3 (ssPEX3) is continuously imported into pre-existing peroxisomes. This suggests that the ER constitutively provides membrane proteins and associated lipids to pre-existing peroxisomes. Using quantitative time-lapse live-cell fluorescence microscopy applied to cells that were either depleted of or exogenously expressing PEX16, we find that PEX16 mediates the peroxisomal trafficking of two distinct peroxisomal membrane proteins, PEX3 and PMP34, via the ER. These results not only provide insight into peroxisome maintenance and PMP trafficking in mammalian cells but also highlight important similarities and differences in the mechanisms of PMP import between the mammalian and yeast systems. PMID:25002403

  9. Effect of impurity concentration on 1.54 um emission from GaN:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abernathy, Cammy R.; Overberg, Mark J.; Mackenzie, John D.; Hoemmerich, Uwe; Pearton, Stephen J.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, John M.

    2000-04-01

    The surface morphology and the room temperature 1.54 micrometers photoluminescence (PL) intensity have been investigated as a function of Er flux in GaN:Er grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using below bandgap excitation energy. Unlike AlN, GaN:Er showed improved surface smoothness as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, with RMS roughness values improving from 18.1 to 2.0 nm as the Er concentration is increased. Similarly the PL emission increased with increasing Er concentration and showed no evidence of saturation or concentration quenching. Even further improvements in 1.54 micrometers PL intensity from GaN:Er have been obtained through the introduction via ion implantation of carbon or oxygen, with carbon appearing to produce the greatest increase. Increasing the C concentration through the use of CBr4 during growth initially improved the surface smoothness, with RMS roughness improving by a factor of seven over undoped GaN. The PL also improved dramatically. However, the highest amounts of C investigated produced a decrease in the PL as well as a roughening of the film surface. These effects indicate that the GaN:Er had reached its C solubility limit, producing an increased amount of defect induced nonradiative recombination.

  10. Multiple Domains in PEX16 Mediate Its Trafficking and Recruitment of Peroxisomal Proteins to the ER.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rong; Gidda, Satinder K; Aranovich, Alexander; Mullen, Robert T; Kim, Peter K

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisomes rely on a diverse array of mechanisms to ensure the specific targeting of their protein constituents. Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs), for instance, are targeted by at least two distinct pathways: directly to peroxisomes from their sites of synthesis in the cytosol or indirectly via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the extent to which each PMP targeting pathway is involved in the maintenance of pre-existing peroxisomes is unclear. Recently, we showed that human PEX16 plays a critical role in the ER-dependent targeting of PMPs by mediating the recruitment of two other PMPs, PEX3 and PMP34, to the ER. Here, we extend these results by carrying out a comprehensive mutational analysis of PEX16 aimed at gaining insights into the molecular targeting signals responsible for its ER-to-peroxisome trafficking and the domain(s) involved in PMP recruitment function at the ER. We also show that the recruitment of PMPs to the ER by PEX16 is conserved in plants. The implications of these results in terms of the function of PEX16 and the role of the ER in peroxisome maintenance in general are discussed. PMID:25903784

  11. Mitochondrial pleomorphy in plant cells is driven by contiguous ER dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jaipargas, Erica-Ashley; Barton, Kiah A.; Mathur, Neeta; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are pleomorphic, double membrane-bound organelles involved in cellular energetics in all eukaryotes. Mitochondria in animal and yeast cells are typically tubular-reticulate structures and several micro-meters long but in green plants they are predominantly observed as 0.2–1.5 ?m punctae. While fission and fusion, through the coordinated activity of several conserved proteins, shapes mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently been identified as an additional player in this process in yeast and mammalian cells. The mitochondria-ER relationship in plant cells remains largely uncharacterized. Here, through live-imaging of the entire range of mitochondria pleomorphy we uncover the underlying basis for the predominantly punctate mitochondrial form in plants. We demonstrate that mitochondrial morphology changes in response to light and cytosolic sugar levels in an ER mediated manner. Whereas, large ER polygons and low dynamics under dark conditions favor mitochondrial fusion and elongation, small ER polygons result in increased fission and predominantly small mitochondria. Hypoxia also reduces ER dynamics and increases mitochondrial fusion to produce giant mitochondria. By observing elongated mitochondria in normal plants and fission-impaired Arabidopsis nmt1-2 and drp3a mutants we also establish that thin extensions called matrixules and a beads-on-a-string mitochondrial phenotype are direct consequences of mitochondria-ER interactions. PMID:26442089

  12. Multicolor Photodetector of a Single Er(3+)-Doped CdS Nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Dedong, Hou; Ying-Kai, Liu; Yu, De-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Er(3+)-doped CdS nanoribbons (Er-CdS NRs) are synthesized by thermal evaporation and then characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and absorption spectra. The Er-CdS NR photodetector is studied systematically, including spectral response, light intensity response, and photoconductance (G) versus temperature (T). It is found that Er-CdS NR has the ability of detecting multicolor light including blue, red, and near-infrared light with higher responsivity (R ? ) and external quantum efficiency (?). The conductance of Er-CdS NR under dark conditions decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 87-237 K, while its conductance increases with increasing temperature in the range of 237-297 K when T is larger than 237 K. These results indicated that ionized impurities and the intrinsic excitation are responsible for the conductance change of Er-CdS NR in the dark. The superior performance of the Er-CdS NR device offers an avenue to develop highly sensitive multicolor photodetector applications. PMID:26153123

  13. Influence of doping concentration on microstructure evolution and sintering kinetics of Er:YAG transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Ivanov, Maxim; Ba, Xuewei; Yuan, Yong; Lin, Li; Chen, Min; Liu, Wenbin; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Chen, Haohong; Pan, Yubai; Cheng, Xiaonong; Guo, Jingkun

    2014-11-01

    Erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) transparent ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated from powder mixtures of ?-Al2O3, Y2O3, and Er2O3 with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids by solid-state reactive sintering. The sintering temperatures were from 1500 °C up to 1750 °C. Densification, microstructure evolution and optical transparency of Er:YAG ceramics with different doping concentrations were examined. For all the doping concentration, fully dense Er:YAG transparent ceramics with homogeneous grain size distributions around 20-23 ?m were obtained by sintering at 1750 °C for 50 h, whose transmittances were all above 83% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. The grain growth kinetic of Er:YAG ceramics was also investigated as a function of erbium content. The calculated activation energies for grain growth of the 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 at%Er:YAG ceramics were 779, 855, 805, and 861 kJ/mol, respectively. The luminescence spectra were also measured and discussed.

  14. Intracellular lactate-mediated induction of estrogen receptor beta (ER?) in biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Manente, Arcangela G; Pinton, Giulia; Zonca, Sara; Cilli, Michele; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Daga, Antonio; Nilsson, Stefan; Moro, Laura

    2015-09-22

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the second most common histotype of MPM. It is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter associated with worse prognosis. In this report we describe that silencing of AKT1 in spindle-shaped biphasic MPM cells promotes the shift toward an epithelioid phenotype. Furthermore, AKT1 silencing resulted in decreased expression of the lactate/H+ symporter MCT4 and its chaperone CD147/Basigin, and in the induction of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression. We provide evidence that ER? expression is induced by increased intracellular lactate concentration. Spheroid culturing and tumor growth of ER? negative biphasic MPM in nude mice resulted in the induction of ER? expression and response to the selective agonist KB9520. In both models, the treatment with the ER? agonist results in reduced cell proliferation, decreased expression of MCT4 and CD147/Basigin and increased acetylation and inactivation of AKT1. Collectively, in response to metabolic changes, ER? expression is induced and exerts an anti-tumor effect through selective agonist activation. The possibility to reverse the more aggressive biphasic mesothelioma histotype by targeting ER? with a selective agonist could represent a new effective treatment strategy. PMID:26208479

  15. Sec16 influences transitional ER sites by regulating rather than organizing COPII

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Nike; Liu, Yang; Papanikou, Effrosyni; McMahon, Conor; Esaki, Masatoshi; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2013-01-01

    During the budding of coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles from transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER) sites, Sec16 has been proposed to play two distinct roles: negatively regulating COPII turnover and organizing COPII assembly at tER sites. We tested these ideas using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Redistribution of Sec16 to the cytosol accelerates tER dynamics, supporting a negative regulatory role for Sec16. To evaluate a possible COPII organization role, we dissected the functional regions of Sec16. The central conserved domain, which had been implicated in coordinating COPII assembly, is actually dispensable for normal tER structure. An upstream conserved region (UCR) localizes Sec16 to tER sites. The UCR binds COPII components, and removal of COPII from tER sites also removes Sec16, indicating that COPII recruits Sec16 rather than the other way around. We propose that Sec16 does not in fact organize COPII. Instead, regulation of COPII turnover can account for the influence of Sec16 on tER sites. PMID:24006484

  16. REG? regulates ER? degradation via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Bi, Jiong; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Youhong; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • High expression of REG? is correlated with ER? status and poor clinical features. • Cell growth, mobility and invasion are significantly impaired by REG? knockdown. • REG? indirectly regulates ER? protein expression. - Abstract: REG? is a proteasome coactivator which regulates proteolytic activity in eukaryotic cells. Abundant lines of evidence have showed that REG? is over expressed in a number of human carcinomas. However, its precise role in the pathogenesis of cancer is still unclear. In this study, by examining 200 human breast cancer specimens, we demonstrated that REG? was highly expressed in breast cancers, and the expression of REG? was positively correlated with breast cancer patient estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) status. Moreover, the expression of REG? was found positively associated with poor clinical features and low survival rates in ER? positive breast cancer patients. Further cell culture studies using MCF7 and BT474 breast cancer cell lines showed that cell proliferation, motility, and invasion capacities were decreased significantly by REG? knockdown. Lastly, we demonstrated that REG? indirectly regulates the degradation of ER? protein via ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. In conclusion, our findings provide the evidence that REG? expression was positively correlated with ER? status and poor clinical prognosis in ER? positive breast cancer patients. As well, we disclose a new connection between the two molecules that are both highly expressed in most breast cancer cases.

  17. Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1) Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl)-aminate (PMS) forming Er(PMS)x-SBA-15 and (2) Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 × 10?21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of “effective bandwidth” have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the Judd–Ofelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMS)x-SBA-15. PMID:21170408

  18. Live-cell assays to identify regulators of ER-to-Golgi trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lisauskas, Tautvydas; Matula, Petr; Claas, Christoph; Reusing, Susanne; Wiemann, Stefan; Erfle, Holger; Lehmann, Lars; Fischer, Peter; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl; Storrie, Brian; Starkuviene, Vytaute

    2012-03-01

    We applied fluorescence microscopy-based quantitative assays to living cells to identify regulators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking and/or Golgi complex maintenance. We first validated an automated procedure to identify factors which influence Golgi-to-ER relocalization of GalT-CFP (?1,4-galactosyltransferase I-cyan fluorescent protein) after brefeldin A (BFA) addition and/or wash-out. We then tested 14 proteins that localize to the ER and/or Golgi complex when overexpressed for a role in ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Nine of them interfered with the rate of BFA-induced redistribution of GalT-CFP from the Golgi complex to the ER, six of them interfered with GalT-CFP redistribution from the ER to a juxtanuclear region (i.e. the Golgi complex) after BFA wash-out and six of them were positive effectors in both assays. Notably, our live-cell approach captures regulator function in ER-to-Golgi trafficking, which was missed in previous fixed cell assays, as well as assigns putative roles for other less characterized proteins. Moreover, we show that our assays can be extended to RNAi and chemical screens. PMID:22132776

  19. Live cell assays to identify regulators of ER to Golgi trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lisauskas, Tautvydas; Matula, Petr; Claas, Christoph; Reusing, Susanne; Wiemann, Stefan; Erfle, Holger; Lehmann, Lars; Fischer, Peter; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl; Storrie, Brian; Starkuviene, Vytaute

    2013-01-01

    We applied fluorescence microscopy based quantitative assays to living cells to identify regulators of ER to Golgi trafficking and/or Golgi complex maintenance. We first validated an automated procedure to identify factors, which influence Golgi to ER re-localization of GalT-CFP after brefeldin A (BFA) addition and/or wash-out. We then tested 14 proteins that localize to the ER and/or Golgi complex when over-expressed for a role in ER to Golgi trafficking. Nine of them interfered with the rate of BFA induced redistribution of GalT-CFP from the Golgi complex to the ER, 6 of them interfered with GalT-CFP redistribution from the ER to a juxtanuclear region (i.e., Golgi complex) after BFA wash-out, and 6 of them were positive effectors in both assays. Notably, our live cell approach captures regulator function in ER to Golgi trafficking, that were missed in previous fixed cell assays; as well as assigns putative roles for other less characterized proteins. Moreover, we show that our assays can be extended to RNAi and chemical screens. PMID:22132776

  20. Optical activity and defect/dopant evolution in ZnO implanted with Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, Alexander; Galeckas, Augustinas; Hallén, Anders; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G.

    2015-09-01

    The effects of annealing on the optical properties and defect/dopant evolution in wurtzite (0001) ZnO single crystals implanted with Er ions are studied using a combination of Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements. The results suggest a lattice recovery behavior dependent on ion dose and involving formation/evolution of an anomalous multipeak defect distribution, thermal stability of optically active Er complexes, and Er outdiffusion. An intermediate defect band occurring between the surface and ion-induced defects in the bulk is stable up to 900 °C and has a photoluminescence signature around 420 nm well corresponding to Zn interstitials. The optical activity of the Er atoms reaches a maximum after annealing at 700 °C but is not directly associated to the ideal Zn site configuration, since the Er substitutional fraction is maximal already in the as-implanted state. In its turn, annealing at temperatures above 700 °C leads to dissociation of the optically active Er complexes with subsequent outdiffusion of Er accompanied by the efficient lattice recovery.

  1. ER? regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2012-03-01

    In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ER? and ER?, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ER? stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ER? inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ER? in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ER?. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ER? treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ER? group.

  2. PBX1 genomic pioneer function drives ER? signaling underlying progression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu

    2011-11-01

    Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ER?-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ER? in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ER? recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ER?-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ER?-positive breast tumors, as it guides ER? genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

  3. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    PubMed Central

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ?F/F0. PMID:23685703

  4. Detection of Isolated Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes Using the Sigma-1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Abasha; Tsai, Shang-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria referred to as the MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) plays important roles in many physiological functions. A specific marker for this important entity of cellular structure is urgently needed. Thus, we propose in this method chapter that the membrane-bound ER chaperone sigma-1 receptor serves as an ideal marker for the MAM. We describe in detail the preparation and purification of the MAM by using the sigma-1 receptor as the marker and demonstrate the uniqueness of this marker by using a variety of cells, peripheral and neuronal. PMID:26552680

  5. Photoluminescence characteristics of Er doped Ge nanocrystals embedded in alumina matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluguri, R.; Das, S.; Manna, S.; Singha, R. K.; Ray, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Er3+ doped Ge nanocrystals embedded in high-k Al2O3 matrix were prepared by pulsed laser ablation method. X-ray spectra and transmission electron micrographs have confirmed the formation of Ge nanocrystals and the increase in crystallite size with increasing annealing temperature from 750 °C to 950 °C. An enhanced photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 ?m is attained by optimizing the Er concentration. Temperature dependent photoluminescence from samples annealed at different temperatures has shown the existence of thermally activated energy transfer process between Er3+ and Ge nanocrystals.

  6. Erbium nanoparticle doped fibers for efficient, resonantly-pumped Er-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, E. Joseph; Baker, Colin C.; Askins, Charles G.; Fontana, Jake P.; Hunt, Michael P.; Peele, John R.; Marcheschi, Barbara A.; Oh, Euneku; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Zhang, Jun; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Merkle, Larry D.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) doping is a new technique for making erbium-doped fibers (EDFs); the Er ions are surrounded by a cage of aluminum and oxygen ions, substantially reducing Er3+ ion-ion energy exchange and its deleterious effects on laser performance. Er-Al-doped NPs have been synthesized and doped in-situ into the silica soot of the preform core. We report the first known measurements of NP-doped EDFs in a resonantly-core pumped master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configuration; the optical-to-optical slope efficiency was 80.4%, which we believe is a record for this type of fiber.

