Sample records for raske overvaegtige er

  1. ER News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Energy Research News (ER News) is a bimonthly newsletter supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research. This newsletter focuses on informing engineers, researchers, and the interested public of the latest research and technology advancements at OER. Topics include energy generation, microbiology, the Human Genome Project, global weather change, computing, and more. Users may register for an email reminder (topic list) that announces each new issue. Back issues (to April 1995) are available.

  2. The ER Within Plasmodesmata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn M. Wright; Karl Oparka

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential component of plasmodesmata, the membrane-lined pores\\u000a that interconnect plant cells. The desmotubule which traverses the centre of a plasmodesma is formed\\u000a from, and continuous with, the cortical ER. Whilst the exact role of the ER is only now being characterised,\\u000a it is recognised that the ER is intimately involved in the transfer of molecules

  3. Going to the ER

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

  4. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data above 95 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. At this altitude the aircraft provides a stable platform for Earth imagery, atmospheric research, and electronic sensor development. Because the ER-2 can fly so high, its sensors 'mimic' sensors carried aboard orbiting satellites. For most missions the ER-2 operates at altitudes between 65,000 feet and 70,000 feet. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches a cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within 20 minutes. Typical cruise speed is 410 knots. The range for a normal 6-hour mission is 2,200 nautical miles (4,070 kilometers), which yields 5 hours of data collection at high altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions of up to 8 hours and ranges of up to 3,000 nautical miles (5,500 kilometers). The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds (1,179 kilograms) distributed in the equipment bay, nose area, and wing pods. In 1991, NASA launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as an environmental system, now called the Earth Science Enterprise. By using satellites and other tools like the ER-2 to intensively study the Earth, NASA hopes to expand human understanding of how natural processes affect people and how people might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, the ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA ER-2 aircraft have played an important role in Earth Science research, like studying ozone depletion over Antarctica and the Arctic. In August and September 1987 an ER-2 traveled to Punta Arenas, Chile, to conduct overflights of the Antarctic. Results from this study provided information suggesting that human-made chemical compounds, specifically chloro-fluorocarbons, caused enormous ozone depletion over the Antarctic region. Subsequent deployments have continued the study of the production and loss of ozone in the polar stratosphere. Atmospheric experiments were flown from Stavanger, Norway in January and February 1989 north of the Arcti

  5. Er det noe nytt under solen?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karstein Haldorsen; AV KARSTEIN HALDORSEN

    Denne artikkelen vil kaste lys på noen aktuelle sider ved fibromyalgi, inklusive nytt om behandling av tilstanden. Først noen påstander: • Fibromyalgi (FM) er ingen sykdom - samtidig er pasien - ten syk. • Diagnostiske kriterier for FM finnes ikke. • All smerte er reell. • Tilstanden er sammensatt og har mange differensialdiag - noser. • Genetiske og hormonelle faktorer

  6. atomic response IR = |ER(nr) + Eat |

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ER(nr) non- resonant reflection (resonant) atomic response windo w dilute vapou r IR = |ER 6 8 9 @ A B 8 8 9 @ A B 8 (qualitative approach) Irefl = |ER(nr)1 + ER(nr)2 + Eat|² windo w dilute n1 =1 n3 = n1 windo w Continuity equations at the two boundaries between the three media: - air, n1

  7. Thermal and electromagnetic properties of 166-Er and 167-Er

    E-print Network

    E. Melby; M. Guttormsen; J. Rekstad; A. Schiller; S. Siem; A. Voinov

    2000-10-30

    The primary gamma-ray spectra of 166-Er and 167-Er are deduced from the (3-He,alpha gamma) and (3-He,3-He' gamma) reaction, respectively, enabling a simultaneous extraction of the level density and the gamma-ray strength function. Entropy, temperature and heat capacity are deduced from the level density within the micro-canonical and the canonical ensemble, displaying signals of a phase-like transition from the pair-correlated ground state to an uncorrelated state at Tc=0.5 MeV. The gamma-ray strength function displays a bump around E-gamma=3 MeV, interpreted as the pygmy resonance.

  8. Solstrling er temaet i denne boka. Alt liv er avhengig av solstrling sola gir liv, og sola er

    E-print Network

    Sahay, Sundeep

    ;Solstråling Innledning ....................................................7 Kapittel 1 Hva er solstråling? ........................................10 1.1 Solstrålingens opprinnelse .....................10 1.2 Hva er stråling

  9. ER? Phosphorylation at Y537 by Src Triggers E6-AP-ER? Binding, ER? Ubiquitylation, Promoter Occupancy, and Target Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Zhou, Wen; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Nawaz, Zafar

    2012-01-01

    Many transcription factors undergo transcription-coupled proteolysis. Although ligand binding activates ubiquitin proteolysis of estrogen receptor ? (ER?), mechanisms governing this and its relationship to transcriptional activation were unclear. Data presented link cross talk between the Src kinase and liganded ER? with ER? activation and its ubiquitylation. Liganded ER? rapidly activates and recruits Src, which phosphorylates ER? at tyrosine 537 (Y537). This enhances ER? binding to the ubiquitin ligase/ER? coactivator, E6-associated protein (E6-AP), stimulating ER? ubiquitylation, target gene activation, and ultimately ER? loss. ER? phosphorylation by Src promotes ER? ubiquitylation by E6-AP and proteasomal degradation in vitro. Src inhibition impairs estrogen (E2)-activated ER?:E6-AP binding, reducing ER? degradation. ER?-Y537F shows little E2-stimulated degradation and activates native ER? target genes poorly. Src activation enhances ER? and E6-AP binding and their occupancy at ER? target gene promoters to enhance transcription. Thus, ER?Y537 phosphorylation drives ER?:E6-AP binding to at least a subset of target promoters, linking transcriptional activation to ER? degradation and providing a novel mechanism to fine tune ER? action. The observation that ER? transcriptional activity can be briskly maintained in a context of reduced ER? levels raises the possibility that hormonally sensitive tissues may not always show robust ER? protein levels. PMID:22865929

  10. Annual Report Pet er Wall

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    Annual Report 1999-2000 Pet er Wall In stit ute for Adva nced St u dies #12;#12;A3 Annual Report 1999 ­ 2000 The Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies supports basic research through, interdisciplinary, innovative, and unique. #12;A4 Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies #12;1 Annual Report 1999

  11. ERS-1 SAR data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

    1986-01-01

    To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

  12. INFORMATIQUE PROGRAMMES DE 1ER

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    INFORMATIQUE PROGRAMMES DE 1ER CYCLE M SCIENCES M FACULTÉ DES ARTS ET DES SCIENCES CYNTHIA BEAUCHEMIN M ÉTUDIANTE AU BAC EN INFORMATIQUE ET RÉCIPIENDAIRE 2009 DE LA BOURSE ADA-LOVELACE M www.fas.umontreal.ca Bien au-delà de la programmation, l'informatique est une véritable science qui utilise l

  13. ERS Focus On: Educating Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

  14. Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katherine Esau

    2004-03-09

    Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

  15. The ERS-2 spacecraft and its payload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Francis; G. Graf; P. G. Edwards; M. McCraig; C. McCarthy; A. Lefebvre; B. Pieper; P.-Y. Pouvreau; R. Wall; F. Weschler

    1995-01-01

    The ERS-2 satellite is essentially the same as ERS-1 except that it includes a number of enhancements and it is carrying a new payload instrument to measure the chemical composition of the atmosphere, named the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). Other major instruments common to ERS-1 and ERS-2 are the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI), the Radar Altimeter (RA), the Along-Track

  16. SCAR-B ER2 MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-23

    SCAR-B ER2 MAS Project Title:  SCAR-B Discipline:  ... Platform:  NASA ER-2 Instrument:  MAS Spatial Coverage:  (-19.20, 34.96)(-116.36, -45.94) ... Readme Files:  Readme SCAR-B ER2 MAS Summaries Read Software Files :  C Code ...

  17. http://er.aera.net Educational Researcher

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    http://er.aera.net Educational Researcher http://edr.sagepub.com/content/41/9/339 The online:Educational ResearcherAdditional services and information for http://er.aera.net/alertsEmail Alerts: http://er.aera.net/subscriptionsSubscriptions: http://www.aera.net/reprintsReprints: http://www.aera.net/permissionsPermissions: What is This? - Dec 5

  18. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA Due Nov. 6

  19. Norway's ERS-1 SAR Processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sverre Holm; A. Maoy; E.-A. Herland

    1990-01-01

    A high-performance processing facility for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is described. The SAR processor is designed for the ERS-1 remote sensing satellite and will process one 100 km by 100 km scene in six to seven minutes. The SAR processor is built around a 320 MFLOPS parallel processor. The front-end processor is a mini-computer which provides the input\\/output capacity necessary

  20. ERS-1 calibration and validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Attema; R. Francis

    1991-01-01

    The facilities and procedures to be used in calibrating and validating the remote-sensing instruments of the ESA ERS-1 satellite are described and illustrated with drawings, maps, and photographs. Sections are devoted to the engineering calibration of the Active Microwave Instrument (using ground transponders in the Netherlands and Spain for the image\\/wave-mode SAR and the wind scatterometer, respectively), the radar altimeter

  1. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

  2. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C

    2013-12-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. PMID:23850759

  3. Xenoestrogens Alter Estrogen Receptor (ER) ? Intracellular Levels

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Pellegrini, Marco; Totta, Pierangela; Acconcia, Filippo; Marino, Maria

    2014-01-01

    17?-estradiol (E2)-dependent estrogen receptor (ER) ? intracellular concentration is a well recognized critical step in the pleiotropic effects elicited by E2 in several target tissues. Beside E2, a class of synthetic and plant-derived chemicals collectively named endocrine disruptors (EDs) or xenoestrogens bind to and modify both nuclear and extra-nuclear ER? activities. However, at the present no information is available on the ability of EDs to hamper ER? intracellular concentration. Here, the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and naringenin (Nar), prototypes of synthetic and plant-derived ER? ligands, have been evaluated on ER? levels in MCF-7 cells. Both EDs mimic E2 in triggering ER? Ser118 phosphorylation and gene transcription. However, only E2 or BPA induce an increase of cell proliferation; whereas 24 hrs after Nar stimulation a dose-dependent decrease in cell number is reported. E2 or BPA treatment reduces ER? protein and mRNA levels after 24 hrs. Contrarily, Nar stimulation does not alter ER? content but reduces ER? mRNA levels like other ligands. Co-stimulation experiments indicate that 48 hrs of Nar treatment prevents the E2-induced ER? degradation and hijacks the physiological ability of E2:ER? complex to regulate gene transcription. Mechanistically, Nar induces ER? protein accumulation by preventing proteasomal receptor degradation via persistent activation of p38/MAPK pathway. As a whole these data demonstrate that ER? intracellular concentration is an important target through which EDs hamper the hormonal milieu of E2 target cells driving cells to different outcomes or mimicking E2 even in the absence of the hormone. PMID:24586459

  4. Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, R.S.P.E, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stefanescu, I. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The stable and neutron-rich isotopes {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic {sup 136}Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K{sup p}i=4{sup -} isomeric intrinsic states in both {sup 168}Er and {sup 170}Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in {sup 172}Er. In {sup 170}Er, the identification of a K{sup p}i=6{sup -} band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4{sup -} band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The g{sub K}-g{sub R} values for the 4{sup -} bands deduced from the in-band gamma-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in {sup 168}Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in {sup 170}Er, and a two-proton configuration in {sup 172}Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6{sup +} isomer in {sup 172}Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6{sup +} and 7{sup -} two-neutron structures known in the isotone {sup 174}Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6{sup +} isomer occurs through the newly identified 4{sup -} isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4{sup -} and 6{sup +} isomers in {sup 172}Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

  5. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-? but retain the ER-? expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-? and ER-?). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-? and ER-? in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-? mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-? is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-? in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-? could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-? was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-?. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-? was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-? expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-? but maintain the ER-? actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-? in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-? in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-? in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  6. 49ER ID CARD One card that does it all!

    E-print Network

    Chen, Keh-Hsun

    49ER ID CARD One card that does it all! A 49ER ID CARD ALLOWS ACCESS TO: · Campus housing · Campus Account To get a 49er ID card, you'll need: aux.uncc.edu/49er 49ER ACCOUNT The 49er Account is a pre IT'S ALSO: · a meal plan card · a library card AND HOLDS FUNDS FOR: · Optional Dining Account · 49er

  7. ER Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GWENDAL LAZENNEC; DAMIEN BRESSON; ANNICK LUCAS; CORINE CHAUVEAU; FRANCOISE VIGNON

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the expression of ER in breast cancer is lower than in the normal breast, suggesting that ER could play an important role in carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we engineered ER-negative MDA-MB-231 (hu- man breast cancer cells) to reintroduce either ER or ER protein with an adenoviral vector. In these cells, ER (as ER) expression was

  8. The Morphology and Dynamics of the ER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Quader; Michael Zachariadis

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a non-uniform compartment in plants as regards its morphology\\u000a and function. It extends as a highly anastomosing membranous network throughout the cytoplasm, is\\u000a the major compartment of membrane biogenesis, and has been verified to function as the starting site for\\u000a the secretory pathway. Early electron microscopy studies revealed three morphological ER sub-domains: the\\u000a smooth ER, the rough

  9. Overflader er ekstremt vigtige i bio-logi og medicin, for det er her, tinge-

    E-print Network

    overflader er lige så vigtige i mange anvendelser udenfor kroppen. Nogle eksempler er DNA-chips og pro biokompatible overflader skærpes yderligere, hvis vi prø- ver at få stamceller til at gro, specialisere sig og

  10. Energy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    countries with average annual per capita energy consumption rates under 1 TOE)? [5 points] 2. Exponential growth models The OECD (or broadly speaking developed) nations' energy consumption and 2 emissions haveEnergy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Problem Set #2 Total Points: 100 for ER100

  11. Processing effects on microstructure in Er and ErD2 thin-films.

    SciTech Connect

    Kammler, Daniel R.; Parish, Chad (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brewer, Luke N.

    2010-04-01

    Erbium metal thin-films have been deposited on molybdenum-on-silicon substrates and then converted to erbium dideuteride (ErD{sub 2}). Here, we study the effects of deposition temperature ({approx}300 or 723 K) and deposition rate (1 or 20 nm/s) upon the initial Er metal microstructure and subsequent ErD{sub 2} microstructure. We find that low deposition temperature and low deposition rate lead to small Er metal grain sizes, and high deposition temperature and deposition rate led to larger Er metal grain sizes, consistent with published models of metal thin-film growth. ErD{sub 2} grain sizes are strongly influenced by the prior-metal grain size, with small metal grains leading to large ErD{sub 2} grains. A novel sample preparation technique for electron backscatter diffraction of air-sensitive ErD{sub 2} was developed, and allowed the quantitative measurement of ErD{sub 2} grain size and crystallographic texture. Finer-grained ErD{sub 2} showed a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture, whereas larger grained ErD{sub 2} had only weak texture. We hypothesize that this inverse correlation may arise from improved hydrogen diffusion kinetics in the more defective fine-grained metal structure or due to improved nucleation in the textured large-grain Er.

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  13. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  14. College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 ER 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE. (1 offered by the Department of Emergency Medicine. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity

  15. The ERS-2 spacecraft and its payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. R.; Graf, G.; Edwards, P. G.; McCraig, M.; McCarthy, C.; Lefebvre, A.; Pieper, B.; Pouvreau, P.-Y.; Wall, R.; Weschler, F.

    1995-08-01

    The ERS-2 satellite is essentially the same as ERS-1 except that it includes a number of enhancements and it is carrying a new payload instrument to measure the chemical composition of the atmosphere, named the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). Other major instruments common to ERS-1 and ERS-2 are the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI), the Radar Altimeter (RA), the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), the Microwave Radiometer (MWR) and the Precise Range and Range Rate Experiment (PRARE). The AMI operates in three different modes devoted to radar imagery, and oceanic wind and wave measurements. The RA measures precisely the altitude over ocean ice and land surfaces and also measures oceanic wind and waves. The ATSR measures sea-surface temperatures and has been enhanced for ERS-2 by including visible channels for vegetation monitoring. The MWR and PRARE both support the RA mission by providing information respectively on propagation delays of the radar signal and satellite positioning.

  16. Determination of the electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films by magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-03-01

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films for device applications have been of great recent interest. The magnitude of optical activity depends on local crystalline environments of Er. Here we focus on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er (1.6 at.%) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on Si substrate. X-ray diffraction of the films shows that Er doping expands the lattice and XPS studies confirm the presence of Er. To determine if Er is present as Er metal, Er2O3 or Er3+ substituting for Al3+, magnetization was measured vs. temperature (2 K to 300 K) in H = 1kOe and data is found to fit the Curie law with a magnetic moment ? = 4.85 ?B per Er, in good agreement with expected value for Er3+ substituting for Al3+ in AlN. The presence of Er2O3 and Er metal is ruled out since magnetic transitions expected for Er2O3 (Er metal) at 3.4 K (~30 K) are not observed, thus establishing that Er substitutes for Al as Er3+ in the AlN:Er films.

  17. An ab initio-based Er–He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; ye, Yeting; Fan, K. M.; Shen, Huahai; Peng, Shuming; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV ) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp-Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

  18. An ab initio-based Er-He interatomic potential in hcp Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Ye, Y. T.; Fan, K. M.; Shen, H. H.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.

    2014-09-01

    We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from the ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

  19. ER Doctors Cautious When Prescribing Narcotic Painkillers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_152357.html ER Doctors Cautious When Prescribing Narcotic Painkillers: Study They're dispensing lower number of ... U.S. emergency room doctors are cautious when prescribing narcotic painkillers that carry a high risk of abuse, ...

  20. Explorewww.trentu.ca/ers Environmental

    E-print Network

    Fox, Michael

    Explorewww.trentu.ca/ers Explore Your Passion Environmental and Resource Studies/Science. Trent environmental research, natural resource conservation, environmental planning and assessment, water and waste from interdisciplinary study of environmental science and environmental studies Address contemporary

  1. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  2. EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg

    E-print Network

    Manchak, John

    EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg #12;mastEr of NursiNg (mN) The UniversiTy of WashingTon BoThell MasTer of nUrsing prograM prepares nurses for advanced leadership roles in health care practice and elective credits support a wide range of nursing interests that allow a custom fit to your individual goals

  3. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  4. Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi.

    PubMed

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A; Garcia, Jennifer F; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J; Madhani, Hiten D

    2012-07-10

    Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate. PMID:22733737

  5. Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A.; Garcia, Jennifer F.; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2012-01-01

    Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate. PMID:22733737

  6. Ikke gjr deg dummere enn du er! Gudmund Hernes

    E-print Network

    Fomin, Fedor V.

    er hvem ­ noen er jo begge deler på samme tid. Hva er da universitetets program for deg? Enkelt sagt fellen jeg har lagt for deg ­ og nå slipper du ikke unna! For her kommer spørsmålet: Hva er det som står

  7. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20–50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole. PMID:26181331

  8. Local compositional environment of Er in ZnS:ErF(3) thin film electroluminescent phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, David M [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    ZnS:Er thin film electroluminescent phosphors have been shown to exhibit a marked maximum in the near infrared emission (NIR) after a 425 C post-deposition anneal with a very narrow temperature window of {+-} 25 C for optimal NIR emission. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been obtained from both the Zn and Er edges in order to examine the local structure of the host and dopant in this NIR phosphor material. Interestingly, the addition of only {approx}0.5 mol. % of Er as ErF{sub 3} into the host is found to reduce the Zn-S bond length of one of the two nearest Zn-S shells by 0.6 {angstrom} relative to high-quality, atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) grown, pure ZnS. The coordination number of this shorter Zn-S bond increases after the optimal 425 C anneal. Longer range fits indicate a highly disordered structure, overall, consistent with earlier TEM results. Erbium-L{sub 3} EXAFS data from the second and third shells show increasing crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature in the vicinity of the Er dopant. Data from the first shell cannot be fit with S atoms, but are fit equally well with either O or F. Comparison with earlier analyses indicates that the Er is most likely surrounded by F in the first shell. Based on these data and previous studies, we develop a model in which the Er dopant is present as an Er:F{sub x} complex with associated S vacancies, which may include one sulfur atom remaining in the Er nearest shell. Upon annealing, there is a reduction in the F present and a rearrangement of the crystal structure in the vicinity of the Er atom. Optimum annealing conditions occur when optimal crystalline environment is achieved prior to the loss of too much F from the Er:F{sub x} complex.

  9. Local compositional environment of Er in ZnS:ErF3 thin film electroluminescent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark R.; Stoupin, Stanislav; DeVito, David; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Segre, Carlo; Holloway, Paul H.

    2011-03-01

    ZnS:Er thin film electroluminescent phosphors have been shown to exhibit a marked maximum in the near infrared emission (NIR) after a 425 °C post-deposition anneal with a very narrow temperature window of ±25 °C for optimal NIR emission. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been obtained from both the Zn and Er edges in order to examine the local structure of the host and dopant in this NIR phosphor material. Interestingly, the addition of only ˜0.5 mol. % of Er as ErF3 into the host is found to reduce the Zn-S bond length of one of the two nearest Zn-S shells by 0.6 Å relative to high-quality, atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) grown, pure ZnS. The coordination number of this shorter Zn-S bond increases after the optimal 425 °C anneal. Longer range fits indicate a highly disordered structure, overall, consistent with earlier TEM results. Erbium-L3 EXAFS data from the second and third shells show increasing crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature in the vicinity of the Er dopant. Data from the first shell cannot be fit with S atoms, but are fit equally well with either O or F. Comparison with earlier analyses indicates that the Er is most likely surrounded by F in the first shell. Based on these data and previous studies, we develop a model in which the Er dopant is present as an Er:Fx complex with associated S vacancies, which may include one sulfur atom remaining in the Er nearest shell. Upon annealing, there is a reduction in the F present and a rearrangement of the crystal structure in the vicinity of the Er atom. Optimum annealing conditions occur when optimal crystalline environment is achieved prior to the loss of too much F from the Er:Fx complex.

