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1

eLEARNING FOR BATCH CONTROL Outi Rask and Seppo Kuikka  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTS 2.1 On learning in general Good learning results depend on a student's motivation, activity1 eLEARNING FOR BATCH CONTROL Outi Rask and Seppo Kuikka Tampere University of Technology.Kuikka@tut.fi Abstract: Learning in the Internet is a new style of distance learning. When planning a web-based learning

2

ER News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy Research News (ER News) is a bimonthly newsletter supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research. This newsletter focuses on informing engineers, researchers, and the interested public of the latest research and technology advancements at OER. Topics include energy generation, microbiology, the Human Genome Project, global weather change, computing, and more. Users may register for an email reminder (topic list) that announces each new issue. Back issues (to April 1995) are available.

1995-01-01

3

CONTENTSCLICKONTHESUBJECTYOUWANTTOSEE 49ER ACCOUNT  

E-print Network

- 1 - CONTENTSCLICKONTHESUBJECTYOUWANTTOSEE 49ER ACCOUNT 49ER ID CARD AUX SERVICES AND DINING VENUE - COPYING AND PRINTING TEXTBOOKS AND SUPPLIES VENDING AND ATM SERVICES To get a 49er ID card, you'll need.uncc.edu/49er 49er Card/Meal Plans Office Auxiliary Services Bldg. (#39) Monday ­ Friday 8:00 AM ­ 5:00 PM 704

Howitt, Ivan

4

Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ER-36) and other novel spliced ERs are widely expressed in ER-66-negative breast tumors  

E-print Network

Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ER-36) and other novel spliced ERs are widely expressed in ER-66. ER-36 is expressed in ER-66-negative breast tumors (50%, N=88) ER-66 ER-66 ER-36 ER-36 Figure 1. ER-36 is strongly expressed in ER-66-negative breast tumor detected by ER-36 IHC staining. 1. ER-36

5

Duong et al. ER and ER expression and transcriptional activity  

E-print Network

Duong et al. - 1 - ER and ER expression and transcriptional activity are differentially regulated 84 E-mail: lazennec@montp.inserm.fr or v.cavailles@montp.inserm.fr Abbreviations: ER.onc.1209102 #12;Duong et al. - 2 - ABSTRACT The proliferative action of ER largely accounts

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Going to the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER ... Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Communication Tools Pain Management ...

7

BE'ER-SHEVA 2012MUNICIPALITY OF BE'ER-SHEVA Be'er-Sheva Israel's "Opportunities Capital"  

E-print Network

BE'ER-SHEVA 2012MUNICIPALITY OF BE'ER-SHEVA Be'er-Sheva � Israel's "Opportunities Capital" Be'er serving the 600,000 citizens of the entire region. With a rich history spanning more than , 00 years, Be'er the British. Modern Be'er-Sheva was founded in 1948 and built up by immigrants from some 0 countries

Snider, Barry B.

8

Coexpression of ER with ER and Progestin Receptor Proteins in the Female Rat Forebrain: Effects of  

E-print Network

Coexpression of ER with ER and Progestin Receptor Proteins in the Female Rat Forebrain: EffectsPont Pharmaceuticals Co. (E.A.A.), Wilmington, Delaware 19880 Estrogen and progestin receptors (ER, PgR) play of the recently cloned, ER , overlaps with both ER and PgR. To determine whether ER is found within ER - or Pg

Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

9

Estrogen Receptor (ER) Modulates ER Responses to Estrogens in the Developing Rat Ventromedial Nucleus  

E-print Network

Estrogen Receptor (ER) Modulates ER Responses to Estrogens in the Developing Rat Ventromedial of estrogen receptor (ER) are well documented, whereas the functions of ER are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we report that ER inhibits the activity of ER in an anatomically specific man- ner within

10

Page 1 of 7 ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2013 Total Points: 94 [ER100/PP184] or 149 [ER200/PP284  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 7 ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2013 Total Points: 94 [ER100/PP184] or 149 [ER200/PP284 power plants: one which burns natural gas, and one which burns pulverized coal. [20 points total for ER100/PP184; 20 points total for ER200/PP284] a) Based on an approximate formula for coal, CH0.8O0

Kammen, Daniel M.

11

ER Stress Modulates Cellular Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Changes in metabolic processes play a critical role in the survival or death of cells subjected to various stresses. Here, we have investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on cellular metabolism. A major difficulty in studying metabolic responses to ER stress is that ER stress normally leads to apoptosis and metabolic changes observed in dying cells may be misleading. Therefore, we have used IL-3-dependent Bak?/? Bax?/? hematopoietic cells which do not die in the presence of the ER stress-inducing drug, tunicamycin. Tunicamycin-treated Bak?/?Bax?/? cells remain viable but cease growth, arresting in G1 and undergoing autophagy in the absence of apoptosis. In these cells we used NMR-based stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) to determine the metabolic effects of tunicamycin. Glucose was found to be the major carbon source for energy production and anabolic metabolism. Following tunicamycin exposure, glucose uptake and lactate production are greatly reduced. Decreased 13C labeling in several cellular metabolites suggests that mitochondrial function in cells undergoing ER stress is compromised. Consistent with this, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and cellular ATP level are much lower compared with untreated cells. Importantly, the effects of tunicamycin on cellular metabolic processes may be related to a reduction of cell surface Glut-1 levels which, in turn, may reflect decreased Akt signaling. These results suggest that ER stress exerts profound effects on several central metabolic processes which may help explain cell death arising from ER stress in normal cells. PMID:21241252

Wang, Xiaoli; Eno, Colins O.; Altman, Brian J.; Zhu, Yanglong; Zhao, Guoping; Olberding, Kristen E.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Li, Chi

2011-01-01

12

ER?1 Represses FOXM1 Expression through Targeting ER? to Control Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effects of ectopic estrogen receptor (ER)?1 expression in breast cancer cell lines and nude mice xenografts and observed that ER?1 expression suppresses tumor growth and represses FOXM1 mRNA and protein expression in ER?-positive but not ER?-negative breast cancer cells. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation exists between ER?1 and FOXM1 expression at both protein and mRNA transcript levels in ER?-positive breast cancer patient samples. Ectopic ER?1 expression resulted in decreased FOXM1 protein and mRNA expression only in ER?-positive but not ER?-negative breast carcinoma cell lines, suggesting that ER?1 represses ER?-dependent FOXM1 transcription. Reporter gene assays showed that ER?1 represses FOXM1 transcription through an estrogen-response element located within the proximal promoter region that is also targeted by ER?. The direct binding of ER?1 to the FOXM1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, which also showed that ectopic expression of ER?1 displaces ER? from the endogenous FOXM1 promoter. Forced expression of ER?1 promoted growth suppression in MCF-7 cells, but the anti-proliferative effects of ER?1 could be overridden by overexpression of FOXM1, indicating that FOXM1 is an important downstream target of ER?1 signaling. Together, these findings define a key anti-proliferative role for ER?1 in breast cancer development through negatively regulating FOXM1 expression. PMID:21763263

Horimoto, Yoshiya; Hartman, Johan; Millour, Julie; Pollock, Steven; Olmos, Yolanda; Ho, Ka-Kei; Coombes, R. Charles; Poutanen, Matti; Makela, Sari I.; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Speirs, Valerie; Lam, Eric W.-F.

2011-01-01

13

ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use  

E-print Network

1 ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use Problem Set #1 Total Points: 100 for ER110/PPC184; 120 for ER200/PPC284 Energy Units The purpose of these problems plant has a capacity factor of 0.80. (5 points) 3. [For ER200/PP284 students only] Why might

Kammen, Daniel M.

14

En karriere er ikke noget du fr det er noget du tager  

E-print Network

En karriere er ikke noget du får det er noget du tager Vidste du at Risø · er en sektorforskningsinstitution under Ministeriet for Videnskab, Teknologi og Udvikling · har ca. 800 ansatte, knap halvdelen er forskere · også er arbejdsplads for laboranter, sekretærer, teknikere, jurister og mange flere · stimulerer

15

The ternary ErCoSn system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal section of the phase diagram of the ErCoSn ternary system has been constructed at 670 K. The existence of seven ternary intermetallic compounds which crystallize with known structure types has been confirmed. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (?) for ErCo3Sn and Er3Co6Sn5 has been measured. The ErCo3Sn stannide orders ferrimagnetically at 24 K, and the Er3Co6Sn5

R. V Skolozdra; Ya. S Mudryk; L. P Romaka

2000-01-01

16

Research resource: comparison of gene profiles from wild-type ER? and ER? hinge region mutants.  

PubMed

We showed previously that the hinge region of estrogen receptor (ER) ? is involved in mediating its actions. The hinge 1 (H1) ER? mutant has disrupted nuclear localization and has lost interaction with c-JUN, but retains estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated functions. The hinge 2 + nuclear export sequence (H2NES) ER? mutant does not maintain nuclear translocation with hormone and no longer activates ERE target genes but does retain a nongenomic, nonnuclear, rapid-action response. Herein, we used the human endometrial cancer Ishikawa stable cell lines (Ishikawa/vector, Ishikawa/wild-type [WT] ER?, Ishikawa/H1 ER?, or Ishikawa/H2NES ER?) to characterize the biological activities of these 2 ER? hinge region mutants. We confirmed by confocal microscopy increased cytoplasmic ER? in the H1 ER? cell line and full cytoplasmic ER? localization in the H2NES ER? cell line. Luciferase assays using the 3xERE reporter showed activation of H1 ER? and H2NES ER? by estradiol (E2) treatment, but using the endogenous pS2 reporter, luciferase activity was only seen with the H1 ER? cell line. Examining cell proliferation revealed that only the WT ER? and H1 ER? cell lines increased proliferation after treatment. Using microarrays, we found that WT ER? and H1 ER? cluster together, whereas vector and H2NES ER? are most similar and cluster independently of E2 treatment. These studies revealed that the nongenomic activities of ER? are unable to mediate proliferative changes or the transcriptional profile after treatment and demonstrate the importance of genomic action for ER?/E2-mediated responses with the nongenomic actions of ER? being complementary to elicit the full biological actions of ER?. PMID:24947674

Burns, Katherine A; Li, Yin; Liu, Liwen; Korach, Kenneth S

2014-08-01

17

ERS-1 SAR data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

1986-01-01

18

Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er.  

SciTech Connect

The stable and neutron-rich isotopes 168Er, 170Er, and 172Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic 136Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K?=4- isomeric intrinsic states in both 168Er and 170Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in 172Er. In 170Er, the identification of a K?=6- band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4- band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The gK-gR values for the 4- bands deduced from the in-band ?-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in 168Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in 170Er, and a two-proton configuration in 172Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6+ isomer in 172Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6+ and 7- two-neutron structures known in the isotone 174Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6+ isomer occurs through the newly identified 4- isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4- and 6+ isomers in 172Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

2010-05-01

19

Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

20

ER stress and hepatic lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important player in regulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Perturbation of ER homeostasis, referred as ER stress, has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. The liver plays a central role in regulating nutrient and lipid metabolism. Accumulating evidence implicates that ER stress disrupts lipid metabolism and induces hepatic lipotoxicity. Here, we review the major ER stress signaling pathways, how ER stress contributes to the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and the potential causative mechanisms of ER stress in hepatic lipotoxicity. Understanding the role of ER stress in hepatic metabolism may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases. PMID:24847353

Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Runping

2014-01-01

21

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 ER 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE. (1-year curriculum. Pass-fail only. Prereq: Admission to first year, CollegeofMedicine. ER 825 SECOND-YEAR ELECTIVE

MacAdam, Keith

22

Wat gebeurt er bij een aardbeving?  

E-print Network

Wat gebeurt er bij een aardbeving? Een aardbeving ontstaat doordat het gesteente onder grote spanning staat; het is ver- vormd. Als de spanning te groot wordt, breekt het gesteente en treedt er plaat. Toch komen er aardbe- vingen in Nederland voor. De bevingen in Zuid-Nederland onstaan door

Utrecht, Universiteit

23

BIOENERGI ER BLEVET MODERNE 4DECEMBER 2003  

E-print Network

BIOENERGI ER BLEVET MODERNE RIS?NYT NO 4DECEMBER 2003 Moderne bioenergi har store muligheder4 Jagten på grønt guld Benzin af halm17 30 #12;Bioenergi er blevet moderne, at biomasse er en ligeså værdifuld ressource som vind, og at Danmark vil kunne spille en væsentlig rolle i

24

The effect of Er on MSE measurements of q, a new technique for measuring Er,  

E-print Network

The effect of Er on MSE measurements of q, a new technique for measuring Er, and a test current profile. In a magnetically confined toroidal plasma, the radial electric field Er is an important element of the force balance perpendicular to the flux surface rpa = naea(Er + V a?B) (1) for each thermal

25

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: PV, Wind, environmental justice  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: PV, Wind, environmental justice Due Nov. 21, in class, or before 5pm outside 310 Barrows Fall 2013 Problem Set #6 Total Points: 102 [ER100/PP184], 113 [ER200/PP284] - 1 - 1. Comparing PV costs across the US [24 points] In this question we are going

Kammen, Daniel M.

26

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: PV, Wind, environmental justice  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: PV, Wind, environmental justice Due Nov. 21, in class, or before 5pm outside 310 Barrows Fall 2013 Problem Set #6 Total Points: 102[ER100/PP184], 113 [ER200/PP284] - 1 - 1. Comparing PV costs across the US [24 points] In this question we are going

Kammen, Daniel M.

27

Admission 1 er Programmes capacit  

E-print Network

Programmes Capacité d'accueil limitée Préalables Conditions particulières Informatique appliquée Oui Séries A des systèmes informatiques Multimédia Programmation Oui Oui Oui Séries A1, C, D, ES et 1 cours de2014-02-06 Gabon Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d'accueil limitée Programmes à capacité

Montréal, Université de

28

INFORMATIQUE PROGRAMMES DE 1ER  

E-print Network

INFORMATIQUE PROGRAMMES DE 1ER CYCLE M SCIENCES M FACULT? DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES CYNTHIA.fas.umontreal.ca Bien au-delà de la programmation, l'informatique est une véritable science qui utilise l mathématiques. Ce programme, qui intègre la génomique et l'informatique, est l'un des rares offerts dans le

Montréal, Université de

29

September 2011 NTU Student Easyrider City Prices Normal ER products  

E-print Network

September 2011 NTU Student Easyrider City Prices Normal ER products ER Adult ER NTU Student ER) £135 £108 £1.16 6 months (186 days) £250 £200 £1.08 1 year (365 days) £399 £319 £0.87 Student ER products ER Adult ER NTU Student ER Student Daily cost Academic year - Pre & Freshers Fair - (210 days

Evans, Paul

30

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

2013-01-01

31

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. PMID:23850759

Sano, Renata; Reed, John C

2013-12-01

32

Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Toms; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damin; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

2012-01-01

33

Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ERmitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Toms; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damin; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

2014-01-01

34

Printed in U.S.A. Copyright 1998 by The Endocrine Society Transcription Activation by the Human Estrogen Receptor Subtype ? (ER?) Studied with ER ? and ER? Receptor Chimeras*  

E-print Network

We have studied the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER ? and ER?, and chimeric constructs with ER ? and ER ? to examine the bioactivities of these receptors and their responses to estrogen and antiestrogen ligands. Transcriptional activity of ER ? is highly dependent on cell/promoter context and on the nature of the ligand. ER? activated significant levels of transcription in response to estrogens in certain cell types, but showed only moderate activity compared with ER ? in others. Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen and 2-phenylbenzofuran, which show some agonistic activity with ER?, exhibit no agonistic activity with ER?. Alteration of the amino-terminal A/B receptor domain can result in a dramatic change in cell type- and ligand-specific transcriptional activity of ER?. Upon replacing the A/B domain of ER ? with the A/B domain of ER?, this receptor chimera

Eileen M. Mcinerney; Karen E. Weis; Jun Sun; Sietse Mosselman; Benita S. Katzenellenbogen

35

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking Due Nov. 7 [ER100/PP184], 120 [ER200/PP284] Personal Energy Audit [40 POINTS TOTAL] How much energy do you

Kammen, Daniel M.

36

Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er  

SciTech Connect

The stable and neutron-rich isotopes {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic {sup 136}Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K{sup p}i=4{sup -} isomeric intrinsic states in both {sup 168}Er and {sup 170}Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in {sup 172}Er. In {sup 170}Er, the identification of a K{sup p}i=6{sup -} band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4{sup -} band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The g{sub K}-g{sub R} values for the 4{sup -} bands deduced from the in-band gamma-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in {sup 168}Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in {sup 170}Er, and a two-proton configuration in {sup 172}Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6{sup +} isomer in {sup 172}Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6{sup +} and 7{sup -} two-neutron structures known in the isotone {sup 174}Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6{sup +} isomer occurs through the newly identified 4{sup -} isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4{sup -} and 6{sup +} isomers in {sup 172}Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, R.S.P.E, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stefanescu, I. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-05-15

37

The Morphology and Dynamics of the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is anon-uniform compartment in plants as regards its morphology\\u000a and function. It extends as ahighly anastomosing membranous network throughout the cytoplasm, is\\u000a the major compartment of membrane biogenesis, and has been verified to function as the starting site for\\u000a the secretory pathway. Early electron microscopy studies revealed three morphological ER sub-domains: the\\u000a smooth ER, the rough

Hartmut Quader; Michael Zachariadis

38

Radioaktivitet De fleste atomkjerner er stabile, men vi har noen som er ustabile. Vi sier at de er radioaktive. Det betyr at de  

E-print Network

Radioaktivitet De fleste atomkjerner er stabile, men vi har noen som er ustabile. Vi sier at de er. Det er 3 typer stråling som er mulig og vi kaller de for alfa (a), beta (b) og gammastråling (g) etter de tre første bokstavene i det greske alfabet. a-partikler er kjernen til helium og består av 2

Sahay, Sundeep

39

a) Skitser en datastruktur Hestesko, hvis vrdimngde er mngder af heltal, og hvor operationerne er  

E-print Network

Opgave 19 a) Skitser en datastruktur Hestesko, hvis værdimængde er mængder af heltal, og hvor operationerne er: hestesko(): Returnerer den tomme hestesko. insert(i): Indsætter elementet i i hesteskoen. member(i): Svarer true hvis i ligger i hesteskoen. false ellers. deleteMed(): Hvis hesteskoen ikke er tom

Brodal, Gerth Stølting

40

34 Rechtswissenscha Neu vorgestellt Die Entwicklungen der 1960er  

E-print Network

34 ­ Rechtswissenscha · Neu vorgestellt Die Entwicklungen der 1960er und 1970er Jahre haben die Reform und Revolte Eine Rechtsgeschichte der 1960er und 1970er Jahre Herausgegeben von Martin Löhniger und 1970er Jahren ­ Chri- stian Scheimer: Demokratisierung der Bildung? Schulpolitik, Schulreform

Schubart, Christoph

41

A screening cascade to identify ER? ligands  

PubMed Central

The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor ? (ER?) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ER?, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ER? and ER?, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ER?. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ER? binders that were examined for their selectivity for ER? versus ER?, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing.

Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

42

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25

43

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

44

Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli  

E-print Network

Response of ER -IR and ER -IR cells in the forebrain of female rats to mating stimuli Be´atrice Gre on estrogen receptors (ERs) found in particular brain regions. While hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior requires ER , the possible functions of ER remain to be clarified. Mating stimulation has several

Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

45

Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit  

PubMed Central

Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

2010-01-01

46

Estrogen receptors (ER? versus ER?): friends or foes in human biology?  

PubMed

Most of the biological effects of estrogens are mediated via the estrogen receptors (ERs) at the level of gene regulation. Recently, new information regarding the role of ERs in physiology, pathology and the mechanisms through which estrogens bring about these functions has emerged. The physiological effects of estrogen are manifested through two ER isoforms - ER? and ER? - which display distinct regions of sequence homology. The crystal structures of these receptors bound to their specific ligands (e.g. agonists or antagonists) have revealed much about how ligand binding alters receptor structure/conformation and the interaction with coactivators or corepressors as well as how it determines the cellular response to a ligand. ERs are involved in the variety of physiological and pathological activities and different cells and tissues have shown divergent responses to these two receptor isoforms. The discovery of sub-isoforms of ER alpha and beta has further complicated our understanding of how the interaction between ERs and its ligands contribute to the development of disease. Nevertheless, continuing efforts in the study of ERs have helped us to more clearly define their role in disease and to develop novel, ER-targeted therapeutics. PMID:24188405

Planey, Sonia Lobo; Kumar, Raj; Arnott, John A

2014-02-01

47

FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS  

... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... S-HIS SSFR Location: Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage: Fairbanks, Alaska and the ...

2014-05-06

48

EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg  

E-print Network

Thell MasTer of nUrsing prograM prepares nurses for advanced leadership roles in health care practiceEmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg #12;mastEr of NursiNg (mN) The UniversiTy of WashingTon Bo and elective credits support a wide range of nursing interests that allow a custom fit to your individual goals

Manchak, John

49

ER12-1 completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well

C. E. Russell; D. Gillespie; J. C. Cole; S. L. Drellack

1996-01-01

50

Correlations in Multiparticle Markus Ringn' er  

E-print Network

­15 (accepted for publication in the European Physical Journal C) ii B. Andersson and M. Ringn'er Bose¨akkinen and M. Ringn'er Bose--Einstein and colour interference in W­pair decays European Physical Journal C 5 Is there screwiness at the end of the QCD cascades? Journal of High Energy Physics 09, 014 (1998) #12; v Contents

Ringnér, Markus

51

Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKK?, LKB1, and AMPK?1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 ?mol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 ?mol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPK?1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 ?mol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 ?mol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 ?mol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 ? cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

2012-01-01

52

Topography over South America from ERS altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

1997-01-01

53

Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi  

PubMed Central

Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate. PMID:22733737

Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A.; Garcia, Jennifer F.; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Madhani, Hiten D.

2012-01-01

54

Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi.  

PubMed

Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate. PMID:22733737

Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A; Garcia, Jennifer F; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J; Madhani, Hiten D

2012-07-10

55

Ethylene Insensitivity Conferred by Arabidopsis ERS Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERS (ethylene response sensor), a gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene hormone-response pathway, was uncovered by cross-hybridization with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. The deduced ERS protein has sequence similarity with the amino-terminal domain and putative histidine protein kinase domain of ETR1, but it does not have a receiver domain as found in ETR1. A missense mutation identical to the dominant

Jian Hua; Caren Chang; Qi Sun; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1995-01-01

56

5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... Heroes Home > ER 101 ACEP in Social Media ER 101 5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER H ere are five things you can do to help your loved one in the ER: 1. Write down all the patients medications or ...

57

Optimal Bu er Constrained Independent Bit Allocation 1  

E-print Network

27 Chapter 2 Optimal Bu er Constrained Independent Bit Allocation 1 Contents 2.1 Introduction applications makes it necessary to bu er the source as excessive delay would produce loss of information that the probability of eventual bu er over ow is 1 for any bu er size, even when the average rate of the source

Ortega, Antonio

58

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation  

E-print Network

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation Susan A. Krum, Gustavo A. Miranda breast cancer cell line with that of the osteoblast-like cell line U2OS-ER by expression microarrays. We-specific E2 regulation of gene expression in MCF7 and U2OS- ER cells, we compared the ER binding sites on DNA

Brown, Myles

59

Multi-duct ER Dampers Henri P. Gavin  

E-print Network

Multi-duct ER Dampers Henri P. Gavin Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Duke damping devices utilizing electro-rheological (er) materials. The rheological properties of er materials feature of the er devices described in this paper is a set of multiple concentric annular ducts through

Gavin, Henri

60

Sprjeskjema: Kven er du, og kva studerar du?  

E-print Network

Spørjeskjema: Kven er du, og kva studerar du? Mitt namn er Janne Lillenes, og eg studerar historie ved Swansea Universitet. Kva er det du likar ved studiet ditt? Eg har valt å fokusere på moderne historie. For dei som lurar på kva moderne historie vil seie, so er det

Martin, Ralph R.

61

Local compositional environment of Er in ZnS:ErF(3) thin film electroluminescent phosphors  

SciTech Connect

ZnS:Er thin film electroluminescent phosphors have been shown to exhibit a marked maximum in the near infrared emission (NIR) after a 425 C post-deposition anneal with a very narrow temperature window of {+-} 25 C for optimal NIR emission. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been obtained from both the Zn and Er edges in order to examine the local structure of the host and dopant in this NIR phosphor material. Interestingly, the addition of only {approx}0.5 mol. % of Er as ErF{sub 3} into the host is found to reduce the Zn-S bond length of one of the two nearest Zn-S shells by 0.6 {angstrom} relative to high-quality, atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) grown, pure ZnS. The coordination number of this shorter Zn-S bond increases after the optimal 425 C anneal. Longer range fits indicate a highly disordered structure, overall, consistent with earlier TEM results. Erbium-L{sub 3} EXAFS data from the second and third shells show increasing crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature in the vicinity of the Er dopant. Data from the first shell cannot be fit with S atoms, but are fit equally well with either O or F. Comparison with earlier analyses indicates that the Er is most likely surrounded by F in the first shell. Based on these data and previous studies, we develop a model in which the Er dopant is present as an Er:F{sub x} complex with associated S vacancies, which may include one sulfur atom remaining in the Er nearest shell. Upon annealing, there is a reduction in the F present and a rearrangement of the crystal structure in the vicinity of the Er atom. Optimum annealing conditions occur when optimal crystalline environment is achieved prior to the loss of too much F from the Er:F{sub x} complex.