  7. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in quaternary boroncarbides compound ErNiBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yikun; Wilde, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of quaternary intermetallic compound ErNiBC has been investigated by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The compound undergoes a paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition at TC~5 K and the ground state of Er ion forms a Kramer's doublet state. The magnetic transition is found to be second order in nature. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-?SMmax) and adiabatic temperature change (?Tadmax) of ErNiBC are 24.8 J/kg K and 8.6 K, respectively, for a magnetic field change of 0-50 kOe, and the corresponding refrigerant capacity (RC) is 312 J/kg.

  8. Transport Anisotropy in ErNi2B2C Along c-AXIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    The resistivities along c-axis ?c(H, T) of ErNi2 B2C have been measured with H? and H? c-axis for 2 < T < 300 K and the superconducting upper critical field Hc2(T) curves of ErNi2B2C were constructed for each magnetic fields. Our Hc2(T) curves have been compared and discussed with those from ?ab(H, T) measurements which explain the anisotropy and its temperature dependence of Hc2(T) are thought to arise from magnetic pair breaking and the anisotropic field dependence of Néel temperature TN originated from Er+3 sublattice.

  9. Microstructure analysis at the interface of Er decorated Ge nanocrystals in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, A.; Gemming, S.; Rebohle, L.; Muecklich, A.; Gemming, T.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

    2011-03-01

    Using scanning transmission electron microscopy and aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy the existence of Er around Ge nanocrystals (NCs) is established. In fact, Ge NCs with Er-rich graded interfaces are proposed experimentally and validated by theoretical modeling using a supercell structure that consists of compounds determined by x-ray diffraction. The local electronic structure of the proposed interface geometry is found to be in accordance with the hypothesis behind the inverse energy transfer process from the Er3+ to Ge related oxygen-deficiency centers.

  10. Stratospheric constituent trends from ER-2 profile data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Proffitt, Michael H.; Kelly, Ken K.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, Jim R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1990-01-01

    Trend analysis of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition's ER-2 profile data reveals an average decrease in N2O on potential temperature isentropes which can be attributed to diabatic cooling of inner vortex air. This conclusion is independently supported by radiative transfer computations. Trends in ozone and water vapor over the same period are not consistent with the magnitude of the diabatic descent. After accounting for the diabatic motion (estimated from N2O), an additional 0.44 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous O3 decrease above 440 K (about 20 km) is needed to balance the continuity equation. This ozone decrease suggests additional photochemical destruction of ozone in the presence of the high amounts of ClO observed during the mission. A 0.4 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous increase in H2O is also observed near 420 K (about 18 km) which may be due to the evaporation of ice crystals falling from higher, colder stratospheric layers.

  11. Stratospheric constituent trends from ER-2 profile data

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeberl, M.R. ); Proffitt, M.H.; Kelly, K.K. ); Lait, L.R.; Newman, P.A.; Rosenfield, J.E. ); Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R.; Strahan, S.E.; Chan, K.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Trend analysis of the AASE ER-2 profile data reveals an average decrease in N{sub 2}O on potential temperature isentropes which can be attributed to diabatic cooling of inner vortex air. This conclusion is independently supported by radiative transfer computations. Trends in ozone and water vapor over the same period are not consistent with the magnitude of the diabatic descent. After accounting for the diabatic motion (estimated from N{sub 2}O) an additional 0.44{plus minus}3%/day average anomalous O{sub 3} decrease above 440K ({approximately}20 km) is needed to balance the continuity equation. This ozone decrease suggests additional photochemical destruction of ozone in the presence of the high amounts of ClO observed during the mission. A 0.4{plus minus}0.3%/day average anomalous increase in H{sub 2}O is also observed near 420K ({approximately}18 km) which may be due to the evaporation of ice crystals falling from higher, colder stratospheric layers.

  12. Pullulanibacillus pueri sp. nov., isolated from Pu'er tea.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Tang, Tianyi; Song, Lei; Xiong, Mengjie; Tian, Jianqing; Zhang, Kegui; Hu, Xing; Zhu, Daochen

    2015-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain YN3(T) was isolated from ripened Pu'er tea. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae and was closely related to Pullulanibacillus naganoensis DSM 10191(T) (95.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Pullulanibacillus uraniitolerans DSM 19429(T) (95.4%). Growth of the strain was observed at 20-50 °C (optimum 30-37 °C), at pH 4.0-8.0 (optimum pH 5.0-6.0). The strain had a cell-wall type A1? peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:1?7c. The DNA G+C content of strain YN3(T) was 38.7 mol%. Strain YN3(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Pullulanibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, Pullulanibacilluspueri sp. nov., is proposed, with strain YN3(T) (?= CGMCC 1.12777(T ) = JCM 30075(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25858244

  13. Crystal field and magnetic properties of ErH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) times 10 to the minus 6 Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is of the order of 160 to 180 K.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-7-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

  15. Emergence of Chaotic Scattering in Ultracold Er and Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, T.; Kadau, H.; Schmitt, M.; Wenzel, M.; Ferrier-Barbut, I.; Pfau, T.; Frisch, A.; Baier, S.; Aikawa, K.; Chomaz, L.; Mark, M. J.; Ferlaino, F.; Makrides, C.; Tiesinga, E.; Petrov, A.; Kotochigova, S.

    2015-10-01

    We show that for ultracold magnetic lanthanide atoms chaotic scattering emerges due to a combination of anisotropic interaction potentials and Zeeman coupling under an external magnetic field. This scattering is studied in a collaborative experimental and theoretical effort for both dysprosium and erbium. We present extensive atom-loss measurements of their dense magnetic Feshbach-resonance spectra, analyze their statistical properties, and compare to predictions from a random-matrix-theory-inspired model. Furthermore, theoretical coupled-channels simulations of the anisotropic molecular Hamiltonian at zero magnetic field show that weakly bound, near threshold diatomic levels form overlapping, uncoupled chaotic series that when combined are randomly distributed. The Zeeman interaction shifts and couples these levels, leading to a Feshbach spectrum of zero-energy bound states with nearest-neighbor spacings that changes from randomly to chaotically distributed for increasing magnetic field. Finally, we show that the extreme temperature sensitivity of a small, but sizable fraction of the resonances in the Dy and Er atom-loss spectra is due to resonant nonzero partial-wave collisions. Our threshold analysis for these resonances indicates a large collision-energy dependence of the three-body recombination rate.

  16. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  17. A REACTIVITY PATTERN OF DISCRIMINATION OF ER AGONISM AND ANTAGONISM BASED ON 3-D MOLECULAR ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various models have been developed to predict the relative binding affinity (RBA) of chemicals to estrogen receptors (ER). These models are important for prioritizing chemicals for screening in biological assays assessing the potential for endocrine disruption. One shortcoming of...

  18. Er:YAG laser: clinical experience based upon scientific evidence: clinical cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Vieira de Medeiros, Urubatan

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate, based upon scientific evidence, the efficacy of dental treatment using the Er:YAG laser. The Er:YAG laser is able of quick cavitation of dental structure with minimal thermal effect. It is also well known that most treatment is carried out without the need of local anesthesia. It is also recognized that its work with no vibration and in a non-contact mode. This paper reports the clinical results of 590 dental procedures carried out with the Er:YAG laser on selected patients. The laser was used for composite removal, cavity enamel preparation, carious dentine removal and conditioning of both dentin and enamel. Dental treatment with the Er:YAG laser as a secure and efficient method of treatment with more comfort for the patients, high acceptance form patients and less need of using local anesthesia.

  19. Arctic geodynamics: Continental shelf and deep ocean geophysics. ERS-1 satellite altimetry: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.; Marquart, Gabriele; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    1993-01-01

    An overall review of the Arctic Geodynamics project is presented. A composite gravity field model of the region based upon altimetry data from ERS-1, Geosat, and Seasat is made. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 deg. Both areas contain large continental shelf areas, passive margins, as well as recently formed deep ocean areas. Until ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents sea, portions of the Arctic ocean, and the Norwegian sea north of Iceland are shown. The gravity anomalies around Svalbard (Spitsbergen) and Bear island are particularly large, indicating large isostatic anomalies which remain from the recent breakup of Greenland from Scandinavian. Recently released gravity data from the Armed Forces Topographic Service of Russia cover a portion of the Barents and Kara seas. A comparison of this data with the ERS-1 produced gravity field is shown.

  20. Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Evidence for the ER = EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities

    E-print Network

    Gharibyan, Hrant

    If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER = EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area ...

  1. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G.

    2015-06-01

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PL studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.

  2. Robot Arm Control Using AN Electro-Rheological (er) Clutch-Brake Mechanism:. Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

    Robot arm positioning is an important factor in the robotic process. However, the robot manipulator experiences positioning inaccuracies. This positioning error is due to the dynamic inefficiencies of its actuator: DC servomotor. In a bid to resolve this actuator problem, an electro-rheological (ER) clutch-brake mechanism is employed. This clutch-brake mechanism can actuate and halt the motion of the robot arm. This rotary mechanism consists of two similar clutches that are driven to rotate in the opposite directions and an individual ER brake that provides braking torques to halt the manipulator at the required positions. The main aim of this paper is to establish a control strategy for the ER actuated robot arm by means of model validation with the experimental results. This study is conducted to understand the ER robotic positioning control for future applications.

  3. Aberrant substrate engagement of the ER translocon triggers degradation by the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase

    E-print Network

    Greenblatt, Wesley H.

    Little is known about quality control of proteins that aberrantly or persistently engage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized translocon en route to membrane localization or the secretory pathway. Hrd1 and Doa10, the ...

  4. Parallelizing the Mur' Veri er Ulrich Stern? and David L. Dill

    E-print Network

    Dill, David L.

    Parallelizing the Mur' Veri er Ulrich Stern? and David L. Dill Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 fuli@verify,dill@csg.stanford.edu Abstract. With the use of state

  5. Electrical properties of Si:Er/Si layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, O. V.; Shabanov, V. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Yablonskii, A. N.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kuznetsov, V. P. Kornaukhov, A. V.; Andreev, B. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.

    2008-02-15

    Temperature dependences of the concentration and electron Hall mobility in Si:Er/Sr epitaxial layers grown at T = 600 deg. C and annealed at 700 or 900 deg. C have been investigated. The layers were grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy in vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} Pa). The energy levels of Er-related donor centers are located 0.21-0.27 eV below the bottom of the conduction band of Si. In the range 80-300 K, the electron Hall mobility in unannealed Si:Er epitaxial layers was lower than that in Czochralski-grown single crystals by a factor of 3-10. After annealing the layers, the fraction of electron scattering from Er donor centers significantly decreases.

  6. Electrical properties of Si:Er/Si layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Belova, O. V.; Shabanov, V. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Kuznetsov, O. A.; Yablonskii, A. N.; Kuznetsov, M. V.; Kuznetsov, V. P. Kornaukhov, A. V.; Andreev, B. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.

    2008-02-15

    Temperature dependences of the concentration and electron Hall mobility in Si:Er/Sr epitaxial layers grown at T = 600 Degree-Sign C and annealed at 700 or 900 Degree-Sign C have been investigated. The layers were grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy in vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} Pa). The energy levels of Er-related donor centers are located 0.21-0.27 eV below the bottom of the conduction band of Si. In the range 80-300 K, the electron Hall mobility in unannealed Si:Er epitaxial layers was lower than that in Czochralski-grown single crystals by a factor of 3-10. After annealing the layers, the fraction of electron scattering from Er donor centers significantly decreases.

  7. Requirements for ER reorganization and proliferation by HMG-CoA reductase

    E-print Network

    Federovitch, Christine Marie

    2007-01-01

    mammals and yeast cells, the same ER proliferation effectseffects on lipid pathways, since little quantitative analysis has been conducted in yeastof DTT to yeast. I have independently tested the effects of

  8. 20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT...

  9. Design and control of 4 DOF ER haptic master for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Cho, Han-Jun; Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-04-01

    In this research, a new type of haptic master device using electrorheological (ER) fluid for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is proposed. The proposed haptic master consists of an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion (X, Y, Z) and an ER brake for 1-DOF translational motion (Z). Principal design parameters of the haptic master are determined based on Bingham characteristic of ER fluid and geometrical constraints. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed haptic master, control performance is evaluated. In order to achieve desired force trajectories, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed and implemented. Both torque and force tracking control performances show that the proposed haptic master can be effectively applied to surgical robot system.

  10. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) model, based on consideration of multiple energetically reasonable conformations of flexible chemicals was developed using a training set of 232 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements. The training set include...

  11. When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more frequent and severe flare-ups. Keep Quick-Relief Medicines Handy Many kids go to the ER simply because they didn't have their quick-relief medicines handy. Your child should have quick-relief ...

  12. Membrane permeability transition and dysfunction of rice mitochondria effected by Er(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-zhong; Jiang, Feng-lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT. PMID:25249020

  13. UNIvERsITY OF ` SA5I

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    UNIvERsITY OF ` SA5I Beldan, Committee Coordinator, Academic Programs Committee of University Council From: Dr. Trever Crowe for Graduate Certificate in the Social Economy and Co-operatives Consistent with the Curricular Changes

  14. Crystallization and spectroscopic properties in Er3+ doped oxyfluorogermanate glass ceramics containing Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuebo; Qiu, Sawei; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Jianbei

    2015-07-01

    The Er3+ doped oxyfluorogermanate glasses, with a composition containing Na element, were synthesized by the conventional melting-quenching technique. When Na element was introduced into the composition of oxyfluorogermanate glass, the crystals behavior was investigated in details. Depending on the annealing procedure supplied, thermal annealing of precursor glasses in the system GeO2/BaF2/AlF3/Na2O/NaF/ZnO/GdF3/ErF3 led to the precipitation of different crystal phase nanocrystals. It was confirmed the nanocrystals in GC600 is orthorhombic NaBaAlF6 which led to enhance obviously in the UC luminescence of Er3+. However, the nanocrystals in G585 led to decrease in the UC luminescence, which indicated few Er ions enter into the lattice of this nanocrystal phase. The reason of the decrease in UC emission intensity of GC585 was analyzed.

  15. Ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped silicate glass.