  10. Fabrication and properties of highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianpeng Qin; Hao Yang; Guohong Zhou; Dewei Luo; Yan Yang; Jian Zhang; Shiwei Wang; Jan Ma; Dingyuan Tang

    Highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated by a reactive sintering method under vacuum. The optical properties and the microstructures of the Er:YAG ceramics were investigated. For 3mm thickness samples, the in-line transmittances of the as-fabricated Er:YAG ceramics at the wavelength of 1100nm and 400nm were about 84% and 82%, respectively. The micrograph of the Er:YAG

  11. Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast cancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers, these drugs do not prevent the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify agents that can prevent ER-negative breast cancer. We have studied the cancer preventative activity of several classes of drugs for their ability to prevent ER-negative breast cancer in preclinical models. Results from these studies demonstrate that rexinoids (analogs of retinoids that bind and activate RXR receptors), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as EGFR inhibitors and dual kinase inhibitors that block EGFR and HER2/neu signaling), and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors all prevent ER-negative breast cancer in transgenic mice that develop ER-negative breast cancer. Other promising agents now under investigation include vitamin D and vitamin D analogs, drugs that activate PPAR-gamma nuclear receptors, and statins. Many of these agents are now being tested in early phase cancer prevention clinical trials to determine whether they will show activity in breast tissue and whether they are safe for use in high-risk women without breast cancer. The current status of these studies will be reviewed. It is anticipated that in the future, drugs that effectively prevent ER-negative breast cancer will be used in combination with hormonal agents such SERMs or aromatase inhibitors to prevent all forms of breast cancer. PMID:19213564

  12. 2. Oracle Designer I: ER-Diagrams 2-1 Part 2: ER-Diagrams

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    2. Oracle Designer I: ER-Diagrams 2-1 Part 2: ER-Diagrams in Oracle Designer References: · Barker. · Koletzke/Dorsey: Oracle Designer Handbook, 2nd Edition. ORACLE Press, 1998, ISBN 0-07-882417-6, ca. $40. · A. Lulushi: Inside Oracle Designer/2000. Prentice Hall, 1998, ISBN 0-13-849753-2, ca. $50. · Oracle

  13. 44 LA LOUISIANE | SUmmEr 2011 hE UNIvErSIty

    E-print Network

    Raghavan, Vijay

    professional practice in Louisiana. "In a world that has only recently awakened to the value of the wetlands44 LA LOUISIANE | SUmmEr 2011 T hE UNIvErSIty of Louisiana at Lafayette Founda- tion honored four professor of architecture at Louisiana State University in Baton rouge. together, they are partners

  14. Spectroscopic properties of Er doped and Er, Nd codoped fluoride glasses under simulated sunlight illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Hiroyuki; Hughes, Mark A.; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the fluorescence characteristics of Er codoped Nd doped ZBLAN glasses proposed for solar pumped fiber laser (SPFL) under simulated sunlight. Er is used as a sensitizer because it absorbs a part of the ultraviolet and visible light where is no absorption of Nd. Under simulated sunlight illumination, Er singly doped fluoride glass displayed four emission bands with peaks at 550, 848, 977 and 1533 nm attributed to the 4S 3/2- 4I 15/2, 4S 3/2- 4I 13/2, 4I 11/2- 4I 15/2 and 4I 13/2- 4I 15/2 electronic transitions of Er, respectively. The quantum efficiency measurement was carried out using an integrating sphere and under the simulated sunlight excitation showed a maximum of 73% for 0.5 mol.% of ErF 3 in ZBLAN glass. In Nd, Er codoped fluoride glass, the 1.05 ?m emission of Nd was observed under 380 nm excitation what supposes the energy transfer from Er to Nd in ZBLAN glasses as Nd has no absorption at the wavelength. Er, Nd codoped fluoride glasses are promising as a sensitized laser media for solar pumped fiber lasers.

  15. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  16. ER - the key to the highway.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Giovanni; Hawes, Chris; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle at the start of the secretory pathway and the list of its functions is continually growing. The ER organization as a tubular/cisternal network at the cortex of plant cells has recently been shown to be governed by the membrane tubulation proteins of the reticulon family working alongside plant atlastin homologues, members of the RHD3 group of proteins. Such a network has intimate connections with other organelles such as peroxisomes via peroxules, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and at the cell cortex to the plasma membrane with cytoskeleton at so called 'anchor/contact sites'. The ER network is by no means static displaying a range of different movements and acting as a subcellular highway supports the motility of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies plus the transport of macromolecules such as viral movement proteins, nucleocapsid proteins and RNA. Here we highlight recent and exciting discoveries on the maintenance of the ER structure and its role on movement and biology of other organelles. PMID:25259957

  17. ma-er... Ba-le of

    E-print Network

    Mumby, Peter J.

    because ideas s*ll ma-er... sponsor the Ba-le of Ideas 2013... #12;what is the Ba-le of Ideas? Since 2005, the Ins*tute of Ideas' flagship event, the Ba-le of Ideas, has brought fresh ideas and provoca*ve public debate

  18. http://er.aera.net Educational Researcher

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    the educational potential of games (Gee, 2003; Shaffer, 2007; Squire, 2006; Steinkeuhler, 2006), and we are seeinghttp://er.aera.net Educational Researcher http://edr.sagepub.com/content/39/7/525 The online version of this article can be found at: DOI: 10.3102/0013189X10386593 2010 39: 525EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER

  19. ChaptEr 1 Earth's Closest Neighbors

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    ChaptEr 1 Earth's Closest Neighbors The dinosaurs became extinct because they didn't have a space the gas tank. As unlikely as it sounds, a fragment of a near-Earth asteroid that had collided with Earth destroyed Michelle's car. The fiery trail of the ini- tial, Volkswagen-sized, near-Earth asteroid was first

  20. ER and vacuoles: never been closer

    PubMed Central

    Viotti, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the gateway for intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins, soluble cargoes and lipids. In all eukaryotes, the best described mechanism of exiting the ER is via COPII-coated vesicles, which transport both membrane proteins and soluble cargoes to the cis-Golgi. The vacuole, together with the plasma membrane, is the most distal point of the secretory pathway, and many vacuolar proteins are transported from the ER through intermediate compartments. However, past results and recent findings demonstrate the presence of alternative transport routes from the ER towards the tonoplast, which are independent of Golgi- and post-Golgi trafficking. Moreover, the transport mechanism of the vacuolar proton pumps VHA-a3 and AVP1 challenges the current model of vacuole biogenesis, pointing to the endoplasmic reticulum for being the main membrane source for the biogenesis of the plant lytic compartment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on the transport routes towards the vacuole and discusses the possible mechanism of vacuole biogenesis in plants. PMID:24550928

  1. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  2. 150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. Effect of carbon doping on GaN:Er

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Overberg; Cammy R. Abernathy; J. Devin MacKenzie; Stephen J. Pearton; Robert G. Wilson; John M. Zavada

    2001-01-01

    The effect of carbon doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and morphology of GaN:Er has been investigated. GaN:Er,C with [Er] ?8.5 ×1020 cm?3, was grown using elemental Ga, elemental Er and CBr4 via gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). The optimum room temperature 1.54 ?m PL intensity was obtained for a carbon concentration of ?7.7 ×1020 cm?3. Further increase in the carbon

  4. ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xia; Fu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the gastric muscle injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rats with diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Gastric emptying was determined at the 4th and 12th week. The ultrastructural changes in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess apoptosis of SMCs. Expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the ER-specific apoptosis mediator, caspase-12 protein, was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in the control rats at the 12th wk (40.71% ± 2.50%, control rats vs 54.65% ± 5.22%, diabetic rats; P < 0.05). Swollen and distended ER with an irregular shape was observed in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats. Apoptosis of gastric SMCs increased in the diabetic rats in addition to increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. CONCLUSION: ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats with gastroparesis. PMID:25009401

  5. Increased ER–mitochondrial coupling promotes mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetics during early phases of ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Bui, Michael; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Ferreira, Jorge; Iglewski, Myriam; Chiong, Mario; Simmen, Thomas; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca2+ transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca2+ transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response. PMID:21628424

  6. Performance Evaluation of a Fiber Length Classié er

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Deye; P. Gao; P. A. Baron; J. Fernback

    Aperformanceevaluation wasconducted onadifferentialmobilityclas- sié er that separates é bers according to length using dielectrophoresis. The classié er had been constructed and used for several applications in previous studies. The per- formance of the classié er was predicted using a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of the è ow é eld and then calculating particle trajectories for a variety of conditions. Based on

  7. Ethylene Perception by the ERS1 Protein in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Anne E.; Findell, Jennifer L.; Schaller, G. Eric; Sisler, Edward C.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2000-01-01

    Ethylene perception in Arabidopsis is controlled by a family of five genes, including ETR1, ERS1 (ethylene response sensor 1), ERS2, ETR2, and EIN4. ERS1, the most highly conserved gene with ETR1, encodes a protein with 67% identity to ETR1. To clarify the role of ERS1 in ethylene sensing, we biochemically characterized the ERS1 protein by heterologous expression in yeast. ERS1, like ETR1, forms a membrane-associated, disulfide-linked dimer. In addition, yeast expressing the ERS1 protein contains ethylene-binding sites, indicating ERS1 is also an ethylene-binding protein. This finding supports previous genetic evidence that isoforms of ETR1 also function in plants as ethylene receptors. Further, we used the ethylene antagonist 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to characterize the ethylene-binding sites of ERS1 and ETR1. We found 1-MCP to be both a potent inhibitor of the ethylene-induced seedling triple response, as well as ethylene binding by yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1. Yeast expressing ETR1 and ERS1 showed nearly identical sensitivity to 1-MCP, suggesting that the ethylene-binding sites of ETR1 and ERS1 have similar affinities for ethylene. PMID:10938361

  8. ER protein quality control and proteasome-mediated protein degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L. Brodsky; Ardythe A. McCracken

    1999-01-01

    A variety of mutant polypeptides that are associated with human disease are targeted for degradation by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system. In addition, physiological signals and viral gene products can target the degradation of several ER resident proteins and secreted proteins passing through the ER. Although the mechanism of protein quality control and the site of degradation were

  9. ER Designer Toolkit: A Graphical Event Definition Authoring Tool

    E-print Network

    Paliouras, George

    ER Designer Toolkit: A Graphical Event Definition Authoring Tool Pythagoras Karampiperis Giannis in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition

  10. Registration required er.tau2013@gmail.com

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    Registration required er.tau2013@gmail.com Lisa F. Barrett Joan Y. Chiao Philippe R. Goldin James J of Affect and Regulation in Humans Keynote Lectures:K #12;Registration required er.tau2013@gmail and affiliation to er.tau2013@gmail.com Call for Abstracts The deadline to submit abstracts for poster

  11. he orbit control of ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Mats

    Earth Resources Satellite-1 (ERS-1) launched the 17th of July 1991 into a near-circular, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an approximate altitude of 790 km, is the first remote sensing satellite of the European Space Agency, (ESA). It was first maneuvered into a 3 days/43 orbits repeat cycle and later into a 35 days/501 orbits repeat cycle. The special features of its orbit comparison with other similar projects are: the ground track is maintained in a narrow control dead-band of only +/- 1 km; the orbit is more `frozen' than those of earlier spacecraft as a new theory for the passive eccentricity control is utilized. In this paper the orbit control required for ERS-1 is discussed and it is shown what kind of results that have been obtained. Of special interest is here the low secular drift rate for the eccentricity vector and an analysis of the factors affecting this drift rate.

  12. Rotational band properties in {sup 165}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S. T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M. L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, N. T.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Li, G. S.; Ding, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shi, Y.; Xu, F. R. [School of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    High-spin states in {sup 165}Er have been studied experimentally using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 9}Be, 4n) reaction at beam energies of 42 and 45 MeV. The previously known bands based on the 5/2{sup +}[642], 5/2{sup -}[523], and 11/2{sup -}[505] configurations are extended to (49/2{sup +}), (45/2{sup -}), and (31/2{sup -}) states, respectively. The rotational bands in {sup 165}Er generally show gradual alignment processes, indicating strong band interactions associated with the i{sub 13/2} neutron alignments. The band properties are compared with those in the neighboring nuclei and discussed within the framework of the cranked shell model.

  13. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  14. ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment. PMID:25140166

  15. ER chaperones in mammalian development and human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Min; Lee, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    The field of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells has expanded rapidly during the past decade, contributing to understanding of the molecular pathways that allow cells to adapt to perturbations in ER homeostasis. One major mechanism is mediated by molecular ER chaperones which are critical not only for quality control of proteins processed in the ER, but also for regulation of ER signaling in response to ER stress. Here we summarized the properties and functions of GRP78/BiP, GRP94/gp96, GRP170/ORP150, GRP58/ERp57, PDI, ERp72, calnexin, calreticulin, EDEM, Herp and co-chaperones SIL1 and P58IPK and their role in development and diseases. Many of the new insights are derived from recently constructed mouse models where the genes encoding the chaperones are genetically altered, providing invaluable tools for examining the physiological involvement of the ER chaperones in vivo. PMID:17481612

  16. ER? regulates chromosome alignment and spindle dynamics during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianghua; Park, Hweon; Han, Sung-Sik; Kim, Jung Woo; Jang, Chang-Young

    2015-01-24

    Estrogen receptors are activated by the hormone estrogen and they control cell growth by altering gene expression as a transcription factor. So far two estrogen receptors have been found: ER? and ER?. Estrogen receptors are also implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we found that ER? localized on the spindle and spindle poles at the metaphase during mitosis. Depletion of ER? generated unaligned chromosomes in metaphase cells and lagging chromosomes in anaphase cells in a transcription-independent manner. Furthermore, the levels of ?-tubulin and ?-tubulin were reduced in ER?-depleted cells. Consistent with this, polymerization of microtubules in ER?-depleted cells and turnover rate of ?/?-tubulin were decreased than in control cells. We suggest that ER? regulates chromosome alignment and spindle dynamics by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. PMID:25534852

  17. The magnetic properties of Er/Lu superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Cowley, R. A.; Ward, R. C. C.; Wells, M. R.; McMorrow, D. F.

    1997-10-01

    Superlattices of erbium and lutetium were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and were examined using x-ray and neutron scattering techniques. When cooled below a temperature of about 86 K, the superlattices develop a coherent longitudinal modulated magnetic structure similar to that found in bulk Er. The structures are coherent over approximately 600 Å, or several superlattice block lengths. When cooled below 65 K, the Er moments also order in the basal plane and form a cycloidal structure for which the coherence length decreases to about 200 Å. At low temperatures, below 20 K, the cone structure of bulk Er is suppressed and the structure of the Er blocks in the superlattice is a commensurate, 0953-8984/9/41/015/img8, cycloid. These results are compared with those obtained for bulk Er and for Er/Y superlattices for which the basal-plane strain is of the opposite sign to that of Er/Lu superlattices.

  18. Fabrication and properties of highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xianpeng; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Guohong; Luo, Dewei; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Shiwei; Ma, Jan; Tang, Dingyuan

    2012-04-01

    Highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated by a reactive sintering method under vacuum. The optical properties and the microstructures of the Er:YAG ceramics were investigated. For 3 mm thickness samples, the in-line transmittances of the as-fabricated Er:YAG ceramics at the wavelength of 1100 nm and 400 nm were about 84% and 82%, respectively. The micrograph of the Er:YAG transparent ceramics exhibited a pore-free structure and the average grain size was about 10 ?m. The grain boundary of the ceramics was clean and no secondary phase was detected. The absorption and emission spectra, the fluorescence decay traces of the Er:YAG ceramics were measured and discussed. The ceramics obtained may have potential use for eye-safe solid-state lasers partly replacing Er:YAG single crystals.

  19. Sec12 Binds to Sec16 at Transitional ER Sites

    PubMed Central

    Montegna, Elisabeth A.; Bhave, Madhura; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    COPII vesicles bud from an ER domain known as the transitional ER (tER). Assembly of the COPII coat is initiated by the transmembrane guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12. In the budding yeast Pichia pastoris, Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites. Previously, we found that the tER localization of P. pastoris Sec12 requires a saturable binding partner. We now show that this binding partner is Sec16, a peripheral membrane protein that functions in ER export and tER organization. One line of evidence is that overexpression of Sec12 delocalizes Sec12 to the general ER, but simultaneous overexpression of Sec16 retains overexpressed Sec12 at tER sites. Additionally, when P. pastoris Sec12 is expressed in S. cerevisiae, the exogenous Sec12 localizes to the general ER, but when P. pastoris Sec16 is expressed in the same cells, the exogenous Sec12 is recruited to tER sites. In both of these experimental systems, the ability of Sec16 to recruit Sec12 to tER sites is abolished by deleting a C-terminal fragment of Sec16. Biochemical experiments confirm that this C-terminal fragment of Sec16 binds to the cytosolic domain of Sec12. Similarly, we demonstrate that human Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites, likely due to association with a C-terminal fragment of Sec16A. These results suggest that a Sec12–Sec16 interaction has a conserved role in ER export. PMID:22347445

  20. The ER quality control and ER associated degradation machineries are vital for viral pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Verchot, Jeanmarie

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to protein production and membrane lipid synthesis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) supports cellular metabolism by ensuring protein quality control in the ER. Most positive strand RNA viruses cause extensive remodeling of membranes and require active membrane synthesis to promote infection. How viruses interact with the cellular machinery controlling membrane metabolism is largely unknown. Furthermore, there is mounting data pointing to the importance of the UPR and ER associated degradation (ERAD) machineries in viral pathogenesis in eukaryotes emerging topic. For many viruses, the UPR is an early event that is essential for persistent infection and benefits virus replication. In addition, many viruses are reported to commandeer ER resident chaperones to contribute to virus replication and intercellular movement. In particular, calreticulin, the ubiquitin machinery, and the 26S proteasome are most commonly identified components of the UPR and ERAD machinery that also regulate virus infection. In addition, researchers have noted a link between UPR and autophagy. It is well accepted that positive strand RNA viruses use autophagic membranes as scaffolds to support replication and assembly. However this topic has yet to be explored using plant viruses. The goal of research on this topic is to uncover how viruses interact with this ER-related machinery and to use this information for designing novel strategies to boost immune responses to virus infection. PMID:24653727

  1. Virus-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lingrui; Wang, Aiming

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in ER stress that triggers cytoprotective signaling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), to restore and maintain homeostasis in the ER or to induce apoptosis if ER stress remains unmitigated. The UPR signaling network encompasses three core elements, i.e., PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1). Activation of these three branch pathways of the UPR leads to the translation arrest and degradation of misfolded proteins, the expression of ER molecular chaperones, and the expansion of the ER membrane to decrease the load of proteins and increase the protein-folding capacity in the ER. Recently, the essential roles of the UPR have been implicated in a number of mammalian diseases, particularly viral diseases. In virus-infected cells, the cellular translation machinery is hijacked by the infecting virus to produce large amounts of viral proteins, which inevitably perturbs ER homeostasis and causes ER stress. This review summarizes current knowledge about the UPR signaling pathways, highlights two identified UPR pathways in plants, and discuss progress in elucidating the UPR in virus-infected cells and its functional roles in viral infection. PMID:23293645

  2. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keith A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liechty, Gary H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Dennis C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Munger, Alan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McHugh, Douglas C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kennedy, James E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  3. The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS. PMID:24910594

  4. Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

  5. Epigenetic reactivation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) by genistein enhances hormonal therapy sensitivity in ER?-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor-? (ER?)-negative breast cancer is clinically aggressive and normally does not respond to conventional estrogen target-directed therapies. The soybean isoflavone, genistein (GE), has been shown to prevent and inhibit breast cancer and recent studies have suggested that GE can enhance the anticancer capacity of an estrogen antagonist, tamoxifen (TAM), especially in ER?-positive breast cancer cells. However, the role of GE in ER?-negative breast cancer remains unknown. Methods We have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo epigenetic effects of GE on ER? reactivation by using MTT assay, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, western-blot assay, immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, immunohistochemistry and epigenetic enzymatic activity analysis. Preclinical mouse models including xenograft and spontaneous breast cancer mouse models were used to test the efficacy of GE in vivo. Results We found that GE can reactivate ER? expression and this effect was synergistically enhanced when combined with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GE treatment also re-sensitized ER?-dependent cellular responses to activator 17?-estradiol (E2) and antagonist TAM. Further studies revealed that GE can lead to remodeling of the chromatin structure in the ER? promoter thereby contributing to ER? reactivation. Consistently, dietary GE significantly prevented cancer development and reduced the growth of ER?-negative mouse breast tumors. Dietary GE further enhanced TAM-induced anti-cancer efficacy due at least in part to epigenetic ER? reactivation. Conclusions Our studies suggest that soybean genistein can epigenetically restore ER? expression, which in turn increases TAM-dependent anti-estrogen therapeutic sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. The results from our studies reveal a novel therapeutic combination approach using bioactive soybean product and anti-hormone therapy in refractory ER?-negative breast cancer which will provide more effective options in breast cancer therapy. PMID:23379261

  6. Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

  7. Structural and magnetic properties of Er thin films and Er/Y superlattices: Magnetoelastic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Borchers, J.A.; Salamon, M.B. (Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA)); Erwin, R.W.; Rhyne, J.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA)); Du, R.R.; Flynn, C.P. (Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Crystalline erbium thin films and Er/Y superlattices with varying Er-layer thicknesses have been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The magnetic and structural properties of these samples have been analyzed by x-ray-scattering, bulk-magnetization, and neutron-diffraction techniques. From a comparison of the data for the two systems, the importance of interfacial strain relative to artificial modulation in shaping the magnetic behavior has been determined. Though the basic nature of the erbium magnetic order is not qualitatively altered in either the thin films or superlattices, the conical ferromagnetic phase is suppressed in all of the samples considered. The enhanced critical fields exhibit a systematic dependence on Er-layer thickness. These effects appear to follow directly from the epitaxial basal-plane strain which is measurable in films over 14 000 A thick. This strain, along with a clamping'' of the Er thermal expansion to the Y lattice, leads to a reduction of the magnitude of the magnetoelastic energy that drives the ferromagnetic transition. The dependence of the magnetoelastic energy on the epitaxial strain is described by a model which accounts for the elastic coupling of the erbium lattice to the yttrium.