DeVito, David M [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL

2011-01-01

62

The effect of estrogen on bone requires ER? in nonhematopoietic cells but is enhanced by ER? in hematopoietic cells  

PubMed Central

The effects of estrogen on bone are mediated mainly via estrogen receptor (ER)?. ER? in osteoclasts (hematopoietic origin) is involved in the trabecular bone-sparing effects of estrogen, but conflicting data are reported on the role of ER? in osteoblast lineage cells (nonhematopoietic origin) for bone metabolism. Because Cre-mediated cell-specific gene inactivation used in previous studies might be confounded by nonspecific and/or incomplete cell-specific ER? deletion, we herein used an alternative approach to determine the relative importance of ER? in hematopoietic (HC) and nonhematopoietic cells (NHC) for bone mass. Chimeric mice with selective inactivation of ER? in HC or NHC were created by bone marrow transplantations of wild-type (WT) and ER?-knockout (ER??/?) mice. Estradiol treatment increased both trabecular and cortical bone mass in ovariectomized WT/WT (defined as recipient/donor) and WT/ER??/? mice but not in ER??/?/WT or ER??/?/ER??/? mice. However, estradiol effects on both bone compartments were reduced (?50%) in WT/ER??/? mice compared with WT/WT mice. The effects of estradiol on fat mass and B lymphopoiesis required ER? specifically in NHC and HC, respectively. In conclusion, ER? in NHC is required for the effects of estrogen on both trabecular and cortical bone, but these effects are enhanced by ER? in HC. PMID:25117411

Henning, Petra; Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Farman, Helen; Windahl, Sara H.; Carlsten, Hans

2014-01-01

63

Hvad er Frobenius-splitning? Lad X vaere en varietet af karakteristik p. Sa er Frobenius-homomorfien givet *  

E-print Network

Hvad er Frobenius-splitning? Lad X vaere en varietet af karakteristik p. Sa er Frobenius-homomorfien givet * *ved F : OX ! F*OX , f 7! fp. F*OX er som abelsk gruppe bare F*OX ! B ! 0 er split, dvs. hvis der findes en OX -Modulhomomorfi ' : F*OX ! OX sadan at 'OF

Kock, Joachim

64

Optical activation and excitation mechanisms of Er implanted in Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several processes required to achieve Er luminescence in Si are investigated. In particular, the role of Er-O interactions to obtain the incorporation of high Er concentrations, electrically and optically active, in crystalline Si is addressed. Multiple Er and O implants were performed on n-type (100) Si crystals to obtain flat concentrations of ~11019 Er\\/cm3 and ~11020 O\\/cm3 over an

S. Coffa; F. Priolo; G. Franz; V. Bellani; A. Carnera; C. Spinella

1993-01-01

65

The p160 ER co-regulators predict outcome in ER negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

The SRC family of ER co-regulators are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. Overexpression of AIB1 appears to be linked to hormone resistance in HER2 positive breast cancer. However, the role of these co-regulators in ER negative disease is poorly understood. SRC1, SRC2 and AIB1 expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays constructed from tumours within the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series (BCS). The BCS represents a fully documented consecutive cohort of 1,812 patients treated by breast conservation surgery in a single institution. Our results demonstrate tumours that overexpress both HER2 and AIB1 were associated with markedly reduced relapse free, distant relapse free and overall survival compared to HER2 and AIB1 only overexpressing tumours irrespective of ER status. In ER negative disease both SRC1 and AIB1 were linked to early relapse and death. The SRC family of ER co-regulators is involved in early relapse and resistance in both ER negative and ER positive breast cancer challenging the conventional concept that this effect is mediated solely via the ER. PMID:21390497

Spears, Melanie; Oesterreich, Steffi; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Guiterrez, Carolina; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Quintayo, Mary Anne; Pedraza, Johanna; Munro, Alison F; Thomas, Jeremy St J; Kerr, Gill R; Jack, Wilma J L; Kunkler, Ian H; Cameron, David A; Chetty, Udi; Bartlett, John M S

2012-01-01

66

ER Re-expression and Re-sensitization to Endocrine Therapies in ER-negative Breast Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer amongst women in the westernized world. The presence or absence of ER? in breast\\u000a cancers is an important prognostic indicator. About 3040% of breast cancers lack detectable ER? protein. ER?? breast cancers\\u000a are resistant to endocrine therapies and have a worse prognosis than ER?+ breast cancers. Since expression of ER? is necessary

Joeli A. Brinkman; Dorraya El-Ashry

2009-01-01

67

Characterization of Er in porous Si  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of porous Si-based Er-doped light-emitting devices is a very promising developing field for all-silicon light emitters. However, while luminescence of Er-doped porous silicon devices has been demonstrated, very little attention has been devoted to the doping process itself. We have undertaken a detailed study of this process, examining the porous silicon matrix from several points of view during and after the doping. In particular, we have found that the Er-doping process shows a threshold level which, as evidenced by the cross correlation of the various techniques used, does depend on the sample thickness and on the doping parameters. PMID:22776613

2012-01-01

68

Characterization of Er in porous Si.  

PubMed

The fabrication of porous Si-based Er-doped light-emitting devices is a very promising developing field for all-silicon light emitters. However, while luminescence of Er-doped porous silicon devices has been demonstrated, very little attention has been devoted to the doping process itself. We have undertaken a detailed study of this process, examining the porous silicon matrix from several points of view during and after the doping. In particular, we have found that the Er-doping process shows a threshold level which, as evidenced by the cross correlation of the various techniques used, does depend on the sample thickness and on the doping parameters. PMID:22776613

Mula, Guido; Setzu, Susanna; Manunza, Gianluca; Ruffilli, Roberta; Falqui, Andrea

2012-01-01

69

ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP  

SciTech Connect

Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

Gerald Heymsfield

2010-12-20

70

el eled eling eln elns els ge ged ges gie gier gies giest ging gy lock locks s WEE WEED ed er ers ier iest ily  

E-print Network

el eled eling eln elns els ge ged ges gie gier gies giest ging gy lock locks s WEE WEED ed er ers s sier sy y WEEP er ers ie ier ies iest ing ings s y WEER WEES t WEET ed ing s WEEV- er ers il iled illy ils ily WEEWEE d s WEFT s wise WEIGEL- a as ia WEIGH ed er ers ing man men s t ted ter ts ty WEINER

Chiang, David

71

el eled eling eln elns els ge ged ges gie gier gies giest ging gy lock locks s WEE WEED ed er ers ier iest ily  

E-print Network

el eled eling eln elns els ge ged ges gie gier gies giest ging gy lock locks s WEE WEED ed er ers s sier sy y WEEP er ers ie ier ies iest ing ings s y WEER WEES t WEET ed ing s WEEV­ er ers il iled illy ils ily WEEWEE d s WEFT s wise WEIGEL­ a as ia WEIGH ed er ers ing man men s t ted ter ts ty WEINER

Chiang, David

72

The follicular outcome after standard gonadotropin stimulation is associated with ER? and ER? genotypes.  

PubMed

The aim is to study the association of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) gene polymorphisms and diplotypes with ovarian response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation and the hormone levels [FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), E2] at the third day of the menstrual cycle. Three hundred women undergoing medically assisted reproduction and 300 women with at least one spontaneous pregnancy participated in the study. ER? PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms as well as ER? AluI polymorphism were genotyped. The FSH, LH, and E2 levels were determined at the third day of the menstrual cycle, while the follicular size, the follicle, and oocyte numbers were recorded during oocyte retrieval. PvuII CC, XbaI GG, and AluI GG women were characterized by increased amounts of large follicles compared to PvuII TT, XbaI AA, and AluI AA women (p=0.045, 0.01, and 0.033, respectively). The PvuII CC/XbaI GG diplotype was also significantly associated with higher large follicle numbers compared to the PvuII TT/XbaI AA diplotype (p=0.024). However, no associations were observed between ER gene polymorphisms and the hormonal profile, the follicle/oocyte numbers, and the pregnancy rates. ER? and ER? genetic variants were associated with ovarian response to standard gonadotropin stimulation of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization affecting mainly the follicular growth. PMID:24705910

Lazaros, Leandros; Pamporaki, Christina; Vlahos, Nikolaos; Takenaka, Atsushi; Kitsou, Chrysoula; Kosmas, Ioannis; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Stefos, Theodoros; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos; Hatzi, Elissavet; Georgiou, Ioannis

2014-12-01

73

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems: 103 [ER100/PP184], 133 [ER200/PP284] Problem Set #3 Solutions 1. Cogeneration a. Cogeneration of Energy Systems a. Brayton: #12;Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics

Kammen, Daniel M.

74

Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

2004-09-30

75

Magnetic properties of ErSc2N@C80, Er2ScN@C80 and Er3N@C80 fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of ErScN@C, ErScN@C and ErN@C metallofullerenes are characterized in the temperature range 2 to 300 K up to a magnetic field of 7 T. The magnetic susceptibility of these fullerenes follows the Curie-Weiss law. The fitting parameters to the Curie-Weiss law provide an effective magnetic moment ? of Er ion in each of the fullerenes. The magnetic moment decreases with the increase in number of Er ions inside the cage. This is related to crystal-field effects, intramolecular interactions and the local quenching of the angular momentum of the ion within the fullerene cage.

Tiwari, Archana; Dantelle, Geraldine; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Watt, Andrew A. R.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

2008-12-01

76

Regulation of the Human Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Binding Protein Promoter: Differential Effects of ER ? and ER?  

E-print Network

CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) regulates activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by binding and inhibiting CRH. We investigated for the first time transcriptional regulation of the human CRH-BP promoter using transient transfections. Estrogen receptors (ERs) contributed to ligand-independent constitutive activation of the promoter, whereas in the presence of estradiol ER ? induced and ER ? repressed promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. TNF ? inhibited promoter induction by ER ? in the absence and presence of estradiol. Three ERE half-sites in the CRH-BP promoter bound ER ? and ER ? in an EMSA, and disruption of ERE half-sites by sitedirected mutagenesis abolished ligand-independent induction by ER ? and ER ? and promoter enhancement by estradiol-activated ER?. Repression

Anja Van; De Stolpe; Annika J. Slycke; Marjolein O. Reinders; Anna W. M. Zomer; Sharon Goodenough; Christian Behl; Audrey F. Seasholtz; Paul; T. Van; Der Saag

77

Sorting things out through ER quality control  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly organized and specialized organelle optimized for the production of proteins. It is comprised of a highly interconnected network of tubules that contain a large set of resident proteins dedicated to the maturation and processing of proteins that traverse the eukaryotic secretory pathway. As protein maturation is an imperfect process, frequently resulting in misfolding and/or the formation of aggregates, proteins are subjected to a series of evaluation processes within the ER. Proteins deemed native are sorted for anterograde trafficking, while immature or non-native proteins are initially retained in the ER in an attempt to rescue the aberrant products. Terminally misfolded substrates are eventually targeted for turnover through the ER-associated degradation or ERAD pathway to protect the cell from the release of a defective product and to recycle its components. A clearer picture of the identity of the machinery involved in these quality control evaluation processes and their mechanisms of actions has emerged over the past decade. PMID:20553226

Tamura, Taku; Sunryd, Johan C.; Hebert, Daniel N.

2014-01-01

78

Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed and calibrated by using the European Space Agency (ESA) transponders at Flevoland. The resulting accuracy of the slant range

Johan Jacob Mohr; Sren Nrvang Madsen

2001-01-01

79

ER: efficient retransmission scheme for wireless LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless LANs (WLANs) have been deployed at a remark- able rate at university campuses, office buildings, airport s, hotels, and malls. Providing efficient and reliable wireles s communications is challenging due to inherent lossy wire- less medium and imperfect packet scheduling that results in packet collisions. In this paper, we develop an efficient retransmission scheme (ER) for wireless LANs. Instead

Eric Rozner; Anand Padmanabha Iyer; Yogita Mehta; Lili Qiu; Mansoor Jafry

2007-01-01

80

Comores (Union des) Admission 1 er  

E-print Network

#12;2014-02-25 Secteur mathématiques et informatique Liste complète des programmes en sciences pures demandés Administration des systèmes informatiques Multimédia Programmation2014-02-25 Comores (Union des) Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d'accueil limitée

Montréal, Université de

81

http://er.aera.net Educational Researcher  

E-print Network

; preschool; minorities; early childhood; at-risk students; educational policy; longitudinal studies Children Disproportionately Represented in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Published:Educational ResearcherAdditional services and information for http://er.aera.net/alertsEmail Alerts: http

Loudon, Catherine

82

ChaptEr 1 Earth's Closest Neighbors  

E-print Network

ChaptEr 1 Earth's Closest Neighbors The dinosaurs became extinct because they didn't have a space and raced outside to discover the rear end of her automobile had been completely destroyed by a football the gas tank. As unlikely as it sounds, a fragment of a near-Earth asteroid that had collided with Earth

Landweber, Laura

83

ER-Mitochondria Crosstalk during Cerebral Ischemia: Molecular Chaperones and ER-Mitochondrial Calcium Transfer  

PubMed Central

It is commonly believed that sustained elevations in the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration are a major feature of the intracellular cascade of lethal events during cerebral ischemia. The physical association between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, known as the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), enables highly efficient transmission of Ca2+ from the ER to mitochondria under both physiological and pathological conditions. Molecular chaperones are well known for their protective effects during cerebral ischemia. It has been demonstrated recently that many molecular chaperones coexist with MAM and regulate the MAM and thus Ca2+ concentration inside mitochondria. Here, we review recent research on cerebral ischemia and MAM, with a focus on molecular chaperones and ER-mitochondrial calcium transfer. PMID:22577383

Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G.

2012-01-01

84

ER 101: 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... medical history. Also include contact information for your primary care physician and specialists, such as a cardiologist. Put ... an appointment to discuss your options with your primary care physician. Post-ER care matters In the ER ...

85

Malnutrition Threatens Many U.S. Seniors Seen at ERs  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Malnutrition Threatens Many U.S. Seniors Seen at ERs Depression, dental problems, difficulty buying groceries among most ... risk for malnutrition, a new study reveals. Among ER patients aged 65 and older, 16 percent were ...

86

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

87

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

88

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

89

Bcl2 proteins regulate ER membrane permeability to luminal proteins during ER stress-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis may arise from multiple environmental and pharmacological causes, but the precise mechanism(s) involved are not completely known. Members of Bcl-2 protein family are important regulators of apoptosis. In this study, we report that in a process dependent on the proapoptotic Bcl-2 members Bax and Bak, exogenously expressed fluorescent protein localized to the ER lumen is

X Wang; K E Olberding; C White; C Li

2011-01-01

90

ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the gastric muscle injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rats with diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Gastric emptying was determined at the 4th and 12th week. The ultrastructural changes in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess apoptosis of SMCs. Expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the ER-specific apoptosis mediator, caspase-12 protein, was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in the control rats at the 12th wk (40.71% 2.50%, control rats vs 54.65% 5.22%, diabetic rats; P < 0.05). Swollen and distended ER with an irregular shape was observed in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats. Apoptosis of gastric SMCs increased in the diabetic rats in addition to increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. CONCLUSION: ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats with gastroparesis. PMID:25009401

Chen, Xia; Fu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Xian

2014-01-01

91

Jrgen M. Clausen er formand for Riss bestyrelse og administrerende  

E-print Network

Jørgen M. Clausen er formand for Risøs bestyrelse og administrerende direktør i Danfoss A/S, en af mening peger en række internationale undersøgelser på at et lands velstand er afhængig af antallet af nystartede virksomheder. Samtidig er det et faktum at det er de små virksomhe- der der skaber hovedparten af

92

TIRSDAG23.JULI2013 DAGENS NRINGSLIV Mulighetsvinduet er n  

E-print Network

TIRSDAG23.JULI2013 DAGENS N?RINGSLIV DEBATT24 Mulighetsvinduet er nå T orill Moi har satt i gang en. Innføring av skolepenger er ett av disse. Det er ingen evidens for at innføring av skolepenger vil ha noen ­ målt som avlagte studiepoeng per student ­ er høyere for statlige høyskoler og universiteter (som ikke

Johansen, Tom Henning

93

ER-associated retrograde SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex mediate an alternative, Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion pathway.  

PubMed

The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is dynamically maintained by homotypic (ER-ER) fusion. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p can mediate ER-ER fusion, but sey1? cells have no growth defect and only slightly perturbed ER structure. Recent work suggested that ER-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate a Sey1p-independent ER-ER fusion pathway. However, an alternative explanation-that the observed phenotypes arose from perturbed vesicle trafficking-could not be ruled out. In this study, we used candidate and synthetic genetic array (SGA) approaches to more fully characterize SNARE-mediated ER-ER fusion. We found that Dsl1 complex mutations in sey1? cells cause strong synthetic growth and ER structure defects and delayed ER-ER fusion in vivo, additionally implicating the Dsl1 complex in SNARE-mediated ER-ER fusion. In contrast, cytosolic coat protein I (COPI) vesicle coat mutations in sey1? cells caused no synthetic defects, excluding perturbed retrograde trafficking as a cause for the previously observed synthetic defects. Finally, deleting the reticulons that help maintain ER architecture in cells disrupted for both ER-ER fusion pathways caused almost complete inviability. We conclude that the ER SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex directly mediate Sey1p-independent ER-ER fusion and that, in the absence of both pathways, cell viability depends upon membrane curvature-promoting reticulons. PMID:25187651

Rogers, Jason V; McMahon, Conor; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Hughson, Frederick M; Rose, Mark D

2014-11-01

94

ER Designer Toolkit: A Graphical Event Definition Authoring Tool  

E-print Network

ER Designer Toolkit: A Graphical Event Definition Authoring Tool Pythagoras Karampiperis Giannis in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition

Paliouras, George

95

49ER ID CARD One card that does it all!  

E-print Network

49ER ID CARD One card that does it all! A 49ER ID CARD ALLOWS ACCESS TO: · Campus housing · Campus campus locations: Four ways to deposit funds onto the 49er account: aux.uncc.edu aux.uncc.edu #12;A meal plan purchase provides these advantages: · Convenience: One card for all campus dining purchases

Chen, Keh-Hsun

96

Tales of ER and RE Syntax and Semantics Martin Gogolla  

E-print Network

Tales of ER and RE Syntax and Semantics Martin Gogolla July 22, 2005 #12; Abstract This paper explains how four model transformations between database models work: (1) An ER (Entity­Relationship) database schema is transformed into a collection of ER database states, (2) a RE (Relational) database

Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

97

Temporal ER Modelling with Description Logics: A Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Temporal ER Modelling with Description Logics: A Preliminary Report Alessandro Artale Department­ tion. Various temporally enhanced Entity­Relationship (ER) models have been proposed that are intended of the various properties that characterise and extend different temporal ER models which are found in literature

Franconi, Enrico

98

YACS : Combining Dynamic Programming with Generalization in Classi er Systems  

E-print Network

YACS : Combining Dynamic Programming with Generalization in Classi#28;er Systems Pierre Gérard 1.sigaud@dassault-aviation.fr Abstract. This paper describes our work on the use of anticipation in Learning Classi#28;er Systems (LCS) applied to Markov problems. We present YACS 1 , a new kind of Anticipatory Classi#28;er System. It calls

Gérard, Pierre

99

Magnetic structure of Er5Si4 J. M. Cadogan  

E-print Network

Magnetic structure of Er5Si4 J. M. Cadogan School of Physics, The University of New South Wales magnetocaloric compounds, we have determined the magnetic structure of Er5Si4 by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction, ac-susceptibility, and 166 Er Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy. The crystal space group is orthorhombic

Ryan, Dominic

100

How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Flu Center > When to Get Help > How to Avoid the ER if You Have ... Signs You May Need to Go to the ER Even if you do your best, you may ...

101

Combining Anticipation and Dynamic Programming in Classi er Systems  

E-print Network

Combining Anticipation and Dynamic Programming in Classi#12;er Systems Pierre G#19;erard 1.sigaud@dassault-aviation.fr This paper presents our work on the use of anticipation in Classi#12;er Systems applied to Markov problems. It calls upon classi#12;ers with a [Condition], an [Action] and an [E#11;ect] part. We discuss

Gérard, Pierre

102

Test of Axel-Brink predictions in the /sup 167/Er(n,. gamma. )/sup 168/Er reaction  

SciTech Connect

The average radiation widths of primary ..gamma.. rays in the reaction /sup 167/Er(n,..gamma..)/sup 168/Er are in reasonable agreement with the Axel-Brink predictions based on a giant dipole resonance model.

Kahane, S.; Slaughter, G.G.; Raman, S.

1981-01-01

103

Hepatitis C virus core triggers apoptosis in liver cells by inducing ER stress and ER calcium depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core, known to be involved in liver carcinogenesis, is processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We thus investigated the impact of three HCV core isolates on ER stress, ER calcium signalling and apoptosis. We show that HCV core constructs trigger hyperexpression of Grp78\\/BiP, Grp 94, calreticulin and sarco\\/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, inducing ER stress. By using

Naoual L Benali-Furet; Mounia Chami; Ludivine Houel; Francesca De Giorgi; Fabienne Vernejoul; David Lagorce; Louis Buscail; Ralf Bartenschlager; Franois Ichas; Rosario Rizzuto; Patrizia Paterlini-Brchot

2005-01-01

104

Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase regulates ER stress and cell death through control of ER calcium release  

PubMed Central

Autocrine motility factor/ phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) promotes cell survival by the pAkt survival pathway. Its receptor, gp78/AMFR, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation. We demonstrate here that AMF/PGI also protects against thapsigargin (TG)- and tunicamycin (TUN)-induced ER stress and apoptosis. AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response is receptor mediated as it is not observed in gp78/AMFR-knockdown HEK293 cells. However, AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response by TG and TUN was mediated only partially through PI3K/Akt activation. AMF/PGI reduction of the elevation of cytosolic calcium in response to either TG or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation with ATP was gp78/AMFR-dependent, independent of mitochondrial depolarization and not associated with changes in ER calcium content. These results implicate regulation of ER calcium release in AMF/PGI protection against ER stress and apoptosis. Indeed, sequestration of cytosolic calcium with BAPTA-AM limited the ER stress response. Importantly, elevation of cytosolic calcium upon treatment with the calcium ionophore ionomycin, while not inducing an ER stress response, did prevent AMF/PGI protection against ER stress. By regulating ER calcium release, AMF/PGI interaction with gp78/AMFR therefore protects against ER stress identifying novel roles for these cancer-associated proteins in promoting tumor cell survival. PMID:21252914

Fu, M; Li, L; Albrecht, T; Johnson, J D; Kojic, L D; Nabi, I R

2011-01-01

105

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 and both ER isoforms  

E-print Network

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 and both ER isoforms James J. Nagler a,b,, Tim Cavileer a,b , Jack Sullivan a , Daniel G. Cyr c , Caird 20 January 2007 Abstract Estrogen hormones interact with cellular ERs to exert their biological

Sullivan, Jack

106

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2012-04-01

107

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2010-04-01

108

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

...2012-04-01 true Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2014-04-01

109

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2011-04-01

110

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2013-04-01

111

Differential Roles of ER? and ER? in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors ? and ? (ER? and ER?) in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland. In wild-type mice, in vivo administration of estradiol (E) + progesterone (P) stimulated mammary ductal growth and alveolar differentiation. Mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated normal ductal growth and differentiation in response to E + P. By contrast, mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated only rudimentary ductal structures that did not differentiate in response to E + P. EGF demonstrates estrogen-like activity in the mammary glands of ?ERKO mice: treatment of ?ERKO mice with EGF + P (without E) supported normal mammary gland development, induced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and increased levels of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) protein. Mammary gland development in ?ERKO mice treated with EGF + P was comparable to that of wild-type mice receiving EGF + P; EGF had no statistically significant effects on the induction of PR or expression of GPR30 in mammary glands harvested from either wild-type mice or ?ERKO mice. In vitro exposure of mammary glands to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced preneoplastic mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in glands from wild-type mice and ?ERKO mice, but failed to induce MAL in mammary glands from ?ERKO mice. Microarray analysis of DMBA-treated mammary glands identified 28 functional pathways whose expression was significantly different in ?ERKO mice versus both ?ERKO and wild-type mice; key functions that were differentially expressed in ?ERKO mice included cell division, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The data demonstrate distinct roles for ER? and ER? in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland, and suggest that EGF can mimic the ER?-mediated effects of E in this organ. PMID:25405629

Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hawthorne, Michael; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Torres, Karen E. O.; Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L.; Kopelovich, Levy

2014-01-01

112

The ER and ageing II: Calcium homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration occurs by Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane and by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The ER is the most important Ca2+ store. Its stress, characterized by the impairment of Ca2+ homeostasis and by the accumulation of misfolded proteins, can be induced by different factors. In turn, it induces defense mechanisms such as unfolded protein

Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka; Jacek Kuznicki

2009-01-01

113

Guine (Conakry ), Rpublique de Admission 1 er  

E-print Network

#12;2014-02-17 Secteur mathématiques et informatique Liste complète des programmes en sciences pures demandés Administration des systèmes informatiques Multimédia Programmation Oui Oui Oui Séri2014-02-17 Guinée (Conakry ), République de Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d

Montréal, Université de

114

ER-12-1 completion report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

1996-12-01

115

Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K  

SciTech Connect

Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

Dzevenko, M., E-mail: mashadzev@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Kalychak, Ya. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

2011-10-15

116

March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 1 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL  

E-print Network

March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 1 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL #12;March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 2 Objectives Types + Higher Degree Relationships + Refining the ER Diagram for the COMPANY Database + Summary of ER Diagram Notations + Alternative Notations for ER Diagrams + #12;March 23, 2008 DB:ER Model 3 - Entities

Adam, Salah

117

Estrogen Mediates Neuroprotection and Anti-Inflammatory Effects during EAE through ER? Signaling on Astrocytes But Not through ER? Signaling on Astrocytes or Neurons  

PubMed Central

Estrogens can signal through either estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or ? (ER?) to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cellular targets of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection are still being elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that ER? on astrocytes, but not neurons, was critical for ER? ligand-mediated neuroprotection in EAE, including decreased T-cell and macrophage inflammation and decreased axonal loss. Here, we determined whether ER? on astrocytes or neurons could mediate neuroprotection in EAE, by selectively removing ER? from either of these cell types using Cre-loxP gene deletion. Our results demonstrated that, even though ER? ligand treatment was neuroprotective in EAE, this neuroprotection was not mediated through ER? on either astrocytes or neurons and did not involve a reduction in levels of CNS inflammation. Given the differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects mediated via ER? versus ER? on astrocytes, we looked for molecules within astrocytes that were affected by signaling through ER?, but not ER?. We found that ER? ligand treatment, but not ER? ligand treatment, decreased expression of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 by astrocytes in EAE. Together, our data show that neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling does not require ER? on either astrocytes or neurons, whereas neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling requires ER? on astrocytes and reduces astrocyte expression of proinflammatory chemokines. These findings reveal important cellular differences in the neuroprotective mechanisms of estrogen signaling through ER? and ER? in EAE. PMID:23804112

Spence, Rory D.; Wisdom, Amy J.; Cao, Yuan; Hill, Haley M.; Mongerson, Chandler R. L.; Stapornkul, Briana; Itoh, Noriko

2013-01-01

118

Estrogen mediates neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects during EAE through ER? signaling on astrocytes but not through ER? signaling on astrocytes or neurons.  

PubMed

Estrogens can signal through either estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or ? (ER?) to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cellular targets of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection are still being elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that ER? on astrocytes, but not neurons, was critical for ER? ligand-mediated neuroprotection in EAE, including decreased T-cell and macrophage inflammation and decreased axonal loss. Here, we determined whether ER? on astrocytes or neurons could mediate neuroprotection in EAE, by selectively removing ER? from either of these cell types using Cre-loxP gene deletion. Our results demonstrated that, even though ER? ligand treatment was neuroprotective in EAE, this neuroprotection was not mediated through ER? on either astrocytes or neurons and did not involve a reduction in levels of CNS inflammation. Given the differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects mediated via ER? versus ER? on astrocytes, we looked for molecules within astrocytes that were affected by signaling through ER?, but not ER?. We found that ER? ligand treatment, but not ER? ligand treatment, decreased expression of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 by astrocytes in EAE. Together, our data show that neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling does not require ER? on either astrocytes or neurons, whereas neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling requires ER? on astrocytes and reduces astrocyte expression of proinflammatory chemokines. These findings reveal important cellular differences in the neuroprotective mechanisms of estrogen signaling through ER? and ER? in EAE. PMID:23804112

Spence, Rory D; Wisdom, Amy J; Cao, Yuan; Hill, Haley M; Mongerson, Chandler R L; Stapornkul, Briana; Itoh, Noriko; Sofroniew, Michael V; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

2013-06-26

119

Resveratrol induced ER expansion and ER caspase-mediated apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is important for cancer cells to maintain malignancy and resistance to therapy. trans-Resveratrol (RSV), a non-flavonoid agent, has been shown to induce apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. In this study, the involvements of tumor-specific ER stress and autophagy in the RSV-mediated apoptosis were investigated. In addition to traditional autophagosomes, the images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that RSV markedly induced larger, crescent-shaped vacuoles with single-layered membranes whose the expanded cisternae contains multi-lamellar membrane structures. Prolonged exposure to RSV induced a massive accumulation of ER expansion. Using an EGFP-LC3B transfection and confocal laser microscopy approach, we found RSV-induced EGFP-LC3 puncta co-localized with ER-tracker red dye, implicating the involvement of LC3II in ER expansion. The proapoptotic effect of RSV was enhanced after suppression of autophagy by ATG7 siRNA or blocking the autophagic flux by bafilomycin A1, but that was not changed after targeted silence of IRE1 or CHOP by siRNA. Using caspase inhibitors, we demonstrated the upregulation of caspase-12 (casp12) and the activation of casp4 were associated with the proapoptotic induction of RSV through the caspase-9/caspase-3 pathway. Intriguingly, siRNA knockdown of casp12, but not caspase-4, decreased the susceptibility of the NPC cells to RSV-mediated apoptosis. Further, we showed that RSV dose-dependently increased the ceramide accumulation as assessed by LC-MS/MS system. Using serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT, a key enzyme of de novo ceramide biosynthesis) inhibitors (L-cycloserine and myriocin), we found the increased ceramide accumulation was strongly correlated with the proapoptotic potential of RSV. This study revealed the ER expansion and upregulation of ER casp12 together may indicate profound biological effects of RSV and contributed to NPC cell death. Targeting the different status of ER stress may provide a possible strategy for cancer treatments. PMID:24264887

Chow, Shu-Er; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Liu, Yi-Tong Albert; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Yang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Yao-Kuan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

2014-03-01

120

The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS. PMID:24910594

Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

2014-01-01

121

ER? suppresses slug expression directly by transcriptional repression  

PubMed Central

Two of the most common signalling pathways in breast cancer are the ER (oestrogen receptor) ligand activation pathway and the E-cadherin snai1 slug EMT (epithelialmesenchymal transition) pathway. Although these pathways have been thought to interact indirectly, the present study is the first to observe direct interactions between these pathways that involves the regulation of slug expression. Specifically we report that ligand-activated ER? suppressed slug expression directly by repression of transcription and that knockdown of ER? with RNA interference increased slug expression. More specifically, slug expression was down-regulated in ER?-negative MDA-MB-468 cells transfected with ER? after treatment with E2 (17?-oestradiol). The down-regulation of slug in the ER?-positive MCF-7 cell line was mediated by direct repression of slug transcription by the formation of a co-repressor complex involving ligand-activated ER? protein, HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) and N-CoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). This finding was confirmed by sequential ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) studies. In the MCF-7 cell line, slug expression normally was low. In addition, knockdown of ER? with RNA interference in this cell line increased slug expression. This effect could be partially reversed by treatment of the cells with E2. The efficacy of the effect of ER? on slug repression was dependent on the overall level of ER?. These observations confirmed that slug was an E2-responsive gene. PMID:18588516

Ye, Yin; Xiao, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Yearsley, Kurtis; Gao, Jian-Xin; Barsky, Sanford H.