    PubMed

    Peters, P M; Funk, D S; Peskin, A P; Veasey, D L; Sanford, N A; Houde-Walter, S N; Hayden, J S

    1999-11-20

    We investigated an Er(3+)/Yb(3+) codoped silicate glass as a host material for waveguide lasers operating near 1.5 microm. Spectroscopic properties of the glass are reported. Waveguide lasers were fabricated by K(+)-ion exchange from a nitrate melt. The waveguides support a single transverse mode at 1.5 microm. An investigation of the laser performance as a function of the Yb:Er ratio was performed, indicating an optimal ratio of approximately 5:1. Slope efficiencies of as great as 6.5% and output powers as high as 19.6 mW at 1.54 microm were realized. The experimental results are compared with a waveguide laser model that is used to extract the Er(3+) upconversion coefficients and the Yb(3+)-Er(3+) cross-relaxation coefficients. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining high-performance waveguide lasers from a durable silicate host glass. PMID:18324230

  16. Investigation of upconversion and near infrared emission properties in CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hangjun; Yang, Zhengwen; Liao, Jiayan; Lai, Shenfeng; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Yin, Zhaoyi

    2013-09-23

    The upconversion emission of rare earth ions can be modified in photonic crystals, however, the influence of upconversion emission modification of rare earths on near infrared emission has not been investigated yet in the photonic crystals. In the paper, CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals with the photonic band gaps at 545, 680 and 450 nm were prepared by polystyrene colloidal crystal templates. The upconversion and the near infrared emission properties of Er³? ions were systematically investigated in the CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals. Comparing with the reference sample, significant suppression of both the green and red upconversion luminescence of Er³? ions were observed in the inverse opals. It is interesting that the infrared emission located at 1,560 nm was enhanced due to inhibition of upconversion emission in the inverse opals. Additionally, mechanism of upconversion emission of the inverse opal was discussed. The photon avalanche upconversion process is observed. PMID:24104110

  17. An ER-Mitochondria Tethering Complex Revealed by a Synthetic Biology Screen

    PubMed Central

    Kornmann, Benoît; Currie, Erin; Collins, Sean R.; Schuldiner, Maya; Nunnari, Jodi; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Walter, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Communication between organelles is an important feature of all eukaryotic cells. To uncover components involved in mitochondria/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions, we screened for mutants that could be complemented by a synthetic protein designed to artificially tether the two organelles. We identified the Mmm1/Mdm10/Mdm12/Mdm34 complex as a molecular tether between ER and mitochondria. The tethering complex was composed of proteins resident of both ER and mitochondria. With the use of genome-wide mapping of genetic interactions, we showed that the components of the tethering complex were functionally connected to phospholipid biosynthesis and calcium-signaling genes. In mutant cells, phospholipid biosynthesis was impaired. The tethering complex localized to discrete foci, suggesting that discrete sites of close apposition between ER and mitochondria facilitate interorganelle calcium and phospholipid exchange. PMID:19556461

  18. FUNDRAISING AND GIFT ACCEPTANCE University Policy No: ER4105 Classification: External Relations

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    employees and registered students of the university; any person holding a university appointment whether1 FUNDRAISING AND GIFT ACCEPTANCE University Policy No: ER4105 Classification: External Relations Change: Mandated Review: March, 2020 Associated Procedures: Procedures for Fundraising and Gift

  19. 7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental audit can be substituted for the ER. (12) Installing a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine with a rating of 200 MW or less on an existing combustion turbine generation site for the...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental audit can be substituted for the ER. (12) Installing a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine with a rating of 200 MW or less on an existing combustion turbine generation site for the...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental audit can be substituted for the ER. (12) Installing a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine with a rating of 200 MW or less on an existing combustion turbine generation site for the...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental audit can be substituted for the ER. (12) Installing a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine with a rating of 200 MW or less on an existing combustion turbine generation site for the...

  3. Sar1 translocation onto the ER-membrane for vesicle budding has different pathways for promotion and suppression of ER-to-Golgi transport mediated through H89-sensitive kinase and ER-resident G protein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Masakazu; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Abe, Takuto; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Komori, Masayuki; Matsuo, Saburo

    2012-07-01

    ER-to-Golgi protein transport involves transport vesicles of which formation is initiated by assembly of Sar1. The assembly of Sar1 is suppressed by protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting that ER-to-Golgi transport is regulated progressively by H89 sensitive kinase. ER-resident G(i2) protein suppresses vesicle formation with inhibition of Sar1 assembly. This study examined whether these promotion and suppression of vesicle transport share the same signal pathway, by examining the effects of G(i/o) protein activator mastoparan 7 (Mp-7) and H89 on Sar1 and Sec23 recruitment onto microsomes. In a cell-free system for Sar1 translocation assay, GTP?S addition induced the translocation of Sar1 onto microsomes. Mp-7 and H89 decreased the Sar1 translocation. Double treatment of Mp-7 and H89 strongly decreased Sar1 translocation. In single and double treatments, however, G(i/o) protein inactivator pertussis toxin (IAP) partially restored the suppressive effect of Mp-7, but had not any effect on H89-induced effect. Then, the assembly of Sec23 onto the microsome was also increased by the addition of GTP?S. Sec23 translocation was decreased by Mp-7 and/or H89 treatment and recovered by IAP pretreatment except for H89 single treatment, similarly to Sar1 translocation in each treatment. Inhibitory effects of H89 and Mp-7on ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport by H89 or Mp-7 were also confirmed in a cell culture system by BFA-dispersion and BFA-reconstruction experiments. These findings indicate that promotion and suppression of ER-to-Golgi vesicle transport are modulated through separate signal pathways. PMID:22484643

  4. Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Detlef; Ebinger, Thomas; Illich, Wolfgang; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    2003-10-01

    We developed a new surgical procedure to improve the recurrence rate using an Er:YAG laser as dissection tool for the carpal ligament with the objective to ablate a small amount of the carpal ligament and to denaturate its ends. The Er:YAG Laser was transmitted to the applicator via a GeO fiber. With this system we proceeded 10 carpal ligament dissections without any complications in the follow-up period. All patients were free of pain and recurrence.

  5. Magnetic Properties of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Budko, Serguei; ATanatar, Makariy; Avdashchenko, D.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Novikov, V.V.; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2012-05-17

    We report magnetic susceptibility measurements of RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, and Lu) boron-rich rare earth containing borides down to 50 mK. The data suggest a spin glass low temperature state for RB66 (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er) with the freezing temperatures below 1 K. The magnetic properties appear to be influenced by the anisotropy of the magnetic moments, probably via the crystalline electric field effects.

  6. ER Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial Cyt c release in astrocytes following oxygen and glucose deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Kintner, Douglas B.; Begum, Gulnaz; Algharabli, Jehad; Cengiz, Pelin; Shull, Gary E.; Liu, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Dandan

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated changes of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ([Ca2+]ER), and mitochondrial Ca2+(Ca2+m) in astrocytes following oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/REOX). Two hours OGD did not cause changes in [Ca2+]cyt, but led to a significant increase in [Ca2+]ER. The elevation in [Ca2+]ER continued and reached a peak level (130 ± 2 ?M) by 90 min REOX. An abrupt release of Ca2+ER occurred during 1.5–2.5 h REOX, which was accompanied with a delayed and sustained rise in [Ca2+]cyt. Moreover, Ca2+m content was increased significantly within 15 min REOX followed by a secondary rise (~ 4.5-fold) and a release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Cyt c). Astrocytes exhibited translocation of Cyt c from mitochondria to ER and up regulation of ER stress protein p-eIF2?. Blocking Na+-K+-Cl? cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) activity, either by its potent inhibitor bumetanide or genetic ablation, abolished release of ER Ca2+, delayed rise in [Ca2+]cyt and Ca2+m. Inhibition of the reverse mode operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCXrev) significantly attenuated OGD/REOX-mediated Cyt c release. In summary, our study illustrates that OGD/REOX triggers a time-dependent loss of Ca2+ homeostasis in cytosol and organelles (ER and mitochondria) in astrocytes. Collective stimulation of NKCC1 and NCXrev contributes to these changes. PMID:20557423

  7. Journees Activites Universitaires de Mecanique La Rochelle, 31 ao^ut et 1er septembre 2006

    E-print Network

    Bergmann, Michel

    Journ´ees Activit´es Universitaires de M´ecanique La Rochelle, 31 ao^ut et 1er septembre 2006 Contr [1] afin d'extraire les Structures Coh´erentes, permet d'´evaluer une base, optimale au sens de l M´ecanique La Rochelle, 31 ao^ut et 1er septembre 2006 1.2 Configuration de l'´etude Dans cette

  8. Protein export at the ER: loading big collagens into COPII carriers

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Vivek; Erlmann, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    COPII vesicles mediate the export of secretory cargo from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites. However, of 60–90 nm diameter COPII vesicles are too small to accommodate secreted molecules such as the collagens. The ER exit site-located proteins TANGO1 and cTAGE5 are required for the transport of collagens and therefore provide a means to understand the export of big cargo and the mechanism of COPII carrier size regulation commensurate with cargo dimensions. PMID:21878990

  9. ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Diana P; Tanguay, Pierre-Luc; Hardy, Marie-Pierre; Caron, Étienne; de Verteuil, Danielle; Meloche, Sylvain; Perreault, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-peptide presentation: protein synthesis and degradation. We therefore asked whether and how the UPR impinges on MHC I-peptide presentation. Results We evaluated the impact of the UPR on global MHC I expression and on presentation of the H2Kb-associated SIINFEKL peptide. EL4 cells stably transfected with vectors coding hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-SIINFEKL protein variants were stressed with palmitate or exposed to glucose deprivation. UPR decreased surface expression of MHC I but did not affect MHC I mRNA level nor the total amount of intracellular MHC I proteins. Impaired MHC I-peptide presentation was due mainly to reduced supply of peptides owing to an inhibition of overall protein synthesis. Consequently, generation of H2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes was curtailed during ER stress, illustrating how generation of MHC I peptide ligands is tightly coupled to ongoing protein synthesis. Notably, the UPR-induced decline of MHC I-peptide presentation was more severe when the protein source of peptides was localized in the cytosol than in the ER. This difference was not due to changes in the translation rates of the precursor proteins but to increased stability of the cytosolic protein during ER stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ER stress impairs MHC I-peptide presentation, and that it differentially regulates expression of ER- vs. cytosol-derived peptides. Furthermore, this work illustrates how ER stress, a typical feature of infected and malignant cells, can impinge on cues for adaptive immune recognition. PMID:19220912

  10. Multifactorial ER? and NOTCH1 control of squamous differentiation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Yang Sui; Ostano, Paola; Jo, Seung-Hee; Dai, Jun; Getsios, Spiro; Dziunycz, Piotr; Hofbauer, Günther F.L.; Cerveny, Kara; Chiorino, Giovanna; Lefort, Karine; Dotto, G. Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Downmodulation or loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding NOTCH1 are associated with dysfunctional squamous cell differentiation and development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in skin and internal organs. While NOTCH1 receptor activation has been well characterized, little is known about how NOTCH1 gene transcription is regulated. Using bioinformatics and functional screening approaches, we identified several regulators of the NOTCH1 gene in keratinocytes, with the transcription factors DLX5 and EGR3 and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) directly controlling its expression in differentiation. DLX5 and ERG3 are required for RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment to the NOTCH1 locus, while ER? controls NOTCH1 transcription through RNA PolII pause release. Expression of several identified NOTCH1 regulators, including ER?, is frequently compromised in skin, head and neck, and lung SCCs and SCC-derived cell lines. Furthermore, a keratinocyte ER?–dependent program of gene expression is subverted in SCCs from various body sites, and there are consistent differences in mutation and gene-expression signatures of head and neck and lung SCCs in female versus male patients. Experimentally increased ER? expression or treatment with ER? agonists inhibited proliferation of SCC cells and promoted NOTCH1 expression and squamous differentiation both in vitro and in mouse xenotransplants. Our data identify a link between transcriptional control of NOTCH1 expression and the estrogen response in keratinocytes, with implications for differentiation therapy of squamous cancer. PMID:24743148

  11. Comparison of ERS-1 scatterometer and Florida State University tropical winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legler, David M.; Obrien, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly mean winds from the CMODFD (wind vector data set) ERS-1 Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) scatterometer are evaluated by comparing them to monthly mean tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean wind analyses based on in-situ data. The FSU (an observation based set of fields) winds agree qualitatively with the ERS-1 winds. Magnitudes of the vector differences are 2 to 4 m/s. Evident in the ERS-1 fields are north-south oriented bands which coincide with orbital sampling swaths. These bands are more evident in the curl maps of the mean monthly wind fields. Suitability of the ERS-1 monthly mean wind fields for ocean modeling is evaluated through a comparison of results from a model of the tropical Pacific forced by both FSU and ERS-1 wind fields. Model responses in the eastern equatorial Pacific are similar, and both track variability in the observed sea level. However, ERS-1 wind results do not correlate as well to the monthly variations in the sea level data.

  12. PERK Limits Drosophila Lifespan by Promoting Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation in Response to ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lifen; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis requires precise control of intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. In Drosophila, this control declines with age largely due to chronic activation of stress signaling and associated chronic inflammatory conditions. An important contributor to this condition is the age-associated increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we show that the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) integrates both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous ER stress stimuli to induce ISC proliferation. In addition to responding to cell-intrinsic ER stress, PERK is also specifically activated in ISCs by JAK/Stat signaling in response to ER stress in neighboring cells. The activation of PERK is required for homeostatic regeneration, as well as for acute regenerative responses, yet the chronic engagement of this response becomes deleterious in aging flies. Accordingly, knocking down PERK in ISCs is sufficient to promote intestinal homeostasis and extend lifespan. Our studies highlight the significance of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response of the ER (UPRER) in intestinal homeostasis and provide a viable strategy to improve organismal health- and lifespan. PMID:25945494

  13. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  14. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  15. Excellent ethanol sensing properties based on Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Bai; He, Ying; Wang, Sheng-Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this work, pure ?-Fe2O3 and Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes were synthesized by a simple single-capillary electrospinning technology followed by calcination treatment. The morphologies and crystal structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the as-prepared samples have been researched, and the result shows that the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes exhibit much better sensitivity to ethanol. The response value of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes to 10 ppm ethanol is 21 at the operating temperature 240°, which is 14 times larger than that of pure ?-Fe2O3 nanotubes (response value is 1.5). The ethanol sensing properties of ?-Fe2O3 nanotubes are remarkably enhanced by doping Er, and the lowest detection limit of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes is 300 ppb, to which the response value is about 2. The response and recovery times are about 4 s and 70 s to 10 ppm ethanol, respectively. In addition, the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes possess good selectivity and long-term stability. Project supported by Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Department, China (Grant No. 20140204027GX) and the Challenge Cup for College Students, China (Grant No. 450060497053).

  16. TULP1 Missense Mutations Induces the Endoplasmic Reticulum Unfolded Protein Response Stress Complex (ER-UPR).

    PubMed

    Lobo, Glenn P; Ebke, Lindsey A; Au, Adrian; Hagstrom, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the TULP1 gene are associated with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the molecular mechanisms related to the deleterious effects of TULP1 mutations remains unknown. Several studies have shown that misfolded proteins secondary to genetic mutations can accumulate within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) complex followed by cellular apoptosis. We hypothesize that TULP1 mutations produce misfolded protein products that accumulate in the ER and induce cellular apoptosis via the UPR. To test our hypothesis, we first performed three in-silico analyses of TULP1 missense mutations (I459K, R420P and F491L), which predicted misfolded protein products. Subsequently, the three mutant TULP1-GFP constructs and wild-type (wt) TULP1-GFP were transiently transfected into hTERT-RPE-1 cells. Staining of cells using ER tracker followed by confocal microscopy showed wt-TULP1 localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. In contrast, all three mutant TULP1 proteins revealed cytoplasmic punctate staining which co-localized with the ER. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cells expressing mutant TULP1 proteins revealed induction of downstream targets of the ER-UPR complex, including BiP/GPR-78, phosphorylated-PERK (Thr980) and CHOP. Our in-vitro analyses suggest that mutant TULP1 proteins are misfolded and accumulate within the ER leading to induction of the UPR stress response complex. PMID:26427415

  17. False positives in MALDI-TOF detection of ER{beta} in mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Schwend, Thomas . E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@mednut.ki.se

    2006-05-12

    Recently, Yang et al. reported that estrogen receptor beta (ER{beta}) is a mitochondrial protein rather than a nuclear receptor. Because this claim would lead to a significant change in our understanding of estrogen signaling, we have attempted to reproduce the MALDI-TOF data of Yang et al. We separated proteins extracted from mouse liver mitochondria by SDS-PAGE and analysed a gel band covering the molecular weight range of 50-65 kDa by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Analysis of the data with the MASCOT database algorithm provided no evidence for the presence of ER{beta} in the mitochondria. If we search (as the authors did) with only the peptide masses which match to tryptic fragments of ER{beta}, ER{beta} is identified with a significant score of 69. However, fragmentation of these peptides shows that they are not from ER{beta}. Our conclusion is that ER{beta} cannot be identified by MALDI-TOF from a mixture of mitochondrial proteins resolved on SDS-PAGE.