  8. ER? localization influenced outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijie; Li, Zhenxiang; Ding, Xiaosheng; Shen, Zhirong; Liu, Zhentao; An, Tongtong; Duan, Jianchun; Zhong, Jia; Wu, Meina; Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Shuhang; Sun, Yu; Bai, Hua; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Effects of estrogen receptor? (ER?) localization on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. First, we analyzed the relationship between ER? localization determined by immunohistochemistry and EGFR-TKI outcomes in 184 patients with advanced NSCLC and found that ER? expression localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The frequency of cytoplasmic ER? (c-ER?) and nuclear ER? (n-ER?) co-expression was 12% (22/184). C-ER? and n-ER? co-expression was correlated with poor median progression-free survival compared to patients without co-expression. In subsequent in vitro experiments, PC9 cells transfected with ER? isoform1 (ER?1, strong expression of both c-ER? and n-ER?) were more resistant to gefitinib than PC9 cells transfected with ER? isoform2 or 5 (ER?2 or ER?5, strong expression of ER? in cytoplasm but not nucleus). Resistance was identified due to interactions between ER?1 and other isoforms, and mediated by activation of non-genomic pathways. Moreover, gefitinib resistance was reversed by a combination treatment with gefitinib and fulvestrant, both in cell lines and in one NSCLC patient. These results suggested that c-ER? and n-ER? co-expression was a potential molecular indicator of EGFR-TKI resistance, which might be overcome by combining EGFR-TKI and ER antagonist. PMID:26096604

  9. ER? localization influenced outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Li, Zhenxiang; Ding, Xiaosheng; Shen, Zhirong; Liu, Zhentao; An, Tongtong; Duan, Jianchun; Zhong, Jia; Wu, Meina; Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Shuhang; Sun, Yu; Bai, Hua; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Effects of estrogen receptor? (ER?) localization on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unknown. First, we analyzed the relationship between ER? localization determined by immunohistochemistry and EGFR-TKI outcomes in 184 patients with advanced NSCLC and found that ER? expression localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The frequency of cytoplasmic ER? (c-ER?) and nuclear ER? (n-ER?) co-expression was 12% (22/184). C-ER? and n-ER? co-expression was correlated with poor median progression-free survival compared to patients without co-expression. In subsequent in vitro experiments, PC9 cells transfected with ER? isoform1 (ER?1, strong expression of both c-ER? and n-ER?) were more resistant to gefitinib than PC9 cells transfected with ER? isoform2 or 5 (ER?2 or ER?5, strong expression of ER? in cytoplasm but not nucleus). Resistance was identified due to interactions between ER?1 and other isoforms, and mediated by activation of non-genomic pathways. Moreover, gefitinib resistance was reversed by a combination treatment with gefitinib and fulvestrant, both in cell lines and in one NSCLC patient. These results suggested that c-ER? and n-ER? co-expression was a potential molecular indicator of EGFR-TKI resistance, which might be overcome by combining EGFR-TKI and ER antagonist. PMID:26096604

  10. Cyclopia Extracts Act as ER? Antagonists and ER? Agonists, In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Koch; Mortimer, Morné; Louw, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy associated risks, and the concomitant reluctance of usage, has instigated the search for new generations of estrogen analogues that would maintain estrogen benefits without associated risks. Furthermore, if these analogues display chemo-preventative properties in breast and endometrial tissues it would be of great value. Both the selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as the selective estrogen receptor subtype modulators have been proposed as estrogen analogues with improved risk profiles. Phytoestrogen containing extracts of Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare Honeybush tea may serve as a source of new estrogen analogues. In this study three extracts, P104, SM6Met, and cup-of-tea, from two species of Cyclopia, C. genistoides and C. subternata, were evaluated for ER subtype specific agonism and antagonism both in transactivation and transrepression. For transactivation, the Cyclopia extracts displayed ER? antagonism and ER? agonism when ER subtypes were expressed separately, however, when co-expressed only agonism was uniformly observed. In contrast, for transrepression, this uniform behavior was lost, with some extracts (P104) displaying uniform agonism, while others (SM6Met) displayed antagonism when subtypes were expressed separately and agonism when co-expressed. In addition, breast cancer cell proliferation assays indicate that extracts antagonize cell proliferation in the presence of estrogen at lower concentrations than that required for proliferation. Furthermore, lack of uterine growth and delayed vaginal opening in an immature rat uterotrophic model validates the ER? antagonism of extracts observed in vitro and supports the potential of the Cyclopia extracts as a source of estrogen analogues with a reduced risk profile. PMID:24223909

  11. Cyclopia extracts act as ER? antagonists and ER? agonists, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Visser, Koch; Mortimer, Morné; Louw, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy associated risks, and the concomitant reluctance of usage, has instigated the search for new generations of estrogen analogues that would maintain estrogen benefits without associated risks. Furthermore, if these analogues display chemo-preventative properties in breast and endometrial tissues it would be of great value. Both the selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as the selective estrogen receptor subtype modulators have been proposed as estrogen analogues with improved risk profiles. Phytoestrogen containing extracts of Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare Honeybush tea may serve as a source of new estrogen analogues. In this study three extracts, P104, SM6Met, and cup-of-tea, from two species of Cyclopia, C. genistoides and C. subternata, were evaluated for ER subtype specific agonism and antagonism both in transactivation and transrepression. For transactivation, the Cyclopia extracts displayed ER? antagonism and ER? agonism when ER subtypes were expressed separately, however, when co-expressed only agonism was uniformly observed. In contrast, for transrepression, this uniform behavior was lost, with some extracts (P104) displaying uniform agonism, while others (SM6Met) displayed antagonism when subtypes were expressed separately and agonism when co-expressed. In addition, breast cancer cell proliferation assays indicate that extracts antagonize cell proliferation in the presence of estrogen at lower concentrations than that required for proliferation. Furthermore, lack of uterine growth and delayed vaginal opening in an immature rat uterotrophic model validates the ER? antagonism of extracts observed in vitro and supports the potential of the Cyclopia extracts as a source of estrogen analogues with a reduced risk profile. PMID:24223909

  12. June 1997 ER-2 Flight Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Irby W.

    2003-01-01

    Within our current understanding of the atmospheric ionizing radiation, the ER-2 flight package was designed to provide a complete characterization of the physical fields and evaluate various dosimetric techniques for routine monitoring. A flight plan was developed to sample the full dynamic range of the atmospheric environment especially at altitudes relevant to the development of the High Speed Civil Transport. The flight of the instruments occurred in June of 1997 where predictive models indicated a maximum in the high altitude radiation environment occurring approximately nine months after the minimum in the solar sunspot cycle. The flights originated at Moffett field at the Ames Research Center on ER-2 aircraft designated as 706. The equipment was shipped mid- May 1997 for unpacking and checkout, size fitting, systems functional test, and preflight testing on aircraft power with flight readiness achieved on May 30, 1997. The equipment was qualified on its first engineering flight on June 2, 1997 and the subsequent science gathering flights followed during the period of June 5-15, 1997. Herein we give an account of the flight operations.

  13. Effective segregation coefficient of Er3+ ions in ErF3-doped CaF2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, M.; Stef, M.; Bunoiu, O.; Nicoara, I.

    2010-03-01

    ErF3-doped CaF2 crystals were grown using the vertical Bridgman method. The optical absorption spectra reveal the characteristic peaks of the Er3+ ions. The dopant distribution along two crystals has been investigated using the optical absorption method. The effective segregation coefficient of the Er3+ ions has been calculated using the classical Scheil relationship between the impurity concentration and the crystal growth conditions. The effective segregation coefficient of the Er3+ions in the CaF2 host depends slightly on the doping concentration, and varies between 0.99 and 1.03, for 0.8 mol % ErF3 and 2 mol % ErF3-doped CaF2 crystals, respectively.

  14. The homocysteine-inducible endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein Herp counteracts mutant ?-synuclein-induced ER stress via the homeostatic regulation of ER-resident calcium release channel proteins

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Cherine; Ameli, Neema J.; El Kommos, Adam; Bezalel, Spencer; Al'Khafaji, Aziz M.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Kyriazis, George A.; Tyrberg, Björn; Chan, Sic L.

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as an initiator or contributing factor in neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms that lead to ER stress and whereby ER stress contributes to the degenerative cascades remain unclear but their understanding is critical to devising effective therapies. Here we show that knockdown of Herp (Homocysteine-inducible ER stress protein), an ER stress-inducible protein with an ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, aggravates ER stress-mediated cell death induced by mutant ?-synuclein (?Syn) that causes an inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Functionally, Herp plays a role in maintaining ER homeostasis by facilitating proteasome-mediated degradation of ER-resident Ca2+ release channels. Deletion of the UBL domain or pharmacological inhibition of proteasomes abolishes the Herp-mediated stabilization of ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Furthermore, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of ER Ca2+ release channels ameliorates ER stress, suggesting that impaired homeostatic regulation of Ca2+ channels promotes a protracted ER stress with the consequent activation of ER stress-associated apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, sustained upregulation of ER stress markers and aberrant accumulation of ER Ca2+ release channels were detected in transgenic mutant A53T-?Syn mice. Collectively, these data establish a causative link between impaired ER Ca2+ homeostasis and chronic ER stress in the degenerative cascades induced by mutant ?Syn and suggest that Herp is essential for the resolution of ER stress through maintenance of ER Ca2+ homeostasis. Our findings suggest a therapeutic potential in PD for agents that increase Herp levels or its ER Ca2+-stabilizing action. PMID:22045699

  15. Lsningsforslag --Eksamen i MAT1000, Omradet A er som pa

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    annenderiverte skifter alts°a fortegn i alle sine nullpunkter, og de er alle tre vendepunkter. Grafen til f -- det fant vi punkt a) -- slik at arealet mellom grafen og x-aksen er gitt som integralet 1 -1 x x2 + 1

  16. Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lehner; J. Horstmann; W. Koch; W. Rosenthal

    1998-01-01

    The precision images (PRI) of the synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean. For calculation of the wind speed the C- band model (CMOD4) is used, which was originally developed by Stoffelen and Anderson [1993] for the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive

  17. Conversion to computerized patient records streamlines ER process, saves money.

    PubMed

    1997-03-01

    If your billing department can't read physician notes on ER patient records, you could be wasting valuable time and dollars getting bills out the door. Learn how a Boston hospital ER switched to a computerized patient record system, improved documentation, cut labor costs, and maximized reimbursement. PMID:10175059

  18. CW YVO4:Er Laser with Resonant Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Matrosov, V. N.; Tolstik, N. A.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    The lasing characteristics of a YVO4:Er laser with resonant pumping in the 1.5-1.6 ?m range are studied. Lasing is obtained at ? = 1603 nm with a differential efficiency of up to 61%. YVO4:Er crystals are found to offer promise for use in efficient resonantly (in-band) pumped lasers.

  19. Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

  20. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Hedley; P. H. Lamberger; C. M. Colvin; G. E. Gibbs; F. S. Adams; R. P. Bowser; T. J. Kissner; F. E. Morgan; M. J. Schmidt; J. F. Van Pattern

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems which are alike in that they both use the oxidize and dry principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: operate at a higher pressure,

  1. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Hedley; P. H. Lamberger; C. M. Colvin; G. E. Gibbs; F. S. Adams; R. P. Bowser; T. J. Kissner; F. E. Morgan; M. J. Schmidt; J. F. Van Patten; R. E. Wieneke

    1991-01-01

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the oxidize and dry'' principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput,

  2. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Hedley; P. H. Lamberger; C. M. Colvin; G. E. Gibbs; F. S. Adams; R. P. Bowser; T. J. Kissner; F. E. Morgan; M. J. Schmidt; J. F. Van Patten; R. E. Wieneke

    1991-01-01

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the ``oxidize and dry`` principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput,

  3. Autophagosomes form at ER-mitochondria contact sites.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Maho; Furuta, Nobumichi; Matsuda, Atsushi; Nezu, Akiko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Fujita, Naonobu; Oomori, Hiroko; Noda, Takeshi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Amano, Atsuo; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-03-21

    Autophagy is a tightly regulated intracellular bulk degradation/recycling system that has fundamental roles in cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is initiated by isolation membranes, which form and elongate as they engulf portions of the cytoplasm and organelles. Eventually isolation membranes close to form double membrane-bound autophagosomes and fuse with lysosomes to degrade their contents. The physiological role of autophagy has been determined since its discovery, but the origin of autophagosomal membranes has remained unclear. At present, there is much controversy about the organelle from which the membranes originate--the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria and plasma membrane. Here we show that autophagosomes form at the ER-mitochondria contact site in mammalian cells. Imaging data reveal that the pre-autophagosome/autophagosome marker ATG14 (also known as ATG14L) relocalizes to the ER-mitochondria contact site after starvation, and the autophagosome-formation marker ATG5 also localizes at the site until formation is complete. Subcellular fractionation showed that ATG14 co-fractionates in the mitochondria-associated ER membrane fraction under starvation conditions. Disruption of the ER-mitochondria contact site prevents the formation of ATG14 puncta. The ER-resident SNARE protein syntaxin 17 (STX17) binds ATG14 and recruits it to the ER-mitochondria contact site. These results provide new insight into organelle biogenesis by demonstrating that the ER-mitochondria contact site is important in autophagosome formation. PMID:23455425

  4. ER quality control: towards an understanding at the molecular level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Ellgaard; Ari Helenius

    2001-01-01

    The process of ‘quality control’ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves a variety of mechanisms that collectively ensure that only correctly folded, assembled and modified proteins are transported along the secretory pathway. In contrast, non-native proteins are retained and eventually targeted for degradation. Recent work provides the first structural insights into the process of glycoprotein folding in the ER involving

  5. Antennas on the first ESA remote sensing satellite ERS-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Braun; R. Wagner; K. v. Klooster

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on the development and verification of the antenna assembly on ERS-1. ERS-1 carries an imaging synthetic aperture radar, a wind scatterometer measuring ocean surface winds, a radar altimeter, an along track scanning radiometer with a microwave sounder, and a precise range and range rate experiment. Concerning performance verification, the decision was made to test the antennas separately

  6. The manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD2.

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Clark Sheldon; Parish, Chad Michael; Brewer, Luke N.

    2008-10-01

    Erbium dihydride Er(H,D,T){sub 2} is a fluorite structure rare-earth dihydride useful for the storage of hydrogen isotopes in the solid state. However, thermodynamic predictions indicate that erbium oxide formation will proceed readily during processing, which may detrimentally contaminate Er(H,D,T){sub 2} films. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered TEM, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution TEM are used to examine the manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD{sub 2} thin films. An oxide layer {approx}30-130 nm thick was found on top of the underlying ErD{sub 2} film, and showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation to the underlying ErD{sub 2}. Electron diffraction confirmed the oxide layer to be Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. While the majority of the film was observed to have the expected fluorite structure for ErD{sub 2}, secondary diffraction spots suggested the possibility of either nanoscale oxide inclusions or hydrogen ordering. In situ heating experiments combined with electron diffraction ruled out the possibility of hydrogen ordering, so epitaxial oxide nanoinclusions within the ErD{sub 2} matrix are hypothesized. TEM techniques were applied to examine this oxide nanoinclusion hypothesis.

  7. Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

    2014-01-01

    The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus–host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling. PMID:24987391

  8. Linguistic Modi ers : the Horizon Approach Martine De Cock

    E-print Network

    De Cock, Martine

    Linguistic Modi ers : the Horizon Approach Martine De Cock Martine.DeCock@rug.ac.be University it is assumed that a term modi.ed by a linguistic modi.er corresponds to a fuzzy subset or a fuzzy superset roughly large. In many fuzzy control applications however a modi.ed term and the term itself denote two di

  9. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, William W. [University of Illinois

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  10. Bioactive Dietary Supplements Reactivate ER Expression in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Active Chromatin Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Meeran, Syed M.; Patel, Shweta N.; Li, Yuanyuan; Shukla, Samriddhi; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Although tamoxifen therapy is successful for some patients, it does not provide adequate benefit for those who have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative cancers. Therefore, we approached novel treatment strategies by combining two potential bioactive dietary supplements for the reactivation of ER? expression for effective treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer with tamoxifen. Bioactive dietary supplements such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and sulforaphane (SFN) inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively, which are of central importance to cancer prevention. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer cells with GTPs and SFN alone or in combination leads to the reactivation of ER? expression. The combination of 20 µg/mL GTPs and 5 µM SFN was found to be the optimal dose of ER?-reactivation at 3 days in MDA-MB-231 cells. The reactivation of ER? expression was consistently correlated with ER? promoter hypomethylation and hyperacetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the ER? promoter revealed that GTPs and SFN altered the binding of ER?-transcriptional co-repressor complex thereby contributing to ER?-reactivation. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen in combination with GTPs and SFN significantly increased both cell death and inhibition of cellular proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells in comparison to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Collectively, our findings suggest that a novel combination of bioactive-HDAC inhibitors with bioactive-demethylating agents is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens. PMID:22662208

  11. The characteristic carrierEr interaction distance in Er-doped a-SiSiO2 superlattices formed by ion sputtering

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    sputtering and subsequent annealing at 950 °C. The dependence of the Er3 photoluminescence intensity of Er3 . However, despite some early successes, the room-temperature Er3 luminescence ef- ficiencies and electroluminescence17 are possible in such Si nanocluster sensitized Er3 , it may open the way for a compact, active

  12. FOXK2 Transcription Factor Suppresses ER?-positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth Through Down-Regulating the Stability of ER? via mechanism involving BRCA1/BARD1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Jia, Zhaojun; Bai, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhaowei; Hu, Gaolei; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Min; Wu, Huijian

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical regulators of breast cancer development. Identification of molecules that regulate the function of ERs may facilitate the development of more effective breast cancer treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 interacted with ER?, and inhibited ER?-regulated transcriptional activities by enhancing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ER?. This process involved the interaction between FOXK2 and BRCA1/BARD1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase of ER?. FOXK2 interacted with BARD1 and acted as a scaffold protein for BRCA1/BARD1 and ER?, leading to enhanced degradation of ER?, which eventually accounted for its decreased transcriptional activity. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of FOXK2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of ER?, decreased the transcription of ER? target genes, and suppressed the proliferation of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. In contract, knockdown of FOXK2 in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation. However, when ER? was also knocked down, knockdown of FOXK2 had no effect on cell proliferation. These findings suggested that FOXK2 might act as a negative regulator of ER?, and its association with both ER? and BRCA1/BARD1 could lead to the down-regulation of ER? transcriptional activity, effectively regulating the function of ER?. PMID:25740706

  13. Diammonium phosphate modified titanium dioxide suspensions with improved ER efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Dong, Xufeng

    2015-06-01

    Electrorheological (ER) efficiency is an important parameter that should be considered for applications of electrorheologcial fluids. In this study, diammonium phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) is used to modify titanium dioxide particles. The structures and morphologies of the DAP modified particles are not significantly changed compared with pure TiO2. The ER behaviors of the suspensions prepared with TiO2 particles and the DAP modified particles are tested. The results indicate that the DAP modified particle-based ER fluids have a much higher ER efficiency and higher shear stress than the TiO2 particle-based suspension. The highest ER efficiency obtained is 1.2 × 105% at 5 kV mm?1, which is two orders magnitude higher than the TiO2 particle-based suspension.

  14. Reduced ?-MSH Underlies Hypothalamic ER-Stress-Induced Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Marc; Gómez-Valadés, Alicia G; Altirriba, Jordi; Sebastián, David; Ramírez, Sara; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Drougard, Anne; Ferrés-Coy, Albert; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno; Zorzano, Antonio; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc

    2015-07-21

    Alterations in ER homeostasis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Acute ER stress induction in the hypothalamus produces glucose metabolism perturbations. However, the neurobiological basis linking hypothalamic ER stress with abnormal glucose metabolism remains unknown. Here, we report that genetic and induced models of hypothalamic ER stress are associated with alterations in systemic glucose homeostasis due to increased gluconeogenesis (GNG) independent of body weight changes. Defective alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) production underlies this metabolic phenotype, as pharmacological strategies aimed at rescuing hypothalamic ?-MSH content reversed this phenotype at metabolic and molecular level. Collectively, our results posit defective ?-MSH processing as a fundamental mediator of enhanced GNG in the context of hypothalamic ER stress and establish ?-MSH deficiency in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of T2D. PMID:26166568

  15. Effects of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence in silicon-rich silicon oxide/Er-doped silica multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Soo; Jhe, Ji-Hong; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung H.; Kim, Kyung Joong; Moon, Dae Won [Department of Physics, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Industrial Metrology Group, KRISS, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-30

    The effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence is investigated by using multilayers of 2.5 nm thin SiO{sub x} (x<2) and 10 nm thin Er-doped silica (SiO{sub 2}:Er). By separating excess Si and Er atoms into separate, nanometer-thin layers, the effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on np-Si sensitized Er{sup 3+} luminescence could be investigated while keeping the microscopic Er{sup 3+} environment the same. The authors find that while the presence of np-Si is necessary for efficient sensitization, the overall quality of np-Si layer has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence. On the other hand, intrusion of np-Si into Er-doped silica layers leads to deactivation of np-Si/Er{sup 3+} interaction, suggesting that there is a limit to excess Si and Er contents that can be used.

  16. Comparative activation of estrogen receptor alpha (er alpha) by endocrine disruptors 

    E-print Network

    Wu, Fei

    2009-05-15

    -dependent,. These results demonstrate that various ER ligands differentially activate ER? in breast cancer cells and transgenic mice, and their activities are dependent on ER? variants, promoter-, cell-context and selective use of different Sp proteins, suggesting...