2008-01-01

122

Caffeine attenuated ER stress-induced leptin resistance in neurons.  

PubMed

Exposing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to stress causes the accumulation of unfolded proteins, and subsequently results in ER stress. ER stress may be involved in various disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Leptin is an important circulating hormone, that inhibits food intake and accelerates energy consumption, which suppresses body weight gain. Recent studies demonstrated that leptin resistance is one of the main factors involved in the development of obesity. We and other groups recently reported the role of ER stress in the development of leptin resistance. Therefore, identifying drugs that target ER stress may be a promising fundamental strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeine could affect ER stress and the subsequent development of leptin resistance. We showed that caffeine exhibited chaperone activity, which attenuated protein aggregation. Caffeine also inhibited the ER stress-induced activation of IRE1 and PERK, which suggested the attenuation of ER stress. Moreover, caffeine markedly improved ER stress-induced impairments in the leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, these results suggest caffeine may have pharmacological properties that ameliorate leptin resistance by reducing ER stress. PMID:24699176

Hosoi, Toru; Toyoda, Keisuke; Nakatsu, Kanako; Ozawa, Koichiro

2014-05-21

123

Apigenin Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth through ER?1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two flavonoids, genistein and apigenin, have been implicated as chemopreventive agents against prostate and breast cancers. However, the mechanisms behind their respective cancer-protective effects may vary significantly. The goal of this study was to determine whether the antiproliferative action of these flavonoids on prostate (DU-145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells expressing only estrogen receptor (ER) ? is mediated by this ER subtype. It was found that both genistein and apigenin, although not 17?-estradiol, exhibited antiproliferative effects and proapoptotic activities through caspase-3 activation in these two cell lines. In yeast transcription assays, both flavonoids displayed high specificity toward ER? transactivation, particularly at lower concentrations. However, in mammalian assay, apigenin was found to be more ER?-selective than genistein, which has equal potency in inducing transactivation through ER? and ER?. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of ER? abrogated the antiproliferative effect of apigenin in both cancer cells but did not reverse that of genistein. Our data unveil, for the first time, that the anticancer action of apigenin is mediated, in part, by ER?. The differential use of ER? and ER? signaling for transaction between genistein and apigenin demonstrates the complexity of phytoestrogen action in the context of their anticancer properties. PMID:17132221

Mak, Paul; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Harwood, Charlotte; Ho, Shuk-Mei

2006-01-01

124

Estrogen receptors and (ER and ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in human sperm: localization of ER and AR in mitochondria of the midpiece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The central role of estrogens and androgens in the male reproductive system has focused attention on the presence and distribution of their cognate receptors (estrogen receptor (ER) , ER and androgen receptor (AR)) in male reproductive tissues and cells. Since the presence of steroid hormone receptors in mitochondria of mammalian cells has been well documented, we investigated the possibility

S. Solakidi; G. Psarra; S. Nikolaropoulos; C. E. Sekeris

2005-01-01

125

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

126

Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses  

PubMed Central

In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

2012-01-01

127

Cell Membrane and Nuclear Estrogen Receptors (ERs) Originate from a Single Transcript: Studies of ER ? and ER ? Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

The existence of a putative membrane estrogen receptor (ER) has been supported by studies accomplished over the past 20 yr. However, the origin and functions of this receptor are not well defined. To study the membrane receptor, we transiently transfected cDNAs for ER ? or ER ? into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Transfection of ER? resulted in a single transcript by Northern blot, specific binding of labeled 17?-estradiol (E 2), and expression of ER in both nuclear and membrane cell fractions. Competitive binding studies in both compartments revealed near identical dissociation constants (K ds) of 0.283 and 0.287 nM, respectively, but the membrane receptor number was only 3% as great as the nuclear receptor density. Transfection

Mahnaz Raz; Ali Pedram; Geoffrey L. Greene; Ellis R. Levin

128

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2013 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Power Loss; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2013 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems 310 Barrows Total Points: 108 [ER100/PP184], 129 [ER200/PP284] Page 1 of 5 Cogeneration 1. UC Berkeley-g are on the next page 1 Another term for CHP #12;Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2013 Topics

Kammen, Daniel M.

129

The ER Chaperone BiP Is a Master Regulator of ER Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a command center of the cell that is second only to the nucleus in terms of the breadth of its influence on other organelles and activities. It is a major site of protein synthesis, contains the cellular cal- cium stores that are an essential component of many signaling pathways, and is the proximal site of

LINDA M. HENDERSHOT

2004-01-01

130

Position control of a cylinder system using ER valve actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents position control of cylinder system using electro-rheological (ER) valve actuators. Following the identification of field-dependent Bingham characteristics of an ER fluid, a single d.o.f. (degree of freedom) double-rod cylinder system is constructed by adopting bridge-circuit-controlled ER valve actuators. The governing equation of the motion is derived following by the design of a neural network feedback controller. The

Seung B. Choi; D. W. Park; M. S. Cho; Chae C. Cheong

1999-01-01

131

Magnetic properties of ErN films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a magnetization study of stoichiometric ErN nanocrystalline films grown on Si and protected by a GaN passivating layer. According to the temperature dependence of the resistivity the films are heavily doped semiconductors. Above 100 K the magnetization data fit well to a Curie-Weiss behavior with a moment expected within the free-ion ErJ={15}/{2} multiplet. Below 50 K the Curie-Weiss plot steepens to an effective moment corresponding to that in the crystal-field determined quartet ground state, and develops a clear paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature of about 4.5 K. Zero-field- and field-cooled magnetization curves and the AC susceptibility firmly establish a ferromagnetic ground state within that multiplet below a Curie temperature of 6.30.7 K. Due to the (1 1 1) texture of the film the comparison between the magnetization behavior, when the field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the film plane, gives new information about the magnetic structure. An arrangement of the moments according to the model derived from neutron diffraction for bulk HoN is strongly suggested.

Meyer, C.; Ruck, B. J.; Preston, A. R. H.; Granville, S.; Williams, G. V. M.; Trodahl, H. J.

2010-07-01

132

Cyclopia Extracts Act as ER? Antagonists and ER? Agonists, In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Hormone replacement therapy associated risks, and the concomitant reluctance of usage, has instigated the search for new generations of estrogen analogues that would maintain estrogen benefits without associated risks. Furthermore, if these analogues display chemo-preventative properties in breast and endometrial tissues it would be of great value. Both the selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as the selective estrogen receptor subtype modulators have been proposed as estrogen analogues with improved risk profiles. Phytoestrogen containing extracts of Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare Honeybush tea may serve as a source of new estrogen analogues. In this study three extracts, P104, SM6Met, and cup-of-tea, from two species of Cyclopia, C. genistoides and C. subternata, were evaluated for ER subtype specific agonism and antagonism both in transactivation and transrepression. For transactivation, the Cyclopia extracts displayed ER? antagonism and ER? agonism when ER subtypes were expressed separately, however, when co-expressed only agonism was uniformly observed. In contrast, for transrepression, this uniform behavior was lost, with some extracts (P104) displaying uniform agonism, while others (SM6Met) displayed antagonism when subtypes were expressed separately and agonism when co-expressed. In addition, breast cancer cell proliferation assays indicate that extracts antagonize cell proliferation in the presence of estrogen at lower concentrations than that required for proliferation. Furthermore, lack of uterine growth and delayed vaginal opening in an immature rat uterotrophic model validates the ER? antagonism of extracts observed in vitro and supports the potential of the Cyclopia extracts as a source of estrogen analogues with a reduced risk profile. PMID:24223909

Visser, Koch; Mortimer, Morne; Louw, Ann

2013-01-01

133

Lanthanum Titanate Nanoparticles ER Fluids with High Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of electrorheological (ER) fluid consisting of lanthanum titanate (LTO) nanoparticles is developed. The ER fluids were prepared by suspending LTO powder in silicone oil and the particles were fabricated by wet chemical method. This ER fluid shows excellent ER properties: The static yield stress reaches over 150 kPa under 5 kV/mm with linear dependence on the applied DC electric field, and the current density is below 10 ?A/cm2. In order to investigate the affect factor on the ER behavior, the LTO powder were heated under different temperatures. The ER performances of two particles treated under different temperatures were compared and the composition changes for those particles were analyzed with TG-FTIR technique. It was found that the static yield stress of the suspensions fell from over 150 kPa to about 40 kPa and the current densities decreased prominently as the rise of the heating temperature. TG-FTIR analysis indicated that polar groups remained in the particles such as alkyl group, hydroxyl group and carbonyl group etc., contribute to the ER effect significantly. The experimental results are helpful to understand the mechanism of the high ER effect and to synthesize better ER materials.

Wang, De; Shen, Rong; Wei, Shiqiang; Lu, Kunquan

134

ir er inter nr te inr str tr  

E-print Network

elen n n le e ents r i ni l ir er inter nr te e ins #12; tline ti ti n n llen es etr tr esilien e P t i er sit lti le istr i ti n tr ees tr e n n lti le esr i ti n in Per r n e e l ti n er e n esti n ntr l i l sr s ten e t n e ent i esr e inter est t n t l s e e st ir tr t n e tr el ti el sr e sites er i

Rajamani, Sriram K.

135

Role of Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability in Er3+:YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two atomic models are proposed in an 35 nm Er3+-doped YAG crystal. The effect of Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on optical bistability is discussed. The results for two models show that the threshold of optical bistability for some Er3+ concentration reduces and for some concentration increases. We display that the incoherent pumping field makes the behavior of optical bistability for two proposed model completely different at identical conditions for Er3+ concentration. Our results show that in the absence and presence of incoherent pumping field some Er3+ concentration can lead to maximum and minimum OB threshold. We hope that our proposed model can be suitable for optimizing and controlling the optical bistability in Er3+:YAG crystal.

Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

2014-11-01

136

High-power Er:YAG laser at 1646nm pumped by an Er,Yb fiber laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe an Er:YAG laser pumped by a tunable, cladding-pumped Er,Yb fiber laser and discuss factors affecting the laser performance. Crystals with different Er 3+-concentrations in the range 0.5% to 4 at% and with crystal lengths selected for ~95% absorption of the pump light at 1532nm were used, and the laser performance was investigated for a range

Peter Jander; Jayanta K. Sahu; W. Andrew Clarkson

137

Australian involvement in ERS-1 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The along-track scattering radiometer (ATSR) being developed in Australia for the ESA ERS-1 environmental remote-sensing satellite is described, with an emphasis on the digital electronics unit (DEU). The ATSR is designed to (1) measure the average temperature of a 1-km-sq area of sea surface with accuracy 0.5 K using IR radiometers at four wavelengths and (2) determine water-vapor content in a 25-km-diameter column using a microwave radiometer. The DEU decodes macrocommands to the ATSR, prepares telemetry to the onboard computer, formats scientific data for transmission, and performs power-conditioning and switching functions. The six functional modules of the DEU are briefly characterized, and diagrams, drawings, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

Onopko, J.

138

The different roles of ER subtypes in cancer biology and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By eliciting distinct transcriptional responses, the oestrogen receptors (ERs) ER? and ER? exert opposite effects on cellular processes that include proliferation, apoptosis and migration and that differentially influence the development and the progression of cancer. Perturbation of ER subtype-specific expression has been detected in various types of cancer, and the differences in the expression of ERs are correlated with the

Christoforos Thomas; Jan-ke Gustafsson

2011-01-01

139

Autophagosomes form at ER-mitochondria contact sites.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a tightly regulated intracellular bulk degradation/recycling system that has fundamental roles in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is initiated by isolation membranes, which form and elongate as they engulf portions of the cytoplasm and organelles. Eventually isolation membranes close to form double membrane-bound autophagosomes and fuse with lysosomes to degrade their contents. The physiological role of autophagy has been determined since its discovery, but the origin of autophagosomal membranes has remained unclear. At present, there is much controversy about the organelle from which the membranes originate--the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria and plasma membrane. Here we show that autophagosomes form at the ER-mitochondria contact site in mammalian cells. Imaging data reveal that the pre-autophagosome/autophagosome marker ATG14 (also known as ATG14L) relocalizes to the ER-mitochondria contact site after starvation, and the autophagosome-formation marker ATG5 also localizes at the site until formation is complete. Subcellular fractionation showed that ATG14 co-fractionates in the mitochondria-associated ER membrane fraction under starvation conditions. Disruption of the ER-mitochondria contact site prevents the formation of ATG14 puncta. The ER-resident SNARE protein syntaxin 17 (STX17) binds ATG14 and recruits it to the ER-mitochondria contact site. These results provide new insight into organelle biogenesis by demonstrating that the ER-mitochondria contact site is important in autophagosome formation. PMID:23455425

Hamasaki, Maho; Furuta, Nobumichi; Matsuda, Atsushi; Nezu, Akiko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Fujita, Naonobu; Oomori, Hiroko; Noda, Takeshi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Amano, Atsuo; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

2013-03-21

140

Synapses as Dynamic Memory Bu ers Wolfgang Maass  

E-print Network

Synapses as Dynamic Memory Bu#11;ers Wolfgang Maass #3; Institute for Theoretical Computer Science as a transient memory bu#11;er, that stores information about the most recent segment of the spike train and seconds, a time scale which is much shorter than the assumed time scale for learning (LTP or LTD

Maass, Wolfgang

141

Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precision images (PRI) of the synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean. For calculation of the wind speed the C- band model (CMOD4) is used, which was originally developed by Stoffelen and Anderson [1993] for the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive

S. Lehner; J. Horstmann; W. Koch; W. Rosenthal

1998-01-01

142

A trip to the ER: coping with stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a coordinated adaptive program called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR alleviates stress by upregulating protein folding and degradation pathways in the ER and inhibiting protein synthesis. With a basic conceptual framework for the UPR, including the identification of key mediators of the response, now

D. Thomas Rutkowski; Randal J. Kaufman

2004-01-01

143

The manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD2.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium dihydride Er(H,D,T){sub 2} is a fluorite structure rare-earth dihydride useful for the storage of hydrogen isotopes in the solid state. However, thermodynamic predictions indicate that erbium oxide formation will proceed readily during processing, which may detrimentally contaminate Er(H,D,T){sub 2} films. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered TEM, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution TEM are used to examine the manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD{sub 2} thin films. An oxide layer {approx}30-130 nm thick was found on top of the underlying ErD{sub 2} film, and showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation to the underlying ErD{sub 2}. Electron diffraction confirmed the oxide layer to be Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. While the majority of the film was observed to have the expected fluorite structure for ErD{sub 2}, secondary diffraction spots suggested the possibility of either nanoscale oxide inclusions or hydrogen ordering. In situ heating experiments combined with electron diffraction ruled out the possibility of hydrogen ordering, so epitaxial oxide nanoinclusions within the ErD{sub 2} matrix are hypothesized. TEM techniques were applied to examine this oxide nanoinclusion hypothesis.

Snow, Clark Sheldon; Parish, Chad Michael; Brewer, Luke N.

2008-10-01

144

Charlotte 49ers Athletics UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee  

E-print Network

Charlotte 49ers Athletics UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee May 8, 2007 Presented Foundation Giving History Annual Fund Raising Campaigns 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 % Change 2005 - 2006 Annual Stadium #12;Charlotte 49ers NCAA Division I Conference Affiliation History 1995-2005 1991-1995 Current

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

145

Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry  

PubMed Central

We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

2006-01-01

146

ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite-Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL (S-band Polarimetric Radar) and TOGA (Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere) ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

1999-01-01

147

ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL and TOGA ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

1999-01-01

148

__________ 4 Initial 8 4 0 1 0 ER  

E-print Network

0 CAD 1 USD 2 Other 3 __________ 4 Initial 8 4 0 1 0 ER 8 4 0 1 0 EE 8 4 0 1 0 E0 8 4 0 2 0 ER 8 4 0 2 0 EB 8 4 0 2 0 EN 8 4 0 2 0 EE 8 4 0 2 0 E0 8 4 0 3 0 EA 8 4 0 3 0 E0 8 4 0 4 0 EA 8 4 0 5 0 ER 8 4 0 5 0 E0 8 4 0 6 0 ER 8 4 0 6 0 EB Fax 8 4 0 6 0 EN 8 4 0 6 0 EE 8 4 0 6 0 E0 8 4 0 7 0 ER I

Sokolowski, Marla

149

Structure-activity relationships of bisphenol A analogs at estrogen receptors (ERs): discovery of an ER?-selective antagonist.  

PubMed

Our multi-template approach for drug discovery, focusing on protein targets with similar fold structures, has yielded lead compounds for various targets. We have also shown that a diphenylmethane skeleton can serve as a surrogate for a steroid skeleton. Here, on the basis of those ideas, we hypothesized that the diphenylmethane derivative bisphenol A (BPA) would bind to the ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptors (ERs) in a similar manner to estradiol and act as a steroid surrogate. To test this idea, we synthesized a series of BPA analogs and evaluated their structure-activity relationships, focusing on agonistic/antagonistic activities at ERs and ER?/ER? subtype selectivity. Among the compounds examined, 18 was found to be a potent ER?-antagonist with high selectivity over ER? and androgen receptor under our assay conditions. A computational docking study suggested that 18 would bind to the antagonistic conformation of ER?. ER?-selective antagonists, such as 18, are candidate agents for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23768907

Maruyama, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masaharu; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Makishima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

2013-07-15

150

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of GaN epilayers doped with Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural properties of Er doped GaN epilayers were studied by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measured at the Er L III and Ga K-edges. The samples were doped with Er in-situ during growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The Ga local structure was found to be the same in all samples studied. Er L III-edge EXAFS showed that when growth conditions were gradually changed from Ga-rich to Ga-poor, an increase in Er concentration from 0.15 at.% to 0.64 at.% is accompanied by the sequential formation of ErGaN, ErGaN clusters with locally high Er content and finally a pure ErN component. This study indicates that Er incorporation into GaN is enhanced under Ga-poor conditions, at the expense of the formation of Er-rich clusters and ErN precipitates.

Katchkanov, V.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Nogales, E.; Hernandez, S.; Martin, R. W.; Steckl, A.; Lee, D. S.

2006-05-01

151

78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-P-0303] Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release...Administration (FDA) has determined that METADATE ER (methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCl...does not refer to a listed drug. METADATE ER (methylphenidate HCl)...

2013-07-05

152

7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. 1794.21 Section 1794.21 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. (a) General. Certain types of actions taken by RUS do not normally require an ER. Proposed actions within this...

2010-01-01

153

7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.  

...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. 1794.22 Section 1794.22 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. (a) Electric and telecommunications...section normally require the submission of an ER and are subject to the requirements...

2014-01-01

154

7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. 1794.21 Section 1794.21 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. (a) General. Certain types of actions taken by RUS do not normally require an ER. Proposed actions within this...

2011-01-01

155

7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. 1794.21 Section 1794.21 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. (a) General. Certain types of actions taken by RUS do not normally require an ER. Proposed actions within this...

2013-01-01

156

7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. 1794.22 Section 1794.22 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. (a) Electric and telecommunications...section normally require the submission of an ER and are subject to the requirements...

2010-01-01

157

7 CFR 1794.21 - Categorically excluded proposals without an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. 1794.21 Section 1794.21 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals without an ER. (a) General. Certain types of actions taken by RUS do not normally require an ER. Proposed actions within this...

2012-01-01

158

7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. 1794.22 Section 1794.22 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. (a) Electric and telecommunications...section normally require the submission of an ER and are subject to the requirements...

2013-01-01

159

7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. 1794.22 Section 1794.22 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. (a) Electric and telecommunications...section normally require the submission of an ER and are subject to the requirements...

2011-01-01

160

7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. 1794.22 Section 1794.22 Agriculture...Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER. (a) Electric and telecommunications...section normally require the submission of an ER and are subject to the requirements...

2012-01-01

161

Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

2011-01-01

162

2001 4232 -0 Aerospace EngineeringBokadia and Valasek SEV ER E W EATH ER AV O ID AN C E  

E-print Network

2001 � 4232 -0 Aerospace EngineeringBokadia and Valasek SEV ER E W EATH ER AV O ID AN C E U SIN GBokadia and Valasek SEV ER E W EATH ER AV O ID AN C E outline of presentation FREE FLIGHT Concept and advantages Need Aerospace EngineeringBokadia and Valasek W EATH ER AG EN T benefit for G.A. sector REDUCE NUMBER OF WEATHER

Valasek, John

163

166 Er Mossbauer study of magnetic ordering in Er 3 Ge 4 D.H. Ryan 1 , J.M. Cadogan 2 and R. Gagnon 1  

E-print Network

166 Er M?ossbauer study of magnetic ordering in Er 3 Ge 4 D.H. Ryan 1 , J.M. Cadogan 2 and R, Australia 166 Er M?ossbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the magnetic ordering of erbium moments in Er3Ge4 . We find that the average Er moment is less than 80% of its free­ion value, and we have

Ryan, Dominic

164

EPR studies of the mechanochemically Er3+-activated fluorite nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we show with EPR spectroscopy that the simultaneous grinding of the crystalline CaF2 and ErF3 salts leads to the mechanochemical doping of the single Er3+ ions in the CaF2 host. Dependence of the EPR spectra intensity on the grain size indicates clearly that the Er3+ centers are created at the surface of the particles. Dominant part of the observed paramagnetic centers represent the Er3+ ions substituting the regular quasicubic Ca2+ lattice site (g = 6.7) perturbed by the vicinity of the surface. Fine particles of CaF2 reveal also the nearly-isotropic EPR signal at g ~ 1.97 that originates from the surface defects and can be used for characterization of the obtained samples with respect of the average grain size. Grinding of the of the CaF2 and ErF3 mixture in the ratio of 100:1 during 12 hours gives the surface density of the Er3+ ions of ~ 0.1 nm-2, or ~ 104 Er3- ions per the 190-nm size particle.

Irisova, I. A.; Rodionov, A. A.; Tayurskii, D. A.; Yusupov, R. V.

2011-10-01

165

ER Calcium and Alzheimer's Disease: In a State of Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive either to the lipid messenger inositol trisphosphate(IP3) or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an integral membrane protein in the ER; mutations in PS1 that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release and also enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.

Mark P. Mattson (Baltimore;National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program REV)

2010-03-23

166

Structure and dynamics of ER: minimal networks and biophysical constraints.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

2014-08-01

167

Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.

1994-01-01

168

Concentration dependence of upconversion emission from Er:YAG fibers.  

PubMed

Fibers of Er:YAG have been grown using the laser-heated pedestal growth method. Fibers with Er concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 mol. % have been produced and excitation at 965 nm has been used to produce intense upconversion emission at green and red wavelengths. The dependence of ground state absorption and upconversion emission on dopant concentration has been studied and shown to exhibit lower levels of self-absorption than previously reported. At Er concentrations of 5 mol. % and above; however, the variation of upconversion emission intensity with pump power deviates from theoretical predictions, exhibiting saturation behavior consistent with concentration quenching. PMID:23164850

Sharp, J H; Shi, P C W; Watson, I A

2012-11-15

169

Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

1994-01-01

170

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patio, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki S.

2014-01-01

171

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.  

PubMed

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens invitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. PMID:24973517

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patio, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

2014-09-01

172

Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin  

SciTech Connect

A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-05

173

The Grand Banks ERS-1 SAR wave spectra validation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.

Vachon, P. W.; Dobson, F. W.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, R. J.; Buckley, J. R.; Allingham, M.; Vandemark, D.; Walsh, E. J.; Khandekar, M.; Lalbeharry, R.

1993-01-01

174

Fron%ers in Biological Sciences Seminar Series  

E-print Network

Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Climate change has unknown consequences for the vast reserves abundance and expression. Results indicate that soil microbial communities are responsive to climate changeFron%ers in Biological Sciences Seminar Series Illumination of Impact of Climate

175

The kinetics of ER fusion protein activation in vivo.  

PubMed

Reversibly switchable proteins are powerful tools with which to explore protein function in vitro and in vivo. For example, the activity of many proteins fused to the hormone-binding domain of the modified oestrogen receptor (ER(TAM)) can be regulated by provision or removal of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Despite the widespread use of ER(TAM) fusions in vivo, inadequate data are available as to the most efficacious routes for systemic tamoxifen delivery. In this study, we have used two well-characterized ER(TAM) fusion proteins, both reversibly activated by 4-OHT, to compare the effectiveness and kinetics of 4-OHT delivery in mice in vivo by either tamoxifen in food or by intraperitoneal injection. Our data indicate that dietary tamoxifen offers an effective, facile and ethically preferable means for long-term activation of ER(TAM) fusion proteins in vivo. PMID:24662815

Wilson, C H; Gamper, I; Perfetto, A; Auw, J; Littlewood, T D; Evan, G I

2014-10-01

176

ER-mitochondria contacts as sites of mitophagosome formation.  

PubMed

Mitophagy is a degradative process that adapts the quantity and quality of mitochondria to the cellular needs. Mitochondria destined for degradation are marked by specific receptors that recruit the core autophagic machinery to the organellar surface. The organelle is then enclosed by a phagophore (PG) which fuses with the lysosome or vacuole where the mitochondrion is degraded. In spite of significant progress in recent years, several parts of the molecular machinery of mitophagy remain unknown. We used yeast as a model organism to screen for novel components and identified the mitochondria-ER tether ERMES (ER-mitochondria encounter structure) as a major player contributing to mitophagy and formation of mitophagosomes. Tethering of mitochondria to the ER appears to be important to supply the growing PG with lipids synthesized in the ER. PMID:24905224

Bckler, Stefan; Westermann, Benedikt

2014-07-01

177

Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis  

E-print Network

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers ...