  18. Aging related ER stress is not responsible for anabolic resistance in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Sreeda; Pierre, Nicolas; Bakker, Astrid D; Manders, Ralph J; Pletsers, Annelies; Francaux, Marc; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-12-25

    Anabolic resistance reflects the inability of skeletal muscle to maintain protein mass by appropriate stimulation of protein synthesis. We hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging. Muscles were isolated from adult (8 mo) and old (26 mo) mice and weighed. ER stress markers in each muscle were quantified, and the anabolic response to leucine was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation state of S6K1 in soleus and EDL using an ex vivo muscle model. Aging reduced the muscle-to-body weight ratio in soleus, gastrocnemius, and plantaris, but not in EDL and tibialis anterior. Compared to adult mice, the expression of ER stress markers BiP and IRE1? was higher in EDL, and phospho-eIF2? was higher in soleus and EDL of old mice. S6K1 response to leucine was impaired in soleus, but not in EDL, suggesting that anabolic resistance contributes to soleus weight loss in old mice. Pre-incubation with ER stress inducer tunicamycin before leucine stimulation increased S6K1 phosphorylation beyond the level reached by leucine alone. Since tunicamycin did not impair leucine-induced S6K1 response, and based on the different ER stress marker regulation patterns, ER stress is probably not involved in anabolic resistance in skeletal muscle with aging. PMID:26551463

  19. Preparation, characterization, and strong upconversion of monodisperse Y 2O 3:Er 3+,Yb 3+ microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hai; Qiao, Yan Min

    2009-02-01

    Monodisperse Y 2O 3:Er and Y 2O 3:Er,Yb microspheres with diameter of 1.5-3 ?m, which are composed of nanoparticles with size of about 50 nm, were prepared by a simple solvothermal method followed by further heat treatment. The structural properties of samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction; field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Especially, the effect of CH 3COONa on the formation of microspheres was investigated. Under 980 nm laser excitation, strong green (518-570 nm), strong red (645-686 nm) and weak violet (405-420 nm) upconversion emissions have been observed in Y 2O 3:Er and Y 2O 3:Er,Yb microspheres. The upconversion mechanisms were studied through laser power and concentration dependence of the upconverted emissions. The upconversion properties indicate that Y 2O 3:Er and Y 2O 3:Er,Yb microspheres may be used in upconversion phosphors.

  20. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  1. Er:YAG Laser Dental Treatment of Patients Affected by Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Galeotti, Angela; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Gentile, Tina; Giancristoforo, Simona; Romeo, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser used for treating hard dental tissue in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Methods. We report two cases of EB in which an Er:YAG laser was used for conservative treatments. In the first case, the Er:YAG laser (2,940??m, 265?mJ, 25?Hz) was used to treat caries on a deciduous maxillary canine in an 8-year-old male patient affected by dystrophic EB. In the second case, we treated a 26-year-old female patient, affected by junctional EB, with generalized enamel hypoplasia, and an Er:YAG laser (2,940??m, 265?mJ, 25?Hz) was used to remove the damaged enamel on maxillary incisors. Results. The use of the Er:YAG laser, with the appropriate energy, was effective in the selective removal of carious tissue and enamel hypoplasia. During dental treatment with the Er:YAG laser, patients required only a few interruptions due to the absence of pain, vibration, and noise. Conclusions. Laser treatment of hard dental tissues is a valuable choice for patients affected by EB since it is less invasive compared to conventional treatment, resulting in improved patient compliance. PMID:25431688

  2. Involvement of the Akt signaling pathway in ER-?36/GRP94-mediated signaling in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    FU, ZHENGQI; ZHEN, HONGYAN; ZOU, FENG; WANG, XUMING; CHEN, YING; LIU, LIJIANG

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) has been implicated in the promotion of tumor proliferation and metastasis. Previous studies have found that GRP94 is involved in the malignant growth of gastric carcinoma cells through estrogen receptor-?36 (ER-?36)-mediated estrogen signaling, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36 in tumor specimens from gastric cancer patients by immunohistochemistry, and found that both GRP94 and ER-?36 were highly expressed in the cytoplasms of gastric carcinoma cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10?12 M for 24 h increased the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt at the Ser473 site (Ser473-Akt). In established SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with knockdown of ER-?36 expression, the levels of GRP94 and Ser473-Akt expression were significantly reduced. Thus, the Akt signaling pathway is a potentially important signaling pathway in ER-?36-GRP94-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:25295093

  3. Protective effect of carbenoxolone on ER stress-induced cell death in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Jung, Eun Jung; Moon, Seong-Su; Seo, Minchul

    2015-12-25

    Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be increased in obesity. Induction of ER stress on hypothalamic neurons has been reported to cause hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and malfunction of energy balance, leading to obesity. Carbenoxolone is an 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) inhibitor that converts inactive glucocorticoid into an active form. In addition to its metabolic effect via enzyme inhibitory action, carbenoxolone has shown anti-apoptotic activity in several studies. In this study, the direct effects of carbenoxolone on ER stress and cell death in hypothalamic neurons were investigated. Carbenoxolone attenuated tunicamycin induced ER stress-mediated molecules such as spliced XBP1, ATF4, ATF6, CHOP, and ROS generation. In vivo study also revealed that carbenoxolone decreased tunicamycin-induced ER stress in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, the results of this study show that carbenoxolone has protective effects against tunicamycin induced-ER stress and apoptosis in hypothalamic neurons, suggesting its direct protective effects against obesity. Further study is warranted to clarify the effects of carbenoxolone on hypothalamic regulation of energy balance in obesity. PMID:26577412

  4. PERK Limits Drosophila Lifespan by Promoting Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation in Response to ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifen; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Qi, Yanyan; Jasper, Heinrich

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal homeostasis requires precise control of intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. In Drosophila, this control declines with age largely due to chronic activation of stress signaling and associated chronic inflammatory conditions. An important contributor to this condition is the age-associated increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we show that the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) integrates both cell-autonomous and non-autonomous ER stress stimuli to induce ISC proliferation. In addition to responding to cell-intrinsic ER stress, PERK is also specifically activated in ISCs by JAK/Stat signaling in response to ER stress in neighboring cells. The activation of PERK is required for homeostatic regeneration, as well as for acute regenerative responses, yet the chronic engagement of this response becomes deleterious in aging flies. Accordingly, knocking down PERK in ISCs is sufficient to promote intestinal homeostasis and extend lifespan. Our studies highlight the significance of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response of the ER (UPRER) in intestinal homeostasis and provide a viable strategy to improve organismal health- and lifespan. PMID:25945494

  5. Estrogen receptor variant ER-?36 is involved in estrogen neuroprotection against oxidative toxicity.

    PubMed

    Han, S; Zhao, B; Pan, X; Song, Z; Liu, J; Gong, Y; Wang, M

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that estrogen exerts neuroprotective effect against various neuronal damages. However, the estrogen receptor (ER) that mediates estrogen neuroprotection has not been well established. In this study, we investigated the potential receptor that mediates estrogen neuroprotection and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was chosen as an agent in our study to mimic free radicals that are often involved in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases. We found that in human SY5Y and IMR-32 cells, the estrogen neuroprotection against H2O2 toxicity was abrogated by knockdown of a variant of estrogen receptor-?, ER-?36. We also studied the rapid estrogen signaling mediated by ER-?36 in neuroprotective effect and found the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling mediated by ER-?36 is involved in estrogen neuroprotection. We also found that GPER, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is not involved in ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen response. Our study thus demonstrates that ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling is involved in the neuroprotection activity of estrogen against oxidative toxicity. PMID:26383254

  6. RTN1 mediates progression of kidney disease by inducing ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying; Xiao, Wenzhen; Li, Zhengzhe; Li, Xuezhu; Chuang, Peter Y.; Jim, Belinda; Zhang, Weijia; Wei, Chengguo; Wang, Niansong; Jia, Weiping; Xiong, Huabao; Lee, Kyung; He, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of new biomarkers and drug targets for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is required for the development of more effective therapy. Here we report an association between expression of reticulon 1 (RTN1) and severity of CKD. An isoform-specific increase in the expression of RTN1A is detected in the diseased kidneys from mice and humans, and correlates inversely with renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. RTN1 overexpression in renal cells induces ER stress and apoptosis, whereas RTN1 knockdown attenuates tunicamycin-induced and hyperglycaemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis. RTN1A interacts with PERK through its N-terminal and C-terminal domains, and mutation of these domains prevents this effect on ER stress. Knockdown of Rtn1a expression in vivo attenuates ER stress and renal fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction, and also attenuates ER stress, proteinuria, glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion in diabetic mice. Together, these data indicate that RTN1A contributes to progression of kidney disease by inducing ER stress. PMID:26227493

  7. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Binet, Francois; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2{alpha} are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  8. ? cell ER stress and the implications for immunogenicity in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Marré, Meghan L.; James, Eddie A.; Piganelli, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to progressive immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet ? cells. Although many elegant studies have identified ? cell autoantigens that are targeted by the autoimmune response, the mechanisms by which these autoantigens are generated remain poorly understood. Normal ? cell physiology includes a high demand for insulin production and secretion in response to dynamic glucose sensing. This secretory function predisposes ? cells to significantly higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress compared to nonsecretory cells. In addition, many environmental triggers associated with T1D onset further augment this inherent ER stress in ? cells. ER stress may increase abnormal post-translational modification (PTM) of endogenous ? cell proteins. Indeed, in other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, abnormally modified neo-antigens are presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs) in draining lymph nodes. In the context of genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity, presentation of neo-antigens activates auto-reactive T cells and pathology ensues. Therefore, the ER stress induced by normal ? cell secretory physiology and environmental triggers may be sufficient to generate neo-antigens for the autoimmune response in T1D. This review summarizes what is currently known about ER stress and protein PTM in target organs of other autoimmune disease models, as well as the data supporting a role for ER stress-induced neo-antigen formation in ? cells in T1D. PMID:26579520

  9. SIRT7 Represses Myc Activity to Suppress ER Stress and Prevent Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanova, Lidia; Brown, Katharine; Qiu, Xiaolei; Nabavi, Noushin; Mohrin, Mary; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Li, Patrick; Cheng, Hwei-Ling; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Luo, Hanzhi; Kapahi, Pankaj; Krauss, Ronald; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Yancopoulos, George D.; Alt, Frederick W.; Chua, Katrin F.; Chen, Danica

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here we show that SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent H3K18Ac deacetylase, functions at chromatin to suppress ER stress and prevents the development of fatty liver disease. SIRT7 is induced upon ER stress and is stabilized at the promoters of ribosomal proteins through its interaction with the transcription factor Myc to silence gene expression and to relieve ER stress. SIRT7 deficient mice develop chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver disease. Myc inactivation or pharmacological suppression of ER stress alleviates fatty liver caused by SIRT7 deficiency. Importantly, SIRT7 suppresses ER stress and reverts the fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice. Our study identifies SIRT7 as a cofactor of Myc for transcriptional repression and delineates a druggable regulatory branch of the ER stress response that prevents and reverts fatty liver disease. PMID:24210820

  10. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Induced ER Stress and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-induced liver disease increasingly contributes to human mortality worldwide. Alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disruption of cellular protein homeostasis have recently been established as a significant mechanism contributing to liver diseases. The alcohol-induced ER stress occurs not only in cultured hepatocytes but also? in vivo??in the livers of several species including mouse, rat, minipigs, zebrafish, and humans. Identified causes for the ER stress include acetaldehyde, oxidative stress, impaired one carbon metabolism, toxic lipid species, insulin resistance, disrupted calcium homeostasis, and aberrant epigenetic modifications. Importance of each of the causes in alcohol-induced liver injury depends on doses, duration and patterns of alcohol exposure, genetic disposition, environmental factors, cross-talks with other pathogenic pathways, and stages of liver disease. The ER stress may occur more or less all the time during alcohol consumption, which interferes with hepatic protein homeostasis, proliferation, and cell cycle progression promoting development of advanced liver diseases. Emerging evidence indicates that long-term alcohol consumption and ER stress may directly be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). Dissecting ER stress signaling pathways leading to tumorigenesis will uncover potential therapeutic targets for intervention and treatment of human alcoholics with liver cancer. PMID:24868470

  11. ? cell ER stress and the implications for immunogenicity in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marré, Meghan L; James, Eddie A; Piganelli, Jon D

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to progressive immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet ? cells. Although many elegant studies have identified ? cell autoantigens that are targeted by the autoimmune response, the mechanisms by which these autoantigens are generated remain poorly understood. Normal ? cell physiology includes a high demand for insulin production and secretion in response to dynamic glucose sensing. This secretory function predisposes ? cells to significantly higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress compared to nonsecretory cells. In addition, many environmental triggers associated with T1D onset further augment this inherent ER stress in ? cells. ER stress may increase abnormal post-translational modification (PTM) of endogenous ? cell proteins. Indeed, in other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, abnormally modified neo-antigens are presented by antigen presenting cells (APCs) in draining lymph nodes. In the context of genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity, presentation of neo-antigens activates auto-reactive T cells and pathology ensues. Therefore, the ER stress induced by normal ? cell secretory physiology and environmental triggers may be sufficient to generate neo-antigens for the autoimmune response in T1D. This review summarizes what is currently known about ER stress and protein PTM in target organs of other autoimmune disease models, as well as the data supporting a role for ER stress-induced neo-antigen formation in ? cells in T1D. PMID:26579520

  12. Er:YAG laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosion: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, R S; Colucci, V; Lepri, T P; Alexandria, A K; Maia, L C; Galo, R; Borsatto, M C; Corona, S A M

    2015-07-01

    This in situ study evaluated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation in controlling the progression of enamel erosion-like lesions. Fifty-six enamel slabs (330 KHN?±?10 %) with one fourth of the surface covered with resin composite (control area) were submitted to initial erosion-like lesion formation with citric acid. The slabs were divided into two groups: irradiated with Er:YAG laser and non-irradiated. Fourteen volunteers used an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs, in two phases of 5 days each. During the intraoral phase, in a crossed-over design, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in citric acid while the other half used deionized water, both for 5 min, three times per day. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. ANOVA revealed that when deionized water was used as immersion solution during the intraoral phase, lower values of wear were showed when compared with the groups that were eroded with citric acid, whether irradiated or non-irradiated with Er:YAG laser. When erosion with citric acid was performed, Er:YAG laser was not able to reduce enamel wear. Small changes on enamel surface were observed when it was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser irradiation did not reduce the progression of erosive lesions on enamel submitted to in situ erosion with citric acid. PMID:24985348

  13. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Townsend

    2002-03-01

    Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

  15. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-8

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-8 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 129.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 609.6 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 98.4 meters, 24 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on evaluation of composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 20 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 157.9 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Drilling began in Tertiary-age tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, and penetrated tuffs of the Beatty Wash Formation, tuff of Buttonhook Wash, and the upper portion of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from this well helps define the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Geologic and hydrologic data from the well will aid in development of models to predict groundwater flow and contaminant migration within and near the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Completion Report for Well ER-12-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

  17. Detection of polar stratospheric clouds with ERS2/GOME data

    SciTech Connect

    Meerkoetter, R.

    1995-12-31

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) are a phenomenon of both Arctic and Antarctic regions and form as a consequence of dramatic stratospheric cooling during the polar winter in altitudes between about 15 km and 25 km. Three main types of PSCs are generally defined, a common type 1 consisting of nitric acid trihydrate particles, a rarer type 2 consisting of ice particles, and a type 3 occurring in relation to mountain lee waves. The formation process of PSCs is accompanied by dehydration and denitrification of the stratosphere that influence the ozone chemistry thus leading to the development of the ozone hole. Therefore, identification of PSC events with data from satellites will be very important for monitoring the regions of potential ozone depletion. Based on radiative transfer calculations it is studied whether Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) can be detected by the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) onboard the second European Research Satellite (ERS-2) planned to be launched in winter 1994/95. It is proposed to identify PSC covered areas by use of an indicator, the Normalized Radiance Difference (NRD), which relates the different of two spectral radiances at 0.515 {micro}m and 0.76 {micro}m to one radiance measured in the center of the oxygen A-based at 0.76 {micro}m. In presence of PSCs and under conditions of increasing solar zenith angles above {Theta} = 80{degree} the NRD rapidly decrease to values clearly below those derived under conditions of a cloud free stratosphere. Calculations for {Theta} = 86{degree} show that the method is successful independent from existing tropospheric clouds and by different tropospheric aerosol loadings or surface albedos. For solar zenith angles {Theta} < 80{degree} the PSC detection needs additional information about tropospheric clouds.