  17. 20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced spouse or remarried widow(er), and a parent as provided in paragraph...

  18. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , fracking Due Nov. 7, in class, or before 5pm outside 310 Barrows Fall 2013 Problem Set #5 Total Points: 100 and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking Due Nov. 7

  19. ER quality control can lead to retrograde transport from the ER lumen to the cytosol and the nucleoplasm in plants

    E-print Network

    ER quality control can lead to retrograde transport from the ER lumen to the cytosol-mail fbrandizzi@brookes.ac.uk). y Both laboratories contributed equally. Summary Quality control in the secretory by proteasome inhibitors. Keywords: GFP, ERAD, quality control, secretory pathway. Introduction As nascent

  20. The ER-peroxisome connection in plants: Development of the “ER semi-autonomous peroxisome maturation and replication” model for plant peroxisome biogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Mullen; Richard N. Trelease

    2006-01-01

    The perceived role of the ER in the biogenesis of plant peroxisomes has evolved significantly from the original “ER vesiculation” model, which portrayed co-translational import of proteins into peroxisomes originating from the ER, to the “ER semi-autonomous peroxisome” model wherein membrane lipids and post-translationally acquired peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) were derived from the ER. Results from more recent studies of

  1. Structure and dynamics of ER: minimal networks and biophysical constraints.

    PubMed

    Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

  2. Axiom Systems for Boolean Algebra Using the She er Stroke

    E-print Network

    Veroff, Robert

    ". f(f(x; x); f(x; x)) = x (She#11;er 1) f(x; f(y; f(y; y))) = f(x; x) (She#11;er 2) f(f(x; f(y; z)); f(x; f(y; z))) = f(f(f(y; y); x); f(f(z; z); x)) (She#11;er 3) More recently, a number of simpli#12 systems presented in Meredith[3] 1 , f(f(x; x); f(y; x)) = x (Meredith 1 1) f(f(x; f(y; z)); f(x; f(y; z

  3. Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

  4. ERS: Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Economic Research Service (ERS) is one of four agencies in the Research, Education, and Economics (REE) Mission Area of the US Department of Agriculture addressing issues of efficiency, efficacy and equity in agriculture and rural development. Recently, ERS has relaunched their site, emphasizing ease of accessibility to publications such as research reports, periodicals, maps, photos and fact sheets to view or download (.pdf format). ERS also provides email, fax, and phone numbers of subject specialists for direct research questions, and a "What's New" menu gives calendars of up-coming titles.

  5. ER stress-induced clearance of misfolded GPI-anchored proteins via the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Ajinkya, Monica; Bhat, Savithri; Itakura, Eisuke; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2014-07-31

    Proteins destined for the cell surface are first assessed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for proper folding before release into the secretory pathway. This ensures that defective proteins are normally prevented from entering the extracellular environment, where they could be disruptive. Here, we report that, when ER folding capacity is saturated during stress, misfolded glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins dissociate from resident ER chaperones, engage export receptors, and quantitatively leave the ER via vesicular transport to the Golgi. Clearance from the ER commences within minutes of acute ER stress, before the transcriptional component of the unfolded protein response is activated. These aberrant proteins then access the cell surface transiently before destruction in lysosomes. Inhibiting this stress-induced pathway by depleting the ER-export receptors leads to aggregation of the ER-retained misfolded protein. Thus, this rapid response alleviates the elevated burden of misfolded proteins in the ER at the onset of ER stress, promoting protein homeostasis in the ER. PMID:25083867

  6. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

    2014-09-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. PMID:24973517

  7. Estradiol and ER? agonists enhance recognition memory, and DPN, an ER? agonist, alters brain monoamines

    PubMed Central

    Jacome, Luis F.; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S.; Luine, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ER?-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER?-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4 h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2–4 h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ER? contributes to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60–130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40–80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER? mediates sub chronic and acute effects of estrogens on recognition memory and that memory enhancements by DPN may occur, in part, through alterations in monoaminergic containing systems primarily in PFC and hippocampus. PMID:20828630

  8. Comparative spectroscopy of (ErF 3)(PbF 2) alloys and Er 3+-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Tikhomirov; V. D. Rodríguez; J. Méndez-Ramos; P. Núñez; A. B. Seddon

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polycrystalline alloys x(ErF3):(100?x)(PbF2), x=1,10. A comparison of their low temperature absorption and emission spectra with the respective spectra of transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics, 32(SiO2)9(AlO1.5)31.5(CdF2)18.5(PbF2)5.5(ZnF2):3.5(ErF3)mol%, indicates that the nano-crystalline phase in this glass-ceramic is Er3+-doped PbF2.

  9. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  10. Magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances in Li+Er

    E-print Network

    González-Martínez, Maykel L

    2015-01-01

    We explore the magnetic Feshbach spectra of ultracold ground-state Li+Er systems. Our calculations predict many tunable resonances at fields below 1000 G that could be stably tuned in ultracold experiments. We show that Li+Er spectra are much less congested than those of systems involving heavier highly-magnetic atoms and exhibit non-chaotic properties. These features would facilitate identifying and addressing individual resonances. We derive a simple model for the mass-scaling shifting of low-field resonances that may simplify designing experiments with different Er bosonic isotopes. Our work establishes Li+Er as very promising systems for quantum simulation, precision measurements and the formation of polar paramagnetic molecules.

  11. ERs See Spike in Narcotic Painkiller Abuse Cases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_152553.html ERs See Spike in Narcotic Painkiller Abuse Cases U.S. report found problem was ... the number of emergency room visits involving the narcotic painkiller tramadol between 2005 and 2011, two new ...

  12. Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sunghwan

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers ...

  13. Photoluminescence spectra of n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and p-AlGaN:(Er + Zn) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: margaret.m@mail.ioffe.ru; Krivolapchuk, V. V., E-mail: vlad.krivol@mail.ioffe.ru; Feoktistov, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Danilovskii, E. Yu.; Kuzmin, R. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Razumov, S. V. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    Luminescence intensity of heterostructures based on n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) is higher by more than an order of magnitude than the corresponding intensity of separate n-ZnO, p-GaN:(Er + Zn), and AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers. Most likely, this phenomenon is due to the effective tunneling recombination of charge carriers caused by a decrease in the concentration of the nonradiative recombination centers located between the n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers.

  14. An Overview of ER2 Platform Science during TC4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Platnick; P. A. Newman

    2007-01-01

    The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft flew 11 science flight out of San Jose, Costa Rica during July and August 2007 as part of the NASA-sponsored Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The ER-2 flew a remote sensing payload consisting of passive optical and microwave imagers (MAS\\/MASTER, CoSSIR, AMPR), a high spectral resolution IR imager (S-HIS), active sensors (CPL

  15. Functional brain imaging based on ERD\\/ERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pfurtscheller

    2001-01-01

    Sensory, cognitive and motor processing can result in changes of the ongoing EEG in form of an event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS). Both phenomena are time-locked but not phase-locked to the event and they are highly frequency-band specific. The ERD is interpreted as a correlate of an activated cortical area with increased excitability and the ERS in the

  16. A Transputer-Dsp System for Ers-1 Sar Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Christen; T. K. Pike; A. P. Wolframm; T. Wolff

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of a quick-look ERS-1 SAR processing system for processing and monitoring data from spaceborne SAR payloads. The processor system can be configured for different processing modes (e.g. ERS-1 and\\/or JERS-1). Initial implementation of the system uses standard transputer\\/DSP modules with an MS-DOS PC as host computer. The host computer runs only server (I\\/O) tasks

  17. Pulpal response to exposure with Er:YAG laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayanetti Asiri Jayawardena; Junji Kato; Kayoko Moriya; Yuzo Takagi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulpal response to the Er:YAG laser after accidental exposure of the pulp. Study Design: Cavities were prepared, and pulps were exposed by either Er:YAG laser or mechanically by a slow-speed conventional handpiece (control group) in 76 maxillary first molars of male Wistar rats. Rats were killed immediately, at 3 days,

  18. A computational model of lysosome-ER Ca2+ microdomains.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christopher J; Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Han, Jung Min; Sneyd, James; Patel, Sandip

    2014-07-01

    Acidic organelles form an important intracellular Ca(2+) pool that can drive global Ca(2+) signals through coupling with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores. Recently identified lysosome-ER membrane contact sites might allow formation of Ca(2+) microdomains, although their size renders observation of Ca(2+) dynamics impractical. Here, we generated a computational model of lysosome-ER coupling that incorporated a previous model of the inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptor as the ER Ca(2+) 'amplifier' and lysosomal leaks as the Ca(2+) 'trigger'. The model qualitatively described global Ca(2+) responses to the lysosomotropic agent GPN, which caused a controlled but substantial depletion of small solutes from the lysosome. Adapting this model to physiological lysosomal leaks induced by the Ca(2+) mobilising messenger NAADP demonstrated that lysosome-ER microdomains are capable of driving global Ca(2+) oscillations. Interestingly, our simulations suggest that the microdomain [Ca(2+)] need not be higher than that in the cytosol for responses to occur, thus matching the relatively high affinity of IP3 receptors for Ca(2+). The relative distribution and overall density of the lysosomal leaks dictated whether microdomains triggered or modulated global signals. Our data provide a computational framework for probing lysosome-ER Ca(2+) dynamics. PMID:24706947

  19. Functional and morphological impact of ER stress on mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vannuvel, Kayleen; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Over the past years, knowledge and evidence about the existence of crosstalks between cellular organelles and their potential effects on survival or cell death have been constantly growing. More recently, evidence accumulated showing an intimate relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. These close contacts not only establish extensive physical links allowing exchange of lipids and calcium but they can also coordinate pathways involved in cell life and death. It is now obvious that ER dysfunction/stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) as well as mitochondria play major roles in apoptosis. However, while the effects of major ER stress on cell death have been largely studied and reviewed, it becomes more and more evident that cells might regularly deal with sublethal ER stress, a condition that does not necessarily lead to cell death but might affect the function/activity of other organelles such as mitochondria. In this review, we will particularly focus on these new, interesting and intriguing metabolic and morphological events that occur during the early adaptative phase of the ER stress, before the onset of cell death, and that remain largely unknown. Relevance and implication of these mitochondrial changes in response to ER stress conditions for human diseases such as type II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease will also be considered. PMID:23629871

  20. Alleviation of seipinopathy-related ER stress by triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Salo, Veijo T; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suster, Maximiliano L; Ikonen, Elina

    2013-03-15

    Mutations affecting the N-glycosylation site in Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (BSCL)-associated gene BSCL2/seipin lead to a dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia termed seipinopathy. While the loss of function of seipin leads to severe congenital lipodystrophy, the effects of seipin N-glycosylation mutations on lipid balance in the nervous system are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of seipin N-glycosylation mutant N88S led to decreased triglyceride (TG) content in astrocytoma and motor neuron cell lines. This was corrected by supplementation with exogenous oleic acid. Upon oleic acid loading, seipin N88S protein was relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the surface of lipid droplets and this was paralleled by alleviation of ER stress induced by the mutant protein. This effect was not limited to seipin N88S, as oleic acid loading also reduced tunicamycin-induced ER stress in motor neuron cells. Furthermore, both seipin N88S and tunicamycin-induced ER stress were decreased by inhibiting lipolysis, suggesting that lipid droplets protected neuronal cells from ER stress. In developing zebrafish larvae, seipin N88S expression led to TG imbalance and reduced spontaneous free swimming. Importantly, supplementation with exogenous oleic acid reduced ER stress in the zebrafish head and increased fish motility. We propose that the decreased TG content contributes to the pathology induced by seipin N88S, and that rescuing TG levels may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in seipinopathy. PMID:23250914

  1. Hepatoprotective role of Sestrin2 against chronic ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Insook; Semple, Ian A.; Kim, David N.; Kim, Myungjin; Nam, Myeongjin; Zhang, Deqiang; Yin, Lei; Lee, Jun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBP?). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically-induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in liver of WT mice, can provoke Sestrin2-deficient mice to develop severe ER stress-associated liver pathologies such as extensive liver damage, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. These pathologies are suppressed by liver-specific Sestrin2 reconstitution, mTORC1 inhibition or chemical chaperone administration. The Sestrin2-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) may be a general protective mechanism against ER stress-associated diseases. PMID:24947615

  2. The unfolded protein response: controlling cell fate decisions under ER stress and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Hetz

    2012-01-01

    Protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a salient feature of specialized secretory cells and is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic signalling network that orchestrates the recovery of ER function, and failure to adapt to ER stress results in apoptosis.

  3. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    SciTech Connect

    Mera, Kentaro [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders Advanced Therapeutics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro, E-mail: takurok@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Field of Sensory Organology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

    2010-06-25

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-L{alpha}, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  4. Temperature dependence of electroluminescence of Er ions in tunnel diodes based on (111)Si:(Er, O)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Emel’yanov; N. A. Sobolev

    2004-01-01

    Electroluminescence and current-voltage characteristics of tunnel diodes obtained by implantation of Er, O, and B ions into\\u000a n-Si(111) with the subsequent heat treatment are investigated in a temperature range of 80–300 K in the breakdown mode. The\\u000a observed increase in electroluminescence intensity with temperature for Er ions is caused by thermal emptying of the traps\\u000a that captured the holes in

  5. BmCREC is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and required for ER/Golgi morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Shen, Birong; Zheng, Pengli; Feng, Hui; Guo, Yige; Cao, Wenyuan; Chen, Liang; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Guodong; Xu, Sizheng; Shen, Weide; Chen, Jianguo; Teng, Junlin

    2013-09-13

    Silkworm posterior silkgland is a model for studying intracellular trafficking. Here, using this model, we identify several potential cargo proteins of BmKinesin-1 and focus on one candidate, BmCREC. BmCREC (also known as Bombyx mori DNA supercoiling factor, BmSCF) was previously proposed to supercoil DNA in the nucleus. However, we show here that BmCREC is localized in the ER lumen. Its C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF is recognized by the KDEL receptor, and subsequently it is retrogradely transported by coat protein I (COPI) vesicles to the ER. Lacking the HDEF tetrapeptide of BmCREC or knocking down COPI subunits results in decreased ER retention and simultaneously increased secretion of BmCREC. Furthermore, we find that BmCREC knockdown markedly disrupts the morphology of the ER and Golgi apparatus and leads to a defect of posterior silkgland tube expansion. Together, our results clarify the ER retention mechanism of BmCREC and reveal that BmCREC is indispensable for maintaining ER/Golgi morphology. PMID:23921381

  6. ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

  7. The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lachlan; Ottaway, David; Veitch, Peter J.

    2012-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the Verdet constant of undoped and Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm. The undoped YAG value is compared to those measured using visible light. We show that the paramagnetic nature of Er reduces the Verdet constant but that the decrease is probably not significant for the typical Er doping levels used in Er:YAG or in Er:tellurite-glass mid-IR lasers.

  8. MGMT Inhibition Restores ER? Functional Sensitivity to Antiestrogen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bobustuc, George C; Smith, Joshua S; Maddipatla, Sreeram; Jeudy, Sheila; Limaye, Arati; Isley, Beth; Caparas, Maria-Lourdes M; Constantino, Susan M; Shah, Nikita; Baker, Cheryl H; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Baidas, Said; Konduri, Santhi D

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen therapy resistance remains a huge stumbling block in the treatment of breast cancer. We have found significant elevation of O6 methylguanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) expression in a small sample of consecutive patients who have failed tamoxifen treatment. Here, we show that tamoxifen resistance is accompanied by upregulation of MGMT. Further we show that administration of the MGMT inhibitor, O6-benzylguanine (BG), at nontoxic doses, leads to restoration of a favorable estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation phenotype (high p-ER? Ser167/low p-ER? Ser118), which has been reported to correlate with sensitivity to endocrine therapy and improved survival. We also show BG to be a dual inhibitor of MGMT and ER?. In tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, BG alone or in combination with antiestrogen (tamoxifen [TAM]/ICI 182,780 [fulvestrant, Faslodex]) therapy enhances p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, cytochrome C release and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, all indicative of apoptosis. In addition, BG increases the expression of p21cip1/waf1. We also show that BG, alone or in combination therapy, curtails the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer xenografts, BG alone or in combination treatment causes significant delay in tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry confirms that BG increases p21cip1/waf1 and p-ER? Ser167 expression and inhibits MGMT, ER?, p-ER? Ser118 and ki-67 expression. Collectively, our results suggest that MGMT inhibition leads to growth inhibition of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and resensitizes tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells to antiestrogen therapy. These findings suggest that MGMT inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for overcoming antiestrogen resistance. PMID:22549111

  9. The Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) of the Mouse Egg: Localization of ER Clusters in Relation to the Generation of Repetitive Calcium Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Kline; Lisa Mehlmann; Christopher Fox; Mark Terasaki

    1999-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the mature mouse egg consists of a fine tubular network and pronounced accumulations in the cortex. The ER was visualized both in intact eggs and with in vitro preparations of the cortex using the fluorescent lipophilic dye, DiI. Immunofluorescent labeling of the ER in isolated cortical preparations demonstrated that the ER clusters contain inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

  10. Effect of the breakdown nature on Er-related electroluminescence intensity and excitation efficiency in Si:Er light emitting diodes grown with sublimation MBE technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B Shmagin; V. P Kuznetsov; D. Yu Remizov; Z. F Krasil’nik; L. V Krasil’nikova; D. I Kryzhkov

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the p–n junction breakdown mechanism on the Er3+ electroluminescence (EL) intensity and excitation efficiency (an intra 4f transition 4I13\\/2?4I15\\/2 of Er3+ ion at the wavelength of 1.54?m) has been investigated in Si:Er light emitting diodes (LED) grown with sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) method. It is shown that the avalanche LEDs are characterized by a greater Er3+

  11. Er-related emission in nitrogen co-implanted Al X Ga 1? X As:Er ( X=0.15, 0.37, 0.70)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Uekusa; K Utiya; M Wakutani; M Kumagai

    1999-01-01

    Erbium (Er) was co-implanted with nitrogen (N) into AlXGa1?XAs (X=0.15, 0.37, 0.70) substrates. Photoluminescence (PL) from Er3+-related emission at 1.54 ?m was enhanced by co-doping N. From the temperature dependence of the PL intensity and the lifetime of the sample implanted with only Er at each Al composition X, the height of the Er-related trap level from the first excited

  12. Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si P. H. Citrin and P. A. Northrup

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    . Electroluminescence intensities from these GaN:Er films correlate with the concentration of Er atoms that replace Ga IR luminescence in Er-doped Si,1 for example, de- pends strongly on temperature, with significant quenching at 300 K. The intensity also depends sensitively on the amount of O present for reasons traceable

  13. YAG:Er3+ cross-relaxation laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachev, V. A.

    1986-02-01

    The ion-ion tranfer of excitation energy (cross-relaxation) in (Y, Er)3Al5O12 crystals is investigated experimentally. The influence of cross-relaxation on inversion formation and the lasing of a YAG:Er(3+) laser is investigated. The excitation conditions and modes for a YAG:Er(3+) laser are selected, and the lasing characteristics are studied. The mechanisms underlying the formation of inverse population of the 4 I 11/2 - 4 I ion of ER(3+) in yttrium-aluminum garnet crystals is explained. Relaxation of the excitation nergy from the S sub 3/2 level is found to be governed by a cross-relaxation mechanism. Kinetic equations comosed to allow for cross-relaxation processes are used to analyze laser operation. A YAG:Er(3+) cross-relaxation laser with good energy characteristics with free lasing efficiency of about 1.5% and differential efficiency of about 3%, producing output energy of up to 6 J, is described.

  14. ER Stress Proteins in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Morito, Daisuke; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in inflammatory responses and autoimmunity. HSPs were originally believed to maintain protein quality control in the cytosol. However, they also exist extracellularly and appear to act as inflammatory factors. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested that the other class of stress proteins such as, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins, which originally act as protein quality control factors in the secretory pathway and are induced by ER stress in inflammatory lesions, also participate in inflammation and autoimmunity. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (Bip)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94)/gp96, oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150)/glucose-regulated protein 170 (GRP170), homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp) and heat shock protein 47 (hsp47)/Serpin H1, which are expressed not only in the ER but also occasionally at the cell surface play pathophysiological roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as pro- or anti-inflammatory factors. Here we describe the accumulating evidence of the participation of ER stress proteins in autoimmunity and inflammation and discuss the critical differences between the two classes of stress proteins. PMID:22566930

  15. Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er : YAB single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foldvari, I.; Beregi, E.; Capelletti, R.; Baraldi, A.; Munoz, A.; Sosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Er-doped VAB (YAl3(BO3)(4)) is a potential self-frequency-doubling laser material. Single crystals were grown by the top-seeded flux method. The absorption spectra of the infrared Er3+ transitions were monitored in YAB crystals in the 9-300 K temperature range by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. In the whole spectral range the energy levels and Stark components of 12 transitions were detectable. In this paper the two infrared transitions (from the I-4(15/2) ground state to the I-4(13/2) and I-4(11/2) levels) were analyzed in detail. The low temperature absorption spectra of Er:YAB consist of sharp lines, the number of which corresponds to the theoretical predictions. This suggests that Er3+ ions occupy one specific lattice site (yttrium positions) with negligible aggregation at the higher dopant concentrations investigated (i.e. 0.12 Er atom/YAB mole).