Kim, Sunghwan

178

Preventing optical deactivation of nanocluster Si sensitized Er using nanometer-thin SiNx\\/SiO2:Er heterolayer thin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilayer thin films consisting of nanometer-thin, Er-doped luminescent layers (either SiO2:Er or Si3N4:Er) interlaced with nanometer-thin, Si-rich sensitizing layers (either Si-rich oxide or Si-rich nitride) are proposed as a solution to loss of Er3+ optical activity during nanocluster Si (nc-Si) sensitization of Er3+. Comparison of Er3+ photoluminescence (PL) intensities and luminescence lifetimes under both direct, resonant pumping and under nc-Si

In Yong Kim; Kyung Joong Kim; Jung H. Shin

2010-01-01

179

Functional and morphological impact of ER stress on mitochondria.  

PubMed

Over the past years, knowledge and evidence about the existence of crosstalks between cellular organelles and their potential effects on survival or cell death have been constantly growing. More recently, evidence accumulated showing an intimate relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. These close contacts not only establish extensive physical links allowing exchange of lipids and calcium but they can also coordinate pathways involved in cell life and death. It is now obvious that ER dysfunction/stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) as well as mitochondria play major roles in apoptosis. However, while the effects of major ER stress on cell death have been largely studied and reviewed, it becomes more and more evident that cells might regularly deal with sublethal ER stress, a condition that does not necessarily lead to cell death but might affect the function/activity of other organelles such as mitochondria. In this review, we will particularly focus on these new, interesting and intriguing metabolic and morphological events that occur during the early adaptative phase of the ER stress, before the onset of cell death, and that remain largely unknown. Relevance and implication of these mitochondrial changes in response to ER stress conditions for human diseases such as type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease will also be considered. PMID:23629871

Vannuvel, Kayleen; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

2013-09-01

180

Inhibition of Skeletal Metastasis by Ectopic ER? Expression in ER?-Negative Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some hormone-independent breast cancers lack func- tional estrogen receptors (ERs) and show evidence of a more aggressive metastatic phenotype. A protective role of the ER has also been suggested in hormone- resistant breast cancer progression. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the ectopic expression of human ERA on the bone-metastatic potential of highly metastatic ERA-negative human breast

Abhik Bandyopadhyay; Long Wang; Shiau Hui Chin; Lu-Zhe Sun

2007-01-01

181

Association of TRPS1 gene with different EMT markers in ER?-positive and ER?-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different subtypes. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) gene, a GATA-type transcription factor, has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in tumour invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to elucidate the different roles and clinical relevance of TRPS1 in different estrogen receptor (ER) expression subtypes of breast cancer. Methods An immunohistochemical study was performed. The correlation between clinicopathological features and other biomarker profiles were analysed statistically. Result TRPS1 expression was correlated with the patients age (P?=?0.017). It was positively related with ER? (P?ER? (P?=?0.001) status, but negatively associated with Ki67 (P?=?0.002) and HER2 (P?=?0.025) status. In ER?-positive breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was positively associated with the expression of E-cadherin (P?ER? (P?=?0.03), and p53 (P?=?0.002) status, while in ER?-negative breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was correlated with slug (P?=?0.004), vimentin (P?=?0.003), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P?=?0.031), and IMP3 (P?=?0.005) expression. Conclusions Based on our findings, we conclude that TRPS1 is positively associated with E-cadherin and ?-catenin status in ER?-positive breast cancer cells, while it is also significantly associated with mesenchymal markers of EMT in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. TRPS1 can be a prognostic marker depending on the type of breast cancer. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8686515681264281 PMID:24934762

2014-01-01

182

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er...mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled...

2012-04-01

183

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er...mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled...

2011-04-01

184

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er...mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled...

2014-04-01

185

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er...mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled...

2013-04-01

186

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Widow(er) 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er... A claimant will have the relationship of a remarried widow(er...mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled...

2010-04-01

187

The pursuit of bu#er tolerance A.W. Roscoe #  

E-print Network

The pursuit of bu#er tolerance A.W. Roscoe # Oxford University Computing Laboratory May 5, 2005 Abstract A system is bu#er tolerant when bu#ers (namely, queues that may be of arbitrary or varying length­ tions of several types of bu#er tolerance within the context of CSP and its models, prove a number

Roscoe, Bill

188

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2010-04-01

189

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2011-04-01

190

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

... true Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2014-04-01

191

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2012-04-01

192

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2013-04-01

193

On Output Independence and Complementariness in Rank-Based Multiple Classi er Decision Systems  

E-print Network

On Output Independence and Complementariness in Rank-Based Multiple Classi er Decision Systems of output independence and complementariness between classi ers in a rank-based multiple classi er decision, an Information Theoretic interpretation of a rank-based multiple classi er system is developed and basic concepts

Saranli, Afsar

194

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2010-04-01

195

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

...true Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2014-04-01

196

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2011-04-01

197

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2013-04-01

198

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2012-04-01

199

Progression of Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Increased Er? Levels and Is Repressed by a Dominant Negative Form of Er?  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors (ER), namely ER? and ER?, are hormone-activated transcription factors with an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the implication of ER? in skin cancer, using chemically-induced mouse skin tumours, as well as cell lines representing distinct stages of mouse skin oncogenesis. First, using immunohistochemical staining we showed that ER? is markedly increased in aggressive mouse skin tumours in vivo as compared to the papilloma tumours, whereas ER? levels are low and become even lower in the aggressive spindle tumours of carcinogen-treated mice. Then, using the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model, we showed that ER? gradually increases during promotion and progression stages of mouse skin carcinogenesis, peaking at the most aggressive stage, whereas ER? levels only slightly change throughout skin carcinogenesis. Stable transfection of the aggressive, spindle CarB cells with a dominant negative form of ER? (dnER?) resulted in reduced ER? levels and reduced binding to estrogen responsive elements (ERE)-containing sequences. We characterized two highly conserved EREs on the mouse ER? promoter through which dnER? decreased endogenous ER? levels. The dnER?-transfected CarB cells presented altered protein levels of cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules, slower growth rate and impaired anchorage-independent growth in vitro, whereas they gave smaller tumours with extended latency period of tumour onset in vivo. Our findings suggest an implication of ER? in the aggressiveness of spindle mouse skin cancer cells, possibly through regulation of genes affecting cell shape and adhesion, and they also provide hints for the effective targeting of spindle cancer cells by dnER?. PMID:22870269

Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Sideridou, Maria; Tsimaratou, Katerina; Christodoulou, Ioannis; Pyrillou, Katerina; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Vlahopoulos, Spiros; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis

2012-01-01

200

An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show in S. cerevisiae that LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein, Ice2p, facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG-degradation and -synthesis, promoting the rapid re-localization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER, and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. PMID:24373967

Markgraf, Daniel F.; Klemm, Robin W.; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Rapoport, Tom A.

2014-01-01

201

ER-phagy mediates selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum independently of the core autophagy machinery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Selective autophagy of damaged or redundant organelles is an important mechanism for maintaining cell homeostasis. We found previously that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes massive ER expansion and triggers the formation of large ER whorls. Here, we show that stress-induced ER whorls are selectively taken up into the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, by a process termed ER-phagy. Import into the vacuole does not involve autophagosomes but occurs through invagination of the vacuolar membrane, indicating that ER-phagy is topologically equivalent to microautophagy. Even so, ER-phagy requires neither the core autophagy machinery nor several other proteins specifically implicated in microautophagy. Thus, autophagy of ER whorls represents a distinct type of organelle-selective autophagy. Finally, we provide evidence that ER-phagy degrades excess ER membrane, suggesting that it contributes to cell homeostasis by controlling organelle size. PMID:25052096

Schuck, Sebastian; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

2014-01-01

202

Functional integration between defence and IRE1-mediated ER stress response in rice  

PubMed Central

Conditions within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) influence most secretory proteins that pass through the ER. Therefore, eukaryotic cells must strike a balance between the ER stress response, which changes the conditions in the ER, and other considerations associated with protein secretion. Here, an interaction between the ER stress and defence responses in rice is described. Expression of OsWRKY45, which encodes a transcription factor that plays a central role in defence mediated by salicylic acid (SA), is induced by ER stress. Additionally, expression of some genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) secretory proteins is reduced by the ER stress response mediated by the stress sensor IRE1. Concomitant activation of the SA and ER stress responses suppresses the induction of ER stress-responsive genes, with the exception of OsWRKY45, and the reduction of PR gene expression. These findings demonstrate a functional integration between the defence and ER stress responses in plants. PMID:22993695

Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

2012-01-01

203

Structural Analysis of the QCM Aboard the ER-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of recent supersonic transport (SST) studies on the effect they may have on the atmosphere, several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the stratosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000 - 70,000 feet. The ER-2 is primarily used by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before they are placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. Some of the experiments are designed to extract data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current flight experiment, the QCM is housed in a frame that is connected to an outer pod that is attached to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM is a frequency induced instrument. Therefore, a structural analysis of the instrument within the frame is imperative to determine if resonance and/or undesirable deformations occur.

Jones, Phyllis D.; Bainum, Peter M.; Xing, Guangqian

1997-01-01

204

MGMT Inhibition Restores ER? Functional Sensitivity to Antiestrogen Therapy  

PubMed Central

Antiestrogen therapy resistance remains a huge stumbling block in the treatment of breast cancer. We have found significant elevation of O6 methylguanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) expression in a small sample of consecutive patients who have failed tamoxifen treatment. Here, we show that tamoxifen resistance is accompanied by upregulation of MGMT. Further we show that administration of the MGMT inhibitor, O6-benzylguanine (BG), at nontoxic doses, leads to restoration of a favorable estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation phenotype (high p-ER? Ser167/low p-ER? Ser118), which has been reported to correlate with sensitivity to endocrine therapy and improved survival. We also show BG to be a dual inhibitor of MGMT and ER?. In tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, BG alone or in combination with antiestrogen (tamoxifen [TAM]/ICI 182,780 [fulvestrant, Faslodex]) therapy enhances p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, cytochrome C release and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, all indicative of apoptosis. In addition, BG increases the expression of p21cip1/waf1. We also show that BG, alone or in combination therapy, curtails the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer xenografts, BG alone or in combination treatment causes significant delay in tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry confirms that BG increases p21cip1/waf1 and p-ER? Ser167 expression and inhibits MGMT, ER?, p-ER? Ser118 and ki-67 expression. Collectively, our results suggest that MGMT inhibition leads to growth inhibition of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and resensitizes tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells to antiestrogen therapy. These findings suggest that MGMT inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for overcoming antiestrogen resistance. PMID:22549111

Bobustuc, George C; Smith, Joshua S; Maddipatla, Sreeram; Jeudy, Sheila; Limaye, Arati; Isley, Beth; Caparas, Maria-Lourdes M; Constantino, Susan M; Shah, Nikita; Baker, Cheryl H; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Baidas, Said; Konduri, Santhi D

2012-01-01

205

Hepatic Autophagy after Severe Burn in Response to ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies showed liver dysfunction after severe burn, and that this is associated with activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Autophagy is a catabolic process to maintain cellular organelle balance; ER stress is associated with autophagy signaling cascades. We thus sought to determine whether autophagy signals were associated with damage in the liver after burn, and further whether burn associated ER stress activates autophagy signals in hepatocytes. Methods C57BL6 male mice received a 25% total body surface area full thickness (TBSA) scald burn, and liver was harvested at 24 hours after burn. HepG2 cells were stimulated with an ER stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) for 24 hours to mimic ER stress in vitro. TUNEL staining was performed on liver histology sections. Autophagy was assessed by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis was by Students t-test and significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results TUNEL positive stained hepatocytes increased in burned animals with a significant elevation of caspase 3 activity (p<0.05). A marked increase in hepatic ATG3, ATG5 and LC3B was detected as well (p<0.05). Expression of Beclin-1, LC3A and LC3B increased in HepG2 cells in response to TG, similar to the response seen in vivo. Cytosolic ATP dropped significantly, and AMPK and mTOR were phosphorylated as well in response to TG (p<0.05). Conclusion ER stress, which occurs in hepatocytes after severe injury, is associated with autophagy and liver damage following severe burn. In response to ER stress, activated autophagy is associated with AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID:24209807

Song, Juquan; de Libero, Jana; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

206

ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

Nakano, Ryohei T; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

2014-01-01

207

Transcriptomic analysis identifies gene networks regulated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER? that control distinct effects of different botanical estrogens  

PubMed Central

The estrogen receptors (ERs) ER? and ER? mediate the actions of endogenous estrogens as well as those of botanical estrogens (BEs) present in plants. BEs are ingested in the diet and also widely consumed by postmenopausal women as dietary supplements, often as a substitute for the loss of endogenous estrogens at menopause. However, their activities and efficacies, and similarities and differences in gene expression programs with respect to endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) are not fully understood. Because gene expression patterns underlie and control the broad physiological effects of estrogens, we have investigated and compared the gene networks that are regulated by different BEs and by E2. Our aim was to determine if the soy and licorice BEs control similar or different gene expression programs and to compare their gene regulations with that of E2. Gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells treated with control vehicle, BE or E2. These cells contained three different complements of ERs, ER? only, ER?+ER?, or ER? only, reflecting the different ratios of these two receptors in different human breast cancers and in different estrogen target cells. Using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and gene ontology and interactome analyses, we found that BEs regulated many of the same genes as did E2. The genes regulated by each BE, however, were somewhat different from one another, with some genes being regulated uniquely by each compound. The overlap with E2 in regulated genes was greatest for the soy isoflavones genistein and S-equol, while the greatest difference from E2 in gene expression pattern was observed for the licorice root BE liquiritigenin. The gene expression pattern of each ligand depended greatly on the cell background of ERs present. Despite similarities in gene expression pattern with E2, the BEs were generally less stimulatory of genes promoting proliferation and were more pro-apoptotic in their gene regulations than E2. The distinctive patterns of gene regulation by the individual BEs and E2 may underlie differences in the activities of these soy and licorice-derived BEs in estrogen target cells containing different levels of the two ERs.

Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Helferich, William G.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

2014-01-01

208

En heap er iflg. afsnit 2.4 [GT] et perfekt balanceret binrt tr, hvor det nederste lag er fyldt sa meget som muligt fra venstre mod hjre. En d-heap er ligeledes et  

E-print Network

Opgave 4 En heap er iflg. afsnit 2.4 [GT] et perfekt balanceret binært træ, hvor det nederste lag er fyldt s°a meget som muligt fra venstre mod højre. En d-heap er ligeledes et perfekt balanceret træ for blot 2 ­ en heap som beskrevet i [GT] er s°aledes en 2-bunke. Følgende er et eksempel p°a en 3-bunke

Brodal, Gerth Stølting

209

Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 ?s at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 ?m diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was used during irradiation, there was a high chance that the veneer would fractured during debonding. However if samples were not stored in water and only air spray was used, 75% of the veneers could be removed without any fracture. The use of an Er:YAG laser can be effective in not only debonding porcelain veneers and preserving tooth structure, but also in maintaining veneer integrity.

Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

2010-02-01

210

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2012-04-01

211

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

...Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2014-04-01

212

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2011-04-01

213

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2012-04-01

214

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2010-04-01

215

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2011-04-01

216

The Luminal Domain of ATF6 Senses Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Causes Translocation of ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi*  

E-print Network

The Luminal Domain of ATF6 Senses Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Causes Translocation of ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi* Received for publication, November 5, 2001, and in revised form, January, New York 10027 ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmem- brane transcription factor

Shen, Jingshi

217

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2013-04-01

218

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2014-04-01

219

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2013-04-01

220

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2010-04-01

221

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

222

Synthesis and Characterization of Er-doped Si Nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the discovery of photoluminescence from porous Si, much attention has been paid to the application of Si to optoelectronic devices. Instead of porous Si, Si nanocrystals have become increasingly popular. Unlike porous Si, the size of Si nanocrystals is controllable and they have a specific shape, which can be used to control infrared radiation. Erbium is a common element used to dope SiO2 due to its specific emission wavelength. We have used a pyrolysis method to synthesize Er-doped Si nanocrystals, using disilane (Si_2H_6) and ErTMHD. The reaction temperature was 1000 ^0C. The silicon/erbium colloids were collected in ethylene glycol. After centrifugation, sonication and extraction, UV-vis spectroscopy shows an absorption tail. Conventional TEM has been employed to analyze the size distribution of the silicon clusters. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the structure, defects and size distribution of the nanocrystals. SADP demonstrates that the Si nanocrystals are the diamond cubic phase. XEDS composition analysis of the silicon clusters confirms the presence of Er quantitatively. No other Er-containing compounds were detected. Our results show that quantum-confined Er-doped Si nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized.

Chen, Yandong; Pinizzotto, R. F.; John, J.; Coffer, J.

1998-03-01

223

Preisach Model of ER Fluids Considering Temperature Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach for hysteresis modeling of an electro-rheological (ER) fluid. The Preisach model is adopted to describe change of an ER fluid hysteresis with temperature, and its applicability is experimentally proved by examining two significant properties under two dominant temperature conditions. As a first step, the polymethylaniline (PMA)-based ER fluid is made by dispersing the chemically synthesized PMA particles into non-conducting oil. Then, using the Couette type electroviscometer, multiple first order descending (FOD) curves are constructed to consider temperature variations in the model. Subsequently, a nonlinear hysteresis model of the ER fluid is formulated between input (electric field) and output (yield stress). A compensation strategy is also formulated in a discrete manner through the Preisach model inversion to attain desired shear stress of the ER fluid. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the identified hysteresis model and the tracking performance of the control strategy, the field-dependent hysteresis loop and tracking error responses are experimentally evaluated in time domain and compared with responses obtained from Bingham model.

Han, Y. M.; Choi, S. B.; Choi, H. J.

224

The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.  

PubMed

Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortl

Weaver, D A

225

Anxiolytic Effects and Neuroanatomical Targets of Estrogen Receptor-? (ER?) Activation by a Selective ER? Agonist in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

The dichotomous anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties of estrogens have been reported to be mediated by two distinct neural estrogen receptors (ER), ER? and ER?, respectively. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we confirmed that the anxiolytic actions of estradiol are mediated by ER? and extended and these observations to demonstrate the neuroanatomical targets involved in ER? activation in these behavioral responses. We examined the effects of the biologically active S-enantiomer of diarylpropionitrile (S-DPN) on anxiety-related behavioral measures, the corresponding stress hormonal response to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and potential sites of neuronal activation in mutant female mice carrying a null mutation for ER? gene (?ERKO). S-DPN administration significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the open field, light-dark exploration, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) in ovariectomized wild-type (WT) mice, but not in their ?ERKO littermates. Stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH were also attenuated by S-DPN in the WT mice but not in the ?ERKO mice. Using c-fos induction after elevated plus maze, as a marker of stress-induced neuronal activation, we identified the anterodorsal medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis as the neuronal targets of S-DPN action. Both areas showed elevated c-fos mRNA expression with S-DPN treatment in the WT but not ?ERKO females. These studies provide compelling evidence for anxiolytic effects mediated by ER?, and its neuroanatomical targets, that send or receive projections to/from the paraventricular nucleus, providing potential indirect mode of action for the control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function and behaviors. PMID:22186418

Oyola, Mario G.; Portillo, Wendy; Reyna, Andrea; Foradori, Chad D.; Kudwa, Andrea; Hinds, Laura; Handa, Robert J.

2012-01-01

226

Tapentadol-ER for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients. PMID:24129223

Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

2013-10-01

227

Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2008-11-11

228

Crosstalk between ER stress and immunogenic cell death.  

PubMed

Preclinical and clinical findings suggest that tumor-specific immune responses may be responsible--at least in part--for the clinical success of therapeutic regimens that rely on immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers, including anthracyclines and oxaliplatin. The molecular pathways whereby some, but not all, cytotoxic agents promote bona fide ICD remain to be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, a central role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been revealed in all scenarios of ICD described thus far. Hence, components of the ER stress machinery may constitute clinically relevant druggable targets for the induction of ICD. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in the field of ICD research with a special focus on ER stress mechanisms and their implication for cancer therapy. PMID:23787159

Kepp, Oliver; Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Locher, Clara; Adjemian, Sandy; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Martins, Isabelle; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Michaud, Michael; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence

2013-08-01

229

On the accuracy of ERS-1 orbit predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the launch of ERS-1, the D-PAF (German Processing and Archiving Facility) provides regularly orbit predictions for the worldwide SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking network. The weekly distributed orbital elements are so called tuned IRV's and tuned SAO-elements. The tuning procedure, designed to improve the accuracy of the recovery of the orbit at the stations, is discussed based on numerical results. This shows that tuning of elements is essential for ERS-1 with the currently applied tracking procedures. The orbital elements are updated by daily distributed time bias functions. The generation of the time bias function is explained. Problems and numerical results are presented. The time bias function increases the prediction accuracy considerably. Finally, the quality assessment of ERS-1 orbit predictions is described. The accuracy is compiled for about 250 days since launch. The average accuracy lies in the range of 50-100 ms and has considerably improved.

Koenig, Rolf; Li, H.; Massmann, Franz-Heinrich; Raimondo, J. C.; Rajasenan, C.; Reigber, C.

1993-01-01

230

Position control of a cylinder system using ER valve actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents position control of cylinder system using electro-rheological (ER) valve actuators. Following the identification of field-dependent Bingham characteristics of an ER fluid, a single d.o.f. (degree of freedom) double-rod cylinder system is constructed by adopting bridge-circuit-controlled ER valve actuators. The governing equation of the motion is derived following by the design of a neural network feedback controller. The controller is then experimentally realized to achieve the position tracking control of the system. The single d.o.f. cylinder is extended to a 3 d.o.f. to provide more practical feasibility. The dynamic model of the 3 d.o.f. closed-loop cylinder system is established and a sliding mode controller is formulated by taking into account for parameter uncertainties. The controller is then implemented and position tracking control responses are presented.

Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, D. W.; Cho, Moo S.; Cheong, ChaeCheon

1999-06-01

231

Deletion of SERP1/RAMP4, a Component of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Translocation Sites, Leads to ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 1 (SERP1), also known as ribosome-associated membrane protein 4 (RAMP4), is a Sec61-associated polypeptide that is induced by ER stress. SERP1?/? mice, made by targeted gene disruption, demonstrated growth retardation, increased mortality, and impaired glucose tolerance. Consistent with high levels of SERP1 expression in pancreas, pancreatic islets from SERP1?/? mice failed to rapidly synthesize proinsulin in response to a glucose load. In addition, reduced size and enhanced ER stress were observed in the anterior pituitary of SERP1?/? mice, and growth hormone production was slowed in SERP1?/? pituitary after insulin stimulation. Experiments using pancreatic microsomes revealed aberrant association of ribosomes and the Sec61 complex and enhanced ER stress in SERP1?/? pancreas. In basal conditions, the Sec61 complex in SERP1?/? microsomes was more cofractionated with ribosomes, compared with SERP1+/+ counterparts, in high-salt conditions. In contrast, after glucose stimulation, the complex showed less cofractionation at an early phase (45 min) but more at a later phase (120 min). Although intracellular insulin/proinsulin levels were not significantly changed in both genotypes, these results suggest that subtle changes in translocation efficiency play an important role in the regulation of ER stress and rapid polypeptide synthesis. PMID:16705175

Hori, Osamu; Miyazaki, Mayuki; Tamatani, Takashi; Ozawa, Kentaro; Takano, Katsura; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito; Hartmann, Enno; Mai, Petra; Stern, David M.; Kitao, Yasuko; Ogawa, Satoshi

2006-01-01

232

HDLs Protect Pancreatic ?-Cells Against ER Stress by Restoring Protein Folding and Trafficking  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis alteration contributes to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and death and favors the development of diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that HDLs protect ?-cells against ER stress induced by thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate, insulin overexpression, and high glucose concentrations. ER stress marker induction and ER morphology disruption mediated by these stimuli were inhibited by HDLs. Using a temperature-sensitive viral glycoprotein folding mutant, we show that HDLs correct impaired protein trafficking and folding induced by thapsigargin and palmitate. The ability of HDLs to protect ?-cells against ER stress was inhibited by brefeldin A, an ER to Golgi trafficking blocker. These results indicate that HDLs restore ER homeostasis in response to ER stress, which is required for their ability to promote ?-cell survival. This study identifies a cellular mechanism mediating the beneficial effect of HDLs on ?-cells against ER stress-inducing factors. PMID:22399686

Petremand, Jannick; Puyal, Julien; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Duprez, Jessica; Allagnat, Florent; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard W.; Waeber, Gerard; Jonas, Jean-Christophe; Widmann, Christian

2012-01-01

233

Probing of local alloy disorder in InGaN using Er3+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on studies to probe the local lattice disorder in InGaN:Er epilayers using the 1.54 ?m emission of Er3+ ions. The InGaN layers were doped during MOCVD growth with Er to a concentration of about 2.3%. Site selective optical spectroscopy and excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to show that in InGaN:Er two classes of the emitting Er centers can be distinguished: (i) one leading to emission of Er3+ which is nearly the same as in GaN:Er, except nonuniform broadening and (ii) another that yields new emission features not having its counterpart in GaN:Er. The latter emission is interpreted as originating from Er-complexes involving one or more In atoms in the second coordination sphere. The observed fluorescence line broadening and wavelength shifts in the emission wavelength indicate the extent of the disorder in the metallic sublattice.

Stachowicz, M.; Kozanecki, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J.

2014-08-01

234

Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

Spangler, Lee H.

1994-01-01

235

Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1979. He has accumulated more than 5,800 hours of flying time over a period of 33 years and is currently the oldest active U-2/ER-2 pilot.

1998-01-01

236

Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Bhler, C.

2011-03-01

237

ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

2011-12-01

238

Er3+ interlayer energy migration as the limiting photoluminescence quenching factor in nanostructured Er3+:Y2O3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effects of Er3+ nanostructuring on optical properties of heterogeneously doped Er3+:Y2O3 thin films synthesized by radical enhanced atomic layer deposition. By alternating the cycle sequences of Y2O3 and Er2O3, rare earth (RE) ion concentrations were controlled from 4.8 to 11.8 at. % Er and the local Er2O3 thicknesses were varied between 0.7 to 7.6 . Photoluminescence (PL) was used to examine the 1535 nm (Er 4I13/2?4I15/2) emission at two excitation wavelengths, 488 nm and 976 nm. The normalized PL increased with increasing Er3+ concentrations up to 11.8 and 9.6 at. % under 488 and 976 nm excitations, respectively. The introduction of a local Er2O3 layer greater than 2.4 resulted in significant PL quenching, over an order of magnitude, under both excitation wavelengths. The quenching was attributed to enhanced local Er3+?Er3+ interlayer energy migration. Compared to homogeneously doped RE systems where the RE concentration is directly related to the average RE?RE spatial distance, increased luminescence was observed at high Er3+ concentrations in heterogeneously doped systems. These results suggest that controlling the RE proximity is key to engineering the optical properties of RE doped heterogeneous materials.

Hoang, J.; Schwartz, Robert N.; Wang, Kang L.; Chang, J. P.

2012-07-01

239

Concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions contributing to 1.5-{mu}m emission in Si/Si:Er nanolayers  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the percentage of Er{sup 3+} ions which contribute to the low temperature 1.5-{mu}m photoluminescence in Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures grown by sublimation molecular beam epitaxy. In a structure optimized for preferential formation of the Er-1 center with ultranarrow emission lines, we find that emission saturates when approximately 2% of all the Er dopants recombine radiatively upon optical excitation. In a structure where the silicon spacer thickness has been optimized for the maximum (broadband) emission intensity relative to Er contents, we show that in saturation approximately 15% of Er dopants contribute photons. At the same time, from the initial growth of emission intensity on excitation flux at low power, we estimate the maximum percentage of Er ions attaining optical activity. These limits of optical activity of Er in Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures are determined as 25% and 48% for Er-1 and total emission, respectively. In the context of this high level of optical activity, potential of Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures for realization of optical amplification at low temperatures is pointed out.