  18. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-4

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-09-01

    Well ER-EC-4 was drilled for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 263.7 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,062.8 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 228.3 meters, two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 35 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 286.5 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well was collared in basalt and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon, and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from this well helps pinpoint the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southern Nevada volcanic field.

  19. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

  20. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  1. Differential efficacy of three cycles of CMF followed by tamoxifen in patients with ER-positive and ER-negative tumors: Long-term follow up on IBCSG Trial IX

    PubMed Central

    Aebi, S.; Sun, Z.; Braun, D.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Rabaglio, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Crivellari, D.; Lindtner, J.; Snyder, R.; Karlsson, P.; Simoncini, E.; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Coates, A. S.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive lymph node-negative breast cancer is being reassessed. Patients and methods: After stratification by ER status, 1669 postmenopausal patients with operable lymph node-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to three 28-day courses of ‘classical’ CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen for 57 months (CMF?tamoxifen) or to tamoxifen alone for 5 years. Results: ERs were positive in 81% of tumors. At a median follow-up of 13.1 years, patients with ER-positive breast cancers did not benefit from CMF [13-year disease-free survival (DFS) 64% CMF?tamoxifen, 66% tamoxifen; P = 0.99], whereas CMF substantially improved the prognosis of patients with ER-negative breast cancer (13-year DFS 73% versus 57%, P = 0.001). Similarly, breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was identical in the ER-positive cohort but significantly improved by chemotherapy in the ER-negative cohort (13-year BCFI 80% versus 63%, P = 0.001). CMF had no influence on second nonbreast malignancies or deaths from other causes. Conclusion: CMF is not beneficial in postmenopausal patients with node-negative ER-positive breast cancer but is highly effective within the ER-negative cohort. In the future, other markers of chemotherapy response may define a subset of patients with ER-positive tumors who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21282282

  2. This regulation, together with EP 500-1-1, supersedes ER 500-1-1, 11 March 1991. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 500-1-1

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    -13 5-15 Initial Repairs - Breached Levees 5-14 5-17 Relief Wells 5-15 5-19 #12;ER 500-1-1 30 Sep 01 iii-22 5-27 Dams ` 5-23 5-29 Interagency Levee Task Force 5-24 5-29 Chapter 6. Emergency Water Assistance

  3. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-4, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff and Sam Marutzky

    2012-09-01

    Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 were drilled during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY 2010 (NNSA/NSO, 2011a and b). The closest underground nuclear test detonations to the area of investigation are TYBO (U-20y), BELMONT (U-20as), MOLBO (U-20ag), BENHAM (U-20c), and HOYA (U-20 be) (Figure 1-1). The TYBO, MOLBO, and BENHAM detonations had working points located below the regional water table. The BELMONT and HOYA detonation working points were located just above the water table, and the cavity for these detonations are calculated to extend below the water table (Pawloski et al., 2002). The broad purpose of Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 is to determine the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater, the geologic formations, groundwater geochemistry as an indicator of age and origin, and the water-bearing properties and hydraulic conditions that influence radionuclide migration. Well development and testing is performed to determine the hydraulic properties at the well and between other wells, and to obtain groundwater samples at the well that are representative of the formation at the well. The area location, wells, underground nuclear detonations, and other features are shown in Figure 1-1. Hydrostratigraphic cross sections A-A’, B-B’, C-C’, and D-D’ are shown in Figures 1-2 through 1-5, respectively.

  4. An Electro-Rheological (er) Robotic System:. Controller Validation, Trend Study, Comparison with DC Servomotors, Position Repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

    Industrial robot arms experience position inaccuracies due to the output cogging torques of the DC servomotors. Therefore, in an attempt to resolve these position problems, an electro-rheological (ER) robotic system is considered as an actuator to drive the robot arm rapidly in both directions. This ER robotic system consists of two ER clutches, an ER brake, a gear train, an encoder and a robot arm. The ER clutches produce clockwise and anti-clockwise rotations. The ER brake decelerates and halts the robot arm. The main aim of this paper is to validate a controller model of the ER robotic arm. Next, a trend study is used to determine the optimum working conditions of the ER actuated-robotic arm. The robotic displacements of both the ER rotary devices and the commercial DC servomotors are compared in terms of position accuracy and speed of response. Finally, the repeatability of the robotic end positions is examined in order to determine the importance of the ER brake.

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK, Snf1, Negatively Regulates the Hog1 MAPK Pathway in ER Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomoaki; Masuda, Yuto; Irie, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMP–activated protein kinase (AMPK), plays a crucial role in the response to various environmental stresses. However, the role of Snf1 in ER stress response remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterize Snf1 as a negative regulator of Hog1 MAPK in ER stress response. The snf1 mutant cells showed the ER stress resistant phenotype. In contrast, Snf1-hyperactivated cells were sensitive to ER stress. Activated Hog1 levels were increased by snf1 mutation, although Snf1 hyperactivation interfered with Hog1 activation. Ssk1, a specific activator of MAPKKK functioning upstream of Hog1, was induced by ER stress, and its induction was inhibited in a manner dependent on Snf1 activity. Furthermore, we show that the SSK1 promoter is important not only for Snf1-modulated regulation of Ssk1 expression, but also for Ssk1 function in conferring ER stress tolerance. Our data suggest that Snf1 downregulates ER stress response signal mediated by Hog1 through negatively regulating expression of its specific activator Ssk1 at the transcriptional level. We also find that snf1 mutation upregulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, whereas Snf1 hyperactivation downregulates the UPR activity. Thus, Snf1 plays pleiotropic roles in ER stress response by negatively regulating the Hog1 MAPK pathway and the UPR pathway. PMID:26394309

  6. Electrospun nanofibers of Er{sup 3+}-doped TiO{sub 2} with photocatalytic activity beyond the absorption edge

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yali; Wang, Wenzhong

    2014-02-15

    Er{sup 3+}-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with different Er{sup 3+} contents were prepared via electrospinning and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photocurrent measurement. Photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by the decolorization of methyl orange aqueous solution under simulated solar light irradiation. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of Er{sup 3+}-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers was much higher than that of the undoped one, and the optimal dosage of Er{sup 3+} at 1 mol% achieved the highest degradation rate. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of Er{sup 3+}-doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers under the irradiation of light with the wavelength beyond the absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} was explored by the decolorization of a dye, rhodamine B and the photodegradation of a typical colorless pollutant, phenol. The results further revealed the mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic activity through Er{sup 3+} doping in TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: ?Er{sup 3+}:TiO{sub 2} nanofibers with different Er{sup 3+} contents were prepared via electrospinning. ?The photocatalytic activity of Er{sup 3+}:TiO{sub 2} was much higher than that of undoped one. ?Er{sup 3+}:TiO{sub 2} could be activated by the light with wavelength beyond the absorption edge.

  7. Intense up-conversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CeO2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Rathaiah, M.; Venkatramu, V.; Haase, Markus; Kim, S. H.

    2014-03-01

    The Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CeO2 powders have been prepared by a urea combustion route. The structural, morphological, compositional and vibrational analysis of the Er3+:CeO2 and Er3+/Yb3+:CeO2 powders have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical and luminescence properties of Er3+:CeO2 and Er3+/Yb3+:CeO2 powders have been studied by using laser excited spectroscopy. The effects of Yb3+ doping on up-conversion luminescence of Er3+ co-doped CeO2 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity is decreased in Er3+:CeO2 whereas the ratio is increased in Er3+/Yb3+:CeO2 powders with increase of power. The effect of co-doping with the Yb3+ ions on the visible luminescence of Er3+ and the energy transfer mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity are discussed. The results indicate that these materials may be suitable for display and light emitting devices.

  8. Intense up-conversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CeO2 powders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Rathaiah, M; Venkatramu, V; Haase, Markus; Kim, S H

    2014-03-25

    The Er(3+) and Er(3+)/Yb(3+) co-doped CeO2 powders have been prepared by a urea combustion route. The structural, morphological, compositional and vibrational analysis of the Er(3+):CeO2 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical and luminescence properties of Er(3+):CeO2 and Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders have been studied by using laser excited spectroscopy. The effects of Yb(3+) doping on up-conversion luminescence of Er(3+) co-doped CeO2 powders were studied. The ratio of red to green intensity is decreased in Er(3+):CeO2 whereas the ratio is increased in Er(3+)/Yb(3+):CeO2 powders with increase of power. The effect of co-doping with the Yb(3+) ions on the visible luminescence of Er(3+) and the energy transfer mechanism responsible for the variation in the green and red intensity are discussed. The results indicate that these materials may be suitable for display and light emitting devices. PMID:24366176

  9. Estrogen Receptor (ER)-?36 Is Involved in Estrogen- and Tamoxifen-Induced Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Ji, Xiaofei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang; Han, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Qiqi; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Yejun; Liu, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotection by estrogen (E2) and tamoxifen is well documented in experimental stroke models; however, the exact mechanism is unclear. A membrane-based estrogen receptor, ER-?36, has been identified. Postmenopausal-levels of E2 act through ER-?36 to induce osteoclast apoptosis due to a prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. We hypothesized that ER-?36 may play a role in the neuroprotective activities of estrogen and tamoxifen. Here, we studied ER-?36 expression in the brain, as well as its neuroprotective effects against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in PC12 cells. We found that ER-?36 was expressed in both rat and human brain. In addition, OGD-induced cell death was prevented by l nmol/L 17?-estradiol (E2?). E2? activates the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in PC12 cells under basal and OGD conditions by interacting with ER-?36 and also induces ER-?36 expression. Low-dose of tamoxifen up-regulated ER-?36 expression and enhanced neuronal survival in an ovariectomized ischemic stroke model. Furthermore, low-dose of tamoxifen enhanced neuroprotective effects by modulating activates or suppress ER-?36. Our results thus demonstrated that ER-?36 is involved in neuroprotective activities mediated by both estrogen and tamoxifen. PMID:26484775

  10. Structural, thermal and spectroscopic properties of highly Er3+-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses for photonic application

    SciTech Connect

    Kesavulu, C.R.; Sreedhar, V.B.; Jayasankar, C.K.; Jang, Kiwan; Shin, Dong-Soo; Yi, Soung Soo

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Structural, thermal and spectroscopic properties have been carried out. • SALSFEr glasses exhibit intense green and weak red emissions at 365 nm excitation. • Major laser transition for Er{sup 3+} ion in SALSFEr glasses is {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} ? {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (1.53 ?m). • These results suggest the possibility of using SALSFEr glasses as photonic devices. - Abstract: The Er{sup 3+}-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses of composition (43 ? x)SiO{sub 2}–10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–24LiF–23SrF{sub 2}–xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where x = 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, optical absorption spectra, visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) emission spectra measurements. Judd–Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (?{sub ?}, ? = 2, 4 and 6) have been derived from the absorption spectrum of 1.0 mol% Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped glass and are in turn used to calculate radiative properties for the important luminescent levels of Er{sup 3+} ions. The studied glasses show intense green and weak red visible emissions under 365 nm excitation. The decrease in visible emission intensities with concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions has been explained due to energy transfer processes between Er{sup 3+} ions. Upon excitation at 980 nm laser diode, an intense 1.53 ?m NIR emission has been observed with the maximum full width at half maximum (FWHM) for Er{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluoride glasses. The higher Er{sup 3+} ion doping capability and relatively high gain and broad emission at 1.5 ?m are the most notable features of these glasses to realize efficient short-length optical amplifiers.

  11. Induction of ER stress response leading to programmed cell death in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Goldshmidt, Hanoch; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomes are parasitic protozoans that include several medically and a variety of economically important parasites, such as Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness. This parasite cycles between the insect host (procyclic form) and mammalian host (bloodstream form). These parasites lack transcription regulation, including factors that govern the unfolded protein response (UPR) in other eukaryotes. Gene expression is controlled posttranscriptionally by unique mechanisms such as trans-splicing and RNA editing and by mRNA stability. In trans-splicing, a common exon, the spliced leader (SL) is donated to all mRNAs from a small RNA, the SL RNA. The SL RNA is transcribed from a defined promoter assisted by the tSNAP complex. Despite the lack of transcriptional regulation, induction of ER stress elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of upregulation under UPR is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome changes result in ER expansion and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. Prolonged ER stress induces the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS) pathway. SLS is the trypanosome-specific stress response mechanism that elicits the shut-off of SL RNA transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. SLS was discovered in the RNAi silenced cells depleted for functions that mediate translocation of proteins to the ER such as the signal recognition particle receptor SR?, SEC63- a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61- the translocation channel. Induction of SLS, either by prolonged ER stress or silencing of the genes associated with the ER membrane that function in ER protein translocation led to programmed cell death (PCD), evident by the exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in ROS production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we describe the protocols to induce ER stress and to observe the resulting morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and DNA fragmentation which are the hallmarks of programmed cell death. PMID:21266231

  12. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Alleviating ER Stress Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqian; Hu, Houxiang; Chen, Bin; Yue, Rongchuan; Zhou, Zhou; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Huan; Yu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Inhibiting ER stress is a major therapeutic target/strategy in treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that lycopene exhibits great pharmacological potential in protecting against the I/R-injury in vitro and vivo, but whether attenuation of ER stress (and) or ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the effects remains unclear. In the present study, using neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardium I/R in vivo, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that lycopene could alleviate the ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H/R-injury. We observed that lycopene alleviated the H/R injury as revealed by improving cell viability and reducing apoptosis, suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and improved the phosphorylated AMPK expression, attenuated ER stress as evidenced by decreasing the expression of GRP78, ATF6 mRNA, sXbp-1 mRNA, eIF2? mRNA and eIF2? phosphorylation, alleviated ER stress-induced apoptosis as manifested by reducing CHOP/GADD153 expression, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-12 and caspase-3 activity in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. Thapsigargin (TG) is a potent ER stress inducer and used to elicit ER stress of cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that lycopene was able to prevent TG-induced ER stress as reflected by attenuating the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 compared to TG group, significantly improve TG-caused a loss of cell viability and decrease apoptosis in TG-treated cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the protective effects of lycopene on H/R-injury are, at least in part, through alleviating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:26291709

  13. Nanostructured Er2O3 thin films grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Dang, Van-Son; Ney, Andreas; de los Arcos, Teresa; Devil, Anjana

    2014-07-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of nanostructured Er2O3 thin films was performed using the Er-tris-guanidinate precursor [Er(DPDMG)3] (DPDMG = diisopropyl-2-dimethylamidoguanidinato) as the Er source and oxygen. Film deposition was carried out on Si(100) and quartz glass substrates and the process parameters namely temperature, pressure and oxygen flow rate were varied. The resulting thin films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for investigating the crystallinity and morphology, respectively. The chemical composition of the film was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Transmittance and absorption spectra of the 600 degrees C film grown on glass substrates were performed by UV-vis measurements revealing more than 80% transmittance. The potential of Er2O3 thin films as gate dielectrics was verified by carrying out capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Dielectric constants estimated from the accumulation capacitance were found to be in the range of 10-12 in AC frequencies of 1 MHz down to 10 kHz and the leakage current of the order of 2 x 10(-8) A/cm2 at the applied field of 1 MV cm(-1) was measured for films deposited under optimised process conditions. The low leakage current and high dielectric constant implies good quality of the Er2O3 layers relevant for high-k applications. These layers were found to be paramagnetic with a slightly reduced magnetic moment of the Er3+ ions. PMID:24757985