  16. ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

  17. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 ? (p-eIF2?), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  18. Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

    This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

  19. Synergistic epigenetic reactivation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) by combined green tea polyphenol and histone deacetylase inhibitor in ER?-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The status of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) is critical to the clinical prognosis and therapeutic approach in breast cancer. ER?-negative breast cancer is clinically aggressive and has a poor prognosis because of the lack of hormone target-directed therapies. Previous studies have shown that epigenetic regulation plays a major role in ER? silencing in human breast cancer cells. Dietary green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), is believed to be an anticancer agent in part through its regulation of epigenetic processes. Results In our current studies, we found that EGCG can reactivate ER? expression in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Combination studies using EGCG with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), revealed a synergistic effect of reactivation of ER? expression in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. Reactivation of ER? expression by EGCG and TSA treatment was found to sensitize ER?-dependent cellular responses to activator 17?-estradiol (E2) and antagonist tamoxifen in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. We also found that EGCG can lead to remodeling of the chromatin structure of the ER? promoter by altering histone acetylation and methylation status thereby resulting in ER? reactivation. A decreased binding of the transcription repressor complex, Rb/p130-E2F4/5-HDAC1-SUV39H1-DNMT1, in the regulatory region of the ER? promoter also contributes to ER? transcriptional activation through treatment with EGCG and/or TSA. Conclusions Collectively, these studies show that green tea EGCG can restore ER? expression by regulating epigenetic mechanisms, and this effect is enhanced when combined with an HDAC inhibitor. This study will facilitate more effective uses of combination approaches in breast cancer therapy and will help to explore more effective chemotherapeutic strategies toward hormone-resistant breast cancer. PMID:20946668

  20. Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, Rados?aw; Augustyn, El?bieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; ?elechower, Micha?

    2011-09-01

    The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 °C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 °C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 ?m related to 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 ? 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 ?m combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers indicate that these optical systems may be considered as promising materials for Er-doped optical amplifiers operating within third telecommunication window.

  1. Control Performance of Vehicle Abs Featuring ER Valve Pressure Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choi, S. B.; Wereley, N. M.

    In this work, an electrically controllable anti-lock brake system (ABS) for passenger vehicle is developed by utilizing electrorheological (ER) fluid. A pressure modulator which consists of a cylindrical ER valve and the hydraulic booster is constructed in order to achieve sufficient brake pressure variation during ABS operation. The principal design parameters of the modulator are determined by considering ER properties as well as required braking pressure. After investigating pressure controllability of the modulator, a vehicle model which is integrated with the proposed pressure modulator is formulated to design yaw rate controller. A sliding mode controller is designed to obtain desired yaw rate, and the friction forces between roads and wheels are estimated via the estimator. Braking performances of the proposed ABS under various roads are evaluated through the hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) and the steering stability during braking operation is demonstrated by undertaking split-? test.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of fluorophosphate glass with high Er3+ concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Hu, L.; Duan, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorophosphate glass with 4 mol. % ErF3 content was prepared. The different scanning calorimetry was conducted. Raman spectrum, infrared transmission spectrum, absorption spectrum were measured. Fluorescence spectrum and lifetime of emission around 1.53 ?m were measured under 970 nm laser diode excitation. The metaphosphate content in the composition is limited, but the maximum phonon energy of glass amounts to 1290 cm-1, and is comparatively high. The full width at half maximum is about 56 nm, and is wider than for most of the materials investigated. The measured lifetime of 4 I 13/2?4 I 15/2 transition, contributed by the high phonon energy, inefficient interaction of Er3+ ions, and low water content, amounts to no less than 7.36 ms though the Er3+ concentration is high. This work might provide useful information for the development of compact optical devices.

  3. Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGF–VEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

  4. High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 ?s combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

  5. Orchestration of secretory protein folding by ER chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Stevens, Fred; Argon, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of protein biogenesis in the cell, dedicated to production of secretory, membrane and organelle proteins. The secretome has distinct structural and post-translational characteristics, since folding in the ER occurs in an environment that is distinct in terms of its ionic composition, dynamics and requirements for quality contol. The folding machinery in the ER therefore includes chaperones and folding enzymes that introduce, monitor and react to disulfide bonds, glycans, and fluctuations of luminal calcium. We describe the major chaperone networks in the lumen and discuss how they have distinct modes of operation that enable cells to accomplish highly efficient production of the secretome. PMID:23507200

  6. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  7. Gyromagnetic ratios in sup 164 Dy and sup 168 Er

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, C.E. (School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052 (AU)); Stuchbery, A.E. (Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, Australia 2601 (AU)); Bolotin, H.H.; Byrne, A.P.; Lampard, G.J. (School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052 (AU))

    1989-11-01

    Gyromagnetic ratios of levels up to 10{sup +} in the ground-state bands and of the 2{sup +} states in the {gamma} bands of {sup 164}Dy and {sup 168}Er were measured by the perturbed angular correlation technique utilizing the transient hyperfine field acting at the nuclei of these ions as they swiftly traversed thin polarized Fe foils. The experimental {ital g} factors, together with the results of earlier similar studies for {sup 166}Er, are discussed and compared with several theoretical predictions.

  8. ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

    2011-12-01

    The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

  9. Clinical highlights from the 2011 ERS Congress in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Spruit, Martijn A.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Herth, Felix J.F.; Poletti, Venerino; Ley, Sebastian; Burghuber, Otto C.; Clini, Enrico; Cottin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on selected papers pertinent to the most important clinical problems in the field of respiratory medicine. Expert authors from the Clinical Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have selected updated reports related to presentations given at the 2011 ERS Annual Congress, which was held in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and attended by more than 20,000 participants. The hot topics and selected abstracts from the scientific groups of the Clinical Assembly are discussed here in the context of recent literature. PMID:22408196

  10. ERS-1 orbit determination at D-PAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigber, Ch.; Massmann, F.-H.; Raimondo, J. C.; Rajasenan, C.; Gerstl, M.

    1994-05-01

    The German Processing and Archiving Facility for ERS-1 (D-PAF) is in change of computing routinely preliminary (PRL) and precise (PRC) orbits. These tasks are performed since the launch of ERS-1 on July 17, 1991. On a weekly basis PRL orbits are computed from laser quick-look and radar altimeter fast-delivery data and disseminated within short time. The PRC orbits are generated after reception of the laser full-rate data. The presentation focuses on the models used in the preliminary and precise orbit generation and puts particular emphasis on the discussion of the orbit quality in the different orbit phases since launch.

  11. Effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on dentine hypersensitivity. Short-term clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2012-07-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful condition and is a clinical challenge due to the different treatment strategies available. High-intensity lasers have been studied as a possible option. The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study was to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on DH. The study group comprised 28 subjects who met the inclusion criteria. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify sensitivity before treatment as baseline, immediately before and immediately after treatment, and 1 week and 1 month after treatment. Teeth were assigned to four groups: group 1 control (no treatment), group 2 Er:YAG laser treatment (2 Hz/32.4 mJ/5.9 J/cm(2)), group 3 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.25 W/4.4 J/cm(2)), and group 4 Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment (0.50 W/ 8.9 J/cm(2)). Data were collected and submitted to statistical analysis for both evaporative (air) and mechanical (probe) stimulation. For both the air and probe stimulation no differences were observed between the pretreatment sensitivities. With the evaporative stimulus, the pain level immediately after treatment was reduced; however, after this the values remained stable. Irradiation with the Er:YAG laser was associated with the lowest level of pain. With the mechanical stimulus, group 4 showed the most pronounced decrease in pain immediately after treatment; however, by the end of the study, pain levels had increased. Groups 1, 2 and 3 showed a reduction in pain that was significantly different from that in group 4 after the 4 weeks of clinical follow up. Based on the results and within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that none of the laser treatments studied was capable of completely eliminating pain, but the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are suitable for the treatment of DH. PMID:21912983

  12. Estrogen receptor ? exon 3-deleted mouse: The importance of non-ERE pathways in ER? signaling.

    PubMed

    Maneix, Laure; Antonson, Per; Humire, Patricia; Rochel-Maia, Sabrina; Castañeda, Jessica; Omoto, Yoko; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-04-21

    In 1998, an estrogen receptor ? (ER?) knockout (KO) mouse was created by interrupting the gene at the DNA binding domain (DBD) with a neocassette. The mutant females were subfertile and there were abnormalities in the brain, prostate, lung, colon, and immune system. In 2008, another ER? mutant mouse was generated by deleting ER? exon 3 which encodes the first zinc finger in the DBD. The female mice of this strain were unable to ovulate but were otherwise normal. The differences in the phenotypes of the two KO strains, have led to questions about the physiological function of ER?. In the present study, we created an ER? exon 3-deleted mouse (ER?-?ex3) and confirmed that the only observable defect was anovulation. Despite the two in-frame stop codons introduced by splicing between exons 2 and 4, an ER? protein was expressed in nuclei of prostate epithelial cells. Using two different anti-ER? antibodies, we showed that an in-frame ligand binding domain and C terminus were present in the ER?-?ex3 protein. Moreover, with nuclear extracts from ER?-?ex3 prostates, there was an ER?-dependent retardation of migration of activator protein-1 response elements in EMSA. Unlike the original knockout mouse, expression of Ki67, androgen receptor, and Dachshund-1 in prostate epithelium was not altered in the ER?-?ex3 mouse. We conclude that very little of ER? transcriptional activity depends on binding to classical estrogen response elements (EREs). PMID:25848008

  13. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-01-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the

  14. DRH/BPE/BDCS 1er PELICHET Marie

    E-print Network

    Mesbah, Mounir

    BAUMIER Cedric 4ème LAMA Beatrice 5ème HAMAD Berna 6ème TOUGERTI Asma 7ème KOROVITCH Alexandre 8ème KIRILOV Plamen 1er BEAUNE Gregory 2ème KIRILOV Plamen 3ème DJEDA Rodrigue 4ème TOUGERTI Asma 5ème VALLEE

  15. Economic Impact Report BInghamton UnIvERsIty

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Economic Impact Report 2007 #12;BInghamton UnIvERsIty 8:1 return on investment The term "return will be returned to the state economy and $6 to the local economy -- delivering an economic impact of $8.65 billion as an engine of economic growth that improves the financial health of our region and state. EconomIc Impact

  16. Change detection techniques for ERS-1 SAR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. M. Rignot; Jakob J. van Zyl

    1993-01-01

    Several techniques for detecting temporal changes in satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are compared, using both theoretical predictions and spaceborne SAR data collected by the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. In a first set of techniques, changes are detected based on differences in the magnitude of the signal intensity between two dates. Ratioing of the multidate radar intensities is

  17. Photonic Properties of Er-Doped Crystalline Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Quang Vinh; Ngo Ngoc Ha; Tom Gregorkiewicz

    2009-01-01

    During the last four decades, a remarkable research effort has been made to understand the physical properties of Si:Er material, as it is considered to be a promising approach towards improving the optical properties of crystalline Si. In this paper, we present a summary of the most important results of that research. In the second part, we give a more

  18. High-stability Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Hall; W. K. Burns; R. P. Moeller

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented on Er3+-doped superfluorescent fiber sources showing the dependence of output characteristics on pump wavelength and power, fiber length, fiber temperature, and feedback. In particular, the broadband operation and mean wavelength stability required for fiber optic gyroscope applications are evaluated. Substantial improvements in the mean wavelength stability with pump power have been achieved by optimizing the fiber length.

  19. Optical behaviour of Er doped rutile by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E.; Pinto, J. V.; da Silva, R. C.; Peres, M.; Soares, M. J.; Monteiro, T.

    2006-09-01

    Rutile single crystals were implanted at room temperature with fluences of 5 × 10 15 Er +/cm 2 ions with 150 keV energy. Rutherford backscattering/channeling along the <0 0 1> axis reveals complete amorphization of the implanted region. Photoluminescence reveals the presence of an optical centre close to the intra-ionic emission of Er 3+ in the as-implanted samples. After annealing at 800 °C in air no changes were observed in the aligned RBS spectrum. On the contrary, annealing in reducing atmosphere (vacuum) induces the epitaxy of the damage layer. These results are unexpected, since for implantations of other ions under the same conditions, epitaxial recrystallization of the damage region occurs at this temperature. On the other hand, photoluminescence studies show the presence of new Er-related optical centres with high thermal stability in the samples annealed under oxidizing conditions. Annealing at 1000 °C in vacuum leads to the complete recrystallization of the damaged region. At this temperature a large fraction of Er segregates to the surface.

  20. Insect Repellent For Older 4-H'ers

    E-print Network

    Insect Repellent For Older 4-H'ers Picking the right insect repellent could protect your health-lasting protection. Use the Following Precautions When Using Insect Repellent Check the container to ensure deer ticks from moving from untreated skin onto treated skin. Consumer Reports Rankings Product Type

  1. Video Entity Resolution: Applying ER Techniques for Smart Video Surveillance

    E-print Network

    Kalashnikov, Dmitri V.

    Video Entity Resolution: Applying ER Techniques for Smart Video Surveillance Liyan Zhang Ronen, Irvine Abstract--Smart Video Surveillance (SVS) applications en- hance situational awareness by allowing challenges of Smart Video Surveillance is that of person identification where the task is for each subject

  2. Development status of the ERS-1 payload instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Velten; G. H. Dieterle

    1986-01-01

    The ERS-1 Active Microwave Instrumentation containing a synthetic aperture radar and a microwave scatterometer, and a Radar Altimeter are presented. Supplementary instruments are an along track scanning radiometer, a microwave sounder, a precise range and range rate experiment and a laser retroreflector. Breadboard models and demonstration models were successfully tested.

  3. UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS

    E-print Network

    Casanellas, Marta

    UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA GEOMETRIA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS Tema 5: Varietats 1. Sigui C la manera que els raigs de llum que vinguin d'un origen O = (10, 100) i es reflecteixin en P facin cap a Q

  4. n er 1a lona Guest Author -Mr. Arie Gerritse.

    E-print Network

    F · Fiber Reinforced Plastics n er 1a lona·· · · ·· · · · · Guest Author - Mr. Arie Gerritse. Mr. in tile construction of fish passage structures sn(lWJl in Figufe A. lIrowee is also used.tionp"'jetts fur old brick wor' of churche, and monasteries e'posed to weatl1~, conditions, using non

  5. Membrane trafficking: returning to the fold(ER).

    PubMed

    Perez-Linero, Ana M; Muñiz, Manuel

    2015-03-30

    Retrieval mechanisms are essential to dynamically maintain the composition and functional homeostasis of secretory organelles. A recent study has identified a novel class of cargo receptor that retrieves a specific subset of escaped ER folding machinery from the Golgi. PMID:25829015

  6. ER designer toolkit: a graphical event definition authoring tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pythagoras Karampiperis; Giannis Mouchakis; George Paliouras; Vangelis Karkaletsis

    2011-01-01

    Currently there exist several tools for Complex Event Recognition, varying from design platforms for business process modeling (BPM) to advanced Complex Event Processing (CEP) engines. Several efforts have been reported in literature aiming to support domain experts in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition of such rules,

  7. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: olgalidia09@yahoo.com; Kraak, Glen van der [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

  8. Enhanced emission of Er3+ from alternately Er doped Si-rich Al2O3 multilayer film with Si nanocrystals as broadband sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Zuimin; Xu, Fei; Ma, Zhongquan; Xu, Run; Yu, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Zheng, Lingling; Fan, Yongliang; Huang, Jian; Lu, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Alternately Er doped Si-rich Al2O3 (Er:SRA) multilayer film, consisting of alternate Er-Si-codoped Al2O3 (Er:Si:Al2O3) and Si-doped Al2O3 (Si:Al2O3) sublayers, has been synthesized by co-sputtering from separated Er, Si, and Al2O3 targets. The dependence of Er3+ related photoluminescence (PL) properties on annealing temperatures over 700-1100 °C was studied. The maximum intensity of Er3+ PL, about 10 times higher than that of the monolayer film, was obtained from the multilayer film annealed at 950 °C. The enhancement of Er3+ PL intensity is attributed to the energy transfer from the silicon nanocrystals in the Si:Al2O3 sublayers to the neighboring Er3+ ions in the Er:Si:Al2O3 sublayers. The PL intensity exhibits a nonmonotonic temperature dependence: with increasing temperature, the integrated intensity almost remains constant from 14 to 50 K, then reaches maximum at 225 K, and slightly increases again at higher temperatures. Meanwhile, the PL integrated intensity at room temperature is about 30% higher than that at 14 K.

  9. 20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities...her remarriage) and is not a surviving divorced spouse; or (2) Is entitled to an...er)'s, mother's, father's, parent's, or disabled child's benefit...

  10. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ER? deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17?-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ER? was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ER? deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ER? exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ER? in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ER?, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ER? from neurons that express calmodulin kinase II? in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ER?- and ER?-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ER? suppressed LH secretion, whereas ER? agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ER? in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ER? are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice. PMID:24476134

  11. Mitofusin 2 in POMC Neurons Connects ER Stress with Leptin Resistance and Energy Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastián, David; Imbernón, Mónica; Castaño, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodríguez, Ignacio Castrillón; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establishes Mfn2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for Mfn2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

  12. Design Program in Graphic User Interface Environment for Automobile ER Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. C.; Park, J. S.; Sohn, J. W.; Choi, S. B.

    This work presents a design and analysis program for vehicle devices utilizing an electrorheological (ER) fluid. The program is operated in graphic user interface (GUI) environment and the initial window is consisted of four subprogram modules which are related to ER shock absorber, ER seat damper, ER engine mount, and ER anti-lock brake system (ABS), respectively. In order to execute each module, both material properties and design parameters are to be chosen by the user. Then, the output display window shows the field-dependent performance characteristics to be considered as design criteria. In addition, control performances of the vehicle system equipped with ER devices are displayed in time and frequency domain. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed program, ER shock absorber and ER ABS are designed and manufactured and their performance characteristics are evaluated.

  13. Exploiting Hysteresis in a CMOS Bu er Radu M. Secareanu, Victor Adler, and Eby G. Friedman

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Exploiting Hysteresis in a CMOS Bu er Radu M. Secareanu, Victor Adler, and Eby G. Friedman@ece.rochester.edu, adler@ece.rochester.edu, friedman@ece.rochester.edu Abstract| A high drive CMOS bu er circuit character

  14. Internal Damper Characteristics of Rotor System with Submerged ER Fluid Journal Bearing

    E-print Network

    Jang, Siyoul

    1997-01-01

    Electro-Rheological (ER) fluid behavior is similar to Bingham fluid’s. Only when the shear stress magnitude of ER fluid exceeds the yield stress, Newtonian flow results. Continuous shear strain rate equation about shear ...

  15. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows views of the ER-2, NASA's Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing. The presentation briefly reviews the successes of the ER-2, and what the facility provides.

  16. Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People in the ER, Especially Young Males Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, ... on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)—often called “Spice” or “K2”—has become ...

  17. Golgi Membranes Are Absorbed into and Reemerge from the ER during Mitosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien J. M Zaal; Carolyn L Smith; Roman S Polishchuk; Nihal Altan; Nelson B Cole; Jan Ellenberg; Koret Hirschberg; John F Presley; Theresa H Roberts; Eric Siggia; Robert D Phair; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative imaging and photobleaching were used to measure ER\\/Golgi recycling of GFP-tagged Golgi proteins in interphase cells and to monitor the dissolution and reformation of the Golgi during mitosis. In interphase, recycling occurred every 1.5 hr, and blocking ER egress trapped cycling Golgi enzymes in the ER with loss of Golgi structure. In mitosis, when ER export stops, Golgi proteins

  18. ER stress activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via an UPR-independent pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Menu; A Mayor; R Zhou; A Tardivel; H Ichijo; K Mori; J Tschopp

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are proposed to contribute to the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes or atherosclerosis. However, the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that ER stress causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, with subsequent release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?. This ER-triggered proinflammatory signal shares

  19. ER QUALITY CONTROL CAN LEAD TO RETROGRADE TRANSPORT FROM THE ER LUMEN TO THE CYTOSOL AND THE NUCLEOPLASM IN

    E-print Network

    , Leeds Institute for Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture, School of Biology, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT. Complete signal peptide processing even after long term expression in virus infected leaves rules out inhibitors. The use of GFP imaging in the detection of retrograde transport from the ER and screening

  20. ER stress signaling by regulated splicing: IRE1\\/HAC1\\/XBP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Hoon Back; Martin Schröder; Kyungho Lee; Kezhong Zhang; Randal J. Kaufman

    2005-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves many specialized functions in the cell including calcium storage and gated release, biosynthesis of membrane and secretory proteins, and production of lipids and sterols. Therefore, the ER integrates many internal and external signals to coordinate downstream responses, although the mechanism(s) that maintain homeostasis are largely unknown. When misfolded or unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER,

  1. Structure of the yeast endoplasmic reticulum: Localization of ER proteins using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne Preuss; Jon Mulholland; Chris A. Kaiser; Peter Orlean; Charles Albright; Mark D. Rose; Phillips W. Robbins; David Botstein

    1991-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other secretory compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have biochemical functions that closely parallel those described in higher eukaryotic cells, yet the morphology of the yeast organelles is quite distinct. In order to associate ER functions with the corresponding cellular structures, we localized several proteins, each of which is expected to be associated with the ER on

  2. Protective effect of quercetin on ER stress caused by calcium dynamics dysregulation in intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yayoi Natsume; Shinya Ito; Hideo Satsu; Makoto Shimizu

    2009-01-01

    Quercetin, one of the flavonoids present in plants, expresses several physiological functions including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effect on intestinal epithelia remains to be elucidated. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been attracting considerable attention since ER stress triggers such disorders as inflammation and cancer. The effect of quercetin on ER stress was investigated in this present study. Several

  3. An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat and AMSR-E Soil Moisture Observations with Model

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat and AMSR- E Soil Moisture Observations with Model Simulations over information (AMSR-E and ERS-Scat) with the5 reanalysis soil moisture predictions over France from the model good correlation exists between AMSR-E (VUA-NASA), ERS-Scat, and SIM, generally for15 low altitudes

  4. In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases

    E-print Network

    Hebert, Daniel N.

    In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

  5. ER-MAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Emergency Response Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    ER-MAC: A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Emergency Response Wireless Sensor Networks Lanny Sitanayah--This paper introduces ER-MAC, a hybrid MAC protocol for emergency response wireless sensor networks. ER- MAC that participate in the emergency monitoring change their MAC behaviour by allowing contention in TDMA slots

  6. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  7. When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma ... list specific symptoms that are your cue to go to the ER. If old enough, your child ...