Vinh, N. Q. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Minissale, S.; Gregorkiewicz, T. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrielinck, H. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2007-08-15

240

Vaaisible upconversion emission of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped LiInO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-indium oxide is a high-density (5.9 gcm-3), wide band-gap semiconductor with promising applications for scintillating detection of solar neutrinos as well as for efficient phosphorescence when doped with Er3+ or Sm3+ ions. In this report, we demonstrate visible upconversion emission of Er3+-doped LiInO2 synthesized by a simple solid-state chemistry procedure and discuss mechanisms responsible for pumping the Er3+ ions to upper levels. Intense upconversion emission is observed in the green and red spectral regions under near-infrared excitation, and it is greatly enhanced by co-doping with Yb3+ ions. We also examined the upconversion intensity change as a function of temperature, and, consequently, possible applications of this material as a low-temperature sensor.

Dja?anin, Ljubica R.; Drami?anin, Miroslav D.; Luki?-Petrovi?, Svetlana R.; Petrovi?, Dragoslav M.; Nikoli?, Marko G.

2012-04-01

241

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

Greg Ruskauff

2011-12-01

242

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos  

E-print Network

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos Our work on active vision has by the idea of approaching vision for behavioural systems in the form of modules that are directly related, we present our views about the architecture of vision systems, about how to tackle the design

Fermüller, Cornelia

243

IOWA STAT-er CHATTER Winter 2009/2010  

E-print Network

drinks at Welch Ave. Station during our January FAC. Life is not all fun and games, however. The grad://main.acsevents.org/site/TR/RelayForLife/ RFLFY10MW?team_id=568827&pg=team&fr_id= 22852 Intramural Sports Update Mark McKelvey The STAT-ers were

244

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

245

[The ethical approach applied to the TV series ER].  

PubMed

The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy. PMID:23776983

Svandra, Philippe

2013-05-01

246

MASTER 1 DE MATHEMATIQUES Topologie, 1er semestre  

E-print Network

MASTER 1 DE MATH´EMATIQUES Topologie, 1er semestre Luisa Paoluzzi Le programme du cours sera divis´e en deux parties principales : dans un premier temps on reprendra le programme de topologie g topologie alg´ebrique. En gros, le but de la topologie alg´ebrique est d'´etudier des invariants alg

Paoluzzi, Luisa

247

College of Arts and Le0ers Old Dominion University  

E-print Network

and Le0ers RepresentaBve Events 2010-2011 #12;ConsBtuBon Day. September 21, 2010 Nix, The City and Other Stories, October 2010 Gordon Galleries #12;Jupiter, 2010 #12;Africa Day October 14, 2010 #12;Waldo Family Lecture, October 28

248

Model results of Er-Yb double clad fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present model calculations of gain at 1550 nm for Er-Yb double clad amplifiers as a function of pump power, pump wavelength, signal input power, and fiber length. The absorption coefficient of Yb varies ( by a factor of ~ 5) with the pump wavelength in the range of 910 to 990 nm. However, semiconductor lasers may be available only

Z. Chen; H. Sun; S. Ma; N. K. Dutta

2007-01-01

249

Cte d'Ivoire (Rpublique de) Admission 1 er  

E-print Network

;2014-02-17 Secteur mathématiques et informatique Liste complète des programmes en sciences pures et appliquées Liste informatiques Multimédia Programmation Oui O2014-02-17 Côte d'Ivoire (République de) Admission 1 er cycle Programmes à capacité d

Montréal, Université de

250

Uniform Quanti er Elimination and Constraint Query Processing  

E-print Network

nation problem for the rst order theory of real closed elds. Instead of considering a single ... mantics to an equivalent one with active domain semantics. ... uniform quanti er elimination over real closed elds. Our .... We extend L to L. 0. = h0; 1;+...

251

Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative  

E-print Network

Legend Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative Brain Metastases / Leptomeningeal dz Non in HER2 Positive Breast Cancer 127511 - Neratinib for HER2 positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases 117526 - Immunotherapy with Globo H-KLH (OPT-822) for Metastatic Breast Cancer No Interventional Clinical

Walter, Peter

252

On-Off Excitation Switch for ER Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very important part of any ER fluids based system is the provision of excitation; this is particularly so since the electrical load is conductive and highly capacitive. In this environment the surge current at switch on is large and there are problems in dumping the charge to effect a rapid reduction of the voltage level. This paper describes a voltage switch which when linked to a steady state supply can be used to effect on-off control. The arrangement is somewhat analogous to the ER catch concept insomuch as it switches one of the ER controller electrodes either to high potential or to earth rails, the other electrode being permanently connected to earth (just as the catch attaches to a steady input motion or a brake). If the supply has a low output impedance then the excitation can be rapidly slewed in both ongoing and offgoing directions. The circuit and its operation is described in detail and brief performance characteristics are shown for the switch when connected to a typical, contemporary ER device.

Tozer, R. C.; Orrell, C. T.; Bullough, W. A.

253

Change detection techniques for ERS-1 SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques for detecting temporal changes in satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are compared, using both theoretical predictions and spaceborne SAR data collected by the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. In a first set of techniques, changes are detected based on differences in the magnitude of the signal intensity between two dates. Ratioing of the multidate radar intensities is

Eric J. M. Rignot; Jakob J. van Zyl

1993-01-01

254

Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (-6 km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles

David T. Sandwell; Walter H. F. Smith

1997-01-01

255

Distortion elements for surface homeomorphisms 1er juillet 2012  

E-print Network

Distortion elements for surface homeomorphisms E. Militon 1er juillet 2012 Abstract Let S be a compact orientable surface and f be an element of the group Homeo0(S) of homeo- morphisms of S isotopic, where dn is the diameter of ~fn (D), then the homeomorphism f is a distortion element of the group Homeo

256

Resonant tunneling through ErAs semimetal quantum wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant tunneling is observed in double barrier resonant tunneling diodes with semimetallic ErAs quantum wells. Magnetic field dependence distinguishes two different resonant channels while the thickness dependence of the voltage for resonant tunneling strongly suggests that the electrons tunnel through hole states in the semimetal quantum well.

D. E. Brehmer; Kai Zhang; Ch. J. Schwarz; S.-P. Chau; S. J. Allen; J. P. Ibbetson; J. P. Zhang; B. Wilkens

1995-01-01

257

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization  

E-print Network

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

Sapatnekar, Sachin

258

Heart Failure Patients Wind Up in ER Too Often  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart Failure Patients Wind Up in ER Too Often: Study ... 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Heart Failure MONDAY, Aug. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Many acute ...

259

Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

Leanos-Castaneda, Olga [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: olgalidia09@yahoo.com; Kraak, Glen van der [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2007-10-15

260

Influence of blockers for the estrogen receptor (ER) and type 1 IGF-receptor on the levels of ER, ER mRNA and IGF-I mRNA in the rat uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on the uterine concentration of the estrogen receptor (ER), ER mRNA and IGF-I mRNA were monitored in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with blockers for the estrogen receptor (ER) (ICI 182780) or the type 1 IGF receptor (H-1356), alone or in combination with estradiol (E2). The hormone-mediated increase in uterine wet weight after E2 treatment was prevented by a

Lena Sahlin; Hkan Eriksson

1996-01-01

261

HDLs protect the MIN6 insulinoma cell line against tunicamycin-induced apoptosis without inhibiting ER stress and without restoring ER functionality.  

PubMed

HDLs protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis induced by several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, including thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate and insulin over-expression. This protection is mediated by the capacity of HDLs to maintain proper ER morphology and ER functions such as protein folding and trafficking. Here, we identified a distinct mode of protection exerted by HDLs in beta cells challenged with tunicamycin (TM), a protein glycosylation inhibitor inducing ER stress. HDLs were found to inhibit apoptosis induced by TM in the MIN6 insulinoma cell line and this correlated with the maintenance of a normal ER morphology. Surprisingly however, this protective response was neither associated with a significant ER stress reduction, nor with restoration of protein folding and trafficking in the ER. These data indicate that HDLs can use at least two mechanisms to protect beta cells against ER stressors. One that relies on the maintenance of ER function and one that operates independently of ER function modulation. The capacity of HDLs to activate several anti-apoptotic pathways in beta cells may explain their ability to efficiently protect these cells against a variety of insults. PMID:23994023

Puyal, Julien; Ptremand, Jannick; Dubuis, Gilles; Rummel, Coralie; Widmann, Christian

2013-12-01

262

Formation of an hER?COUP-TFI complex enhances hER? AF-1 through Ser118 phosphorylation by MAPK  

PubMed Central

The enhancement of the human estrogen receptor ? (hER?, NR3A1) activity by the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFI is found to depend on the establishment of a tight hER?COUP-TFI complex. Formation of this complex seems to involve dynamic mechanisms different from those allowing hER? homodimerization. Although the hER?COUP-TFI complex is present in all cells tested, the transcriptional cooperation between the two nuclear receptors is restricted to cell lines permissive to hER? activation function 1 (AF-1). In these cells, the physical interaction between COUP-TFI and hER? increases the affinity of hER? for ERK2/p42MAPK, resulting in an enhanced phosphorylation state of the hER? Ser118. hER? thus acquires a strengthened AF-1 activity due to its hyperphosphorylation. These data indicate an alternative interaction process between nuclear receptors and demonstrate a novel protein intercommunication pathway that modulates hER? AF-1. PMID:12093745

Mtivier, Raphal; Gay, Frdrique A.; Hbner, Michael R.; Flouriot, Gilles; Salbert, Gilles; Gannon, Frank; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

2002-01-01

263

ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

2011-02-18

264

Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER? deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.  

PubMed

The negative feedback mechanism through which 17?-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ER? was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ER? deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ER? exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ER? in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ER?, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ER? from neurons that express calmodulin kinase II? in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ER?- and ER?-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ER? suppressed LH secretion, whereas ER? agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ER? in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ER? are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahm, Istvn; Herbison, Allan E

2014-04-01

265

14 geoforum.dk 115 juni 2010 Kortlgning er for alvor kommet  

E-print Network

det, vi fotograferer, og samtidigt be- stemme kameraets placering. Dette er bl.a. den teknologi, der- ere og videreudvikle teknologien til automatisk fotogrammetri. Denne teknologi er vi for nuværen- de

266

Specific heat and thermal conductivity of HoN and ErN at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rare earth nitrides, HoN and ErN, were synthesized by the hot isostatic pressing method. Their specific heat CH(T) and the thermal conductivity ? were measured at cryogenic temperatures. In zero field, the peak values of the C0(T) of HoN and ErN are larger than those of the magnetic regenerators such as Er3Ni. The peak values of the adiabatic temperature change ?T(T) of HoN and ErN showed similar or larger values compared with those of the candidate materials for the magnetic refrigerants such as ErAl2. The thermal conductivity of HoN and ErN are comparable to those of the magnetic regenerators such as Er3Ni. The present results indicate that HoN and ErN are promising materials as the magnetic refrigerant and regenerator for the cryogenic refrigeration system.

Nishio, Shohei; Nakagawa, Takashi; Arakawa, Takayuki; Tomioka, Naoto; Yamamoto, Takao A.; Kusunose, Takafumi; Niihara, Koichi; Numazawa, Takenori; Kamiya, Koji

2006-04-01

267

Polarized Secretion of Drosophila EGFR Ligand from Photoreceptor Neurons Is Controlled by ER Localization  

E-print Network

Polarized Secretion of Drosophila EGFR Ligand from Photoreceptor Neurons Is Controlled by ER) Polarized Secretion of Drosophila EGFR Ligand from Photoreceptor Neurons Is Controlled by ER Localization exist. Abbreviations: Dac, Dachshund; DN, dominant negative; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor

Shilo, Benny

268

Mitofusin 2 in POMC Neurons Connects ER Stress with Leptin Resistance and Energy Imbalance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establishes Mfn2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for Mfn2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastin, David; Imbernn, Mnica; Castao, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodrguez, Ignacio Castrilln; Bortolozzi, Anala; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

2013-01-01

269

New Results on Quanti er Elimination Over Real Closed Fields and ...  

E-print Network

quanti er elimination is a basic step, for example, the problem of computing. the closure of .... quanti er elimination algorithm does not match the corresponding bound ... subroutines and facts from real algebraic geometry used in our algorithms.

270

77 FR 65704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant, Form I-360; Revision of a Currently...Title of the Form/Collection: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant. (3) Agency form number, if...

2012-10-30

271

76 FR 33030 - Agency Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/ er) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Information from Remarried Widow/er, VA Form 21-4103. OMB Control Number: 2900-0038....

2011-06-07

272

78 FR 76411 - Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...information technology. Title: Information from Remarried Widow/er, VA Form 21-4103. OMB Control Number: 2900-0038....

2013-12-17

273

76 FR 15053 - Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...information technology. Title: Information from Remarried Widow/er, VA Form 21-4103. OMB Control Number: 2900-0038....

2011-03-18

274

ER Visits Linked to Synthetic Pot More Than Double, Report Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ER Visits Linked to Synthetic Pot More Than Double, ... that point. There were more than 28,500 ER visits linked to synthetic pot in 2011, compared ...

275

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 regulates Sec16A at ER exit sites to allow ER-Golgi export.  

PubMed

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders. However, its normal physiological functions and pathogenic properties remain elusive. Here we show that LRRK2 regulates the anterograde ER-Golgi transport through anchoring Sec16A at the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES). LRRK2 interacted and co-localized with Sec16A, a key protein in the formation of ERES. Lrrk2 depletion caused a dispersion of Sec16A from ERES and impaired ER export. In neurons, LRRK2 and Sec16A showed extensive co-localization at the dendritic ERES (dERES) that locally regulate the transport of proteins to the dendritic spines. A loss of Lrrk2 affected the association of Sec16A with dERES and impaired the activity-dependent targeting of glutamate receptors onto the cell/synapse surface. Furthermore, the PD-related LRRK2 R1441C missense mutation in the GTPase domain interfered with the interaction of LRRK2 with Sec16A and also affected ER-Golgi transport, while LRRK2 kinase activity was not required for these functions. Therefore, our findings reveal a new physiological function of LRRK2 in ER-Golgi transport, suggesting ERES dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25201882

Cho, Hyun Jin; Yu, Jia; Xie, Chengsong; Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Chen, Xi; Wu, Junbing; Parisiadou, Loukia; Liu, Guoxiang; Sun, Lixin; Ma, Bo; Ding, Jinhui; Liu, Zhihua; Cai, Huaibin

2014-10-16

276

Enhancement of DNA vaccine potency through linkage of antigen gene to ER chaperone molecules, ER-60, tapasin, and calnexin.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Strategies that enhance antigen presentation may potentially be used to enhance DNA vaccine potency. Previous experiments showed that chimeric DNA vaccines utilizing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone molecules, such as Calreticulin (CRT), linked to an antigen were capable of generating antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses in vaccinated mice. In this study, we tested DNA vaccines encoding the ER chaperone molecules ER-60, tapasin (Tap), or calnexin (Cal), linked to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 for their abilities to generate E7-specific T cell-mediated immune responses and antitumor effects in vaccinated mice. Our results demonstrated that vaccination with DNA encoding any of these chaperone molecules linked to E7 led to a significant increase in the frequency of E7-specific CD8+ T cell precursors and generated stronger antitumor effects against an E7-expressing tumor in vaccinated mice compared to vaccination with wild-type E7 DNA. Our data suggest that DNA vaccines employing these ER chaperone molecules linked to antigen may enhance antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses, resulting in a significantly more potent DNA vaccine. PMID:15918000

Lin, Cheng-Tao; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chao, Angel; Dzeng, Elizabeth; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Hung, Chien-Fu; Lai, Chyong-Huey

2005-01-01

277

76 FR 53908 - Determination That OPANA ER (Oxymorphone Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 7.5 Milligrams...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-P-0209] Determination That OPANA ER (Oxymorphone Hydrochloride) Extended...Administration (FDA) has determined that OPANA ER (oxymorphone hydrochloride (HCl)) extended-release...ANDAs that refer to the listed drug. OPANA ER (oxymorphone HCl) extended-release...

2011-08-30

278

Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in podocyte injury induced by excessive protein accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in podocyte injury induced by excessive protein accumulation.BackgroundAn imbalance between protein load and folding capacity is referred to as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As a defense mechanism, cells express ER stress inducible chaperons, such as oxygen-regulated proteins 150 (ORP150) and glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs). While ER stress is important in various diseases, a pathophysiologic role

REIKO INAGI; MASAOMI NANGAKU; HIROSHI ONOGI; HIROSHI UEYAMA; YASUKO KITAO; KIYOKAZU NAKAZATO; SATOSHI OGAWA; KIYOSHI KUROKAWA; William G. Couser; TOSHIO MIYATA

2005-01-01

279

3RIS N Y T 4/01 En af de strste landvindinger, der er  

E-print Network

3RIS? N Y T 4/01 En af de største landvindinger, der er gjort inden for bioteknologien, er. Midlet er DNA-sekvensering. 2000 blev således året, hvor den fuldstændige sekvens af genomerne for de færdig sekvens af det humane genom. Der er allerede kortlagt genomer fra mange bakterier og gær, men vi

280

ON THE HOPF RING FOR ER(n) NITU KITCHLOO AND W. STEPHEN WILSON  

E-print Network

ON THE HOPF RING FOR ER(n) NITU KITCHLOO AND W. STEPHEN WILSON Abstract. Kriz and Hu construct a real Johnson-Wilson spectrum, ER(n), which is 2n+2(2n - 1) periodic. ER(1) is just KO(2). We do two things in this paper. First, we compute the homology of the 2n - 1 spaces ER(n) 2n+2k in the Omega

Wilson, W. Stephen

281

En del af den undervisning, der foregr p Ris, er ndvendig for  

E-print Network

En del af den undervisning, der foregår på Risø, er nødvendig for erhversliv og samfund og Risø er den eneste "leverandør" i Danmark. Samtidig er disse aktiviteter indtægtsgi- vende så de kan skabt indtægter til Risø på over 6,5 millioner kr. Tilsvarende er det lykkedes Risøs High Dose Reference

282

RisNyt NO1 2005 "Det globale brintsamfund er et langsigtet  

E-print Network

RisøNyt NO1 2005 "Det globale brintsamfund er et langsigtet projekt, men vi bør tage de første skridt nu. Det er ikke nok med teoretiske studier og laboratorieforsøg. Tiden er inde til et tættere brintdag blev arrangeret af kemikoncernen Linde AG, som er Tysklands største brintproducent. UNEP var

283

Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ER?/ER? Balance in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2? production in young females, while increased O2? in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ER?/ER?) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ER?/ER? in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2?. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5?flanking region of ER? gene. PMID:21966501

Novens, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

2011-01-01

284

Polybasic Trafficking Signal Mediates Golgi Export, ER Retention or ER Export and Retrieval Based on Membrane-Proximity  

PubMed Central

Trafficking of integral membrane proteins between the ER and Golgi complex, and protein sorting and trafficking between the TGN and endosomal/lysosomal compartments or plasma membranes, are dependent on cis-acting, linear amino acid sorting signals. Numerous sorting signals of this type have been identified in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins, several of which rely on basic residues. A novel Golgi export signal that relies on a membrane-proximal polybasic motif (PBM) was recently identified in the reptilian reovirus p14 protein, a representative of an unusual group of bitopic fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins encoded by fusogenic orthoreoviruses and responsible for cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, cell surface immunofluorescence, and endoglycosidase H assays, we now show the p14 PBM can mediate several distinct trafficking functions depending on its proximity to the transmembrane domain (TMD). When present within 4-residues of the TMD it serves as a Golgi export signal, but when located at the C-terminus of the 68-residue p14 cytoplasmic endodomain it functions as an ER retention signal. The PBM has no effect on protein trafficking when located at an internal position in the cytoplasmic domain. When present in both membrane-proximal and -distal locations, the PBMs promote export to, and efficient retrieval from, the Golgi complex. Interestingly, the conflicting trafficking signals provided by two PBMs induces extensive ER tubulation and segregation of ER components. These studies highlight how a single trafficking signal in a simple transmembrane protein can have remarkably diverse, position-dependent effects on protein trafficking and ER morphogenesis. PMID:24714640

Duncan, Roy

2014-01-01

285

Er-doping effects on properties of amorphous silicon films prepared by electron beam evaporations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous silicon films doped with rare earth element Er fabricated with electron beam evaporation containing Er content up to about 1021 cm?3 were investigated employing the experimental methods of temperature dependence of d.c. conductivity, electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical bandgap Eopt, measurements. We found that at 290 K < T<330 K hopping conduction in Er impurity states near the

Runjin Gan; Jizheng Wang

1997-01-01

286

ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter  

E-print Network

ER Membrane Protein Complex Required for Nuclear Fusion Davis T.W. Ng and Peter Walter Department is localized to the luminal (i.e., noncytoplasmic) face of the ER mem- brane, yet nuclear fusion must initiate of Sec63p, Sec71p, and Sec72p plays a central role in mediating nuclear mem- brane fusion and requires ER

Walter, Peter

287

Evaluation of ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products over a half-degree region in Southwestern France  

E-print Network

Evaluation of ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products over a half-degree region in Southwestern the ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products precision over a half-degree region in Southwestern France. Based on a high resolution soil moisture simulation (1km²) validated at the local scale, the ERS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma ... list specific symptoms that are your cue to go to the ER. If old enough, your child ...

289

Glucocorticoids alleviate intestinal ER stress by enhancing protein folding and degradation of misfolded proteins  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intestinal secretory cells has been linked with colitis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous intestinal glucocorticoids are important for homeostasis and glucocorticoid drugs are efficacious in IBD. In Winnie mice with intestinal ER stress caused by misfolding of the Muc2 mucin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) suppressed ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), substantially restoring goblet cell Muc2 production. In mice lacking inflammation, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist increased ER stress, and DEX suppressed ER stress induced by the N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (Tm). In cultured human intestinal secretory cells, in a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent manner, DEX suppressed ER stress and UPR activation induced by blocking N-glycosylation, reducing ER Ca2+ or depleting glucose. DEX up-regulated genes encoding chaperones and elements of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), including EDEM1. Silencing EDEM1 partially inhibited DEXs suppression of misfolding-induced ER stress, showing that DEX enhances ERAD. DEX inhibited Tm-induced MUC2 precursor accumulation, promoted production of mature mucin, and restored ER exit and secretion of Winnie mutant recombinant Muc2 domains, consistent with enhanced protein folding. In IBD, glucocorticoids are likely to ameliorate ER stress by promoting correct folding of secreted proteins and enhancing removal of misfolded proteins from the ER. PMID:23650437

Das, Indrajit; Png, Chin Wen; Oancea, Iulia; Hasnain, Sumaira Z.; Lourie, Rohan; Proctor, Martina; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Sheng, Yong; Crane, Denis I.; Florin, Timothy H.

2013-01-01

290

Value of ER-D5 immunocytochemical determination in routine tissue sections of human breast cancer.  

PubMed

ER-D5 is a recently identified protein related to estrogen receptors (ER). Generally ER measurement requires fresh frozen tissue and for ER-D5 assay ethanol (E) fixation of the specimen is recommended. We evaluated the possibility of immunocytochemical detection of ER-D5 in routine formalin-fixed (F) sections in 51 breast cancers comparing the results with those obtained in the same specimens using E as fixative. The results of ER-D5 assay were expressed by the staining index (SI) taking values greater than or equal to 5 as positive. In all tumors ER was also assayed by a biochemical method (DCCA). The sensitivity of ER-D5 detection in F was only 33.3%, while the specificity was 94.4%. A lower cut-off value of SI for F sections (greater than or equal to 2) increased the sensitivity to 66.6%, leaving the specificity unchanged. A strong correlation was found between the SI of ER-D5 in E and F (p less than 0.001). The SI of ER-D5 in F sections was also well correlated with ER concentrations (p less than 0.001). These results suggest that immunocytochemical determination of ER-D5 in routine sections may be useful in retrospective studies of hormone dependence in breast cancer. PMID:2545793

Giani, C; Campani, D; De Negri, F; Perpoli, F; Capotorti, E; Squartini, F; Pinchera, A

1989-01-01

291

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Er-Doped Luminescent TiO2 Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

evidence that the Er ions are doped into the TiO2 nanoparticles and that Er was not present as free Er2O3 for the forma- tion of multilayered thin films,1 optical coatings,2 planar waveguides,3 and photonic band gap

Braun, Paul

292

Structural and electrical properties of electron beam gun evaporated Er2O3 insulator thin films  

E-print Network

Structural and electrical properties of electron beam gun evaporated Er2O3 insulator thin films V and structural properties of thin erbium oxide (Er2O3) films evaporated in an electron beam gun system imaging and Auger electron spectroscopy reveal three sublayers: an outer dense nanocrystalline Er2O3 layer

Eisenstein, Gadi

293

PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

294

The EDOP Radar System on the High-Altitude NASA ER2 Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA ER-2 high-altitude ( 20 km) aircraft that emulates a satellite view of precipitation systems carries a variety of passive and active ( lidar ) remote sensing instruments. A new Doppler weather radar system at X band ( 9.6 GHz ) called the ER-2 Doppler radar ( EDOP ) has been developed and flown on the ER-2 aircraft. EDOP

Gerald M. Heymsfield; Steven W. Bidwell; I. Jeff Caylor; Syed Ameen; Shaun Nicholson; Wayne Boncyk; Lee Miller; Doug Vandemark; Paul E. Racette; Louis R. Dod

1996-01-01

295

Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts  

PubMed Central

In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimidesensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle. PMID:24297752

Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

2013-01-01

296

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2013-04-01

297

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med-spiller nr hjteknologisk forskning skal  

E-print Network

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med- spiller når højteknologisk forskning skal omsættes til holdbar forretning. CAT er en forskerpark der drives i samarbej- de mellem Danmarks Tekniske Universitet forskning og udvikling i samar- bejde med de tre institutioners forskere. ?n af virksomhederne i CAT er

298

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.61 Who is...

2012-04-01

299

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2011-04-01

300

I 2001 opdagede japanske fysikere, at magnesiumdiborid (MgB2) er  

E-print Network

I 2001 opdagede japanske fysikere, at magnesiumdiborid (MgB2) er superledende ved dobbelt så høje temperaturer som noget andet metal. MgB2 er billigt og velegnet til industriel forarbejdning. De første det i 2001 blev klart, at et simpelt metallisk stof - magnesiumdiborid (MgB2) - er superledende ved

301

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2014-04-01

302

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2011-04-01

303

The dynamic ER: experimental approaches and current questions Christine M Federovitch1  

E-print Network

The dynamic ER: experimental approaches and current questions Christine M Federovitch1 , David Ron2 and Randolph Y Hampton1 The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extremely plastic and dynamic organelle. Its size and shape can undergo drastic changes to meet changing demands for ER-related functions, or as a response

Hampton, Randy

304

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.61 Who is...

2013-04-01

305

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2013-04-01

306

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.65 Who is an...

2011-04-01

307

Increasing output energy from a passively Q-switched Er:glass laser  

E-print Network

Increasing output energy from a passively Q-switched Er:glass laser Ronen Rabinovici, Amiel A-switched Er:glass eyesafe lasers is presented. The increase of energy is achieved by incorporating binary passively Q- switched Er:glass lasers, which have several attractive features. They emit light of an eyesafe

Friesem, Asher A.

308

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.65 Who is an...

2010-04-01

309

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2012-04-01

310

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.61 Who is...