  14. Repeated ER-endosome contacts promote endosome translocation and neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Raiborg, Camilla; Wenzel, Eva M; Pedersen, Nina M; Olsvik, Hallvard; Schink, Kay O; Schultz, Sebastian W; Vietri, Marina; Nisi, Veronica; Bucci, Cecilia; Brech, Andreas; Johansen, Terje; Stenmark, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The main organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways--the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes, respectively--are connected through contact sites whose numbers increase as endosomes mature. One function of such sites is to enable dephosphorylation of the cytosolic tails of endosomal signalling receptors by an ER-associated phosphatase, whereas others serve to negatively control the association of endosomes with the minus-end-directed microtubule motor dynein or mediate endosome fission. Cholesterol transfer and Ca(2+) exchange have been proposed as additional functions of such sites. However, the compositions, activities and regulations of ER-endosome contact sites remain incompletely understood. Here we show in human and rat cell lines that protrudin, an ER protein that promotes protrusion and neurite outgrowth, forms contact sites with late endosomes (LEs) via coincident detection of the small GTPase RAB7 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P). These contact sites mediate transfer of the microtubule motor kinesin 1 from protrudin to the motor adaptor FYCO1 on LEs. Repeated LE-ER contacts promote microtubule-dependent translocation of LEs to the cell periphery and subsequent synaptotagmin-VII-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. Such fusion induces outgrowth of protrusions and neurites, which requires the abilities of protrudin and FYCO1 to interact with LEs and kinesin 1. Thus, protrudin-containing ER-LE contact sites are platforms for kinesin-1 loading onto LEs, and kinesin-1-mediated translocation of LEs to the plasma membrane, fuelled by repeated ER contacts, promotes protrusion and neurite outgrowth. PMID:25855459

  15. Oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mota, Sandra I; Costa, Rui O; Ferreira, Ildete L; Santana, Isabel; Caldeira, Gladys L; Padovano, Carmela; Fonseca, Ana C; Baldeiras, Inês; Cunha, Catarina; Letra, Liliana; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pereira, Cláudia M F; Rego, Ana Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this study we analyzed whether oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress may constitute early events in AD pathogenesis by using human peripheral blood cells and an AD transgenic mouse model at different disease stages. Increased oxidative stress and increased phosphorylated Nrf2 (p(Ser40)Nrf2) were observed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, we observed impaired ER Ca2+ homeostasis and increased ER stress markers in PBMCs from MCI individuals and mild AD patients. Evidence of early oxidative stress defense mechanisms in AD was substantiated by increased p(Ser40)Nrf2 in 3month-old 3xTg-AD male mice PBMCs, and also with increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in brain cortex. However, SOD1 protein levels were decreased in human MCI PBMCs and in 3xTg-AD mice brain cortex; the latter further correlated with reduced SOD1 mRNA levels. Increased ER stress was also detected in the brain cortex of young female and old male 3xTg-AD mice. We demonstrate oxidative stress and early Nrf2 activation in AD human and mouse models, which fails to regulate some of its targets, leading to repressed expression of antioxidant defenses (e.g., SOD-1), and extending to ER stress. Results suggest markers of prodromal AD linked to oxidative stress associated with Nrf2 activation and ER stress that may be followed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:25857617

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Er{sub 3}SmQ {sub 6} (Q=S, Se) and Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Danielle L.; Rodriguez, Brandon A.; Chan, George H.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Ibers, James A.

    2007-05-15

    The interlanthanide compounds Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6}, Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6}, and Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3} have been synthesized from stoichiometric reactions of the elements in a KI salt flux at 1273, 1173, and 1123 K, respectively. Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} and Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6}, which are isostructural and ordered, crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/m in the ScEr{sub 3}S{sub 6} structure type whereas Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3}, in which the Er and Sm atoms are disordered, crystallizes in space group Pnma in the U{sub 2}S{sub 3} structure type. Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} is a paramagnet with a {mu} {sub eff}=11.25(1) {mu}{sub B}/mol. From optical measurements a direct band gap of 2.0 eV for light perpendicular to the (100) crystal face of Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6} is derived whereas for isostructural Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} an optical transition at 2.2-2.4 eV and a broad absorption peak at lower energies are observed. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6} viewed approximately down [010].

  17. Magnetic properties of Ho{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mahmud; Paudyal, D.; Gschneidner, K. A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2013-05-07

    HoAl{sub 2} exhibits a first order spin reorientation transition at 20 K. Heat capacity measurements showed that when Ho is partially replaced by Er in Ho{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2}, the spin reorientation transition is gradually suppressed, while slowly shifting to higher temperatures with increasing Er concentration. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic properties of pseudo binary Ho{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2} alloys by ac and dc magnetization measurements. The magnetization data show that the magnetic interactions below T{sub C} are dramatically modified when Er is added in Ho{sub 1-x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2}. For a better explanation of the experimental data, results of first principles calculations have been presented as well.

  18. Down-conversion luminescence and its temperature-sensing properties from Er3+-doped sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Shanshan; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Anlian; Wu, Guangheng; Liu, Jun-ming

    2015-11-01

    Here, we demonstrate outstanding temperature-sensing properties from Na0.5Bi0.49Er0.01TiO3 (NBT:Er) thin films. The perovskite phase for them is stable in the temperature range from 80 to 440 K. Interestingly, the Er doping enhances the ferroelectric polarization and introduces local dipolar, which are positive for temperature sensing. Pumped by a 488-nm laser, the NBT:Er thin films show strong green luminescence with two bands around 525 and 548 nm. The intensity ratio I 525/ I 548 can be used for temperature sensing, and the maximum sensitivity is about 2.3 × 10-3 K-1, higher than that from Er-doped silicon oxide. These suggest NBT:Er thin film is a promising candidate for temperature sensor.

  19. Upconversion Luminescence of SrTiO3:Er3+Ultrafine Powders Produced by 785 nm Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hai; Qiao, Yan-min; Zheng, Ju-fang; Zhao, Lei-hong

    2008-06-01

    Er3+ doped SrTiO3 ultrafine powders were prepared by solid state reaction in a molten NaCl flux. The structural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Stokes emission spectra of Er3+ in SrTiO3: Er3+ ranging from green to near infrared region were investigated under 514.5 nm laser excitation. The green and red upconverted luminescence spectra of Er3+ were measured under excitation into the 4I9/2 level by 785 nm laser. The upconversion mechanisms were studied in detail through laser power dependence and Er3+ ion concentration dependence of upconverted emissions, and results show that excited state absorption and energy transfer process are the possible mechanisms for the upconversion. The upconversion properties indicate that SrTiO3:Er3+ may be used in upconversion phosphors.

  20. Correlation between room temperature luminescence and energy-transfer in Er-Au co-implanted silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, T.; Kalinic, B.; Maurizio, C.; Scian, C.; Trave, E.; Battaglin, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Mattei, G.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the room temperature photoluminescence characterization in the visible and near-infrared range of Er-Au co-implanted silica systems as a function of the annealing temperature. Besides the characteristic Er3+ emission at 1540 nm, the samples exhibit luminescence bands in the wavelength region 600-1400 nm related to the formation of ultra-small AuN aggregates with a number of atoms N less than 50 atoms. In particular, the correlation between such AuN-related luminescence and the enhancement of the Er3+ emission was investigated and an anti-correlation between the Er3+ luminescence at 1540 nm and an AuN-related band at 980 nm was revealed that represents a possible path for the energy-transfer from AuN nanoclusters to Er3+ ions, giving rise to the Er3+ sensitized emission.

  1. Impact of codopant ions on 2.5-3.0 ?m emission of Er3+:4I11/2?4I13/2 transition in Yb,Er,Eu:LaYSGG crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jianfu; Zhu, Zhaojie; You, Zhenyu; Xu, Jinlong; Tu, Chaoyang

    2015-12-01

    The crystal of 1 at% Yb3+, 10 at% Er3+ and 0.1 at% Eu3+ triply doped La0.3Y2.7Sc2Ga3O12 (abbr. as Yb,Er,Eu:LaYSGG) was grown for the first time by using a Czochralski technique. Its absorption, near-infrared and mid-infrared fluorescence spectra, as well as the fluorescence decay curves of Er:4I13/2 and 4I11/2 levels were measured at room temperature. The spectroscopic properties including the absorption and emission cross-sections as well as the fluorescence lifetimes of the title crystal were revealed and compared with 10 at% Er3+:Y3Sc2Ga3O12 crystal. Spectral analyses show that the sensitization of Yb3+ ion leads to an enhanced 2.5-3.0 ?m emission corresponding to Er3+:4I11/2?4I13/2 transition in the grown crystal, meanwhile, the depopulation of Eu3+ ion from Er3+ inhibits the self-termination effect successfully. The energy transfer mechanism was discussed; the energy transfer efficiencies of Yb3+?Er3+ (ET1) and Er3+?Eu3+ (ET2) were estimated to be 94.8% and 93.9%, respectively. The results indicates that Yb,Er,Eu:LaYSGG crystal is a good candidate for LD pumped mid-infrared laser.

  2. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of stratospheric methane: 1. High-precision observations from the NASA ER-2 aircraft

    E-print Network

    Boering, Kristie A.

    from the NASA ER-2 aircraft A. L. Rice,1,2 S. C. Tyler,3 M. C. McCarthy,4 K. A. Boering,4,5 and E troposphere and lower stratosphere aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SOLVE (2000), POLARIS (1997. High-precision observations from the NASA ER-2 aircraft, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 4460, doi:10

  3. Green emission from Er-doped GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates

    E-print Network

    Cincinnati, University of

    ­8 of Er into AlN and GaN grown by MBE on both sapphire and silicon and its room tempera- ture infrared IR Ga beam pressure during growth of 8.2 10 7 Torr cell tem- perature of 922 °C . The Er cell similar conditions Er cell temperature 1100 °C) is also shown. The PL spectra were not taken with the same

  4. Vortex pinning by magnetic order in ErNi2B2C C. D. Dewhurst,1,

    E-print Network

    Zeldov, Eli

    Vortex pinning by magnetic order in ErNi2B2C C. D. Dewhurst,1, * S. S. James,2 R. A. Doyle,2, Y ErNi2B2C (Tc 10.8 K . We show the sharp onset of significant pinning effects in ErNi2B2C . The data presented provide further evidence that certain components of the magnetic order in (R)Ni2B2C

  5. Multiple Structurally Distinct ER? mRNA Variants in Zebrafish are Differentially Expressed by Tissue Type, Stage of Development and Estrogen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Kellie A.; Yershov, Anya; Novillo, Apolonia; Callard, Gloria V.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that estrogen-like environmental chemicals interact with the ligand-binding site of estrogen receptors (ER) to disrupt transcriptional control of estrogen responsive targets. Here we investigate the possibility that estrogens also impact splicing decisions on estrogen responsive genes, such as that encoding ER? itself. Targeted PCR cloning was applied to identify six ER? mRNA variants in zebrafish. Sequencing revealed alternate use of transcription and translation start sites, multiple exon deletions, intron retention and alternate polyadenylation. As determined by quantitative (q)PCR, N-terminal mRNA variants predicting long (ER?L) and short (ER?S) isoforms were differentially expressed by tissue-type, sex, stage of development and estrogen exposure. Whereas ER?L mRNA was diffusely distributed in liver, brain, heart, eye, and gonads, ER?S mRNA was preferentially expressed in liver (female > male) and ovary. Neither ER?L nor ER?S transcripts varied significantly during development, but 17?-estradiol selectively increased accumulation of ER?S mRNA (~170-fold by 120 hpf), an effect mimicked by bisphenol-A and diethylstilbestrol. Significantly, a C-truncated variant (ER?S-Cx) lacking most of the ligand binding and AF-2 domains was transcribed exclusively from the short isoform promoter and was similar to ER?S in its tissue-, stage- and estrogen inducible expression. These results support the idea that promoter choice and alternative splicing of the esr1 gene of zebrafish are part of the autoregulatory mechanism by which estrogen modulates subsequent ER? expression, and further suggest that environmental estrogens could exert some of their toxic effects by altering the relative abundance of structurally and functionally distinct ER? isoforms. PMID:24090614

  6. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; McLaren, M.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.; Vinh, N. Q.

    2015-10-01

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er3+ ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 ?m from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  7. Armet, a UPR-upregulated protein, inhibits cell proliferation and ER stress-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolou, Andria; Shen Yuxian; Liang Yan; Luo Jun; Fang Shengyun

    2008-08-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress that initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activates both adaptive and apoptotic pathways, which contribute differently to disease pathogenesis. To further understand the functional mechanisms of UPR, we identified 12 commonly UPR-upregulated genes by expression microarray analysis. Here, we describe characterization of Armet/MANF, one of the 12 genes whose function was not clear. We demonstrated that the Armet/MANF protein was upregulated by various forms of ER stress in several cell lines as well as by cerebral ischemia of rat. Armet/MANF was localized in the ER and Golgi and was also a secreted protein. Silencing Armet/MANF by siRNA oligos in HeLa cells rendered cells more susceptible to ER stress-induced death, but surprisingly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell size. Overexpression of Armet/MANF inhibited cell proliferation and improved cell viability under glucose-free conditions and tunicamycin treatment. Based on its inhibitory properties for both proliferation and cell death we have demonstrated, Armet is, thus, a novel secreted mediator of the adaptive pathway of UPR.

  8. The Apoptosis Inhibitor ARC Alleviates the ER Stress Response to Promote ?-Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    McKimpson, Wendy M.; Weinberger, Jeremy; Czerski, Lech; Zheng, Min; Crow, Michael T.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Chua, Streamson C.; Kitsis, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes involves insulin resistance and ?-cell failure leading to inadequate insulin secretion. An important component of ?-cell failure is cell loss by apoptosis. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an inhibitor of apoptosis that is expressed in cardiac and skeletal myocytes and neurons. ARC possesses the unusual property of antagonizing both the extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondria/endoplasmic reticulum [ER]) cell death pathways. Here we report that ARC protein is abundant in cells of the endocrine pancreas, including >99.5% of mouse and 73% of human ?-cells. Using genetic gain- and loss-of-function approaches, our data demonstrate that ARC inhibits ?-cell apoptosis elicited by multiple inducers of cell death, including ER stressors tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and physiological concentrations of palmitate. Unexpectedly, ARC diminishes the ER stress response, acting distal to protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring protein 1?, to suppress C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction. Depletion of ARC in isolated islets augments palmitate-induced apoptosis, which is dramatically rescued by deletion of CHOP. These data demonstrate that ARC is a previously unrecognized inhibitor of apoptosis in ?-cells and that its protective effects are mediated through suppression of the ER stress response pathway. PMID:22933109

  9. Gain dynamics in Er(3+):Yb(+) co-doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Steinke, M; Neumann, J; Kracht, D; Wessels, P

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the gain dynamics of fiber amplifiers is essential for the implementation and active stabilization of low noise amplifiers or for coherent beam combining schemes. The gain dynamics of purely Er3+ or Yb3+ doped fiber amplifiers are well studied, whereas no analysis for co-doped systems, especially for Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped fiber amplifiers has been performed, so far. Here, we analyze for the first time the gain dynamics of Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped fiber amplifiers theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that due to the energy transfer between the Yb3+ and Er3+ ions a full analytical solution is not possible. Thus, we used numerical simulations to gain further insights. Comparison of experimental and numerical results shows good qualitative agreement. In addition, we were able to determine the Yb3+-Er3+ transfer function of the energy transfer experimentally. PMID:26072851

  10. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100?mJ (12.7?J/cm2), 200?mJ (25.5?J/cm2), and 300?mJ (38.2?J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  11. Er:YAG delamination of immersed biological membranes using sealed flexible hollow waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi-Dolev, A. M.; Dror, Jacob; Inberg, Alexandra; Ferencz, J. R.; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1996-04-01

    The radiation of Er-YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometer) gives selective interaction with tissues. The extinction in soft tissues is only a few micrometers and in hard tissues is of the order of hundreds of micrometers. This makes this type of laser very suitable for treatments in dentistry, orthopedy, or ophthalmology. Because the usual silica fibers are not transmitting the radiation at lambda equals 2.94 micrometer of this laser, many applications cannot be presently performed. Fused silica hollow fibers for Er-YAG radiation were developed in our laboratory and several possible applications in dentistry, orthopedy and ophthalmology were indicated. Hole opening and implantation preparation of teeth were experimented, using Er-YAG laser and hollow plastic waveguide delivery systems. Hole drilling in cow bones was demonstrated for applications in orthopedy. A new procedure of delivering Er-YAG radiation on fibrotic membranes of inner eggshell as a model of the membranes in eyes was developed employing silica hollow waveguides of 0.5 and 0.7 mm ID or a plastic waveguide of 1.0 mm ID. For this purpose waveguides with sealed distal tip were employed to enable us to approach the delivery system through liquid media near to the membrane. This experiment demonstrates the possibility of surgical applications in vitectomy in ophthalmology using Er-YAG laser and silica hollow waveguides.