  8. The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lachlan Harris; David Ottaway; Peter J. Veitch

    2011-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the Verdet constant of undoped and Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm. The undoped YAG value is compared to those measured using visible light. We show that the paramagnetic nature of Er reduces the Verdet constant but that the decrease is probably not significant for the typical Er doping levels used in

  9. Ris har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slr fast, at biomasse er en

    E-print Network

    Risø har udgivet en rapport om moderne bioenergi. Den slår fast, at biomasse er en ligeså værdifuld skal til for at udnytte hele dens potentiale. Der er ikke noget nyt i at bruge biomasse til energi' er et spørgsmål om at udnytte ny teknologi til at gøre energi fra biomasse endnu mere rentabel og

  10. A Polynomial Time Optimal Algorithm for Simultaneous Bu er and Wire Sizing

    E-print Network

    Chu, Chris C.-N.

    A Polynomial Time Optimal Algorithm for Simultaneous Bu er and Wire Sizing Chris C. N. Chu and D. F is to simultaneously size the bu ers and the segments so that the Elmore delay from the source to the sink is minimized present a polynomial time algorithm SBWS for the simultaneous bu er and wire sizing prob- lem. SBWS

  11. 166Er Mössbauer spectroscopy study of magnetic ordering in a spinel-based potential spin-ice system: CdEr2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legros, Anaëlle; Ryan, D. H.; Dalmas de Réotier, P.; Yaouanc, A.; Marin, C.

    2015-05-01

    166Er Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements of CdEr2S4 show a large hyperfine field (Bhf) of 727.6(8) T at 5 K and clear evidence for slow paramagnetic relaxation with an energy barrier to reversal of 114(3) K. This behaviour stands in strong contrast to that of the corresponding pyrochlores (Er2Sn2O7 and Er2Ti2O7) where no magnetic effects are seen down to 1.56 K. The clearly dynamic 166Er Mössbauer spectra and the absence of a break in the susceptibility data suggest that there is no magnetic order above 1.8 K in CdEr2S4.

  12. Electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate gate dielectric formed by interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chel-Jong; Jang, Moon-Gyu; Kim, Yark-Yeon; Jun, Myung-Sim; Kim, Tae-Youb; Song, Myeong-Ho [IT Convergence Technology Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-02

    The authors investigate the electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate film formed by the interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films. The increase in rapid thermal annealing temperature leads to the reduction of the interface trap density by one order of magnitude, indicating the improvement in the interface quality of Er-silicate gate dielectric. The increased capacitance value of Er-silicate gate dielectric with thermal treatment is attributed in part to the reduction of SiO{sub 2} thickness and to the increase in the relative dielectric constant of Er-silicate film caused by the chemical bonding change from Si-rich to Er-rich silicate.

  13. Concentration dependence of the Er{sup 3+} visible and infrared luminescence in Y{sub 2-x}ErO thin films on Si

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lo Savio; M. Miritello; P. Cardile; F. Priolo

    2009-01-01

    Y{sub 2-x}ErO thin films, with x varying between 0 and 0.72, have been successfully grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron cosputtering of YO and ErO targets. As-deposited films are polycrystalline, showing the body-centered cubic structure of YO, and show only a slight lattice parameter contraction when x is increased, owing to the insertion of Er ions. All

  14. ER-alpha and ER-beta expression in differentiated thyroid cancer: relation with tumor phenotype across the TNM staging and peri-tumor inflammation.

    PubMed

    Magri, Flavia; Capelli, Valentina; Gaiti, Margherita; Villani, Laura; Zerbini, Francesca; La Manna, Luigi; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid cancer may express estrogen receptors (ERs) and various grades of peri-tumor inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of ERs in relation to the TNM stage and peri-tumor inflammatory infiltrate in differentiated thyroid cancers. 127 patients (109 females, 18 males) with differentiated thyroid cancer (T1 = 91, T2 = 18, T3 = 11, T4 = 7) were evaluated. In tumors and in the correspondent extra-tumor parenchyma, ERs expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In 114 tumors and correspondent peri-tumor tissues, the presence of inflammatory infiltration was also recorded. ER-alpha expression was higher in clinical than in incidental tumors of the T1 subgroup (p = 0.037), and was associated with capsular invasion in T2 tumors (p < 0.0001). ER-beta expression was negatively associated with vascular invasion in T1 (p = 0.005) and T2 tumors (p = 0.015). No significant relationship between ERs expression and tumor phenotype emerged in T3 and T4 subgroups. Tumors without inflammatory cell infiltrate showed a higher expression of both ER-alpha (p = 0.035) and ER-beta (p = 0.026) than the ones with inflammatory infiltrate. The relationship between tumor phenotype and ERs expression did not vary in the presence or absence of peri-tumor inflammatory infiltration. ER-alpha positivity and ER-beta negativity are associated with a more aggressive phenotype in both T1 and T2 thyroid cancers, suggesting that tumor biology may be more relevant than tumor size for cancer risk assessment. Inflammatory status is also associated with ERs expression, but not with tumor growth or phenotype. PMID:25338203

  15. Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling reveals a link between the PI3K pathway and lower estrogen-receptor (ER) levels and activity in ER+ breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that both levels and activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) are dramatically influenced by growth-factor receptor (GFR) signaling pathways, and that this crosstalk is a major determinant of both breast cancer progression and response to therapy. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a key mediator of GFR signaling, is one of the most altered pathways in breast cancer. We thus examined whether deregulated PI3K signaling in luminal ER+ breast tumors is associated with ER level and activity and intrinsic molecular subtype. Methods We defined two independent molecular signatures of the PI3K pathway: a proteomic (reverse-phase proteomic array) PI3K signature, based on protein measurement for PI3K signaling intermediates, and a PI3K transcriptional (mRNA) signature based on the set of genes either induced or repressed by PI3K inhibitors. By using these signatures, we scored each ER+ breast tumor represented in multiple independent expression-profiling datasets (four mRNA, n = 915; one protein, n = 429) for activation of the PI3K pathway. Effects of PI3K inhibitor BEZ-235 on ER expression and activity levels and cell growth were tested by quantitative real-time PCR and cell proliferation assays. Results Within ER+ tumors, ER levels were negatively correlated with the PI3K activation scores, both at the proteomic and transcriptional levels, in all datasets examined. PI3K signature scores were also higher in ER+ tumors and cell lines of the more aggressive luminal B molecular subtype versus those of the less aggressive luminal A subtype. Notably, BEZ-235 treatment in four different ER+ cell lines increased expression of ER and ER target genes including PR, and treatment with IGF-I (which signals via PI3K) decreased expression of ER and target genes, thus further establishing an inverse functional relation between ER and PI3K. BEZ-235 had an additional effect on tamoxifen in inhibiting the growth of a number of ER+ cell lines. Conclusions Our data suggest that luminal B tumors have hyperactive GFR/PI3K signaling associated with lower ER levels, which has been correlated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Targeting PI3K in these tumors might reverse loss of ER expression and signaling and restore hormonal sensitivity. PMID:20569503

  16. Comparative analysis of ER stress response into HIV protease inhibitors: lopinavir but not darunavir induces potent ER stress response via ROS/JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Taura, Manabu; Kariya, Ryusho; Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Iwawaki, Takao; Amano, Masayuki; Suico, Mary Ann; Kai, Hirofumi; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okada, Seiji

    2013-12-01

    HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-induced ER stress has been associated with adverse effects. Although it is a serious clinical problem for HIV/AIDS patients, comparative analyses of ER stress induction by clinically used PIs have rarely been done. Especially, there is no report on the differential ER stress response between lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV), although these PIs are the most clinically used PIs. We show here that LPV induces the most potent CHOP expression, ER stress marker, among the 9 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PIs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, several human epithelial cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. LPV induced the most potent ROS production and JNK activation in 9 PIs. A comparison among the most clinically used PIs, ritonavir (RTV), LPV, and DRV, revealed that LPV potently and RTV moderately but not DRV induced ER stress via ROS-dependent JNK activation rather than proteasome inhibition. Finally, we analyzed ER stress induction in tissues of mice intraperitoneally injected with RTV, LPV, and DRV. RTV and LPV but not DRV showed ER stress induction in several mice tissues. In conclusion, we first identify LPV as the most potent ER stress inducing PI among 9 FDA-approved PIs in human cells, and although clinical verification is necessary, we show here that DRV has the advantage of less ROS and ER stress induction potential compared with LPV in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23973637

  17. Effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Se-Young; Jeong, Hoon; Shin, Jung H.; Choi, Han Woo; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ion Beam Application Group, Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-09

    The effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) thin film is investigated. Er-doped SRSO, which consists of silicon nanoclusters (nc-Si) in a SiO{sub 2} matrix, was fabricated using electron-cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} with concurrent sputtering of Er followed by a high temperature annealing. Defects were introduced into the film via irradiation with 3 MeV Si ions and subsequently removed by high temperature annealings. The authors find that ion irradiation reduces Er{sup 3+} luminescence from SRSO films, even when the excitation cross section and luminescence efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions are completely restored. On the other hand, ion irradiation increases the intrinsic nc-Si luminescence and has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence from a similarly prepared, Er-doped SiO{sub 2} film, indicating that the presence of irradiation induced defects in the initial amorphous film can reduce the number of Er{sup 3+} ions available for nc-Si mediated luminescence by as much as a factor of 3.

  18. Controlling Er-Tm interaction in Er and Tm codoped silicon-rich silicon oxide using nanometer-scale spatial separation for efficient, broadband infrared luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Se-Young; Shin, Jung H. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    The effect of nanometer-scale spatial separation between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions in Er and Tm codoped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) films is investigated. Er and Tm codoped SRSO films, which consist of nanocluster Si (nc-Si) embedded inside SiO{sub 2} matrix, were fabricated with electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} with concurrent sputtering of Er and Tm metal targets. Spatial separation between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions was achieved by depositing alternating layers of Er- and Tm-doped layers of varying thickness while keeping the total film thickness the same. The films display broadband infrared photoluminescence (PL) from 1.5 to 2.0 {mu}m under a single source excitation due to simultaneous excitation of Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions by nc-Si. Increasing the layer thickness from 0 to 72 nm increases the Er{sup 3+} PL intensity nearly 50-fold while the Tm{sup 3+} PL intensity is unaffected. The data are well-explained by a model assuming a dipole-dipole interaction between excited Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions, and suggest that by nanoscale engineering, efficient, ultrabroadband infrared luminescence can be obtained in an optically homogeneous material using a single light source.

  19. A Systematic In Silico Mining of the Mechanistic Implications and Therapeutic Potentials of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-? in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bangmin; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zijie; Bao, Jinku

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has long been a potential target in ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. In this study, we integrated ER-?-related bioinformatic data at different levels to systematically explore the mechanistic and therapeutic implications of ER-?. Firstly, we identified ER-?-interacting proteins and target genes of ER-?-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and analyzed their functional gene ontology (GO) annotations of those ER-?-associated proteins. In addition, we predicted ten consensus miRNAs that could target ER-?, and screened candidate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that might hit diverse conformations of ER-? ligand binding domain (LBD). These findings may help to uncover the mechanistic implications of ER-? in breast cancer at a systematic level, and provide clues of miRNAs- and small molecule modulators- based strategies for future ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:24614816

  20. Enhancement of 1536 nm emission of Er doped ZnO nanopowder by Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamiri, Reza; Poor, Hamid-Reza Bahari; Rebelo, Avito; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2014-06-01

    Er, Er-Ag and Er-Mg co-doped ZnO nanopowders were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared samples were studied by XRD and SEM, respectively. The effect of Ag and Mg on visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders have been systematically investigated. We found that Mg did not change the visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders. But, addition of Ag drastically decreases the visible emission and enhances the IR emission at 1536 nm.

  1. Integration of ERS and ASAR Time Series for Differential Interferometric SAR Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. L.; Wegmüller, U.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.

    2005-12-01

    Time series SAR interferometric analysis requires SAR data with good temporal sampling covering the time period of interest. The ERS satellites operated by ESA have acquired a large global archive of C-Band SAR data since 1991. The ASAR C-Band instrument aboard the ENVISAT platform launched in 2002 operates in the same orbit as ERS-1 and ERS-2 and has largely replaced the remaining operational ERS-2 satellite. However, interferometry between data acquired by ERS and ASAR is complicated by a 31 MHz offset in the radar center frequency between the instruments leading to decorrelation over distributed targets. Only in rare instances, when the baseline exceeds 1 km, can the spectral shift compensate for the difference in the frequencies of the SAR instruments to produce visible fringes. Conversely, point targets do not decorrelate due to the frequency offset making it possible to incorporate the ERS-ASAR phase information and obtain improved temporal coverage. We present an algorithm for interferometric point target analysis that integrates ERS-ERS, ASAR-ASAR and ERS-ASAR data. Initial analysis using the ERS-ERS data is used to identify the phase stable point-like scatterers within the scene. Height corrections relative to the initial DEM are derived by regression of the residual interferometric phases with respect to perpendicular baseline for a set of ERS-ERS interferograms. The ASAR images are coregistered with the ERS scenes and the point phase values are extracted. The different system pixel spacing values between ERS and ASAR requires additional refinement in the offset estimation and resampling procedure. Calculation of the ERS-ASAR simulated phase used to derive the differential interferometric phase must take into account the slightly different carrrier frequencies. Differential ERS-ASAR point phases contain an additional phase component related to the scatterer location within the resolution element. This additional phase varies over several cycles making the differential interferogram appear as uniform phase noise. We present how this point phase difference can be determined and used to correct the ERS-ASAR interferograms. Further processing proceeds as with standard ERS-ERS interferogram stacks utilizing the unwrapped point phases to obtain estimates of the deformation history, and path delay due to variations in tropospheric water vapor. We show and discuss examples demonstrating the success of this approach.

  2. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  3. Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

    1992-01-01

    An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

  4. A NASA ER-2 conducts high-altitude hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A specially equipped Dryden Flight Research Center ER-2 (a modified U-2) soars above Patrick Air Force Base enroute to a hurricane in the Atlantic. The plane is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Soaring above 65,000 feet, the ER-2 will measure the structure of hurricanes and the surrounding atmosphere that steers the storm's movement. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.

  5. A NASA ER-2 conducts high-altitude hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The pilot of this high-altitude research plane, a specially equipped Dryden Flight Research Center ER-2 (a modified U-2), settles into the cockpit at Patrick Air Force Base before taking off into a hurricane. The plane is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Soaring above 65,000 feet, the ER-2 will measure the structure of hurricanes and the surrounding atmosphere that steers the storm's movement. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.

  6. A NASA ER-2 conducts high-altitude hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A specially equipped Dryden Flight Research Center ER-2 (a modified U-2) takes off from Patrick Air Force Base enroute to a hurricane in the Atlantic. The plane is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. Soaring above 65,000 feet, the ER-2 will measure the structure of hurricanes and the surrounding atmosphere that steers the storm's movement. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.

  7. A NASA ER-2 conducts high-altitude hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This high-altitude research plane, a specially equipped Dryden Flight Research Center ER-2 (a modified U-2), is readied at Patrick Air Force Base for flight into a hurricane in the Atlantic. The plane is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. The ER-2, soaring above 65,000 feet, will measure the structure of hurricanes and the surrounding atmosphere that steers the storms' movement. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.

  8. A NASA ER-2 conducts high-altitude hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The pilot climbs into the cockpit of a high-altitude research plane, a specially equipped Dryden Flight Research Center ER-2 (a modified U-2), at Patrick Air Force Base. Soaring above 65,000 feet, the ER-2 will measure the structure of hurricanes and the surrounding atmosphere that steers the storm's movement. The plane is part of the NASA-led Atmospheric Dynamics and Remote Sensing program that includes other government weather researchers and the university community in a study of Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms. The hurricane study, which lasts through September 1998, is part of NASA's Earth Science enterprise to better understand the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment.

  9. Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

  10. Targeted therapies for ER+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Arnedos, Monica; André, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The majority of breast cancers present with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative features and might benefit from endocrine therapy. Although endocrine therapy has notably evolved during the last decades, the invariable appearance of endocrine resistance, either primary or secondary, remains an important issue in this type of tumor. The improvement of our understanding of the cancer genome has identified some promising targets that might be responsible or linked to endocrine resistance, including alterations affecting main signaling pathways like PI3K/Akt/mTOR and CCND1/CDK4-6 as well as the identification of new ESR1 somatic mutations, leading to an array of new targeted therapies that might circumvent or prevent endocrine resistance. In this review, we have summarized the main targeted therapies that are currently being tested in ER+ breast cancer, the rationale behind them, and the new agents and combinational treatments to come. PMID:26059247

  11. Interannual variability in Weddell Sea ice from ERS Wind Scatterometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Drinkwater; Xiang Liu; Doug Low

    1998-01-01

    ERS-1\\/2 SAR and wind Scatterometer data are analyzed together with SSM\\/I radiometer data to investigate interannual variability in Weddell Sea ice and summer melt signatures during the period 1992-1997. Simultaneous SAR and scatterometer images were obtained during a February 1995 cruise of the H.M.S. Endurance and aerial photographs collected for validation of the observations. Accompanying field data are used to

  12. INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN WEDDELL SEA ICE FROM ERS WIND SCATTEROMETER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Drinkwater; Xiang Liu; Doug Low; Peter Wadhams

    1999-01-01

    ERS-1\\/2 SAR and Wind Scatterometer data are analyzed together with DMSP SSM\\/I microwave radiometer data to investigate interannual variability in Weddell Sea ice and summer melt signatures during the period 1992-1997. Simultaneous SAR and Scatterometer images were obtained during a February 1995 cruise of the H.M.S. Endurance and aerial photographs collected for validation of the satellite observations. Accompanying field data

  13. Completion Report for Well ER2-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat\\/Climax Mine Corrective

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just

  15. BAYESIAN CRAM´ ER-RAO BOUNDS FOR MULTISTATIC RADAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry L. Van Trees; Kristine L. Bell; Yige Wang

    ABSTRACT The Bayesian Cram´ er-Rao bound (BCRB) on the mean square error in tracking the position and velocity of a moving,tar- get in a multistatic radar system is formulated and a recur- sive bound,on the state variables as a function of time is derived based on the nonlinear filtering bound developed by Tichavsky et al (1998). The result is an

  16. Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2014-02-01

    The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

  17. UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS

    E-print Network

    Casanellas, Marta

    UNIVERSITAT POLIT`ECNICA DE CATALUNYA GEOMETRIA ETSEIB, 1ER CURS Llista 1: Varietats lineals 1 R3 i la que t´e origen P = (1, 0, 1) i base u1 = (1, 1, 0), u2 = (0, 1, 1), u3 = (1, 1, 1). (ii el sistema de refer`encia amb origen P = (2, 1, 4) i base u1 = (1, 1, 0), u2 = (0, 1, 1), u3 = (0, 0

  18. Characterization of Er3 + -doped glasses by fluorescence line narrowing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Zemon; G. Lambert; L. J. Andrews; W. J. Miniscalco; B. T. Hall; T. Wei; R. C. Folweiler

    1991-01-01

    The Stark levels of the 4I15\\/2 ground state manifold have been determined for Er3+-doped fluorozirconate, fluorophosphate, phosphate, and silicate bulk glasses from fluorescence-line-narrowing (FLN) measurements at 4.2 K. Splittings between adjacent Stark levels were observed to be 10–140 cm?1 and the total energy spread of the manifold was found to range from 335 to 400 cm?1. The position of a

  19. Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays a key role in the synthesis of a wide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

  20. Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Beltrano; L. Torrisi; E. Campagna; E. Rapisarda; I. Finocchiaro; G. Olivi

    2008-01-01

    An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 mu m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 mu s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air\\/water

  1. Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Koranda; Helena Jelínkova; Michal Nemec; Jan Sulc; Miroslav Cech

    2005-01-01

    For giant pulse generation in the mid-infrared region LiNbO3 crystal with Brewster angle cut faces was inserted inside the Er:YAG laser oscillator and a specially designed driver ensured the precise time of Pockels cell switching. The optimization of the oscillator and Pockels cell driver parameters was performed to obtain the shortest (60 ns) and stable output pulse with maximum energy

  2. Slug contributes to cancer progression by direct regulation of ER? signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LI, YOUQIANG; WU, YANYUAN; ABBATIELLO, THOMAS C.; WU, WARREN L.; KIM, JU RI; SARKISSYAN, MARIANNA; SARKISSYAN, SUREN; CHUNG, SEYUNG S.; ELSHIMALI, YAHYA; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT V.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone therapy targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the most effective treatment for breast cancer. However, this treatment eventually fails as the tumor develops resistance. Although reduced expression of ER-? is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of ER-? downregulation in endocrine resistance is still not fully understood. The present study shows that Slug has an inverse relationship with ER? in breast and prostate cancer patient samples. Also the inhibition of Slug blocks mammary stem cell activity in primary mammary epithelial cells. We hypothesize that Slug may be a key transcription factor in the regulation of ER? expression. To understand the Slug-ER? signaling pathway, we employed resistant cell line MCF-TAMR (ER? relatively negative) derived from its parental MCF-7 (ER? positive) cell line and assessed changes in cell phenotype, activity and response to therapy. Conversely, we performed knockdown of Slug in the high-Slug expressing cell line MDA-MB-231 and assessed reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype. Microarray analysis showed that Slug is overexpressed in high grade breast and prostate cancer tissues. Additionally, Slug overexpression leads to drug resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slug binds directly to ER? promoter E-boxes and represses ER? expression. This resulted in decrease in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells. These findings demonstrate that Slug, by regulation of ER? expression, contributes to tumor progression and could serve as an important target for cancer therapy. PMID:25652255

  3. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

  4. Completion report for Well ER-19-1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) project at the NTS. The goals of the UGTA project include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, migration rates, and quality at the NTS. An additional major objective of drilling Well ER-19-1 was to develop dual-wall, reverse-circulation drilling technology for use on small-diameter wells at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

  5. USP14 inhibits ER-associated degradation via interaction with IRE1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Atsushi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Kadowaki, Hisae; Maruyama, Takeshi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takeda, Kohsuke [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nishitoh, Hideki [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)], E-mail: hnishitoh@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ichijo, Hidenori [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2009-02-20

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess the ER quality control systems, the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt to ER stress. IRE1{alpha} is one of the ER stress receptors and mediates the UPR. Here, we identified ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 14 as a binding partner of IRE1{alpha}. USP14 interacted with the cytoplasmic region of IRE1{alpha}, and the endogenous interaction between USP14 and IRE1{alpha} was inhibited by ER stress. Overexpression of USP14 inhibited the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and USP14 depletion by small interfering RNA effectively activated ERAD. These findings suggest that USP14 is a novel player in the UPR by serving as a physiological inhibitor of ERAD under the non-stressed condition.