2014-04-01

311

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2013-04-01

312

Een robotvogel die zo natuurge-trouw vliegt dat andere vogels er  

E-print Network

Een robotvogel die zo natuurge- trouw vliegt dat andere vogels er instinctief vandoor gaan. En wel bewegen. Die spieren kun je niet allemaal nabootsen in een kleine robot. Dus komt er flink wat analyse aan er als afstudeerder in de stro- mingsleer mee in aanraking kwam. "Dus heb ik het initiatief genomen

Twente, Universiteit

313

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2014-04-01

314

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2011-04-01

315

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2010-04-01

316

Better Prediction of Protein Cellular Localization Sites with the k Nearest Neighbors Classi er  

E-print Network

Better Prediction of Protein Cellular Localization Sites with the k Nearest Neighbors Classi er We have compared four classi ers on the problem of predicting the cellular localization sites, were used for each classi er. The methods compared were a struc- tured probabilistic model speci cally

Shatkay, Hagit

317

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2012-04-01

318

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.61 Who is...

2010-04-01

319

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

...2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2014-04-01

320

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2013-04-01

321

Properties of Er-doped III-N light-emitting diodes Hyounguk Jang  

E-print Network

Properties of Er-doped III-N light-emitting diodes Hyounguk Jang We will report on the synthesis of Er-doped quantum well (QW) and their PL properties. The III-N semiconductoring compounds-VI compounds. Visible emission between about 400 and 800nm has been obtained from Er-doped InGaN thin epilayers

Wysin, Gary

322

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.65 Who is an...

2013-04-01

323

which secretory and membrane proteins become inserted into the ER during their  

E-print Network

which secretory and membrane proteins become inserted into the ER during their biosynthesis being redirected out of the ER. Other genetic studies have identified other membrane proteins these molecules directly to the transport of proteinsoutof theER. The two reports in this issue1,2 highlight

A'Hearn, Michael F.

324

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2010-04-01

325

Temporal ER Modelling with Description Logics Alessandro Artale 1 and Enrico Franconi 2  

E-print Network

Temporal ER Modelling with Description Logics Alessandro Artale 1 and Enrico Franconi 2 1-varying information. Various temporally enhanced Entity-Relationship (ER) models have been pro- posed formalisation of the various properties that characterise and extend di#11;erent temporal ER models which

Franconi, Enrico

326

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2014-04-01

327

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.61 Who is...

2011-04-01

328

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2013-04-01

329

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

... 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2014-04-01

330

That which does not kill me makes me stronger: adapting to chronic ER stress  

E-print Network

That which does not kill me makes me stronger: adapting to chronic ER stress D. Thomas Rutkowski1 is the unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses protein folding stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER importance. Recent advances have improved our understanding of ER stress and the vertebrate UPR, which

Bedwell, David M.

331

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.65 Who is an...

2012-04-01

332

Der er masser af muligheder i at kombi-nere bioteknologi og energiforskning.  

E-print Network

Der er masser af muligheder i at kombi- nere bioteknologi og energiforskning. RIS?NYT N O 42003 17 guldgrube i at kombinere bioteknologi med energiforsyning. "Under de nuværende betingelser er det svært at få økonomi i bioenergi. Prisen på de konkurrerende energiformer er simpelt- hen for lav. Men det vil

333

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2010-04-01

334

Broad(er) impacts of the NSF CAREER Tony L. Schmitz, Associate Professor  

E-print Network

3/14/2012 1 Broad(er) impacts of the NSF CAREER proposal Tony L. Schmitz, Associate Professor. I'd like to tell you about the broad(er) impact that the NSF CAREER program has had on my academic career. Broader impacts Agenda Introduction CAREER proposal broad(er) impacts Writing your CAREER

Weston, Ken

335

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2012-04-01

336

A kinase inhibitor activates the IRE1a RNase to confer cytoprotection against ER stress  

E-print Network

A kinase inhibitor activates the IRE1a RNase to confer cytoprotection against ER stress Dan Han a,1 reticulum (ER) cause trans-autophosphorylation of the bifunctional transmembrane kinase IRE1a, inducing its kinase through this maneuver affords murine cells cytoprotection under ER stress. Thus kinase inhibitors

Mullins, Dyche

337

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2011-04-01

338

E cient Bu er Sharing in Shared Memory ATM Systems With Space Priority Tra c  

E-print Network

E cient Bu er Sharing in Shared Memory ATM Systems With Space Priority Tra c Rajarshi Roy of the optimal design of bu er management policies for a shared memory ATM switch or demultiplexer fed by tra c policies for small bu er sizes based on the value iteration technique is used to help de- sign heuristics

Panwar, Shivendra S.

339

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2010-04-01

340

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2012-04-01

341

Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions R. Li,1 S; published online 29 July 2009 The 1.54 m photoluminescence and decay time of Er-doped amorphous silicon. The temperature quenching of the Er emission lifetime demonstrates the presence of nonradiative trap centers due

342

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2012-04-01

343

A Statistical Uni ed Framework for Rank-Based Multiple Classi er Decision Combination  

E-print Network

A Statistical Uni#12;ed Framework for Rank-Based Multiple Classi#12;er Decision Combination Af#24-based multiple classi#12;er deci- sion combination problem, with the aim of providing a uni#12;ed framework to understand a variety of such systems. The combination of the decisions of more than one classi#12;ers

Saranli, Afsar

344

RisNyt NO1 2005 11 Kyoto protokollens ikrafttrden er et vigtigt  

E-print Network

RisøNyt NO1 2005 11 Kyoto protokollens ikrafttræden er et vigtigt politisk signal, som viser 2012, er det langt fra nok til at standse opvarmningen af Jorden. EU har taget det næste store spring drivhusgasser med 15-30 procent i 2020 set i forhold til 1990. Den politiske udmelding er vigtig for de kommende

345

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2011-04-01

346

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2010-04-01

347

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

...2012-04-01 true Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities 216.65 Who is an...

2014-04-01

348

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF Er3+ IONS IN LiNbO3  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF Er3+ IONS IN LiNbO3 WAVEGUIDES PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT METHODS V. Dierolf,1 T, Germany Abstract We compare the optical properties of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides produced by different tech- rect Er3+-Ti4+ interaction can be observed in Ti4+ diffused waveguides. However a significant shift

Dierolf, Volkmar

349

D M E The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and  

E-print Network

D M E S S The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and SelfOscilla ons of an Elas c Aerohydrodynamic Ins tute (TsAGI) Moscow Region, Russia The Central Aerohydrodynamic Ins tute (TsAGI), named a er er and limit cycle oscilla ons of an aerodynamic surface of an elas c aircra in transonic flow

Barthelat, Francois

350

Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics  

E-print Network

Self-assembled ErAs islands in GaAs: Growth and subpicosecond carrier dynamics C. Kadowa) Materials; accepted for publication 5 October 1999 We report the growth of self-assembled ErAs islands embedded in GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The nucleation of ErAs on GaAs occurs in an island growth mode leading

Bowers, John

351

Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining  

E-print Network

Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining Mehmet M. Dalkilic a coherent framework for data mining in the relational model. Observing that data mining depends on two. The classi er indicates the target of the data mining investigation. The classi er may be di cult to express

Dalkilic, Mehmet

352

ER-MAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Emergency Response Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

ER-MAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Emergency Response Wireless Sensor Networks Lanny Sitanayah--This paper introduces ER-MAC, a hybrid MAC protocol for emergency response wireless sensor networks. ER- MAC that participate in the emergency monitoring change their MAC behaviour by allowing contention in TDMA slots

Sreenan, Cormac J.

353

Comparison of a diode pumped Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser in the bounce geometry at the 3 ?m transition.  

PubMed

A comparative study is made of the laser crystals 50 at. % Er:YAG and 50 at. % Er:YSGG. Both lasers are constructed in the bounce geometry with quasi continuous wave (QCW) diode pumping. In Er:YAG, pulse energies of up to ~31mJ, slope efficiency of 12.6% and a red-shift in laser wavelength are observed with a final and dominant wavelength of 2.936?m. In Er:YSGG, higher performance is achieved with pulse energies of ~55mJ, slope efficiency of 20.5% and a single transition wavelength of 2.797?m observed. The study indicates that diode pumped Er:YSGG is a superior laser source at 3?m than Er:YAG and it has greater energy storage potential for Q-switched operation. PMID:22274173

Arbabzadah, Emma; Chard, Simon; Amrania, Hemmel; Phillips, Chris; Damzen, Michael

2011-12-19

354

Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retrograde Traffic in Yeast Requires Dsl1p, a Component of the ER Target Site that Interacts with a COPI Coat Subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

DSL1 was identified through its genetic interaction with SLY1, which encodes a t-SNARE- interacting protein that functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic. Conditional dsl1 mutants exhibit a block in ER-to-Golgi traffic at the restrictive temperature. Here, we show that dsl1 mutants are defective for retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, even under conditions where no anterograde transport block is evident. These results suggest

Barbara A. Reilly; Bryan A. Kraynack; Susan M. VanRheenen; M. Gerard Waters

355

Polycrystalline Ceramic Er:YAG Laser In-Band Pumped by a High-Power Er,Yb Fiber Laser at 1532 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the high-power and efficient operation of a polycrystalline ceramic erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:Y3Al5O12, Er:YAG) laser resonantly pumped by a cladding-pumped Er,Yb fiber laser. The pump fiber laser was wavelength-locked to the absorption peak of Er:YAG at 1532 nm using a volume Bragg grating. The ceramic laser yielded 13.8 W of continuous-wave output at 1645 nm for

Deyuan Shen; Hao Chen; Xiangpeng Qin; Jian Zhang; Dingyuan Tang; Xiaofang Yang; Ting Zhao

2011-01-01

356

Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling reveals a link between the PI3K pathway and lower estrogen-receptor (ER) levels and activity in ER+ breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that both levels and activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) are dramatically influenced by growth-factor receptor (GFR) signaling pathways, and that this crosstalk is a major determinant of both breast cancer progression and response to therapy. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a key mediator of GFR signaling, is one of the most altered pathways in breast cancer. We thus examined whether deregulated PI3K signaling in luminal ER+ breast tumors is associated with ER level and activity and intrinsic molecular subtype. Methods We defined two independent molecular signatures of the PI3K pathway: a proteomic (reverse-phase proteomic array) PI3K signature, based on protein measurement for PI3K signaling intermediates, and a PI3K transcriptional (mRNA) signature based on the set of genes either induced or repressed by PI3K inhibitors. By using these signatures, we scored each ER+ breast tumor represented in multiple independent expression-profiling datasets (four mRNA, n = 915; one protein, n = 429) for activation of the PI3K pathway. Effects of PI3K inhibitor BEZ-235 on ER expression and activity levels and cell growth were tested by quantitative real-time PCR and cell proliferation assays. Results Within ER+ tumors, ER levels were negatively correlated with the PI3K activation scores, both at the proteomic and transcriptional levels, in all datasets examined. PI3K signature scores were also higher in ER+ tumors and cell lines of the more aggressive luminal B molecular subtype versus those of the less aggressive luminal A subtype. Notably, BEZ-235 treatment in four different ER+ cell lines increased expression of ER and ER target genes including PR, and treatment with IGF-I (which signals via PI3K) decreased expression of ER and target genes, thus further establishing an inverse functional relation between ER and PI3K. BEZ-235 had an additional effect on tamoxifen in inhibiting the growth of a number of ER+ cell lines. Conclusions Our data suggest that luminal B tumors have hyperactive GFR/PI3K signaling associated with lower ER levels, which has been correlated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Targeting PI3K in these tumors might reverse loss of ER expression and signaling and restore hormonal sensitivity. PMID:20569503

2010-01-01

357

Experimental determination of the intrinsic ground-state shapes of /sup 162/Er and /sup 164/Er from Coulomb excitation studies  

SciTech Connect

We have used the particle-gamma coincidence method, Coulomb excitation with 12 MeV ..cap alpha.. particles and 48 MeV /sup 16/O ion beams, and a thick enriched target to experimentally determine the intrinsic nuclear shapes of the even-even erbium isotopes /sup 162/Er and /sup 164/Er. The evaluation was carried out using a computer code based on the semiclassical Winther-de Boer code. The intrinsic nuclear shapes of /sup 162/Er and /sup 164/Er are found to be prolate, which disagrees with a recent microscopic calculation using the Reid soft-core nucleon-nucleon potential.

Humanic, T.J.; Saladin, J.X.; Alessi, J.G.; Hussein, A.

1981-01-01

358

The expression of ER beta protein correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor and its prognostic significance in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Although cloning of ER beta has prompted a reevaluation of the role of ERs in human breast cancer and there have been many studies focusing on the clinical value of ER beta detection, however, few reports evaluated the prognostic significance of ER beta based on follow-up data. The VEGF gene transcription may be mediated by different ER subtypes directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of angiogenesis factor VEGF with different ER subtypes and the prognostic value of ER beta and VEGF in 116 human breast cancer patients. Of these patients, 40 (34.5%) were ER beta protein high expressed and 76 (65.5%) were ER beta protein low expressed. When correlated the ER beta protein levels with other clinical characteristics, statistical significance (p<0.05) was found between ER beta protein expression and menopausal status, and tumor grade. No significance was found between ER beta protein level and node status, stage, or tumor size. Inverse relationship was found between ER beta protein expression and PR status (p<0.05). When comparing the VEGF levels with different ER subtypes a significant difference between ERs and VEGF was found. In ER beta protein high expression group, the VEGF protein was highly expressed (p<0.01), inverse relationship was also found between ER alpha and VEGF. In univariate analysis ER alpha, ER beta and VEGF levels had prognostic value for both relapse-free survival and overall survival (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate study, ER beta and ER alpha protein levels lost the prognostic value either to relapse-free survival or to overall survival. Only VEGF levels acted as an independent prognostic factor to disease-free survival. The result suggested that ER beta protein may have important prognostic value in human breast cancer patients. VEGF expression may be mediated through different ER subtypes. PMID:12168051

Wen, Xian-Feng; Shen, Zan; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Nguyen, Mai; Shao, Zhi-Ming

2002-01-01

359

A Majority of Low (1-10%) ER Positive Breast Cancers Behave Like Hormone Receptor Negative Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: The 2010 guidelines by ASCO-CAP have mandated that breast cancer specimens with ?1% positively staining cells by immunohistochemistry should be considered Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive. This has led to a subclass of low-ER positive (1-10%) breast cancers. We have examined the biology and clinical behavior of these low ER staining tumors. Methods: We have developed a probabilistic score of the ER-positivity by quantitative estimation of ER related gene transcripts from FFPE specimens. Immunohistochemistry for ER was done on 240 surgically excised tumors of primary breast cancer. Relative transcript abundance of 3 house-keeping genes and 6 ER related genes were determined by q-RT PCR. A logistic regression model using 3 ER associated genes provided the best probability function, and a cut-off value was derived by ROC analysis. 144 high ER (>10%), 75 ER negative and 21 low-ER (1-10%) tumors were evaluated using the probability score and the disease specific survival was compared. Results: Half of the low-ER positive tumors were assigned to the ER negative group based on the probability score; in contrast 95% of ER negative and 92% of the high ER positive tumors were assigned to the appropriate ER group (p<0.0001). The survival of the low-ER group was intermediate between that of the high ER positive and ER negative groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the newly lowered ASCO-CAP criteria for ER positivity, leads to the false categorization of biologically ER negative tumors as ER positive ones. This may have particular relevance to India, where we have a much higher proportion of ER negative tumors in general. PMID:24563670

Prabhu, Jyothi S.; Korlimarla, Aruna; Desai, Krisha; Alexander, Annie; Raghavan, Rohini; Anupama, CE; Dendukuri, Nandini; Manjunath, Suraj; Correa, Marjorrie; Raman, N; Kalamdani, Anjali; Prasad, MSN; Gopinath, K.S; Srinath, B.S.; Sridhar, T.S.

2014-01-01

360

Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

1992-01-01

361

Ice sheet topography from retracked ERS-1 altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective of the ERS-1 radar altimeter is to measure the surface topography of the polar ice sheets to a precision on the order of a meter. ERS-1 Waveform Altimeter Product (WAP) data was corrected for several processing errors. A range correction from the WAP waveforms, using the multiparameter retracking algorithm to account for range tracking limitations inherent to radar altimetry, was derived. From crossover analysis, the resulting precision is shown to be about 2.1 m in ocean mode and 2.2 m in ice mode. A topography map, produced with 23 days of corrected data, shows details of the western part of west Antarctic ice sheet and part of the Ross ice shelf including ice divides, ice stream boundaries, and ice shelf grounding lines.

Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Dimarzio, John; Seiss, Timothy

1994-01-01

362

Mitochondrial ER contacts are crucial for mitophagy in yeast.  

PubMed

Damaged and superfluous mitochondria are removed from the cell by selective autophagy, a process termed mitophagy. This serves to maintain the proper quantity and quality of the organelle. Mitophagy is executed by an evolutionarily conserved pathway, many components of which were first discovered and characterized in yeast. In a systematic screen of a yeast deletion collection, we identified ERMES, a complex connecting mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as an important factor contributing to the selective degradation of mitochondria. We show that efficient mitophagy depends on mitochondrial ER tethering. ERMES colocalizes with sites of mitophagosome biogenesis and affects the formation of the isolation membrane that engulfs the organelles destined for degradation. These results provide insights into the cellular mechanisms that govern organelle homeostasis. PMID:24530295

Bckler, Stefan; Westermann, Benedikt

2014-02-24

363

100-megawatt power Q-switched Er-glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very high energy Q-switched Er-glass laser is reported. We incorporated a rotating, resonant mirror/Porro-cavity reflector optical arrangement to achieve very high shutter speeds on the cavity Q of a laser designed for energetic, flashlamp-pumped, 600-?s, 1540-nm pulses. Reproducible 3.75-J, 35-ns, 1533-nm laser pulses were obtained at a repetition rate less than 1 minute. Our work shows that reliable, very high energy, Q-switched, Er-glass laser pulses at 1533 nm can be generated mechanically with no apparent damage to laser cavity components. We demonstrate the applications of this "eye safe" wavelength to energetic processes such as LIBS and materials processing. The laser could also serve as a new tool for bioeffects studies and targeting applications.

Taboada, John; Taboada, John M.; Stolarski, David J.; Zohner, Justin J.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Kumru, Semih S.; Cain, Clarence P.

2006-02-01

364

Alaska SAR processor implementation of E-ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing algorithm used by the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for the European Space Agency's first Remote-Sensing Satellite (E-ERS-1) SAR data are examined. Preprocessing highlights two features: signal measurement, which includes signal-to-noise ratio, replica measurement, and noise measurement; and Doppler measurement, which includes clutter lock and autofocus. The custom pipeline architecture performs the main processing with controls at the input interface, range correlator, corner-turn memory, azimuth correlator, and multi-look memory. The control software employs a flexible control scheme. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) format encapsulates the ASF products. System performance for SAR image processing of E-ERS-1 data is reviewed.

Cuddy, David; Chen, Ming-Je; Bicknell, Tom

1992-01-01

365

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview  

PubMed Central

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

366

Completion report for well ER-30-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

367

IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.

2013-02-01

368

100-megawatt power Q-switched Er-glass laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high energy Q-switched Er-glass laser is reported. We incorporated a rotating, resonant mirror\\/Porro-cavity reflector optical arrangement to achieve very high shutter speeds on the cavity Q of a laser designed for energetic, flashlamp-pumped, 600-mus, 1540-nm pulses. Reproducible 3.75-J, 35-ns, 1533-nm laser pulses were obtained at a repetition rate less than 1 minute. Our work shows that reliable, very

John Taboada; David J. Stolarski; Justin J. Zohner; Lucas J. Chavey; Harvey M. Hodnett; Gary D. Noojin; Robert J. Thomas; Semih S. Kumru; Clarence P. Cain

2006-01-01

369

Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 mu m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 mu s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air\\/water

J. J. Beltrano; L. Torrisi; E. Campagna; E. Rapisarda; I. Finocchiaro; G. Olivi

2008-01-01

370

er handltng and ~Ing IS the key to  

E-print Network

Ha- a, MS 39567. INTRODUCTION Freezing, one of the oldest food preservation methods known to man. has foods b) freeZIng repre ented a major tep forV\\ard in the long-tIme efforts of manJ...lnd to dlsco\\er beller ""a) to pre erve foods . The fish freezing industry has progre ~ed from the covered-pans- ""ith

371

Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays akey role in the synthesis of awide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

372

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

373

COPII and COPI Traffic at the ER-Golgi Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein traffic is necessary to maintain homeostasis in all eukaryotic organisms. All newly synthesized secretory proteins destined to the secretory and endolysosmal systems are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi before delivery to their final destinations. Here, we describe the COPII and COPI coating machineries that generate carrier vesicles and the tethers and SNAREs that mediate COPII and COPI vesicle fusion at the ER-Golgi interface.

Tomasz Szul (University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Cell Biology); Elizabeth Sztul (University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Cell Biology)

2011-10-01

374

10 FUGLE O G N ATUR 0408 f alle vore rovfugle er Hedehgen  

E-print Network

10 FUGLE O G N ATUR 04·08 f alle vore rovfugle er Hedehøgen måske den mest graciøse. En Hedehøg han i det sene efterår er de få danske Hedehøge for længst på vej mod Afrika, ganske som de plejer. Hvad der er mere usædvanligt er, at knap halvdelen dem i år er udstyret med store og tydelige vinge- mærker

Thorup, Kasper

375

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

1997-04-22

376

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

Hamilton, Charles E. (Bellevue, WA); Furu, Laurence H. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

377

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2005-02-01

378

Emerging features of ER resident J-proteins in plants.  

PubMed

J-proteins are co-chaperone components of the HSP70 system. J-proteins stimulate Hsp70ATPase activity, which is responsible for stabilizing the interaction of Hsp70 with client proteins. J-proteins are localized in various intracellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Five types of ER resident J-proteins (ERdjs) have been found in plants (P58, ERdj2, ERdj2A, ERdj3B and ERdj7). Rice OsERdj3A is located in the vacuoleand protein storage vacuoles (PSV, PB-II) under conditions of ER stress. J-proteins that are localized to the vacuole or lysosome are not found in mammals and yeast, suggesting that the presence of OsERdj3A in the vacuole is plant-specific and one of the features unique to plant ERdjs. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge andrecent research advancements regarding plant ERdjs, and compare mammalian and yeast ERdjs with plant ERdjs. PMID:24614601

Ohta, Masaru; Takaiwa, Fumio

2014-01-01

379

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

380

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

NONE

1997-03-01

381

Estrogen dependent activation function of ER? is essential for the sexual behavior of mouse females  

PubMed Central

We previously generated and characterized a genuine estrogen receptor (ER) ?-null mouse line (named ER?STL?/L?) and showed that ER?STL?/L? mice were sterile, due to an ovulation impairment in females and to an unknown reason in males, as their reproductive organs and spermatozoid motility appeared normal. We report here an assessment of the sexual behavior of ER?STL?/L? null mice. We found that ER?STL?/L? males display mildly impaired sexual behavior and that ER?STL?/L? females are significantly less receptive and less attractive than wild-type (WT) females. Decreased attractivity is also exhibited by ER?AF20 but not by ER?AF10 mutant females (females devoid of either AF2 or AF1 activation function of ER?). Interestingly, by using an odor preference test, we have determined that the low attractiveness of ER?STL?/L? and ER?AF20 females is related to a deficiency of a volatile chemosignal. PMID:23150547

Antal, Maria Cristina; Petit-Demouliere, Benoit; Meziane, Hamid; Chambon, Pierre; Krust, Andree

2012-01-01

382

Thioredoxin-interacting protein mediates ER stress-induced ? cell death through initiation of the inflammasome.  

PubMed

Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to the life-and-death decisions of ? cells during the progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although crosstalk between inflammation and ER stress has been suggested to play a significant role in ? cell dysfunction and death, a key molecule connecting ER stress to inflammation has not been identified. Here we report that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is a critical signaling node that links ER stress and inflammation. TXNIP is induced by ER stress through the PERK and IRE1 pathways, induces IL-1? mRNA transcription, activates IL-1? production by the NLRP3 inflammasome, and mediates ER stress-mediated ? cell death. Collectively, our results suggest that TXNIP is a potential therapeutic target for diabetes and ER stress-related human diseases such as Wolfram syndrome. PMID:22883234

Oslowski, Christine M; Hara, Takashi; O'Sullivan-Murphy, Bryan; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lu, Simin; Hara, Mariko; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Zhu, Lihua J; Hayashi, Emiko; Hui, Simon T; Greiner, Dale; Kaufman, Randal J; Bortell, Rita; Urano, Fumihiko

2012-08-01

383

Donor-State-Enabling Er-Related Luminescence in Silicon: Direct Identification and Resonant Excitation  

SciTech Connect

We conclusively establish a direct link between formation of an Er-related donor gap state and the 1.5 {mu}m emission of Er in Si. The experiment is performed on Si/Si ratio Er nanolayers where a single type of Er optical center dominates. We show that the Er emission can be resonantly induced by direct pumping into the bound exciton state of the identified donor. Using two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser we determine the ionization energy of the donor-state-enabling Er excitation as E{sub D}{approx_equal}218 meV. We demonstrate quenching of the Er-related emission upon ionization of the donor.

Izeddin, I.; Klik, M. A. J.; Gregorkiewicz, T. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vinh, N. Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen' P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bresler, M. S. [A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS 26 Politekhnicheskaya, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-08-17

384

ER stress response mechanisms in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata and their roles in virulence  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is critical for numerous aspects of cell physiology. Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular signaling pathway that adjusts the folding capacity of the ER. Recent studies of several pathogenic fungi have revealed that the UPR is important for antifungal resistance and virulence; therefore, the pathway has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic target. While the UPR is highly conserved among eukaryotes, our group recently discovered that the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata lacks the typical fungal UPR, but possesses alternative mechanisms to cope with ER stress. This review summarizes how C. glabrata responds to ER stress and discusses the impacts of ER quality control systems on antifungal resistance and virulence. PMID:24335436

Miyazaki, Taiga; Kohno, Shigeru

2014-01-01

385

USP14 inhibits ER-associated degradation via interaction with IRE1{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess the ER quality control systems, the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt to ER stress. IRE1{alpha} is one of the ER stress receptors and mediates the UPR. Here, we identified ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 14 as a binding partner of IRE1{alpha}. USP14 interacted with the cytoplasmic region of IRE1{alpha}, and the endogenous interaction between USP14 and IRE1{alpha} was inhibited by ER stress. Overexpression of USP14 inhibited the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and USP14 depletion by small interfering RNA effectively activated ERAD. These findings suggest that USP14 is a novel player in the UPR by serving as a physiological inhibitor of ERAD under the non-stressed condition.

Nagai, Atsushi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Kadowaki, Hisae; Maruyama, Takeshi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takeda, Kohsuke [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nishitoh, Hideki [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)], E-mail: hnishitoh@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ichijo, Hidenori [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-02-20

386

Interaction between P2X3 and oestrogen receptor (ER)?/ER? in ATP-mediated calcium signalling in mice sensory neurones.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence supports a role of purinergic P2X3 receptors in modulating nociceptive signalling in sensory neurones. Previously, we showed that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones (L1-S1) express both oestrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? receptors. In the present study, we investigated the expression of P2X3 receptors and the effect of 17?-oestradiol (E(2)) on the ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in DRG neurones collected from C57Bl/6J, ER? knockout (KO) and ER?KO mice. Our data showed a significant decrease for P2X3 in ER?KO (all levels) and ER?KO (mostly observed in L1, L2, L4 and L6). Furthermore, E(2) (100 nm) significantly attenuated the ATP (10 ?m)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) in C57Bl/6J mice. ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 ?m) blocked this attenuation. Homomeric P2X3 receptors are plentifully expressed in DRG neurones and contribute to nociceptive signals. ?,?-Methylene (?,?-me) ATP, which is a specific agonist of P2X2/3 receptors, showed similar responses to the ATP-induced calcium increase in KO mice. A membrane-impermeable E-6-bovine serum albumin (1 ?m) had the same effect as E(2) , suggesting action on the membrane. In DRG neurones from ER?KO and wild-type mice, E(2) attenuated the ATP/?,?-me ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) fluxes but, in DRG neurones from ER?KO mice, this hormone had no effect, suggesting that this attenuation depends on membrane-associated ER? receptors. Together, our data indicate an interaction between P2X3 and membrane-associated ER? in primary sensory neurones that may represent a novel mechanism to explain sex differences observed in the clinical presentation of visceral nociceptive syndromes. PMID:22175770

Cho, T; Chaban, V V

2012-05-01

387

Enhancement of DNA vaccine potency through linkage of antigen gene to ER chaperone molecules, ER60, tapasin, and calnexin  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Strategies that enhance antigen presentation may potentially be used to enhance DNA vaccine potency. Previous experiments showed that chimeric DNA vaccines utilizing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone molecules, such as Calreticulin (CRT), linked to an antigen were capable of generating antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses in vaccinated mice.