  12. ER stress induced impaired TLR signaling and macrophage differentiation of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Komura, Takuya; Sakai, Yoshio; Honda, Masao; Takamura, Toshinari; Wada, Takashi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2013-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes impairment of the intracellular protein synthesis machinery, affecting various organ functions and homeostasis systems, including immunity. We found that ER stress induced by the N-linked glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, caused susceptibility to apoptosis in the human monocytic cell line, THP-1 cells. Importantly, prior to tunicamycin-induced apoptosis, the proinflammatory response to toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was attenuated with respect to the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines. This impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines was a consequence of the inhibition of NF-?B activation. Moreover, tunicamycin-induced ER stress disturbed the differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophages induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. We also confirmed that ER stress affected the response of primary human monocytes to TLR ligand and their ability to differentiate into macrophages. These data suggest that ER stress imposes an important pathological insult to the immune system, affecting the crucial functions of monocytes. PMID:23665674

  13. Cell fate following ER stress: just a matter of "quo ante" recovery or death?

    PubMed

    Treglia, A S; Turco, S; Ulianich, L; Ausiello, P; Lofrumento, D D; Nicolardi, G; Miele, C; Garbi, C; Beguinot, F; Di Jeso, B

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex and multifunctional organelle. It is the intracellular compartment of protein folding, a complex task, both facilitated and monitored by ER folding enzymes and molecular chaperones. The ER is also a stress-sensing organelle. It senses stress caused by disequilibrium between ER load and folding capacity and responds by activating signal transduction pathways, known as unfolded protein response (UPR). Three major classes of transducer are known, inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), and protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which sense with their endoluminal domain the state of protein folding, although the exact mechanism(s) involved is not entirely clear. Depending on whether the homeostatic response of the UPR is successful in restoring an equilibrium between ER load and protein folding or not, the two possible outcomes of the UPR so far considered have been life or death. Indeed, recent efforts have been devoted to understand the life/death switch mechanisms. However, recent data suggest that what appears to be a pure binary decision may in fact be more complex, and survival may be achieved at the expenses of luxury cell functions, such as expression of differentiation genes. PMID:22127591

  14. Carrier transport properties of nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yong Maeda, Yuki; Sezaimaru, Hiroki; Sakaino, Masamichi; Kirimoto, Kenta

    2014-07-21

    Electrical transport properties of the nanocrystalline Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} with fcc crystal structure were characterized by measuring both temperature-dependent d.c. conductance and a.c. impedance. The results showed that the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample has characteristics of n-type semiconductor and an electron affinity larger than work function of gold metal. The Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80}/Au interface has an ohmic contact behavior and the contact resistance was very small as compared with bulk resistance of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} sample. The charge carriers in the sample were thermally excited from various trapped levels and both acoustic phonon and ionic scatterings become a dominant process in different temperature regions, respectively. At temperatures below 250?K, the activation energy of the trapped carrier was estimated to be 35.5?meV, and the ionic scattering was a dominant mechanism. On the other hand, at temperatures above 350?K, the activation energy was reduced to 15.9?meV, and the acoustic phonon scattering was a dominant mechanism. In addition, a polarization effect from the charge carrier was observed at low frequencies below 2.0 MHz, and the relative intrinsic permittivity of the Er{sub 3}N@C{sub 80} nanocrystalline lattice was estimated to be 4.6 at frequency of 5.0 MHz.

  15. Postnatal lineage mapping of follicular melanocytes with the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Pavan, William J

    2013-03-01

    One of the main advantages of using inducible and conditional transgenes to study pigment cell biology is that they allow for genetic manipulation within melanocytes after roles in general neural crest or melanoblast development have been fulfilled. Specifically, we focus here on the ability of the Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgenic line to alter genes within follicular melanocytes postnatally. Using the Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm1sor) reporter allele, we present in detail the expression and activity of Tyr::CreER(T) (2) when induced during hair morphogenesis and adult hair cycling. We find that despite similarities in expression pattern to endogenous TYR, Tyr::CreER(T) (2) is effective at targeting both undifferentiated and differentiated melanocytes within the hair follicle. We also find that Tyr::CreER(T) (2) provides the highest levels of recombination when induced during the early phases of hair growth. In conclusion, the descriptions provided here will guide future analyses of gene function within the melanocyte system of the hair follicle when using this Tyr::CreER(T) (2) transgene. PMID:23176440

  16. Dynamic charge interactions create surprising rigidity in the ER/K [alpha]-helical protein motif

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj; Spink, Benjamin J.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Spudich, James A.

    2009-06-30

    Protein {alpha}-helices are ubiquitous secondary structural elements, seldom considered to be stable without tertiary contacts. However, amino acid sequences in proteins that are based on alternating repeats of four glutamic acid (E) residues and four positively charged residues, a combination of arginine (R) and lysine (K), have been shown to form stable {alpha}-helices in a few proteins, in the absence of tertiary interactions. Here, we find that this ER/K motif is more prevalent than previously reported, being represented in proteins of diverse function from archaea to humans. By using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterize a dynamic pattern of side-chain interactions that extends along the backbone of ER/K {alpha}-helices. A simplified model predicts that side-chain interactions alone contribute substantial bending rigidity (0.5 pN/nm) to ER/K {alpha}-helices. Results of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and single-molecule optical-trap analyses are consistent with the high bending rigidity predicted by our model. Thus, the ER/K {alpha}-helix is an isolated secondary structural element that can efficiently span long distances in proteins, making it a promising tool in designing synthetic proteins. We propose that the significant rigidity of the ER/K {alpha}-helix can help regulate protein function, as a force transducer between protein subdomains.

  17. The green-emitting fluorescence of nano Y2O3:Er3+ under different excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, RuoNan; Ye, YanXi; Hu, XiaoYun; Fan, Jun; Liu, EnZhou; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, ChaoShuai; Ye, SiWen

    2012-07-01

    The green-emitting fluorescent powders of nano Y2O3:Er3+ were fabricated by the coprecipitation method. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that as-prepared Y2O3:Er3+ is the cubic phase crystal with a grain size of about 30 nm. The UV-Vis spectrum indicates Y2O3:Er3+ exhibits five ultraviolet visible absorption peaks at 365, 377, 489, 521 and 652 nm respectively. Meanwhile, the fluorescence spectra of Y2O3:Er3+ display four emission peaks at 522, 537, 550 and 562 nm at the excitation of 365, 377 and 521 nm, respectively. The green-emitting fluorescent mechanism of Y2O3:Er3+ is proposed as well. Additionally, the temperature dependence of fluorescence properties and metal Ag fluorescence enhancement effect are investigated. Results show that increasing the annealing temperature and metal Ag doping both can enhance the fluorescence intensity. The maximum enhancement is 87.5% after Ag is doped.

  18. Exchange spring switching in Er-doped DyFe2/YFe2 magnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenning, G. B. G.; Bowden, G. J.; de Groot, P. A. J.; van der Laan, G.; Figueroa, A. I.; Bencok, P.; Steadman, P.; Hesjedal, T.

    2015-09-01

    Reversible magnetic exchange springs can be formed in multilayer films, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Here we demonstrate that small amounts of anisotropic ErFe2, placed in the middle of the YFe2 magnetic exchange springs, can bring about substantial changes. Results are presented for an Er-doped (110)-oriented multilayer film, at 100 K in fields of up to ±14 T. Using both Er and Dy-specific soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and micromagnetic modeling, it is demonstrated that Er doping gives rise to (i) noncollinear exchange spring states in zero field, (ii) magnetic exchange spring collapse, (iii) a marked increase in the number of different exchange spring states available to the system, and (iv) strikingly different Er and Dy magnetization loops. Full and partial loops are presented for both the in-plane hard and easy axes. The magnetization loops for Dy sublattice show that at least ten different exchange spring states are accessed during magnetic reversal. Magnetic switching scenarios, involving mixtures of Néel-like and Bloch-like domain walls, are presented and discussed.

  19. Galantamine-ER for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Ben

    2010-01-01

    An extended release form of the cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) drug galantamine (galantamine-ER) was developed, chiefly to increase adherence to medication regimes in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Except for predicted differences in (Cmax) and tmax, comparable doses of once daily galantamine-ER and regular, immediate release galantamine, (galantamine-IR), are pharmacologically equivalent. A 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-and active-controlled, multicenter phase III trial, which compared galantamine-IR, galantamine-ER and placebo in subjects with mild to moderate AD (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] score range, 10 to 24) showed that both formulations of galantamine were significantly better than placebo in terms of cognition, although not with regard to global change. There was no difference in drug-related adverse events between galantamine-ER and galantamine-IR. Since its release onto the market galantamine-ER has enjoyed wide popularity and a recent surveillance study suggests that it has the highest 1-year persistence rate of all the ChEIs. PMID:20169037

  20. Upconversion properties of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Kiran Kumar, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2014-03-01

    Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals have been prepared and investigated their spectroscopic and luminescence properties. The formation of SrF2 nanocrystals in glass-ceramics were confirmed by Xray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Judd-Ofelt parameters have been evaluated from absorption spectra of the Er3+-doped glass, which in turn used to predict radiative properties for the fluorescent levels of Er3+ ions. The intensities of both Stokes and upconversion (anti-Stokes) emissions significantly increase with increase of the size of the fluoride crystals in the glass matrix. The mechanism of green and red upconversion emissions have been ascribed to two photon processes. The lifetime of the 4S3/2 level of the Er3+ ions in glass-ceramics is found to be slightly higher than that of the counter glass, which may be due to the incorporation of Er3+ ions into the low phonon sites of SrF2 nanocrystals.

  1. STING Activation by Translocation from the ER Is Associated with Infection and Autoinflammatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Nicole; Burnaevskiy, Nikolay; Chen, Didi; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Alto, Neal M; Yan, Nan

    2015-08-12

    STING is an ER-associated membrane protein that is critical for innate immune sensing of pathogens. STING-mediated activation of the IFN-I pathway through the TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis involves both cyclic-dinucleotide binding and its translocation from the ER to vesicles. However, how these events are coordinated, and the exact mechanism of STING activation, remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the Shigella effector protein IpaJ potently inhibits STING signaling by blocking its translocation from the ER to ERGIC, even in the context of dinucleotide binding. Reconstitution using purified components revealed STING translocation as the rate-limiting event in maximal signal transduction. Furthermore, STING mutations associated with autoimmunity in humans were found to cause constitutive ER exit and to activate STING independent of cGAMP binding. Together, these data provide compelling evidence for an ER retention and ERGIC/Golgi-trafficking mechanism of STING regulation that is subverted by bacterial pathogens and is deregulated in human genetic disease. PMID:26235147

  2. FFA-induced adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance: involvement of ER stress and IKK? pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Ma, Jie; Feng, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Diehl, J Alan; Chin, Y Eugene; Yan, Weiqun; Xu, Haiyan

    2011-03-01

    Free-fatty acids (FFAs) are well-characterized factor for causing production of inflammatory factors and insulin resistance in adipocytes. Using cultured adipocytes, we demonstrate that FFAs can activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway by examination of ER stress sensor activation and marker gene expression. Chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can reduce FFA-induced adipocyte inflammation and improve insulin signaling whereas overexpression of spliced X-box protein 1 (XBP-1s) only attenuates FFA-induced inflammation. PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2? kinase (PERK) is one of the three major ER stress sensor proteins and deficiency of PERK alleviates FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. The key downstream target of FFA-induced ER stress is I?B kinase ? (IKK?), a master kinase for regulating expression of inflammatory genes. Deficiency of PERK attenuates FFA-induced activation of IKK? and deficiency of IKK? alleviates FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Consistently, overexpression of IKK? in 3T3-L1 CAR adipocytes causes inflammation and insulin resistance. In addition, IKK? overexpression has profound effect on adipocyte lipid metabolism, including inhibition of lipogenesis and promotion of lipolysis. Furthermore, increased endogenous IKK? expression and activation is also observed in isolated primary adipocytes from mice injected with lipids or fed on high-fat diet (HFD) acutely. These results indicate that ER stress pathway is a key mediator for FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes with PERK and IKK? as the critical signaling components. PMID:20829802

  3. Pharmacological reduction of ER stress protects against TDP-43 neuronal toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Aggad, Dina; Julien, Carl; Maios, Claudia; Kabashi, Edor; Drapeau, Pierre; Parker, J Alex

    2013-07-01

    C. elegans and D. rerio expressing mutant TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are powerful in vivo animal models for the genetics and pharmacology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using these small-animal models of ALS, we previously identified methylene blue (MB) as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 toxicity. Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. We tested other compounds known to be active in the ER unfolded protein response in worms and zebrafish expressing mutant human TDP-43 (mTDP-43). We identified three compounds: salubrinal, guanabenz and a new structurally related compound phenazine, which also reduced paralysis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in our mTDP-43 models. Using C. elegans genetics, we showed that all four compounds act as potent suppressors of mTDP-43 toxicity through reduction of the ER stress response. Interestingly, these compounds operate through different branches of the ER unfolded protein pathway to achieve a common neuroprotective action. Our results indicate that protein-folding homeostasis in the ER is an important target for therapeutic development in ALS and other TDP-43-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23567652

  4. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis and upconversion luminescence of CaF2:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-02-15

    Water-dispersible CaF2 and Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped CaF2 (CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+)) nanocrystals with different sizes and different Yb(3+) and Er(3+) dopant concentrations were synthesized using ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a fluorine source by the rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal method. It was found that the morphology, size and crystallinity of CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals could be adjusted by using adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP). Yb(3+) and Er(3+) ions were doped into CaF2 nanocrystals to enable upconversion luminescence emission, and the as-prepared CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) samples exhibited upconversion luminescence upon excitation at 980 nm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that the CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals could be used for efficient labeling of human gastric carcinoma cells. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the as-prepared CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals had essentially little cytotoxicity. These results indicate that the as-prepared CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals are promising for the application as a luminescent label material in biological imaging. PMID:25460687

  5. The pioneer factor PBX1 is a novel driver of metastatic progression in ER?-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Luca; Patten, Darren K; Nguyen, Van T M; Hong, Sung-Pil; Steel, Jennifer H; Patel, Naina; Lombardo, Ylenia; Faronato, Monica; Gomes, Ana R; Woodley, Laura; Page, Karen; Guttery, David; Primrose, Lindsay; Fernandez Garcia, Daniel; Shaw, Jacqui; Viola, Patrizia; Green, Andrew; Nolan, Christopher; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Shousha, Sami; Lam, Eric W-F; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Lupien, Mathieu; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-09-01

    Over 30% of ER? breast cancer patients develop relapses and progress to metastatic disease despite treatment with endocrine therapies. The pioneer factor PBX1 translates epigenetic cues and mediates estrogen induced ER? binding. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 plays a central role in regulating the ER? transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. PBX1 regulates a subset of EGF-ER? genes highly expressed in aggressive breast tumours. Retrospective stratification of luminal patients using PBX1 protein levels in primary cancer further demonstrates that elevated PBX1 protein levels correlate with earlier metastatic progression. In agreement, PBX1 protein levels are significantly upregulated during metastatic progression in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. Finally we reveal that PBX1 upregulation in aggressive tumours is partly mediated by genomic amplification of the PBX1 locus. Correspondingly, ER?-positive breast cancer patients carrying PBX1 amplification are characterized by poor survival. Notably, we demonstrate that PBX1 amplification can be identified in tumor derived-circulating free DNA of ER?-positive metastatic patients. Metastatic patients with PBX1 amplification are also characterized by shorter relapse-free survival. Our data identifies PBX1 amplification as a functional hallmark of aggressive ER?-positive breast cancers. Mechanistically, PBX1 amplification impinges on several critical pathways associated with aggressive ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:26215677

  6. The pioneer factor PBX1 is a novel driver of metastatic progression in ER?-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Luca; Patten, Darren K.; Nguyen, Van T.M.; Hong, Sung-Pil; Steel, Jennifer H.; Patel, Naina; Lombardo, Ylenia; Faronato, Monica; Gomes, Ana R.; Woodley, Laura; Page, Karen; Guttery, David; Primrose, Lindsay; Garcia, Daniel Fernandez; Shaw, Jacqui; Viola, Patrizia; Green, Andrew; Nolan, Christopher; Ellis, Ian O.; Rakha, Emad A.; Shousha, Sami; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Gy?rffy, Balázs; Lupien, Mathieu; Coombes, R. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Over 30% of ER? breast cancer patients develop relapses and progress to metastatic disease despite treatment with endocrine therapies. The pioneer factor PBX1 translates epigenetic cues and mediates estrogen induced ER? binding. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 plays a central role in regulating the ER? transcriptional response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. PBX1 regulates a subset of EGF-ER? genes highly expressed in aggressive breast tumours. Retrospective stratification of luminal patients using PBX1 protein levels in primary cancer further demonstrates that elevated PBX1 protein levels correlate with earlier metastatic progression. In agreement, PBX1 protein levels are significantly upregulated during metastatic progression in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. Finally we reveal that PBX1 upregulation in aggressive tumours is partly mediated by genomic amplification of the PBX1 locus. Correspondingly, ER?-positive breast cancer patients carrying PBX1 amplification are characterized by poor survival. Notably, we demonstrate that PBX1 amplification can be identified in tumor derived-circulating free DNA of ER?-positive metastatic patients. Metastatic patients with PBX1 amplification are also characterized by shorter relapse-free survival. Our data identifies PBX1 amplification as a functional hallmark of aggressive ER?-positive breast cancers. Mechanistically, PBX1 amplification impinges on several critical pathways associated with aggressive ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:26215677

  7. Single-frequency, injection-seeded Er:YAG laser based on a bow-tie ring slave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B. Q.; Deng, Yu; Dai, T. Y.; Duan, X. M.; You-Lun, Ju; Wang, Y. Z.