  6. Effect of different Er 3+ compounds doping on microstructure and photoluminescent properties of oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanqing; Ren, Guozhong; Qiu, Xiannian; Yang, Qibin

    2008-07-01

    Four different erbium compounds: Er 2O 3, ErOF, ErF 3 and ErCl 3, doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics were prepared. The microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and glass ceramics were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorption spectra and luminescence spectra. The influence of four different Er 3+ compounds on the microstructure and optical properties of the glasses and their corresponding glass ceramics was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that upconversion luminescence and ratios of red to green emission of all the samples have close relationship with microstructures and the variety of the Er 3+ compounds. It was concluded that the glass ceramics doped with ErF 3 was the most beneficial for the precipitation of PbF 2 crystallites and had the lowest ratio of red to green emission. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena were discussed.

  7. Donor-State-Enabling Er-Related Luminescence in Silicon: Direct Identification and Resonant Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Izeddin, I.; Klik, M. A. J.; Gregorkiewicz, T. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vinh, N. Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen' P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bresler, M. S. [A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS 26 Politekhnicheskaya, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-17

    We conclusively establish a direct link between formation of an Er-related donor gap state and the 1.5 {mu}m emission of Er in Si. The experiment is performed on Si/Si ratio Er nanolayers where a single type of Er optical center dominates. We show that the Er emission can be resonantly induced by direct pumping into the bound exciton state of the identified donor. Using two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser we determine the ionization energy of the donor-state-enabling Er excitation as E{sub D}{approx_equal}218 meV. We demonstrate quenching of the Er-related emission upon ionization of the donor.

  8. Unusual hafnium-pyridylamido/ER(n) heterobimetallic adducts (ER(n) = ZnR2 or AlR3).

    PubMed

    Rocchigiani, Luca; Busico, Vincenzo; Pastore, Antonello; Talarico, Giovanni; Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-02-17

    NMR spectroscopy and DFT studies indicate that the Symyx/Dow Hf(IV)-pyridylamido catalytic system for olefin polymerization, [{N(-),N,CNph(-)}HfMe][B(C6F5)4] (1, Nph = naphthyl), interacts with ER(n) (E = Al or Zn, R = alkyl group) to afford unusual heterobimetallic adducts [{N(-),N}HfMe(?-CNph)(?-R)ER(n-1)][B(C6F5)4 in which the cyclometalated Nph acts as a bridge between Hf and E. (1)H VT (variable-temperature) EXSY NMR spectroscopy provides direct evidence of reversible alkyl exchanges in heterobimetallic adducts, with ZnR2 showing a higher tendency to participate in this exchange than AlR3. 1-Hexene/ERn competitive reactions with 1 at 240?K reveal that the formation of adducts is strongly favored over 1-hexene polymerization. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the temperature (to >265?K) initiates 1-hexene polymerization. PMID:24458366

  9. COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

  10. The isolated ER-Golgi intermediate compartment exhibits properties that are different from ER and cis-Golgi

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    A procedure has been established in Vero cells for the isolation of an intermediate compartment involved in protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The two-step subcellular fractionation procedure consists of Percoll followed by Metrizamide gradient centrifugation. Using the previously characterized p53 as a marker protein, the average enrichment factor of the intermediate compartment was 41. The purified fraction displayed a unique polypeptide pattern. It was largely separated from the rough ER proteins ribophorin I, ribophorin II, BIP, and protein disulfide isomerase, as well as from the putative cis-Golgi marker N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester-alpha-N- acetylglucosaminidase, the second of the two enzymes generating the lysosomal targeting signal mannose-6-phosphate. The first enzyme, N- acetylglucosaminylphosphotransferase, for which previous biochemical evidence had suggested both a pre- and a cis-Golgi localization in other cell types, cofractionated with the cis-Golgi rather than the intermediate compartment in Vero cells. The results suggest that the intermediate compartment defined by p53 has unique properties and does not exhibit typical features of rough ER and cis-Golgi. PMID:2007626

  11. Magnetic properties and transformation of crystal structure in the ErFe2-ErAl2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wik, J.; Koshkid'ko, Y.; Mikhailova, A.; Kolchugina, N.; Nenkov, K.; Hackamer, A.; Miller, M.

    2015-03-01

    The modification of structural properties and magnetic behaviour of the ErFe2-xAlx Laves phase intermetallic compounds have been studied while changing the Al content in the range 0.36 ? x ? 1.5. Powder X-ray diffraction study at room temperature showed the formation of the cubic C15 structure, in the samples with Al content of 0.36 ? x < 0.75 and 1.4 ? x ? 2.0. For the intermediate compositions with 0.75 ? x ? 1.4, the hexagonal C14 structure is observed. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds were investigated experimentally using magnetic and heat capacity measurements. The Curie temperature TC decreases from 275 to 28 K as the Al content increases from x = 0.36 to x = 1.5, respectively. Magnetization measurements in strong magnetic fields showed the complex mechanism of magnetic saturation in the studied compounds. Under an external field change from 0 to 2 T, the maximum entropy change is 6 J/kg K at T = 28 K for the composition with x = 1.5. The minimum in the concentration dependence of the magnetic entropy change is observed in the vicinity of x equal to 1.25. Regularities of variations of magnetocaloric properties of ErFe2-xAlx intermetallic compounds with increasing Al content are discussed from the point of view of their both structural and magnetic states.

  12. Interference with ER-? enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the selective CDK inhibitor roscovitine towards ER-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    W?sierska-G?dek, Józefa; Gritsch, David; Zulehner, Nora; Komina, Oxana; Maurer, Margarita

    2011-04-01

    In recent years many risk factors for the development of breast cancer that are linked to estrogens have been identified, and roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, has been shown to be an efficient inhibitor of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Therefore, we have examined the possibility that interference with estrogen signaling pathways, using tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), could modulate the efficacy of treatment with ROSC. In conjunction with TAM, ROSC exhibited enhanced anti-proliferative activity and CDK inhibition, particularly in estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells. The interaction between both drugs was synergistic. However, in ER-?-negative cells the interaction was antagonistic. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC abolished the activating phosphorylation of CDK2 and CDK7 at Ser(164/170). This in turn prevented the phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain of RNA Polymerase II and ER-? at Ser(118), resulting in the down-regulation of the latter. Concomitantly, wt p53 was strongly activated by phosphorylation at Ser(46). Our results demonstrate that ROSC negatively affects the functional status of ER-?, making it potentially useful in the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. PMID:21308739

  13. Expression of GPR30, ER? and ER? in endometrium during window of implantation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiming; Ji, Lijuan; Shang, Wei; Li, Min; Chen, Lei; White, Richard E; Han, Guichun

    2011-04-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit a lower pregnancy rate, which may be related to decreased estrogen receptor (ER) expression or endometrial receptivity. We measured expression of ER?, ER? and the novel G protein-coupled ER (GPR30) in endometrium during window of implantation (WOI) in PCOS patients. Fifteen Chinese women with PCOS were compared to 15 normal subjects. Serial trans-vaginal ultrasonic scanner (TVUS) examinations detected follicular development, and endometrial thickness and pattern were assessed via TVUS on the day of ovulation. GPR30 expression was detected in the cytoplasm of endometrial epithelial cells, and was significantly lower in the PCOS group (p < 0.05). ER? and ER? expression was lower in the PCOS group, and was detected mainly in the nucleus of endometrial epithelial cells. There was no significant difference in endometrium thickness (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference in the ultrasonic pattern (p < 0.05). Endometrial expression of GPR30, ER? and ER? was decreased during WOI in PCOS patients, and was accompanied by poor endometrial receptivity, low pregnancy rate and higher spontaneous abortions. We propose that restored receptor expression might improve endometrial receptivity and help lower infertility associated with PCOS. PMID:21269226

  14. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement. PMID:26047019

  15. Effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the adhesion to eroded dentin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Azambuja, Nilton; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Gutknecht, Norbert; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the adhesion to eroded dentin. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on eroded dentin morphology and on microtensile bond strength (?TBS) of adhesive systems to this substrate. Ninety-six extracted third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n?=?12) according to the type of surface treatment and the adhesive system: G1?=?Control?+?Clearfil SE Bond [SE], G2?=?Diamond bur [DB]?+?SE, G3?=?Er:YAG laser (60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/?cm(2))?+?SE, G4?=?Er,Cr:YSGG laser (50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/?cm(2))?+?SE, G5?=?Control?+?Single Bond [SB], G6?=?DB?+?SB, G7?=?Er:YAG?+?SB, G8?=?Er,Cr:YSGG?+?SB. The erosive cycling was performed by immersion in 0.05 M citric acid (pH 2.3, 10 min, 6x/day) and in supersaturated solution (pH 7.0, 1 h, between acid attacks), during 5 days. Blocks of composite were bonded to the samples according to the manufacturers' instructions. After 24 h-storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to ?TBS test. Each surface treatment was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (n?=?4) and the bond strength values (megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (??=?0.05). All surface treatments lead to changes on eroded dentin. G4 showed the highest bond strength mean (28.3?±?9.2 MPa), which was statistically significant higher than all the other groups (p?Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (4.5 J/cm(2)/50 mJ/30 Hz/140 ?s) prior to bonding with a self-etching adhesive system significantly increases adhesion to eroded dentin, as compared to conventional treatment. PMID:23649611

  16. ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c–regulated dynamic actin filament arrays

    PubMed Central

    Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293

  17. Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Christopher J.R.; Young, Barry P.; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Levine, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    How cells monitor the distribution of organelles is largely unknown. In budding yeast, the largest subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of cortical ER (cER) that adheres to the plasma membrane. Delivery of cER from mother cells to buds, which is termed cER inheritance, occurs as an orderly process early in budding. We find that cER inheritance is defective in cells lacking Scs2, a yeast homologue of the integral ER membrane protein VAP (vesicle-associated membrane protein–associated protein) conserved in all eukaryotes. Scs2 and human VAP both target yeast bud tips, suggesting a conserved action of VAP in attaching ER to sites of polarized growth. In addition, the loss of either Scs2 or Ice2 (another protein involved in cER inheritance) perturbs septin assembly at the bud neck. This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER. PMID:17984322

  18. Loss of Clcc1 results in ER stress, misfolded protein accumulation, and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yichang; Jucius, Thomas J; Cook, Susan A; Ackerman, Susan L

    2015-02-18

    Folding of transmembrane and secretory proteins occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before transportation to the cell surface and is monitored by the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates the UPR that restores ER homeostasis by regulating gene expression that leads to an increase in the protein-folding capacity of the ER and a decrease in the ER protein-folding load. However, prolonged UPR activity has been associated with cell death in multiple pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration. Here, we report a spontaneous recessive mouse mutation that causes progressive cerebellar granule cell death and peripheral motor axon degeneration. By positional cloning, we identify the mutation in this strain as a retrotransposon insertion in the Clcc1 gene, which encodes a putative chloride channel localized to the ER. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C3H/HeSnJ inbred strain has late onset cerebellar degeneration due to this mutation. Interestingly, acute knockdown of Clcc1 expression in cultured cells increases sensitivity to ER stress. In agreement, GRP78, the major HSP70 family chaperone in the ER, is upregulated in Clcc1-deficient granule cells in vivo, and ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in these neurons before their degeneration. These data suggest that disruption of chloride homeostasis in the ER disrupts the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to eventual neuron death. PMID:25698737

  19. The endogenous caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL regulates ER morphology and crosstalk with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Marini, E S; Giampietri, C; Petrungaro, S; Conti, S; Filippini, A; Scorrano, L; Ziparo, E

    2015-07-01

    Components of the death receptor-mediated pathways like caspase-8 have been identified in complexes at intracellular membranes to spatially restrict the processing of local targets. In this study, we report that the long isoform of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL), a well-known inhibitor of the extrinsic cell death initiator caspase-8, localizes at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). ER morphology was disrupted and ER Ca(2+)-release as well as ER-mitochondria tethering was decreased in c-FLIP(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Mechanistically, c-FLIP ablation resulted in enhanced basal caspase-8 activation and in caspase-mediated processing of the ER-shaping protein reticulon-4 (RTN4) that was corrected by re-introduction of c-FLIPL and caspase inhibition, resulting in the recovery of a normal ER morphology and ER-mitochondria juxtaposition. Thus, the caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIPL emerges as a component of the MAMs signaling platforms, where caspases appear to regulate ER morphology and ER-mitochondria crosstalk by impinging on ER-shaping proteins like the RTN4. PMID:25501600

  20. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Mark J; Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Richie, Christopher T; Harvey, Brandon K

    2014-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  1. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  2. SERCaMP: a carboxy-terminal protein modification that enables monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark J.; Wires, Emily S.; Trychta, Kathleen A.; Richie, Christopher T.; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis is disrupted in diverse pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Temporally defining calcium dysregulation during disease progression, however, has been challenging. Here we describe secreted ER calcium-monitoring proteins (SERCaMPs), which allow for longitudinal monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis. We identified a carboxy-terminal modification that is sufficient to confer release of a protein specifically in response to ER calcium depletion. A Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)–based SERCaMP provides a simple and sensitive method to monitor ER calcium homeostasis in vitro or in vivo by analyzing culture medium or blood. GLuc-SERCaMPs revealed ER calcium depletion in rat primary neurons exposed to various ER stressors. In vivo, ER calcium disruption in rat liver was monitored over several days by repeated sampling of blood. Our results suggest that SERCaMPs will have broad applications for the long-term monitoring of ER calcium homeostasis and the development of therapeutic approaches to counteract ER calcium dysregulation. PMID:25031430

  3. Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Miller

    2005-06-10

    Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

  4. Lifetimes of negative parity states in {sup 168}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Genilloud, L. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland); Jolie, J. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland); Boerner, H. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France); Lehmann, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France); Becvar, F. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic); Krticka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic); Zamfir, N. V. [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States) [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States); Casten, R. F. [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Using the GRID method the lifetimes of 12 states belonging to four negative parity bands in {sup 168}Er were measured at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). For K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 1}{sup -} and K{sup {pi}}=2{sub 1}{sup -} bands the absolute E1 transitions are in agreement with those obtained within the framework of the sdf IBA-1 model and their octupole vibrational character is confirmed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Er/Tm:fiber laser system for coherent Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Kumar, Vikas; Cassinerio, Marco; Galzerano, Gianluca; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel architecture for a fiber-based hybrid laser system for coherent Raman microscopy, combining an amplified Er:fiber femtosecond oscillator with a Tm:fiber amplifier boosting the power of the 2-?m portion of a supercontinuum up to 300 mW. This is enough to obtain, by means of nonlinear spectral compression, sub-20-cm(-1) wide pump and Stokes pulses with 2500-3300??cm(-1) frequency detuning and average power at the 100-mW level. Application of this system to stimulated Raman scattering microscopy is discussed. PMID:24875984

  6. Synthesis of Er-complexes for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofer, Zdenek; T?eš?áková, Pavlína; Špirková, Jarmila; Rubáš, Stanislav; Kalábová, Martina

    2007-05-01

    We present a new approach of introducing erbium ions onto thin surface layers of silica glass substrates based on soaking of solution of erbium complexes. Different types of Er3+ complexes with 2,2?-dipyridyle, 1,10-phenantroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline and ethylendiamine ligands and nitrate, thiocyanate and acetate anions were prepared. Composition of the complexes was determined by elementary analysis and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Decomposition temperature was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Erbium doped surface layers exhibit strong photoluminescence with maximum on 1533 nm and full width at half maximum above 50 nm.

  7. A Sex Attractant for the Scarab Beetle Anomala solida Er

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miklós Tóth; Mitko Subchev; Ivan Sredkov; István Szarukán; Walter Leal

    2003-01-01

    (R,Z)-5-(-)-(Oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one (R-buibuilactone) attracted male Anomala solida Er. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae), a vineyard and orchard pest in Southeastern Europe. The presence of the corresponding (S) enantiomer or of 2-(E)-nonen-1-ol (a frequently found pheromone component in other Anomala spp.) in the bait did not influence catches. Traps baited with (R,Z)-5-(-)-(oct-1-enyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one were successfully used for monitoring the flight of A. solida, and may

  8. Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koranda, Petr; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Cech, Miroslav

    2005-04-01

    For giant pulse generation in the mid-infrared region LiNbO3 crystal with Brewster angle cut faces was inserted inside the Er:YAG laser oscillator and a specially designed driver ensured the precise time of Pockels cell switching. The optimization of the oscillator and Pockels cell driver parameters was performed to obtain the shortest (60 ns) and stable output pulse with maximum energy (60 mJ). It gives 1 MW output peak power. Laser output dependences on the resonator parameters (resonator length and output mirror reflexivity) were also performed and the output laser characteristics well corresponded to the theoretical calculation results.

  9. The diffusion of hydrogen at low temperatures in Pd-Er-H ternary solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wasz, M.L.; McLellan, R.B. (William Marsh Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1993-07-01

    An electrolytic technique has been used to measure the temperature variation of the diffusivity of hydrogen in Pd-Er solid solutions containing up to 8 at.% Er. The diffusivities were measured in the temperature range 270-340K. The diffusion data for a given Pd-Er binary solvent conform to the Arrhenius representation. However the apparent activation energies Q[sub a] exhibit a non-linear variation wit Er content. The Q[sub a] values show an initial increase with Er content and then a decrease after a maximum at [approximately]5 at. % Er. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of a statistical model based upon classical jump theory.

  10. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy investigation of (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, C. L.; Chelomentsev, E.; Peng, Z. L.; Mascher, P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Simpson, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of violet-blue emission from (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides (Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}) using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) measurements. The PL spectra and PAS analysis for a control Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} (Ge+SiO{sub 2}) indicate that Ge-associated neutral oxygen vacancies (Ge-NOV) are likely responsible for the major emission in the violet-blue band. For Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}, both Ge-NOV and GeO color centers are believed to be responsible for the emission band. The addition of Er has a significant influence on the emission, which is discussed in terms of Er-concentration-related structural change in the Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}.

  11. Calmodulin association with the synthetic ER?17p peptide investigated by mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Bourgoin-Voillard; Françoise Fournier; Carlos Afonso; Yves Jacquot; Guy Leclercq; Jean-Claude Tabet

    2011-01-01

    Implication of calmodulin (CaM) in breast cancer development has been proposed, justifying the interest for ER\\/calmodulin interaction. The association of the synthetic peptide ER?17p (H–PLMIKRSKKNSLALSLT–OH), which corresponds to the known ER interaction site of CaM, was investigated. Under physiologically conditions, 1:1 complex formation was observed using an ESI-ITMS instrument. This equimolar complex with CaM was only formed in presence of

  12. Evaluation of ERS Scatterometer soil moisture products over a half-degree region in Southwestern France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Based on a high resolution soil moisture simulation (1km²) validated at the local scale, the ERS-scat is about 50x50 km² (ERS-Scat, AMRS-E, METOP-ASCAT, SMOS). Several studies were devoted to assess in Southwestern (SW) France was used to assess the two ERS-scat hal-00259755,version1-29Feb2008 #12;soil moisture

  13. Electronic polarizability and optical parameters of Er3+\\/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Song; Chengguo Ming; Wentao Wang; Lanjun Luo

    2010-01-01

    The samples of Er3+\\/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glasses with different Er3+ doped concentrations were prepared by high-temperature melting method. By calculating the electronic polarizabilities and optical basicity of the samples, we find, with the increasing of Er3+ ions concentration, the polarizability and optical basicity of oxide ions become large, which indicates that the covalence of the glasses becomes small. Based on

  14. Room-Temperature Electroluminescence from Er-Implanted Semi-Insulating Polycrystalline Silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lombardo; S. U. Campisano; G. N. van den Hoven; A. Polman

    1994-01-01

    Sharp room-temperature luminescence at 1.54 ¿m in erbium-doped semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon (SIPOS) is demonstrated. Electroluminescence due to intra-4f transitions of Er3+ ions was investigated in metal-SIPOS-silicon devices. The compatibility of SIPOS with VLSI technology combined with the demonstration that Er in SIPOS can be electrically excited, indicates that Er-doped SIPOS is a very interesting candidate as active material for electrically

  15. Xenoestrogen action in breast cancer: impact on ER-dependent transcriptionand mitogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Hess-Wilson; J. Boldison; K. E. Weaver; K. E. Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Several estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) inappropriately activate the estrogen receptor (ER) in the absence of endogenous ligand.\\u000a Given the importance of the ER in breast cancer growth and regulation, delineating the impact of these agents under conditions\\u000a related to tumor treatment is of significant importance. We examined the effect of two prevalent xenoestrogens (bisphenol\\u000a A and coumestrol) on ER activation and

  16. Photoablation on bovine cornea with a Q-switch Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasser, Theo; Ludwig, Karl; Lukashev, Alexei V.; Heymann, M.

    1992-08-01

    Photoablation of ocular tissues can be performed with free running Er:lasers, but their application leads to significantly more thermal tissue damage than photoablation with ArF excimer lasers. This means a serious drawback to clinical investigations on treatments with Er:lasers. However, an essential reduction of the thermal damage zone is achieved by photoablation with a Q-switched Er:YAG laser (TEMoo, tp equals 100 nsec). Detailed results of our work on bovine cornea are presented.