Cheng-Tao Lin; Ting-Chang Chang; Angel Chao; Elizabeth Dzeng; Yung-Kuei Soong; Chien-Fu Hung; Chyong-Huey Lai

2005-01-01

388

Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films  

PubMed Central

Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7??1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1??10-15 cm2/s at 1,250C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

2014-01-01

389

COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

BECHTEL NEVADA

2005-12-01

390

Mechanisms of coactivation of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)- and ER alpha/Sp-mediated gene transactivation by vitamin D receptor interacting protein 205 (DRIP205) in breast cancer cells  

E-print Network

coactivate ER? and ER?/Sp1. RNA interference study showed that DRIP205 coactivation of ER?/Sp was abolished in cells transfected with iSp3 and iSp4, suggesting that Sp3 and Sp4 are required for coactivation of ER?/Sp by DRIP205 in ZR-75 cells....

Wu, Qian

2009-05-15

391

A novel variant of ER-alpha, ER-alpha36 mediates testosterone-stimulated ERK and Akt activation in endometrial cancer Hec1A cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and its incidence has recently increased. Experimental and epidemiological data support that testosterone plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Recently, we identified and cloned a variant of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ER-alpha36. The aim of the

Sheng-Li Lin; Li-Ying Yan; Xing-Wei Liang; Zhen-Bo Wang; Zhao-Yi Wang; Jie Qiao; Heide Schatten; Qing-Yuan Sun

2009-01-01

392

Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs): In Vitro Mechanism of Estrogenic Activation and Differential Effects on ER Target Genes  

PubMed Central

Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) influence the activity of estrogen receptors (ERs) and alter the function of the endocrine system. However, the diversity of EDC effects and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Objectives: We examined the agonistic activity of EDCs through ER? and ER?. We also investigated the effects of EDCs on ER-mediated target genes. Methods: HepG2 and HeLa cells were used to determine the agonistic activity of EDCs on ER? and ER? via the luciferase reporter assay. Ishikawa cells stably expressing ER? were used to determine changes in endogenous ER target gene expression by EDCs. Results: Twelve EDCs were categorized into three groups on the basis of product class and similarity of chemical structure. As shown by luciferase reporter analysis, the EDCs act as ER agonists in a cell type and promoter-specific manner. Bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, and 2-2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (group 1) strongly activated ER? estrogen responsive element (ERE)-mediated responses. Daidzein, genistein, kaempferol, and coumestrol (group 2) activated both ER? and ER? ERE-mediated activities. Endosulfan and kepone (group 3) weakly activated ER?. Only a few EDCs significantly activated the tethered mechanism via ER? or ER?. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that bisphenol A and bisphenol AF consistently activated endogenous ER target genes, but the activities of other EDCs on changes of ER target gene expression were compound specific. Conclusion: Although EDCs with similar chemical structures (in the same group) tended to have comparable ER? and ER? ERE-mediated activities, similar chemical structure did not correlate with previously reported ligand binding affinities of the EDCs. Using ER?-stable cells, we observed that EDCs differentially induced activity of endogenous ER target genes. PMID:23384675

Li, Yin; Luh, Colin J.; Burns, Katherine A.; Arao, Yukitomo; Jiang, Zhongliang; Teng, Christina T.; Tice, Raymond R.

2013-01-01

393

Functional and Genomic Analyses Reveal an Essential Coordination between the Unfolded Protein Response and ER-Associated Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates gene expression in response to stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We determined the transcriptional scope of the UPR using DNA microarrays. Rather than regulating only ER-resident chaperones and phospholipid biosynthesis, as anticipated from earlier work, the UPR affects multiple ER and secretory pathway functions. Studies of UPR targets engaged in ER-associated protein degradation

Kevin J. Travers; Christopher K. Patil; Lisa Wodicka; David J. Lockhart; Jonathan S. Weissman; Peter Walter

2000-01-01

394

Changes to the ER form Most of the detailed headings were removed to make room for a larger  

E-print Network

Changes to the ER form Most of the detailed headings were removed to make room for a larger made larger. The back of the ER was updated to be in line number order and includes updated lists #8 Staff Work Months ­ from line #8 Line #8 ­ previous ER line #9 Line #9 ­ previous ER line #10

Sibille, Etienne

395

ER 100/200 PP184/284, Fall 2013 Total Points: [64/84] Problem Set #4  

E-print Network

ER 100/200 PP184/284, Fall 2013 Total Points: [64/84] Problem Set #4 ER100, ER200, PP184, PP284 NEXT TO YOUR NAME. Topics Covered: Life Cycle) in a uniform, consistent way. [5 points.] Emissions [13 points (ER 100/PP 184

Kammen, Daniel M.

396

Hvad er algebraisk geometri i karakteristik p? Saedvanlig algebraisk geometri foregar over de komplekse tals legeme, dvs. a*  

E-print Network

Hvad er algebraisk geometri i karakteristik p? Saedvanlig algebraisk geometri foregar over de komplekse tals legeme, dvs. a* *lle de ringe der optraeder er C -algebraer. Algebraisk geometri i karakteristik p (hv* *or p er et primtal) er nar man istedet arbejder med et endeligt legeme

Kock, Joachim

397

Ecient Pure-bu er Algorithms for Real-time Systems 1 James H. Anderson and Philip Holman  

E-print Network

E?cient Pure-bu#11;er Algorithms for Real-time Systems 1 James H. Anderson and Philip Holman for implementing multi-writer read/write pure-bu#11;ers in multiprocessor real-time systems. Such bu#11;ers are commonly used when existing data is overwritten as newly-produced data becomes available. Pure-bu#11;er

Anderson, James

398

Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization  

PubMed Central

How cells monitor the distribution of organelles is largely unknown. In budding yeast, the largest subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of cortical ER (cER) that adheres to the plasma membrane. Delivery of cER from mother cells to buds, which is termed cER inheritance, occurs as an orderly process early in budding. We find that cER inheritance is defective in cells lacking Scs2, a yeast homologue of the integral ER membrane protein VAP (vesicle-associated membrane proteinassociated protein) conserved in all eukaryotes. Scs2 and human VAP both target yeast bud tips, suggesting a conserved action of VAP in attaching ER to sites of polarized growth. In addition, the loss of either Scs2 or Ice2 (another protein involved in cER inheritance) perturbs septin assembly at the bud neck. This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER. PMID:17984322

Loewen, Christopher J.R.; Young, Barry P.; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Levine, Timothy P.

2007-01-01

399

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 2030% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guenel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dork, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, B?rge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menendez, Primitiva; Muller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labreche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C

2013-01-01

400

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Gunel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Drk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Brge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menndez, Primitiva; Mller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonn, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylks, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Gonzlez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Mller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Franoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan

2013-04-01

401

A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ERmitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ERmitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ERmitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

2014-01-01

402

When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility. PMID:24926295

Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

2014-01-01

403

Study of negative and positive superhumps in ER Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out photometric observations of the SU UMa-type dwarf nova ER UMa during 2011 and 2012, which showed the existence of persistent negative superhumps even during the superoutburst. We performed a two-dimensional period analysis of its light curves by using a method called "least absolute shrinkage and selection operator" (Lasso) and the "phase dispersion minimization" (PDM) analysis, and found that the period of negative superhumps systematically changed between a superoutburst and the next superoutburst. The trend of the period change can be interpreted as a reflection of the change of the disk radius. This change is in agreement with the one predicted by the thermal tidal instability model. The normal outburst during a supercycle showed a general trend that the rising rate to its maximum becomes slower as the next superoutburst is approaching. The change can be interpreted as the consequence of the increased gas-stream flow into the inner region of the disk as a result of the tilted disk. Some of superoutbursts were found to be triggered by a precursor normal outburst when the positive superhump appeared to develop. The positive and negative superhumps coexisted during the superoutburst. Positive superhumps were prominent only for four or five days after the supermaximum, while the signal of negative superhumps became stronger after the middle phase of the superoutburst plateau. A simple combination of the positive and negative superhumps was found to be insufficient for reproduction of the complex profile variation. We were able to detect the developing phase of positive superhumps (stage A superhumps) for the first time in ER UMa-type dwarf novae. Using the period of stage A superhumps, we obtained a mass ratio of 0.100(15), which indicates that ER UMa is on the ordinary evolutional track of cataclysmic variable stars.

Ohshima, Tomohito; Kato, Taichi; Pavlenko, Elena; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Krajci, Thomas; Baklanov, Alex; Samsonov, Denis; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Andreev, Maksim V.; Noguchi, Ryo; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Nomoto, Takashi; Ono, Rikako; Nakagawa, Shin'ichi; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Aoki, Tomoya; Kawabata, Miho; Kimura, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Voloshina, Irina; Zemko, Polina; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Ruiz, Javier; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Virnina, Natalia; Virtanen, Jani; Miller, Ian; Boitnott, Boyd; Littlefield, Colin; James, Nick; Tordai, Tamas; Robert, Fidrich; Padovan, Stefano; Miyashita, Atsushi

2014-07-01

404

Resonantly pumped, high peak power Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high peak power hybrid Er:YAG laser, resonantly pumped at the wavelength of 1532 nm was developed. The fused silica acousto-optic modulator driven by 10 W of RF power was deployed as the Q-switch for such a laser. For the best case of Q-switching regime the pulses of 110 kW peak power (4 mJ, 37 ns) were reached at the pump power of 7.8 W and the repetition rate of 500 Hz.

Zendzian, W.; Ga?ecki, L.; Jabczynski, J. K.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Gorajek, L.; Nemec, M.; Jelinkova, H.; Sulc, J.

2010-02-01

405

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-171 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-171 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

406

Interpretation of ERS-SAR images over urban surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary analysis of ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images collected over the Los Angeles basin (CA) are reported. The observations were performed in order to explore the applicability of microwave remote sensing to the study of the energy balance at the urban surface. Large variations of backscatter intensities were observed in the SAR images. The imaging anisotropies observed mask the variations of backscatter due to other processes, illustrating the difficulties of extracting quantitative information from SAR images of urban surfaces.

Dousset, Benedicte

1997-01-01

407

Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350  

SciTech Connect

Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

John H. Miller

2005-06-10

408

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-227 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Brnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-227 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

409

Characteristics of electron-beam-gun-evaporated Er2O3 thin films as gate dielectrics for silicon  

E-print Network

Characteristics of electron-beam-gun-evaporated Er2O3 thin films as gate dielectrics for silicon V the initial deposition forms ErO with low polarizibility rather than Er2O3 . Annealing causes a transformation of ErO to Er2O3 but at the same time it initiates the growth of an interfacial SiO2 layer so

Eisenstein, Gadi

410

TO GET A 49ER ID CARD You need to have a student ID number that begins with 800 (assigned  

E-print Network

­ 1 ­ TO GET A 49ER ID CARD ·You need to have a student ID number that begins with 800 (assigned | 127 Student Union (#69) Monday ­ Friday 8:00 AM ­ 5:00 PM 704-687-7040 | aux.uncc.edu/49er 49er Card.uncc.edu 49ER ID CARD A 49ER ID CARD ALLOWS ACCESS TO · Campus housing · Campus activities and programs

Howitt, Ivan

411

Ecient Pure-bu er Algorithms for Real-time Systems James H. Anderson and Philip Holman  

E-print Network

E?cient Pure-bu#11;er Algorithms for Real-time Systems #3; James H. Anderson and Philip Holman-free algorithms for implementing read/write bu#11;ers in real-time systems. Such bu#11;ers are commonly used be overwritten. Each of our algorithms is a \\pure-bu#11;er" algorithm. In a pure- bu#11;er algorithm, several bu

Anderson, James

412

The ER body, a new organelle in Arabidopsis thaliana, requires NAI2 for its formation and accumulates specific ?-glucosidases  

PubMed Central

Plants develop various ER-derived structures with specific functions. The ER body found in Arabidopsis thaliana is a spindle-shaped structure. ER bodies accumulate in epidermal cells in seedlings or are induced by wounding. The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the ER body remained obscure. We isolated an ER body-deficient mutant in Arabidopsis seedlings, which we termed nai2. The NAI2 gene encodes a member of a unique protein family. NAI2 localizes to the ER body and the downregulation of NAI2 elongates ER bodies and reduces their number. ER bodies specifically accumulate high levels of PYK10/BGLU23, which is a ?-glucosidase that bears an ER retention signal. Additionally, in the nai2 mutant, PYK10 protein is diffuse throughout the ER and the PYK10 protein level is reduced. These observations indicate that NAI2 is a key factor for the formation of ER bodies and for the accumulation of PYK10 in the ER bodies of Arabidopsis. We also found that BGLU18, which encodes another ?-glucosidase with an ER retention signal, is induced at the site of wounding. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the BGLU18 protein is exclusively localized in ER bodies formed directly at the wounding site of cotyledons. These results suggest that BGLU18 is a component of the ER body in wounded leaves of Arabidopsis. PMID:19847124

Yamada, Kenji; Nagano, Atsushi J; Ogasawara, Kimi; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

2009-01-01

413

27-Hydroxycholesterol Promotes Cell-autonomous ER-positive Breast Cancer Growth  

PubMed Central

Summary To date estrogen is the only known endogenous estrogen receptor (ER) ligand that promotes ER+ breast tumor growth. We report that the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) stimulates MCF-7 cell xenograft growth in mice. More importantly, in ER+ breast cancer patients, 27HC content in normal breast tissue is increased compared to that in cancer-free controls, and tumor 27HC content is further elevated. Increased tumor 27HC is correlated with diminished expression of CYP7B1, the 27HC metabolizing enzyme, and reduced expression of CYP7B1 in tumors is associated with poorer patient survival. Moreover, 27HC is produced by MCF-7 cells and it stimulates cell-autonomous, ER-dependent and GDNF-RET-dependent cell proliferation. Thus, 27HC is a locally-modulated, non-aromatized ER ligand that promotes ER+ breast tumor growth. PMID:24210818

Wu, Qian; Ishikawa, Tomonori; Sirianni, Rosa; Tang, Hao; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Thompson, Bonne; Girard, Luc; Mineo, Chieko; Brekken, Rolf A.; Umetani, Michihisa; Euhus, David M.; Xie, Yang; Shaul, Philip W.

2013-01-01

414

Emerging themes of ER organization in the development and maintenance of axons  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system comprising the nuclear envelope, polyribosome-studded peripheral sheets, and a polygonal network of smooth tubules extending throughout the cell. Though protein biosynthesis, transport, and quality control in the ER have been extensively studied, mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous architecture of the ER have been clarified more recently. These insights have increased interest in ER morphology changes associated with the development of neuronal axons and dendrites as well as their integration with pre- and postsynaptic signaling pathways. A number of proteins involved in shaping and distributing the ER network are mutated in neurological disorders, particularly the hereditary spastic paraplegias, emphasizing the importance of proper ER morphology for the establishment and maintenance of highly-polarized neurons. PMID:20678923

Renvoise, Benoit; Blackstone, Craig

2010-01-01

415

Verification and Improvement of ERS-1/2 Altimeter Geophysical Data Records for Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Technical Report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Physical Oceanography Program entitled, Verification And Improvement Of ERS-112 Altimeter Geophysical Data Recorders For Global Change Studies, for the time period from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000. This report also provides a summary of the investigation from July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000. The primary objectives of this investigation include verification and improvement of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar altimeter geophysical data records for distribution of the data to the ESA-approved U.S. ERS-1/-2 investigators for global climate change studies. Specifically, the investigation is to verify and improve the ERS geophysical data record products by calibrating the instrument and assessing accuracy for the ERS-1/-2 orbital, geophysical, media, and instrument corrections. The purpose is to ensure that the consistency of constants, standards and algorithms with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimeter for global climate change studies such as the monitoring and interpretation of long-term sea level change. This investigation has provided the current best precise orbits, with the radial orbit accuracy for ERS-1 (Phases C-G) and ERS-2 estimated at the 3-5 cm rms level, an 30-fold improvement compared to the 1993 accuracy. We have finalized the production and verification of the value-added ERS-1 mission (Phases A, B, C, D, E, F, and G), in collaboration with JPL PODAAC and the University of Texas. Orbit and data verification and improvement of algorithms led to the best data product available to-date. ERS-2 altimeter data have been improved and we have been active on Envisat (2001 launch) GDR algorithm review and improvement. The data improvement of ERS-1 and ERS-2 led to improvement in the global mean sea surface, marine gravity anomaly and bathymetry models, and a study of Antarctica mass balance, which was published in Science in 1998.

Shum, C. K.

2000-01-01

416

Study on vacuum ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Er 2O 3 films on Si(001) substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amorphous Er2O3 films have been fabricated on p-type Si(001) substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. Vacuum ultraviolet spectra were employed to investigate the samples. An optical gap of 6.17 eV for Er2O3 films was obtained from the absorption coefficient spectra. A possible reason was put forward to explain the inconsistent results about the band gap of Er2O3 in literatures.

Yanyan ZHU; Zebo FANG; Run XU; Jing CHEN; Haijing CAO; Huiyu LI

2011-01-01

417

4 ASTERISK JUNI 2014 Billedet er taget af 5.b p Skolen p  

E-print Network

200 �r, der er med til at g�re 2014 til et ganske s�rligt �r for skolen. Det er nemlig pr�cis 200 �r `Skolen i 200 �r', s�rligt i uge 41. �Skolen er for alle, og det vil jubil�et ogs� gerne v�re. Det skal b

418

At skrive speciale eller ph.d.-afhandling p Ris er en mulighed  

E-print Network

At skrive speciale eller ph.d.- afhandling på Risø er en mulighed for at prøve kræfter med forskningsmiljø- et. Det er en god ballast at have med i det senere karriereforløb". Når seniorforsker Jimmy Bak. "Jeg vil påstå, at udfordringen ikke kun er af faglig karakter, men også består i at udvikle

419

Mange brikker skal falde p plads fr de ti EU kandidatlande er parat  

E-print Network

Mange brikker skal falde på plads før de ti EU kandidatlande er parat til at blive optaget i EU. Risø hjælper med at uddanne embedsmænd i at administrere et direktiv om farlige kemi- ske anlæg. Der er tilpasninger er fx ansøgerlandenes administrative og lovgiv- ningsmæssige systemer. EU finansierer således

420

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 10-1-54 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 10-1-54 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CECW-CE Washington, DC 20314, AND CONSEQUENCES PRODUCTION CENTER #12;THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK #12;i DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 10-1-54 U #12;THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK #12;DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 10-1-54 U.S. Army Corps

US Army Corps of Engineers

421

LM Glasfiber er verdens strste pro-ducent af vinger til vindmller.  

E-print Network

LM Glasfiber er verdens største pro- ducent af vinger til vindmøller. Udvikling og afprøvning af glasfiber- kompositmaterialer til vingerne er et af virksomhedens fokusområder Som sushi-godbidder på en klar masse. Glasfiber-prøverne er et par centimeter tykke og har en diame- ter omtrent som en 5-krone

422

Ris har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slr fast, at biomasse er en  

E-print Network

Risø har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slår fast, at biomasse er en ligeså værdifuld skal til for at udnytte hele dens potentiale. Der er ikke noget nyt i at bruge biomasse til energi. Opfyring med brænde og opvarmning med halmfyr eller biogas er kendte teknologier. Men 'moderne bio- energi

423

Et konkret resultat af Riss deltagelse i Musicon Valley Vkstmilj er et projekt  

E-print Network

Et konkret resultat af Risøs deltagelse i Musicon Valley Vækstmiljø er et projekt som skal erstatte Jens-Peter Lynov straks svaret klart: Mikrobølger. "Der er ikke tale om noget genialt her, vi har blot russisk firma som er eksperter i mikrobølgeudstyr. "Vi trækker på vores kompetencer inden

424

14 RIS N Y T 2/00 Lyd og laser er blandt  

E-print Network

14 RIS? N Y T 2/00 Lyd og laser er blandt de nye metoder til måling af vindhastig- hed. Men skal energi er nemlig proportional med vindens hastighed i tredje potens, og når usik- kerheden for en virkningsgrad. Det måleinstrument, der anvendes til effektkurvemålinger, og som er det vigtigste måleinstrument

425

Ingefr p tropiske er Af projektleder, seniorforsker, ph.d. Axel Dalberg Poulsen,  

E-print Network

) Formål Formålet med projektet er at dokumentere arter af ingefær- familien og deres anvendelse i det bruges som grøntsag, krydderi, medicin eller dyrkes som prydplanter. Det er for nylig opdaget, at en art er virksom mod kræft. Ingefærrod, som kan købes i Brug- sen, virker mod gigt, sø- og køresyge. Andre

426

17. rgang nr. 1, februar 2010 35 Som beskrevet i /1/ (dette nummer) er der  

E-print Network

17. årgang nr. 1, februar 2010 · 35 Som beskrevet i /1/ (dette nummer) er der ikke mange danske 2015 /2/. Der er derfor stor interesse for produk ter, som kan binde overskuddet af fosfor i sedimentet ikke er så veldokumenteret som Al's /1/. En ting, som dog sjældent har været undersøgt for nogen af

Andersen, Frede ?.

427

Intracellular Ca 2+ release via the ER translocon activates store-operated calcium entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is activated in response to depletion of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A variety of agonists stimulate SOCE via IP3-dependent Ca2+ depletion. SOCE is also activated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca2+ reuptake into the ER that induces a net Ca2+ loss from the ER by unmasking a Ca2+ leak pathway. The molecular identity

Hwei L. Ong; Xibao Liu; Ajay Sharma; Ramanujan S. Hegde; Indu S. Ambudkar

2007-01-01

428

Thermal evolution of Er silicate thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stoichiometric Er silicate thin films, monosilicate (Er2SiO5) and disilicate (Er2Si2O7), have been grown on c-Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. The influence of annealing temperature in the range 1000-1200 C in oxidizing ambient (O2) on the structural and optical properties has been studied. In spite of the known reactivity of rare earth silicates towards silicon, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows that

R. Lo Savio; M. Miritello; F. Iacona; A. M. Piro; M. G. Grimaldi; F. Priolo

2008-01-01

429

Completion Report for Well ER-8-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

430

Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 ?m diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

2004-06-01

431

Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the energy-transfer processes in Er3+: flouride glasses with doping concentrations of 0.2-18 mol % is presented. Fluorescence wave forms for 11 erbium transitions were measured under 802-nm, 1.5-?m, 975-nm, 520-nm, and 403-nm excitation from a high-energy short-pulse source. The analysis of these data provided a physical understanding of the processes responsible for the temporal behavior of the populations of a large number of energy levels. A comprehensive nine-level rate-equation model of the Er3+ population dynamics in these fluoride glasses is developed. The model performs well in predicting the observed fluorescence behavior of the main fluorescing lines under all pumping conditions. The modeling process allowed 14 ion-ion energy-transfer processes that are important for the population dynamics in these fluoride glasses to be identified and their rate constants obtained. Noticeably, the inclusion of seven three-ion processes was found necessary in order to obtain good fits to the experimental fluorescence wave forms. It was also found that some three-ion processes have a significant effect on the population dynamics of the levels even in lower doping concentrations.

Bogdanov, V. K.; Booth, D. J.; Gibbs, W. E.; Javorniczky, J. S.; Newman, P. J.; Macfarlane, D. R.

2001-05-01

432

Tokamak edge Er studies by turbulence and divertor simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical coupling of the divertor code B2(B. J. Braams, Next European Torus Technical Report 68 (1987).) and the turbulence code DALF(B. D. Scott, Phys. Fluids B 4), 2468 (1992). is pursued. Within this model, space and time dependent transport coefficients (D and i) respond to the dynamics of drift wave turbulence. The Braginskii transport model of the B2 code incorporates guiding-center plasma drifts self-consistently and generate Er shear in the presence of steep pressure gradients. This Braginskii type Er can enter the turbulence model as a background E B shear flow which suppresses the radial flux together with Reynolds stress induced electric fields. As an example of L-H transition, influx at the core boundary is controlled to produce steepening of the edge gradients. ( Y.Hamada et al.), in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA-F1-CN-69/PD, 1998) reveals heat pulse induced L-H transitions after sawtooth events.

Nishimura, Y.; Coster, D.; Scott, B.

2002-11-01

433

Sar1 assembly regulates membrane constriction and ER export  

PubMed Central

The guanosine triphosphatase Sar1 controls the assembly and fission of COPII vesicles. Sar1 utilizes an amphipathic N-terminal helix as a wedge that inserts into outer membrane leaflets to induce vesicle neck constriction and control fission. We hypothesize that Sar1 organizes on membranes to control constriction as observed with fission proteins like dynamin. Sar1 activation led to membrane-dependent oligomerization that transformed giant unilamellar vesicles into small vesicles connected through highly constricted necks. In contrast, membrane tension provided through membrane attachment led to organization of Sar1 in ordered scaffolds that formed rigid, uniformly nonconstricted lipid tubules to suggest that Sar1 organization regulates membrane constriction. Sar1 organization required conserved residues located on a unique C-terminal loop. Mutations in this loop did not affect Sar1 activation or COPII recruitment and enhanced membrane constriction, yet inhibited Sar1 organization and procollagen transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sar1 activity was directed to liquid-disordered lipid phases. Thus, lipid-directed and tether-assisted Sar1 organization controls membrane constriction to regulate ER export. PMID:20624903

Long, Kimberly R.; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Baker, Adam L.; Watkins, Simon C.; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Conway, James F.

2010-01-01

434

Reference thresholds for the ER-3A insert earphone.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have demonstrated that the ER-3A insert earphone may sometimes be directly substituted, without recalibrating, for a TDH-39/MX-41AR earphone. However, most available data have not been reduced to a form suitable for establishing a revised estimate of the reference threshold levels. This article reports such a data analysis performed on the results of five recent studies. The mean data from the five studies are typically within 1 dB of the provisional reference threshold SPLs given by the ER-3A manufacturer for calibration in a (HA-1) 2-cc coupler. After converting the mean data to equivalent Zwislocki-coupler-type ear simulator SPLs at each of the reported audiometric frequencies (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz), agreement within 1.5 dB was seen with the revised estimate of minimum audible pressures given by Killion [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1501-1508 (1978)]. Either the manufacturer's provisional SPLs or the average results from this study may be used with little noticeable difference for most purposes. PMID:3351125

Wilber, L A; Kruger, B; Killion, M C

1988-02-01

435

Compact pulsed high-energy Er:glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk Erbium-doped lasers are widely used for long-distance telemetry and ranging. In some applications such as coherent Doppler radars, laser outputs with a relatively long pulse width, good beam profile and pulse shape are required. High energy Q-switched Er:glass lasers were demonstrated by use of electro-optic (E/O) Q-switching or frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) Q-switching. However, the output pulse durations in these lasers were fixed to relatively small values and extremely hard to tune. We report here on developing a novel and compact Q-switched Er:Yb co-doped phosphate glass laser at an eye-safe wavelength of 1.5 ?m. A rotating mirror was used as a Q-switch. Co-linear pump scheme was used to maintain a good output beam profile. Near-perfect Gaussian temporal shape was obtained in our experiment. By changing motor rotation speed, pulse duration was tunable and up to 240 ns was achieved. In our preliminary experiment, output pulse energies of 44 mJ and 4.5 mJ were obtained in free-running and Q-switched operation modes respectively.

Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

2012-03-01

436

Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments.  

PubMed

The optical properties of reactive co-sputtered erbium doped silicon rich oxynitride (Er:SRON) films are studied as a function of annealing temperatures (Ta). The sensitization mechanism of Er3+ is found to evolve with Ta: excess Si related localized states play the essential role in samples when Ta is below 700 C, while silicon nanoclusters (Si-NCs) become the dominate sensitizers when Ta exceeds 800 C. Our results show that higher density of sensitized Er3+ could be acquired via energy transfer from localized states, and thus provide an alternative way for the engineering of light sources based on Er:SRON. PMID:24921498

Xu, Lingbo; Jin, Lu; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

2014-06-01

437

Aurora-A is a determinant of tamoxifen sensitivity through phosphorylation of ER? in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Despite the clinical success of tamoxifen, its resistance remains a major challenge in breast cancer. Here we show that Aurora-A determines tamoxifen sensitivity by regulation of oestrogen receptor (ER)?. Ectopic expression of Aurora-A decreases and depletion of Aurora-A enhances tamoxifen sensitivity in ER?-positive breast cancer. Elevated Aurora-A was significantly associated with the recurrence of ER?-positive tumours. Notably, Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, which is currently in clinical trial, synergizes with tamoxifen and overcomes tamoxifen resistance. Furthermore, Aurora-A interacts with and phosphorylates ER? on serine-167 and -305, leading to increase in ER? DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. Elevated levels of Aurora-A are significantly associated with disease-free survival in ER?-positive but not ER?-negative breast cancers. These data suggest that Aurora-A has a pivotal role in tamoxifen resistance and ER? is a bona fide substrate of Aurora-A. Thus, Aurora-A represents a prognostic marker in ER?-positive tumour and a critical therapeutic target in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and Aurora-A inhibitor could be used as either an independent or concurrent agent in tamoxifen-resistant tumour. PMID:24166501

Zheng, X Q; Guo, J P; Yang, H; Kanai, M; He, L L; Li, Y Y; Koomen, J M; Minton, S; Gao, M; Ren, X B; Coppola, D; Cheng, J Q

2014-10-16

438

Cooling of Er(3+) with Tm(3+) for accurate temperature sensing using yttrium silicate compact powders.  

PubMed

Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline powders are extensively used for thermometry based on luminescence spectral analysis. The luminescence from Er(3+) is produced by a nonlinear (two-photon) absorption process which may generate strong internal heat by activation of nonradiative relaxation channels. If the heat dissipation is not efficient, as is the case for compact powders, there will be inaccurate readings of the temperature. Our proposed solution is to cool down Er(3+) by transferring part of its accumulated energy to another rare-earth element in the lattice. Here, we show our results for Er(3+)-Tm(3+) co-doped yttrium silicate powders prepared by combustion synthesis. PMID:25232991

Rakov, Nikifor; Maciel, Glauco S

2014-10-01

439

Role of ER Export Signals in Controlling Surface Potassium Channel Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the identity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export signals and how they are used to regulate the number of proteins on the cell surface. Here, we describe two ER export signals that profoundly altered the steady-state distribution of potassium channels and were required for channel localization to the plasma membrane. When transferred to other potassium channels or a G protein-coupled receptor, these ER export signals increased the number of functional proteins on the cell surface. Thus, ER export of membrane proteins is not necessarily limited by folding or assembly, but may be under the control of specific export signals.

Ma, Dzwokai; Zerangue, Noa; Lin, Yu-Fung; Collins, Anthony; Yu, Mei; Jan, Yuh Nung; Yeh Jan, Lily

2001-01-01

440

QSAR of estrogen receptor modulators: exploring selectivity requirements for ER(alpha) versus ER(beta) binding of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives using E-state and physicochemical parameters.  

PubMed

Considering importance of developing selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), the present paper explores selectivity requirements of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives for binding with ER(alpha) versus ER(beta) receptors using E-state index and physicochemical parameters. The best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.512, R(a)(2)=0.613, R=0.819, F=11.6 (df 3,17)] for ER(alpha) binding data obtained from radioligand binding assay showed importance of C(1), C(15) and lipophilicity (logP) while the best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.768, R(a)(2)=0.796, R=0.904, F=40.1 (df 2,18)] for ER(beta) binding data showed importance of C(1) and molar refractivity (MR). While modeling ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity [n=21, Q(2)=0.695, R(a)(2)=0.739, R=0.882, F=19.8 (df 3,17)], C(1), C(15) and molar refractivity were found to be significant contributors. The data obtained from cellular transcription assay were also modeled. In case of ER(alpha), the best equation involving E-state values of C(1) and C(14) and logP explained 62.1% of the variance while the best equation for ER(beta) involving E-state values of C(1) and C(15) and MR explained 64.6% of the variance of the response variable. In case of ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity, the best equation involving E-state values of O(8), C(14) and N(27) showed 48.3% explained variance, which increased to 63.5% on deletion of single outlier. From the analysis it appears that the nitrogen atom of the aminoethoxyphenyl substituent and 6-hydroxy substituent of the tetrahydroisoquinoline nucleus play important roles for ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity in addition to R(1) and R(2) substituents. PMID:15686893

Mukherjee, Subhendu; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal

2005-02-15

441

Et tableau er en perfekt balanceret struktur som den flgende hvor der i lighed med en bunke glder, at hvis en knude har snner, sa er disses  

E-print Network

Opgave 7 Et tableau er en perfekt balanceret struktur som den følgende 8 16 7 14 13 11 $$W hvor der i lighed med en bunke gælder, at hvis en knude har sønner, s°a er disses værdier større knuden med nummer (i, j) har numrene (i+1, j) og (i+1, j +1). Et blad er en knude uden sønner, og højden

Brodal, Gerth Stølting

442

Pin1 Modulates ER? Levels in Breast Cancer through Inhibition of Phosphorylation-dependent Ubiquitination and Degradation  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer. Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Since Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:23542176

Rajbhandari, Prashant; Schalper, Kurt A.; Solodin, Natalia M.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Lu, Kun Ping; Rimm, David L.; Alarid, Elaine T.

2013-01-01

443

Pin1 modulates ER? levels in breast cancer through inhibition of phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer (BC). Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. As Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive BC. PMID:23542176

Rajbhandari, P; Schalper, K A; Solodin, N M; Ellison-Zelski, S J; Ping Lu, K; Rimm, D L; Alarid, E T

2014-03-13

444

ESI MS, spectroscopic and semiempirical characterization of a macrobicyclic complex with Er (III) cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erbium cryptate [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] NO 3 has been synthesized as a result of the Schiff base condensation and investigated by FT-IR, ESI MS and EPR methods. In the ESI MS spectrum of this complex [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] NO 3 in the range of cv = 10-30V two main signals at m/z = 422 and m/z = 842 were observed corresponding to the [(MSB-H) Er] 2+ and [(MSB-2H) Er] + fragmentary cations, respectively. Besides these main peaks, a low intensity signals at m/z = 903 and m/z = 921 assigned to the [(MSB-H+NO 3) Er] + and [(MSB-H+NO 3+H 2O) Er] + complexes were also found. FT-IR spectrum revealed a broad band at 3403 cm -1 assigned to the ?(OH) vibrations of hydrogen bonded water molecule within the 1:1 macrobicyclic Schiff base-Er 3+ complex as well as the bands at 1335 cm -1 and 1355 cm -1 assigned to the ?(NO3-) vibrations of both bonded and non-bonded with the metal cations nitrate groups, respectively. DTA-TG analysis confirmed the presence of one water molecule in the complex. Full geometry optimization and heat of formation calculations of macrobicyclic Schiff base ligand and its complexes including nitrate anion and one water molecule were carried out. A comparison of these data suggests that the complexation of Er 3+ cation by the macrobicyclic Schiff base molecule with the involvement of water molecule is less energetically favourable. EPR measurements confirmed the presence of one Er 3+ cation in the complex structure. Computer simulation of the recorded EPR spectra revealed the presence of low symmetry at the Er ion site. The semiempirical MM/AM1d calculations indicated an asymmetrical location of the Er 3+ cation within the complex structure.

Przybylski, Piotr; Ko?odziej, Beata; Leniec, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, S?awomir M.; Grech, Eugeniusz; Typek, Janusz; Brzezinski, Bogumil

2008-04-01

445

Er-doped sesquioxides for 1.5-micron lasers - spectroscopic comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the favorable thermal properties of sesquioxides as hosts for rare earth laser ions, we have recently studied the spectroscopy of Er:Lu2O3 in the 1400-1700 nm wavelength range, and here report its comparison with our earlier results on Er:Y2O3 and Er:Sc2O3. These studies include absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and inference of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections, all as a function of temperature. At room temperature, optical absorption limits practical laser operation to wavelengths longer than about 1620 nm. In that spectral range, the strongest stimulated emission peak is that at 1665 nm in Er:Sc2O3, with an effective cross section considerably larger than those of Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3. At 77K, the absorption is weak enough for efficient laser operation at considerably shorter wavelengths, where there are peaks with much larger stimulated emission cross sections. The three hosts all have peaks near 1575-1580 nm with comparably strong cross sections. As we have reported earlier, it is possible to lase even shorter wavelengths efficiently at this temperature, in particular the line at 1558 nm in Er:Sc2O3. Our new spectroscopic studies of Er:Lu2O3 indicate that its corresponding peak, like that of Er:Sc2O3, has a less favorable ratio of stimulated emission to absorption cross sections. Reasons for the differences will be discussed. We conclude that for most operating scenarios, Er:Sc2O3 is the most promising of the Er-doped sesquioxides studied for laser operation around 1.5-1.6 microns.

Merkle, Larry D.; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay

2013-05-01

446

A Surfactant Bridge Model for the Nonlinear Electrorheological Effects of Surfactant-Activated ER Suspensions.  

PubMed

In surfactant-activated electrorheological (ER) suspensions it is observed that the ER response shows linear ER behavior (F~E(2)) at small surfactant concentrations and nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1) at large surfactant concentrations. Here, a surfactant bridge model is developed to explain the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions. The model shows that the formation and size of a surfactant bridge depend on various variables, especially the electric field strength, the surfactant surface tension, and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants on particles. The predicted dependence of the formation and size of a surfactant bridge on the electric field strength and the initially adsorbed amount of surfactants is consistent with the observations. Also, the model indicates that there is a critical minimum electric field E(crit) for the formation of a surfactant bridge, and the estimated E(crit) shows good agreement with the observations. The force acting between particles is composed of the electrostatic force and force associated with surface tension. However, it is found that the contribution of the force associated with surface tension can be ignored and the electrostatic force is dominant regardless of the formation of surfactant bridges between particles. When surfactant bridges are formed between particles, the predicted force shows nonlinear ER behavior (F~E(n), n approximately 1), consistent with the observed nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations. When no surfactant bridge is formed, the predicted force is proportional to the electric field squared (F~E(2)), consistent with the interfacial polarization. The model can successfully predict the nonlinear ER behavior at large surfactant concentrations, confirming that the nonlinear ER behavior of surfactant-activated ER suspensions arises from the observed formation of surfactant bridges between particles. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401368

Kim, Young Dae

2001-04-15

447

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica  

PubMed Central

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600C to 900C. An annealing treatment at 1,100C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3 0.3 nm and (3.1 0.2)1018 Si nanocrystallitescm?3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0 0.2)1018 clusterscm?3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites. PMID:23336324

2013-01-01

448

Sorting nexin 17 regulates ApoER2 recycling and reelin signaling.  

PubMed

ApoER2 is a member of the low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. As a receptor for reelin, ApoER2 participates in neuronal migration during development as well as synaptic plasticity and survival in the adult brain. A previous yeast two-hybrid screen showed that ApoER2 is a binding partner of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) - a cytosolic adaptor protein that regulates the trafficking of several membrane proteins in the endosomal pathway, including LRP1, P-selectin and integrins. However, no further studies have been performed to investigate the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function. In this study, we present evidence based on GST pull-down and inmunoprecipitation assays that the cytoplasmic NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2 interacts with the FERM domain of SNX17. SNX17 stimulates ApoER2 recycling in different cell lines including neurons without affecting its endocytic rate and also facilitates the transport of ApoER2 from the early endosomes to the recycling endosomes. The reduction of SNX17 was associated with accumulation of an ApoER2 carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). In addition, in SNX17 knockdown cells, constitutive ApoER2 degradation was not modified, whereas reelin-induced ApoER2 degradation was increased, implying that SNX17 is a regulator of the receptor's half-life. Finally, in SNX17 silenced hippocampal and cortical neurons, we underscored a positive role of this endosomal protein in the development of the dendritic tree and reelin signaling. Overall, these results establish the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function and aid in identifying new links between endocytic trafficking and receptor signaling. PMID:24705369

Sotelo, Pablo; Farfn, Pamela; Benitez, Mara Luisa; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, Mara-Paz

2014-01-01

449

Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Omoto, Y.; Humire, P. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)] [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, J.-A. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden) [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-08-10

450

Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural aspects with the use of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

The Er:YAG laser has an active medium of Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet doped with Erbium ions and emits free-running pulsed laser energy at a wavelength of 2940 nm. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser has an active medium of Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet doped with Erbium and Chromium ions and emits free-running pulsed laser energy at a wavelength of 2780 nm. These wavelengths have a high absorption in water, which makes their application appropriate for ablating oral soft tissue as well as dental hard tissue. This article examines the principles of use for the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in clinical restorative dentistry and reviews the literature regarding different aspects of the use of laser energy on hard tissues. PMID:19014022

Iaria, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

451

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

1991-01-01

452

Molecular beam epitaxy of ErGaAs alloys on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have successfully grown high crystalline quality ErGaAs alloy layers by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak of ErGaAs alloys was found to shift systematically from the GaAs peak with increasing Er concentration up to 3.7%. XRD (1 1 5) reciprocal space map measurements revealed that the ErGaAs epitaxial layer is coherently grown on GaAs. We found from XRD results that ErGaAs alloys with low Er concentrations tend to crystallize in the zincblende structure.

Jin, Ri Guo; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro; Katayama, Ryuji; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki

2013-09-01

453

BLEFAROPLASTIKA IN ODSTRANITEV PERIOKULARNIH KONIH GUB Z ER:YAG LASERJEM NOVE GENERACIJE BLEPHAROPLASTY AND PERIOCULAR SKIN RESURFACING WITH NEW GENERATION ER:YAG LASER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In this study, a new type of Er:YAG laser, emitting irradiation with variable pulse duration, has been used for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing in periocu- lar region. More than 40 patients have been treated with second genera- tion Er:YAG laser (Fotona Fidelis) for blepharoplasty and skin resurfacing. A focused laser beam (diameter 0.4 mm) with very short pulse width

Brigita Drnovek-Olup

454

Isolation and Characterization of a Metastatic Hybrid Cell Line Generated by ER Negative and ER Positive Breast Cancer Cells in Mouse Bone Marrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe origin and the contribution of breast tumor heterogeneity to its progression are not clear. We investigated the effect of a growing orthotopic tumor formed by an aggressive estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cell line on the metastatic potential of a less aggressive ER-positive breast cancer cell line for the elucidation of how the presence of heterogeneous cancer cells might

Keya De Mukhopadhyay; Abhik Bandyopadhyay; Ting-Tung A. Chang; Abdel G. Elkahloun; John E. Cornell; Junhua Yang; Beth A. Goins; I.-Tien Yeh; Lu-Zhe Sun; Sumitra Deb

2011-01-01

455

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

1990-01-01

456

DNA Inversion in the Tail Fiber Gene Alters the Host Range Specificity of Carotovoricin Er, a Phage-Tail-Like Bacteriocin of Phytopathogenic Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora Er  

PubMed Central

Carotovoricin Er is a phage-tail-like bacteriocin produced by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain Er, a causative agent for soft rot disease in plants. Here we studied binding and killing spectra of carotovoricin Er preparations for various strains of the bacterium (strains 645Ar, EC-2, N786, and P7) and found that the preparations contain two types of carotovoricin Er with different host specificities; carotovoricin Era possessing a tail fiber protein of 68 kDa killed strains 645Ar and EC-2, while carotovoricin Erb with a tail fiber protein of 76 kDa killed strains N786 and P7. The tail fiber proteins of 68 and 76 kDa had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences for at least 11 residues. A search of the carotovoricin Er region in the chromosome of strain Er indicated the occurrence of a DNA inversion system for the tail fiber protein consisting of (i) two 26-bp inverted repeats inside and downstream of the tail fiber gene that flank a 790-bp fragment and (ii) a putative DNA invertase gene with a 90-bp recombinational enhancer sequence. In fact, when a 1,400-bp region containing the 790-bp fragment was amplified by a PCR using the chromosomal DNA of strain Er as the template, both the forward and the reverse nucleotide sequences of the 790-bp fragment were detected. DNA inversion of the 790-bp fragment also occurred in Escherichia coli DH5? when two compatible plasmids carrying either the 790-bp fragment or the invertase gene were cotransformed into the bacterium. Furthermore, hybrid carotovoricin CGE possessing the tail fiber protein of 68 or 76 kDa exhibited a host range specificity corresponding to that of carotovoricin Era or Erb, respectively. Thus, a DNA inversion altered the C-terminal part of the tail fiber protein of carotovoricin Er, altering the host range specificity of the bacteriocin. PMID:11591670

Nguyen, Hoa Anh; Tomita, Toshio; Hirota, Morihiko; Kaneko, Jun; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

2001-01-01

457

Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland using ERS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland glaciers was calculated at the grounding line using ERS radar interferometry data acquired during the tandem phase. The resulting estimates exceed the production of icebergs at the glacier fronts by a factor of 3.5. This large decrease in ice flux is attributed to extensive melting at the underside of the floating sections. When compared to the predicted grounding line ice discharge of an ice sheet in balance, the results show an excess of 28 cubic km/yr of ice lost to the ocean. The north and northeast sectors of the Greenland ice sheet are therefore thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise.

Rignot, Eric

1997-01-01

458

Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

1997-12-01

459

TRAP assists membrane protein topogenesis at the mammalian ER membrane.  

PubMed

Membrane protein insertion and topogenesis generally occur at the Sec61 translocon in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. During this process, membrane spanning segments may adopt two distinct orientations with either their N- or C-terminus translocated into the ER lumen. While different topogenic determinants in membrane proteins, such as flanking charges, polypeptide folding, and hydrophobicity, have been identified, it is not well understood how the translocon and/or associated components decode them. Here we present evidence that the translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex is involved in membrane protein topogenesis in vivo. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of the TRAP complex in HeLa cells enhanced the topology effect of mutating the flanking charges of a signal-anchor, but not of increasing signal hydrophobicity. The results suggest a role of the TRAP complex in moderating the 'positive-inside' rule. PMID:24013069

Sommer, Nicole; Junne, Tina; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Spiess, Martin; Hartmann, Enno

2013-12-01

460

PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

Richardson, R.B.

1996-06-01

461

Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

1995-04-01

462

FINAL REPORT DOE/ER/63705-1  

SciTech Connect

Our DOE project is one of the efforts that comprised the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program [VTMX] of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy and was supported originally by DOE grant ER 62847. The Advanced Regional Prediction System [ARPS] computer code was used to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. This continuation grant was designed to allow us to complete our work on VTMX. The primary outcome of this grant was the completion of the dissertation of Dr. Ying Chen. In that work, several turbulence models were tested, a new surface vegetation model was developed, and Weather Research and Forecast code simulations were compared with ARPS runs.

R.L. Street; F.L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

2005-10-31

463

Operational control of the ERS-1 Active Microwave Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ERS-1 Active Microwave Instrumentation (AMI) is required to operate in a number of measurement, system calibration and other modes according to very precise mission timelining requirements, pre-programmed from the mission control station via the spacecraft's on-board computer (OBC) to the AMI's own microprocessor-based Instrument Control Unit. This paper describes the operational requirements for the AMI, including operational mission timelines, mode control and instrument control system design. As the spacecraft is out of contact with the ground station for a large part of its operating lifetime, and a large number of mode switching and other autonomous instrument control functions are required, the operational demands on the 8086 microprocessor controllers and associated control circuits are complex and demanding. Problems associated with autonomous microprocessor control of a complex spaceborne instrument are identified and solutions to these problems described. Some future developments in this fast developing field are also discussed.

Joyce, H.; Williams, R. M.; Morgan, D. J.

464

Redefining the metabolic continuity of chloroplasts and ER.  

PubMed

As a hub for plant metabolism, plastids extensively exchange metabolites with the extraplastid environment. For polar metabolites, membrane transporters mediate this exchange, but for many plastid-synthesized nonpolar compounds, such transporters remain elusive. Here, we discuss recent data from transorganellar complementation studies that demonstrate that enzymes in one organelle can directly access nonpolar metabolites from a companion organelle. We propose that a mechanism, based on hemifused-membranes at plastid-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites, facilitates interorganellar interactions and allows enzymes direct, transporter-independent access to a range of nonpolar compounds in both organelle membranes. In a wider context, interorganellar metabolism at hemifusion interfaces would allow evolution of membrane-spanning pathways for the many thousands of nonpolar metabolites in the plant kingdom to be uncoupled from coevolution with nonpolar metabolite transporters. PMID:24679997

Mehrshahi, Payam; Johnny, Cassandra; DellaPenna, Dean

2014-08-01

465

EPR = ER and Scattering Amplitude as Entanglement Entropy Change  

E-print Network

Alday and Maldacena have found an exact minimal surface of open string world-sheet describing a gluon scattering. We study the causal structure of that minimal surface in AdS of position space, and find a world-sheet wormhole parametrized by Mandelstam variables. If we figure a gluon as an open string in AdS, the ribbon connecting the two strings always pass the world-sheet wormhole, demonstrating the EPR = ER for gluon scattering. Since entanglement is caused by an interaction, one can ask what is the relation between entanglement entropy and the scattering amplitude. We propose an answer by generalizing the holographic entanglement entropy (EE) of Ryu-Takayanagi to the case where two regions are divided in space-time and interpret the result as the change of EE.

Seki, Shigenori

2014-01-01

466

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

Townsend, M.J.

2000-12-01

467

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

468

Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm28 mm9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm24 mm8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

2012-01-01

469

Structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics for a-IGZO thin-film transistors  

PubMed Central

In this letter, we investigated the structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics on the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. Compared with the Er2O3 dielectric, the a-IGZO TFT device incorporating an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric exhibited a low threshold voltage of 0.39 V, a high field-effect mobility of 8.8 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold swing of 143 mV/decade, and a high Ion/Ioff current ratio of 4.23 107, presumably because of the reduction in the oxygen vacancies and the formation of the smooth surface roughness as a result of the incorporation of Ti into the Er2TiO5 film. Furthermore, the reliability of voltage stress can be improved using an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric. PMID:23294730

2013-01-01

470

Structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics for a-IGZO thin-film transistors.  

PubMed

In this letter, we investigated the structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics on the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. Compared with the Er2O3 dielectric, the a-IGZO TFT device incorporating an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric exhibited a low threshold voltage of 0.39 V, a high field-effect mobility of 8.8 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold swing of 143 mV/decade, and a high Ion/Ioff current ratio of 4.23 107, presumably because of the reduction in the oxygen vacancies and the formation of the smooth surface roughness as a result of the incorporation of Ti into the Er2TiO5 film. Furthermore, the reliability of voltage stress can be improved using an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric. PMID:23294730

Chen, Fa-Hsyang; Her, Jim-Long; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Pan, Tung-Ming

2013-01-01

471

Structural and electrical characteristics of high- ? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics for a-IGZO thin-film transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we investigated the structural and electrical characteristics of high- ? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics on the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. Compared with the Er2O3 dielectric, the a-IGZO TFT device incorporating an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric exhibited a low threshold voltage of 0.39 V, a high field-effect mobility of 8.8 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold swing of 143 mV/decade, and a high I on/ I off current ratio of 4.23 107, presumably because of the reduction in the oxygen vacancies and the formation of the smooth surface roughness as a result of the incorporation of Ti into the Er2TiO5 film. Furthermore, the reliability of voltage stress can be improved using an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric.

Chen, Fa-Hsyang; Her, Jim-Long; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Pan, Tung-Ming

2013-01-01

472

Optically active centers in Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures containing Er{sup 3+} ions  

SciTech Connect

The basic types of optically active erbium centers that make the major contribution to the photo-luminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content from 10 to 30% are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the origin of the optically active centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions correlates with the molar composition of the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer and the content of oxygen impurity in the layer. The major contribution to the photoluminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content below 25% is made by the well-known centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions and oxygen. An increase in the Ge content in the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer (x {>=} 25%) yields the formation of a new type of centers, specifically, the Gecontaining optically active erbium centers unobserved in the Si-based structures previously.

Krasilnikova, L. V., E-mail: Luda@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Strepikhova, M. V.; Baidakova, N. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chalkov, V. Yu.; Shengurov, V. G. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Research Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

473

Estimating Slip Distribution for the Izmit Mainshock from Coseismic GPS, ERS-1, RADARSAT, and SPOT Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use four geodetic satellite systems (Global Positioning System (GPS), European Remote Sensing (ERS), RADARSAT, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)) to measure the permanent deformation field pro- duced by the I zmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. We emphasize measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by ERS and RADARSAT and their geodetic

Kurt L. Feigl; Francesco Sarti; Helene Vadon; Simon McClusky; Semih Ergintav; Philippe Durand; Roland Burgmann; Alexis Rigo; Didier Massonnet; Rob Reilinger

2002-01-01

474

Passively Q-switched diode-pumped Er:YAG solid-state laser  

E-print Network

light is provided by a fiber-coupled laser diode from QPC with a 40 active imaging or Lidar. The pump sources are either Er:Yb fiber lasers operating at 1532 nm [1] or laser] with a diffraction limited Er:Yb fiber laser as pump source. Recently, directly diode-pumped emitters achieved 8 W

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

The Clinical Significance of PR, ER, NF-?B, and TNF-? in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in human breast cancer (BC), and the correlation of these four parameters with clinicopathological features of BC. Methods and Results. We performed an immunohistochemical SABC method for the identification of ER, PR, NF-?B, and TNF-? expression in 112 patients with primary BC. The total positive expression rate of ER, PR, NF-?B, and TNF-? was 67%, 76%, 84%, and 94%, respectively. The expressions of ER and PR were correlated with tumor grade, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01, resp.), but not with age, tumor size, histological subtype, age at menarche, menopause status, number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and family history of cancer. Expressions of ER and PR were both correlated with NF-?B and TNF-? expression (P < 0.05, resp.). Moreover, there was significant correlation between ER and PR (P < 0.0001) as well as between NF-?B and TNF-? expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PR and ER are highly expressed, with significant correlation with NF-?B and TNF-? expression in breast cancer. The important roles of ER and PR in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer are probably associated with NF-?B and TNF-? expression. PMID:24864130

Zhou, Xian-Long; Fan, Wei; Yang, Gui; Yu, Ming-Xia

2014-01-01

476

Enhanced luminescence in Er3+ -doped chalcogenide glass-ceramics based on selenium  

E-print Network

Enhanced luminescence in Er3+ -doped chalcogenide glass-ceramics based on selenium Mathieu Huberta in a selenium- based glass-ceramic having a composition of 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3+1000 ppm Er. The optical have never been reported in s