    2015-08-01

    A diode pumped, injection-seeded Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645.2 nm is demonstrated. A single frequency Er:YAG monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) laser emitting at 1645.24 nm with a maximum output power of 500 mW is used as a seed laser. The seed laser output is injected into a bow-tie slave laser, obtaining stable single-frequency Q-switched operation of the Er:YAG laser. The maximum single-frequency Q-switched Er:YAG laser output energy is 2.9 mJ at 100 Hz with a pulse duration of 160 ns.

  8. Preparation and upconversion emission properties of Yb, Er co-doped Y2Ti2O7 upconversion inverse opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Jialun; Yan, Dong; Wu, Hangjun; Wang, Rongfei; Song, Zhiguo; Yu, Xue; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Yin, Zhaoyi; Qiu, Jianbei

    2012-09-01

    Upconversion inverse opal photonic crystals based on a luminescent matrix of Yb, Er co-doped Y2Ti2O7 were synthesized, and their photoluminescence was investigated. By comparing the spectra of the inverse opals with that of the reference sample, the contribution of photonic band gap effect to the upconversion emission was observed in the Y2Ti2O7: Yb, Er inverse opals. Intensity of the green or red upconversion emission from Er3+ was depressed when the overlapping between the photonic band-gap and Er3+ ions emission band occurs.

  9. Wormhole and Entanglement (Non-)Detection in the ER=EPR Correspondence

    E-print Network

    Ning Bao; Jason Pollack; Grant N. Remmen

    2015-09-17

    The recently proposed ER=EPR correspondence postulates the existence of wormholes (Einstein-Rosen bridges) between entangled states (such as EPR pairs). Entanglement is famously known to be unobservable in quantum mechanics, in that there exists no observable (or, equivalently, projector) that can accurately pick out whether a generic state is entangled. Many features of the geometry of spacetime, however, are observables, so one might worry that the presence or absence of a wormhole could identify an entangled state in ER=EPR, violating quantum mechanics, specifically, the property of state-independence of observables. In this note, we establish that this cannot occur: there is no measurement in general relativity that unambiguously detects the presence of a generic wormhole geometry. This statement is the ER=EPR dual of the undetectability of entanglement.

  10. CdEr2Se4: a new erbium spin ice system in a spinel structure.

    PubMed

    Lago, J; Zivkovi?, I; Malkin, B Z; Rodriguez Fernandez, J; Ghigna, P; Dalmas de Réotier, P; Yaouanc, A; Rojo, T

    2010-06-18

    Here we present a detailed study of the spinel CdEr2Se4 and show it to be a new instance of spin ice, the first one in an erbium material and the first one in a spinel. Definitive experimental evidence comes from the temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy, which shows an excellent agreement with the predicted behavior for a spin ice state. Crystal field calculations demonstrate that the change in the local environment from that of the titanates completely alters the rare-earth anisotropy giving rise, in the case of Er3+, to the required Ising anisotropy, when Er2Ti2O7 behaves as an XY antiferromagnet. This finding opens up the possibility of new exotic ground states within the CdR2Se4 and CdR2Se4 families. PMID:20867332

  11. BiP links TOR signaling to ER stress in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, José L.

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) Ser/Thr kinase promotes protein synthesis under favorable growth conditions in all eukaryotes. Downregulation of TOR signaling in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has recently revealed a link between control of protein synthesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the reversible modification of the BiP chaperone by phosphorylation. Inhibition of protein synthesis by rapamycin or cycloheximide resulted in the phosphorylation of BiP on threonine residues while ER stress induced by tunicamycin or heat shock caused the fast dephosphorylation of the protein. Regulation of BiP function by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events was proposed in early studies in mammalian cells although no connection to TOR signaling has been established so far. Here I will discuss about the coordinated regulation of BiP modification by TOR and ER stress signals in Chlamydomonas. PMID:22353876

  12. Enhanced Er3+ photoluminescence in TeO2-ZnO glass containing silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Diego S.; de Assumpção, Thiago A. A.; de Simone, Giordano B. C.; Kassab, Luciana R. P.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) in a tellurite glass (TeO2-ZnO) doped with erbium ions (Er3+) and containing silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) is reported. The PL increase is mainly attributed to energy transfer from excited Si-NCs to the Er3+ located in the vicinity of the nanocrystals although the contribution of active defects in the glass cannot be completely excluded. Enhancement of ?300 % was observed in the visible and in the near-infrared regions. In particular, the fourfold enhancement observed for the broad emission centered at ?1530 nm, corresponding to the Er3+ transition 4I3/2 ? 4I15/2, indicates large potential of the composite material for interface with existing telecommunication devices.

  13. Gabapentin Extended-Release - Depomed: Gabapentin ER, Gabapentin Gastric Retention, Gabapentin GR.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Depomed is developing an extended-release (ER) oral formulation of gabapentin, a GABA receptor agonist commonly used for the treatment of epilepsy and seizures, neuropathic pain and hot flushes. Gabapentin ER is based on the company's proprietary AcuForm drug delivery technology, which is part of the Gastric Retention (GR) family of technologies; this offers improved drug absorption and bioavailability compared with the existing immediate-release formulation of gabapentin (Neurontin), making gabapentin ER suitable for twice-daily dosing. The product is in clinical development for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathies in the US. Additionally, Depomed has commenced a phase II trial of gabapentin ER in postmenopausal patients with hot flushes. Depomed's AcuForm platform is based on polymer technology that provides targeted drug delivery for a variety of compounds. Following ingestion, AcuForm tablets swell and are retained for 6-8 hours in the stomach, enabling controlled and prolonged release of gabapentin to the upper intestinal tract; this extends the time of drug delivery to the small intestine for complete and safe elimination via the lower intestinal track. Gabapentin ER is available for licensing. Depomed acquired exclusive development and commercialisation rights to gabapentin ER in September 2003 via its subsidiary, Depomed Development Ltd (DDL). Depomed is not required to pay upfront license fees, but will make royalty and milestone payments to DDL upon successful commercialisation of gabapentin ER. Gabapentin ER was originally developed by DDL, a joint venture between Depomed and Elan established in January 2000 to design products using the GR family of technologies. However, in efforts to restructure joint venture relationships, Elan withdrew from operational involvement of DDL in September 2003, and Depomed has gained full ownership of DDL. Depomed sublicensed exclusive rights to a US patent (held by the University of Rochester) covering the use of gabapentin in the treatment of hot flushes from PharmaNova in October 2006. Under the agreement, Depomed paid PharmaNova an upfront fee of US dollars 500 000. PharmaNova is also entitled to milestone payments and royalties on sales of gabapentin ER in this indication only. Depomed has reported significant safety and efficacy benefits from gabapentin ER in its phase II trial. This study was initiated in February 2005 following positive results from a phase I trial in which gabapentin ER demonstrated a pharmacokinetic profile suitable for twice-daily dosing. In two pharmacokinetic studies, gabapentin ER achieved improved bioavailability at higher doses. This result supports Depomed's development of a once- or twice-daily product with potentially fewer adverse events. The basic US patents relating to gabapentin expired in 2000. Depomed holds exclusive rights to a US patent (No. 6 310 098) held by the University of Rochester covering the use of gabapentin to treat hot flushes.Additionally, Depomed was issued a US patent (No. 6 723 340) in May 2004 that covers proprietary polymer combinations (as used in AcuForm tablets) to create improved formulations of existing drugs. PMID:17767396

  14. Ultrahigh-spin spectroscopy of {sup 159,160}Er: Observation of triaxial strongly deformed structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ollier, J.; Simpson, J.; Wang, X.; Riley, M. A.; Aguilar, A.; Teal, C.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Petri, M.; Rigby, S. V.; Thomson, J.; Unsworth, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Hartley, D. J.; Darby, I. G.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2009-12-15

    Three weakly populated high-spin rotational bands associated with the {gamma} decay of {sup 159}Er and {sup 160}Er were observed in fusion-evaporation reactions involving a beam of {sup 48}Ca at an energy of 215 MeV incident on a {sup 116}Cd target. The {gamma} decays were detected using the highly efficient Gammasphere spectrometer. The discovery of these bands, which extend discrete-line spectroscopy in these nuclei to ultrahigh spin of {approx}60({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), is consistent with recent observations of high-spin collective structures in isotopes of Er, Yb, and Tm around N=90. Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these bands may arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations with either positive or negative {gamma} deformation.

  15. Magnetization process in Er2Ti2O7 at very low temperature.

    PubMed

    Bonville, P; Petit, S; Mirebeau, I; Robert, J; Lhotel, E; Paulsen, C

    2013-07-10

    We present a model which accounts for the high-field magnetization at very low temperature in the frustrated pyrochlore compound Er2Ti2O7. In Er2Ti2O7, the Er(3+) ion has a planar crystal field anisotropy and the material undergoes a transition to antiferromagnetism at TN = 1.2 K. Our model is a mean-field self-consistent calculation involving the four rare earth sites of a tetrahedron, the building unit of the pyrochlore lattice. It includes the full crystal field Hamiltonian, the infinite range dipolar interaction and anisotropic nearest neighbour exchange described by a 4-component tensor. We discuss the equivalence of our treatment of the exchange tensor, taken to be diagonal in a frame linked to a rare earth-rare earth bond, with the pseudo-spin Hamiltonian recently developed for Kramers doublets in a pyrochlore lattice. PMID:23765398

  16. Antiferromagnetic order in the pyrochlores R2Ge2O7 (R =Er ,Yb )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Z. L.; Li, X.; Freitas, R. S.; Arrighi, E.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Cao, H. B.; Silverstein, H. J.; Wiebe, C. R.; Cheng, J. G.; Zhou, H. D.

    2015-10-01

    Elastic neutron scattering, ac susceptibility, and specific heat experiments on the pyrochlores Er2Ge2O7 and Yb2Ge2O7 show that both systems are antiferromagnetically ordered in the ?5 manifold. The ground state is a ?3 phase for the Er sample and a ?2 or ?3 phase for the Yb sample, which suggests "Order by Disorder" physics. Furthermore, we unify the various magnetic ground states of all known R2X2O7 (R =Er , Yb; X =Sn , Ti, Ge) compounds through the enlarged X Y -type exchange interaction J± under chemical pressure. The mechanism for this evolution is discussed in terms of the phase diagram proposed in the theoretical study by Wong et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 144402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.144402].

  17. [Calculation of spectroscopic parameters of highly doped Er3+ in lithium niobate].

    PubMed

    Sun, Dun-lu; Zhang, Qing-li; Wang, Ai-hua; Hang, Yin; Zhang, Lian-han; Qian, Xiao-bo; Zhu, Shi-ning; Yin, Shao-tang

    2005-09-01

    A highly doped Er3+: LiNbO3 (concentration 6 mol%) crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. The crystal is higher than that of the lowly doped Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystal, which is helpful to improve absorption coefficient of the grown the pumping efficiency. The absorption spectra at two unpolarized directions (X and Z) and two polarized directions (E parallel Z, E perpendicular Z) were measured. Using the Judd-Ofelt theory, and according to the measured absorption spectra, the intensity parameters omegalambda of Er3+ were fitted. The results of root-mean square (r. m. s) deviation show that the error of polarized fitting is less than that of unpolarized one. Thus fluorescence transition probabilities (Ajj), radioactive lifetime (tau), fluorescence branching ratio (beta), and integrated emission cross section (sigmap) were calculated and accepted according to the polarized results, and were also discussed and compared with the ones reported in the literature. PMID:16379269

  18. BaY2F8 doped with Er3+: An upconverter material for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolini, A.; Faoro, R.; Favilla, E.; Veronesi, S.; Tonelli, M.

    2013-08-01

    Fluoride crystals (BaY2F8) doped with Er3+ ions with different doping level have been grown with a home-made Czochralski furnace. A spectroscopic characterization consisting in both absorption and fluorescence measurements were performed in order to investigate the upconversion mechanism occurring when the material is excited with a radiation at 1557 nm. The measured emission spectrum shows a photoluminescence mainly distributed in the Near Infrared (NIR) region at ?1 ?m. The spectral conversion due to the upconversion makes this material suitable for photovoltaic applications, especially if we combine it with a crystalline silicon solar cell. A device made of single face solar cell+upconverter material (PV-UC) was designed and his external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 1557 nm was measured. EQE values of 6.5% and 4.1% were reached under 8.5 W cm-2 power density illumination for the 30%Er3+ and 20%Er3+ samples, respectively.

  19. Sequential Cobalt Magnetization Collapse in ErCo2: Beyond the Limits of Itinerant Electron Metamagnetism

    PubMed Central

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Burzo, E.; Vlaic, P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Savenko, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    The itinerant electron metamagnetism (IEM) is an essential physical concept, describing magnetic properties of rare earth – transition metal (R-TM) intermetallics, demonstrating technologically important giant magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effects. It considers an appearance of TM magnetization induced by spontaneous magnetization of surrounding R atoms, which provides significant response of the magnetic and transport properties on variation of external parameters (temperature, pressure, magnetic field) due to strong coupling between magnetic sublattices. The RCo2 compounds were generally considered as model systems for understanding of basic properties of IEM intermetallics. However, microscopic nature of magnetic properties still remains unclear. In our experimental and theoretical study of ErCo2 in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters a sequential collapse of cobalt sublattice magnetization in the background of nearly unchanged Er sublattice magnetization was revealed. The uncoupled magnetizations behavior challenges the IEM concept applicability and evidences more complex nature of magnetism in ErCo2 and related RCo2 systems. PMID:25727134

  20. Removal of dental filling materials by Er:YAG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1991-05-01

    In previous reports it could be shown that pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation is effective for the removal of dental enamel, dentin, and caries. Damage to the adjacent hard substances is minimal. Temperature measurements and animal studies revealed that thermal pulp damage can be avoided. The experimental results make the Er:YAG laser promising for the preparation of dental cavities. In many cases patients already have fillings which have to be removed. In the present work, investigation is made of the effect of Er:YAG laser radiation on various restorative filling materials. The experiments demonstrate that removal is possible for all tested cements, composites and amalgam. Ablation efficiency is comparable to that of enamel and dentin, and thus sufficient for practical applications. Morphology of crater walls indicates greater thermal side effects than for natural dental hard substances.