  17. Magnetic properties and interaction of Er 3Ni with hydrogen and nitrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Nikitin; V. N. Verbetsky; E. A. Ovchenkov; A. A. Salamova

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of Er3Ni with hydrogen was studied in the temperature range of 293-243 K. The reaction at room temperature and hydrogen pressure of 20 atm leads to formation of amorphous hydride phase. Hydriding Er3Ni at the low temperature (253-243 K) and low pressure (<1 atm) leads to synthesis of individual hydride with formula Er3NiH8 and structure of initial intermetallic

  18. Energy transfer between Sm 3+ and Er 3+ in orthophosphate YPO 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Moine; S. Hachani; M. Férid

    2011-01-01

    The energy transfer between Sm3+ and Er3+ ions in yttrium orthophosphate is studied. This choice of ions is based on the possibility of quantum cutting processes and the host material is selected according to the position of the 5d bands of the Sm3+ ion. The Sm3+ and Er3+ doped and Sm3+, Er3+ co-doped YPO4 have been synthesized. Spectroscopic studies were

  19. ERS-1\\/2 SAR land applications: overview and main results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. W. Attema; G. Duchossois; G. Kohlhammer

    1998-01-01

    On 17 July 1991 the European Space Agency launched ERS-1 into a Sun-synchronous, polar orbit at an altitude of about 780 km, followed by ERS-2 in 1995. ERS-1 is observes the ocean, sea ice, the cryosphere and the land surface. The satellite carries three active microwave instruments: a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a wind scatterometer, and a radar altimeter (RA)

  20. Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ in a zinc borate glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Casarin

    1996-01-01

    4ZnO · 3B2O3 glasses doped with Nd3+ and Er3+ were investigated by optical spectroscopy. Emission transition probabilities, radiative life-times and fluorescence branching ratios for several excited states of the Nd3+ and Er3+ ions were estimated from the room temperature absorption spectra. The stimulated emission cross sections ?p for the near infrared laser transitions of Nd3+ and Er3+ were obtained from

  1. ERdj5 Is Required as a Disulfide Reductase for Degradation of Misfolded Proteins in the ER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Ushioda; Jun Hoseki; Kazutaka Araki; Gregor Jansen; David Y. Thomas; Kazuhiro Nagata

    2008-01-01

    Membrane and secretory proteins cotranslationally enter and are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Misfolded or unassembled proteins are discarded by a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD), which involves their retrotranslocation into the cytosol. ERAD substrates frequently contain disulfide bonds that must be cleaved before their retrotranslocation. Here, we found that an ER-resident protein ERdj5 had a reductase activity,

  2. OpenGL Under MFC E.R. Bachmann MV 4202 Page 1 of 8

    E-print Network

    McDowell, Perry

    OpenGL Under MFC E.R. Bachmann MV 4202 Page 1 of 8 3. OpenGL Under MFC Seven basic steps;OpenGL Under MFC E.R. Bachmann MV 4202 Page 2 of 8 - The style may not include CS_PARENTDC - A pixel to create an OpenGL rendering context #12;OpenGL Under MFC E.R. Bachmann MV 4202 Page 3 of 8

  3. Czochralski growth and spectral properties of Er 3+:La 2(WO 4) 3 crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuqin Lin; Yujin Chen; Jinsheng Liao; Zundu Luo; Yidong Huang

    2004-01-01

    Er3+-doped La2(WO4)3 single crystals up to 139g have been grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the Er3+:La2(WO4)3 crystal were measured at room temperature. The fluorescence lifetimes of some typical Er3+-doped laser upper levels were estimated from the recorded fluorescence decay curves. The spectral properties and growth technique were also discussed.

  4. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Comment on "Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling".

    PubMed

    Reid, David W; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2015-06-12

    Jan et al. (Research Articles, 7 November 2014, p. 716) propose that ribosomes translating secretome messenger RNAs (mRNAs) traffic from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon emergence of the signal peptide and return to the cytosol after termination. An accounting of controls demonstrates that mRNAs initiate translation on ER-bound ribosomes and that ribosomes are retained on the ER through many cycles of translation. PMID:26068841

  5. Intracellular Ca 2+ release via the ER translocon activates store-operated calcium entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwei L. Ong; Xibao Liu; Ajay Sharma; Ramanujan S. Hegde; Indu S. Ambudkar

    2007-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is activated in response to depletion of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A variety of agonists stimulate SOCE via IP3-dependent Ca2+ depletion. SOCE is also activated by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca2+ reuptake into the ER that induces a net Ca2+ loss from the ER by unmasking a Ca2+ “leak” pathway. The molecular identity

  6. Regulation of ER-phagy by a Ypt/Rab GTPase module

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Shah, Ankur H.; Kim, Jane J.; Mulholland, Jonathan W.; Segev, Nava

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of misfolded proteins on intracellular membranes has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. One cellular pathway that clears such aggregates is endoplasmic reticulum autophagy (ER-phagy), a selective autophagy pathway that delivers excess ER to the lysosome for degradation. Not much is known about the regulation of ER-phagy. The conserved Ypt/Rab GTPases regulate all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. We recently showed that a Ypt module, consisting of Ypt1 and autophagy-specific upstream activator and downstream effector, regulates the onset of selective autophagy in yeast. Here we show that this module acts at the ER. Autophagy-specific mutations in its components cause accumulation of excess membrane proteins on aberrant ER structures and induction of ER stress. This accumulation is due to a block in transport of these membranes to the lysosome, where they are normally cleared. These findings establish a role for an autophagy-specific Ypt1 module in the regulation of ER-phagy. Moreover, because Ypt1 is a known key regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport, these findings establish a second role for Ypt1 at the ER. We therefore propose that individual Ypt/Rabs, in the context of distinct modules, can coordinate alternative trafficking steps from one cellular compartment to different destinations. PMID:23924895

  7. ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Disrupts Estrogen-Signaling through Up-Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?)

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that ?9-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17?-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from ?9-THC’s ability to inhibit E2-liganded ER? activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) ?9-THC up-regulates ER?, a repressor of ER?, inhibiting the expression of E2/ER?-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) ?9-THC induction of ER? modulates E2/ER? signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that ?9-THC’s antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ER? disruption of E2/ER? signaling. PMID:23718638

  8. Unsaturated FAs prevent palmitate-induced LOX-1 induction via inhibition of ER stress in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ishiyama, Junichi; Taguchi, Ryoko; Akasaka, Yunike; Shibata, Saiko; Ito, Minoru; Nagasawa, Michiaki; Murakami, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) upregulates oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), a scavenger receptor responsible for uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and enhances oxLDL uptake in macrophages. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. PA is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types. Therefore, we investigated whether ER stress is involved in PA-induced LOX-1 upregulation. PA induced ER stress, as determined by phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2?, and JNK, as well as induction of CHOP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Inhibitors [4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and salubrinal] and small interfering RNA (siRNA) for the ER stress response decreased PA-induced LOX-1 upregulation. Thapsigargin, an ER stress inducer, upregulated LOX-1, which was decreased by PBA and TUDCA. We next examined whether unsaturated FAs could counteract the effect of PA. Both oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) suppressed PA-induced LOX-1. Activation of the ER stress response observed in the PA-treated cells was markedly attenuated when the cells were cotreated with OA or LA. In addition, OA and LA suppressed thapsigargin-induced LOX-1 upregulation with reduced activation of ER stress markers. Our results indicate that activation of ER stress is involved in PA-induced LOX-1 upregulation in macrophages, and that OA and LA inhibit LOX-1 induction through suppression of ER stress. PMID:21078775

  9. Photoluminescence and energy transfer study of Er3+ and Dy3+ codoped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiao, Zhisong; Zhu, Fang; Yan, Lu; Zhou, Bo; Huang, Anping

    2011-12-01

    Photoluminescence properties of the Er(3+)-Dy3+ codoped tellurite glasses were studied by absorption and visible emission spectra, which revealed luminescence bands of both Er3+ and Dy3+ when pumping with the wavelength of 325 nm. The concentration quenching occurred as Dy3+ concentration increased beyond 3 mol%. The dependence of Er3+ characteristic emission on Dy3+ concentration indicated energy transfer process between Er3+ and Dy3+. The chromaticity coordinates of these glasses are close to white light, which implies that these glasses might be potential candidates for white lighting through an appropriate combination. PMID:22409022

  10. High-efficiency infrared-to-visible upconversion of Er3 + in BaCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhu; Ohwaki, Junichi

    1993-07-01

    Highly efficient infrared-to-visible upconversion has been observed in Er3+-doped BaCl2 phosphors. The composition optimized for maximum green emission was around 25ErCl3 (mol %), which contains 5-15 mol % more active Er3+ ions than those in the conventional Er3+-doped fluoride phosphors. Pumped by a 0.8 ?m laser diode with a power density of ˜3 W/cm2, chloride (25ErCl3-75BaCl2) shows a very bright green emission with the intensity being two orders of magnitude larger than that of the commercially available IR sensor card on which an optimized fluoride phosphor Y0.8Er0.2F3 is pasted. A 0.97 ?m laser diode excitation on the chloride yielded blue (0.49 ?m), green (0.55 ?m), and red (0.66 ?m) fluorescences, visually exhibited as a bright greenish-white emission. The visible fluorescence excited by 0.8, 0.97, or 1.5 ?m laser diodes shows quadratic or cubic dependencies on the excitation power over the entire power range for the chlorides but lower dependences for the fluoride. The differences in the upconversion characteristics between the chlorides and fluoride are discussed in terms of the rate equations and attributed principally to the different Er3+...Er3+ interionic energy transfer probability and the different multiphonon decay rate from the excited states of Er3+ in these matrices.

  11. Cooling of Er(3+) with Tm(3+) for accurate temperature sensing using yttrium silicate compact powders.

    PubMed

    Rakov, Nikifor; Maciel, Glauco S

    2014-11-14

    Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline powders are extensively used for thermometry based on luminescence spectral analysis. The luminescence from Er(3+) is produced by a nonlinear (two-photon) absorption process which may generate strong internal heat by activation of nonradiative relaxation channels. If the heat dissipation is not efficient, as is the case for compact powders, there will be inaccurate readings of the temperature. Our proposed solution is to cool down Er(3+) by transferring part of its accumulated energy to another rare-earth element in the lattice. Here, we show our results for Er(3+)-Tm(3+) co-doped yttrium silicate powders prepared by combustion synthesis. PMID:25232991

  12. ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin N; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Pierce, Joseph P; Morgan, Donald A; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

    2012-11-01

    Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II-dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II-induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II-dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

  13. Age Hardening Behavior and Corresponding Microstructure of Dilute Al-Er-Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Wen, S. P.; Gao, K. Y.; Wang, W.; Nie, Z. R.

    2013-06-01

    The age hardening and the microstructure of dilute Al-Er-Zr alloys were investigated by microhardness tests and TEM. The Al-0.04Er alloy shows a conventional age hardening behavior and obtains a maximum hardness of 410 MPa after aging for 2 h at 523 K (250 °C) due to precipitation of Al3Er. The addition of Zr to Al-Er alloy can slow down the growth of the precipitates and make the age hardening effect remain for a long time in Al-0.04Er-0.04Zr alloy. Addition of Zr retards the decomposition of Al-Er and the Al-0.04Er-0.08Zr alloy can reach higher peak hardness than that of Al-0.04Er after aging for long time at elevated temperature. The precipitation behavior of Al-Er-Zr system is likely to be a new commercial way to developing creep-resistant aluminum alloy.

  14. ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Young, Colin N.; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R.; Pierce, Joseph P.; Morgan, Donald A.; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L.; Davisson, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II–dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II–induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II–dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

  15. Regulation of ER-phagy by a Ypt/Rab GTPase module.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Shah, Ankur H; Kim, Jane J; Mulholland, Jonathan W; Segev, Nava

    2013-10-01

    Accumulation of misfolded proteins on intracellular membranes has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. One cellular pathway that clears such aggregates is endoplasmic reticulum autophagy (ER-phagy), a selective autophagy pathway that delivers excess ER to the lysosome for degradation. Not much is known about the regulation of ER-phagy. The conserved Ypt/Rab GTPases regulate all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. We recently showed that a Ypt module, consisting of Ypt1 and autophagy-specific upstream activator and downstream effector, regulates the onset of selective autophagy in yeast. Here we show that this module acts at the ER. Autophagy-specific mutations in its components cause accumulation of excess membrane proteins on aberrant ER structures and induction of ER stress. This accumulation is due to a block in transport of these membranes to the lysosome, where they are normally cleared. These findings establish a role for an autophagy-specific Ypt1 module in the regulation of ER-phagy. Moreover, because Ypt1 is a known key regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport, these findings establish a second role for Ypt1 at the ER. We therefore propose that individual Ypt/Rabs, in the context of distinct modules, can coordinate alternative trafficking steps from one cellular compartment to different destinations. PMID:23924895

  16. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, Jenelle M.; Ozcan, Lale; Seimon, Tracie A.; Li, Gang; Malagelada, Cristina; Backs, Johannes; Backs, Thea; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Anderson, Mark E.; Tabas, Ira

    2009-01-01

    ER stress–induced apoptosis is implicated in various pathological conditions, but the mechanisms linking ER stress–mediated signaling to downstream apoptotic pathways remain unclear. Using human and mouse cell culture and in vivo mouse models of ER stress–induced apoptosis, we have shown that cytosolic calcium resulting from ER stress induces expression of the Fas death receptor through a pathway involving calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) and JNK. Remarkably, CaMKII? was also responsible for processes involved in mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, including release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. CaMKII-dependent apoptosis was also observed in a number of cultured human and mouse cells relevant to ER stress–induced pathology, including cultured macrophages, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells subjected to proapoptotic ER stress. Moreover, WT mice subjected to systemic ER stress showed evidence of macrophage mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, renal epithelial cell apoptosis, and renal dysfunction, and these effects were markedly reduced in CaMKII?-deficient mice. These data support an integrated model in which CaMKII serves as a unifying link between ER stress and the Fas and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Our study also revealed what we believe to be a novel proapoptotic function for CaMKII, namely, promotion of mitochondrial calcium uptake. These findings raise the possibility that CaMKII inhibitors could be useful in preventing apoptosis in pathological settings involving ER stress–induced apoptosis. PMID:19741297

  17. Specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in epitaxial Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, K. E., E-mail: konstantin@ipmras.ru; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy (SMBE) are studied. In Si:Er/Si diode structures containing precipitation-type emitting centers, a resonance photoresponse at the wavelength ? ? 1.5 ?m is observed, which is indicative of the nonradiative relaxation of Er3+ ions via the energy back-transfer mechanism. Saturation of the erbium-related photocurrent is for the first time observed at high temperatures. This allows estimation of the concentration of Er centers that undergo relaxation via the above-mentioned back-transfer mechanism (N{sub 0} ? 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}). In terms of order of magnitude, the estimated concentration N{sub 0} corresponds to the concentration of optically active Er ions upon excitation of the Si:Er layers by means of the recombination mechanism. The features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er/Si structures with different types of emitting centers are analyzed.

  18. MappERS-C and MappERS-V. The crowd source for prevention and crisis support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities within natural hazards at local/regional levels involve citizens and volunteers as first actors of civil protection and territorial management. The prevention implicates the capacities of professional operators and technical volunteers, but the priority implies now the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. The involvement of population creates context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management, skipping the limit to face risks only when they have to bear impacts on their lives. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone applications and sensors, with geo-tagged information, detailed gathered parameters, field-check survey in a contest of geospatial response. The process of development includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring as long term objective (raising public awareness and participation). The project deals with the development and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to Android SDK environment. A first research described a desk-based investigation on consequences of disasters impacts and costs of prevention strategies in pilot countries. Furthermore a review of state-of-the-art of database management systems (DBMS) in pilot countries and involvement of volunteers/citizens in data collection/monitoring collected basic info on data structure for the development. A desk-based research proposed communication methods/graphic solutions within mobile technologies for disaster management in pilot countries and available smartphone applications linked to centralized web/server database. A technical review is compulsory for a useful design-line for MappERS development, and it is linked with on-site feedback about volounteers and citizens needs within pilot groups activities. The app modules will be later re-designed according to the methodological and technical feedback gained during pilot study. Training curricula for citizens are planned to increase awareness, skills on smart phone utilities and efficient jargon for hazard contest. The expected results are: a) an easy-to-use interface for "human-data" in crisis support, b) a maximised utility of peer-produced data gathering, c) the development of human resources as technical tools d) a self-based awareness improvement.

  19. Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-06-01

    Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 ?m diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

  20. Sar1 assembly regulates membrane constriction and ER export

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kimberly R.; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Baker, Adam L.; Watkins, Simon C.; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Conway, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The guanosine triphosphatase Sar1 controls the assembly and fission of COPII vesicles. Sar1 utilizes an amphipathic N-terminal helix as a wedge that inserts into outer membrane leaflets to induce vesicle neck constriction and control fission. We hypothesize that Sar1 organizes on membranes to control constriction as observed with fission proteins like dynamin. Sar1 activation led to membrane-dependent oligomerization that transformed giant unilamellar vesicles into small vesicles connected through highly constricted necks. In contrast, membrane tension provided through membrane attachment led to organization of Sar1 in ordered scaffolds that formed rigid, uniformly nonconstricted lipid tubules to suggest that Sar1 organization regulates membrane constriction. Sar1 organization required conserved residues located on a unique C-terminal loop. Mutations in this loop did not affect Sar1 activation or COPII recruitment and enhanced membrane constriction, yet inhibited Sar1 organization and procollagen transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sar1 activity was directed to liquid-disordered lipid phases. Thus, lipid-directed and tether-assisted Sar1 organization controls membrane constriction to regulate ER export. PMID:20624903

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-8-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

  2. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  3. Properties of the rotational bands in {sup 161}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Zhang, N. T.; Zhou, H. B.; Li, G. S.; Wang, H. X.; Ding, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M. L.; Ma, F.; Fang, Y. D.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhu, L. H.; Wu, X. G. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2011-03-15

    High-spin states in {sup 161}Er have been studied experimentally using the {sup 150}Nd({sup 16}O,5n) reaction at a beam energy of 86 MeV. The 5/2{sup +}[642], 3/2{sup -}[521], and 11/2{sup -}[505] bands are extended up to high-spin states, and particularly the {alpha}=-1/2 branch of the ground state 3/2{sup -}[521] band is revised significantly. The relatively enhanced E1 transitions from the 3/2{sup -}[521] band to the 5/2{sup +}[642] band are observed. The band properties are analyzed within the framework of a triaxial particle-rotor model, and near-prolate shape and triaxial deformation are proposed to the 3/2{sup -}[521] and 5/2{sup +}[642] bands, respectively. Signature inversion occurs in the 3/2{sup -}[521] band after the band crossing in {sup 161}Er, and the systematics of the signature inversion associated with the 3/2{sup -}[521] configuration are discussed. By analyzing the properties of the relatively enhanced E1 transitions, it is found that the R(E1/E2) values show angular momentum dependence before the band crossing, and these enhanced E1 transitions could be attributed to octupole softness.

  4. Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokólska, I.; Heumann, E.; Kück, S.; Lukasiewicz, T.

    Laser oscillation around 1.6 ?m was realised at room temperature for low-doped Er:YVO4 crystals (0.5 at% and 1 at%) as well as for Er(1 at%), Yb(5 at%):YVO4 crystal in continuous-wave mode. The maximum slope of the input-output curve was about 19% (vs. absorbed power) for Er(0.5 at%):YVO4. The laser oscillation was discretely tunable in the spectral range between 1531 and 1604 nm.

  5. Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm?3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm?3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites. PMID:23336324

  6. ER Ca2+ Depletion Activates XBP1 and Controls Terminal Differentiation in Keratinocytes and Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Celli, A.; Mackenzie, D.S.; Crumrine, D.S.; Tu, C.L.; Hupe, M.; Bikle, D.D.; Elias, P.M.; Mauro, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ depletion, previously shown to signal pathologic stress responses, has more recently been found also to trigger homeostatic physiologic processes such as differentiation. In keratinocytes and epidermis, terminal differentiation and barrier repair require physiologic apoptosis and differentiation, as evidenced by protein synthesis, caspase 14 expression, lipid secretion, and stratum corneum (SC) formation. Objectives To investigate the role of Ca2+ depletion induced ER stress in Keratinocytes differentiation and barrier repair in vivo and in cell culture. Methods The SERCA2 Ca2+ pump inhibitor Thapsigargin (TG) is used to deplete ER Calcium both in cultured Keratinocytes and in mice. Levels of the ER stress factor XBP1, loricrin, Caspase 14, lipid synthesis and intracellular Ca2+ are compared after both TG treatment and barrier abrogation. Results We show here that these components of terminal differentiation and barrier repair are signaled by physiologic ER stress, via release of Stratum Granulosum (SG) ER Ca2+ stores. We first find that keratinocyte and epidermal ER Ca2+ depletion activate the ER-stress-induced transcription factor XBP1. Next, we demonstrate that external barrier perturbation results in both intracellular Ca2+ emptying and XBP1 activation. Finally, we show that TG treatment of intact skin does not perturb the permeability barrier, yet stimulates and mimics the physiologic processes of barrier recovery. This report is the first to quantify and localize ER Ca2+ loss after barrier perturbation and show that homeostatic processes that restore barrier function in vivo can be reproduced solely by releasing ER Ca2+, via induction of physiologic ER stress. PMID:20846312

  7. The effect of Zn2+ ion on the UV-VIS-NIR and upconversion emission spectroscopy of Er3+ in Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li; Jiao, Shanshan; Xu, Chao; Qian, Zhao; Li, Dayong; Lin, Jiaqi; Xu, Yuheng

    2014-03-01

    A series of Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystals tridoped with x mol% Zn2+ ions (x = 1, 3, 5 and 8 mol%) was grown by Czochralski technique. The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to measure the concentration of Er3+ in the crystal. The UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of Zn:Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystals were measured, and Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to predict the J-O intensity parameters (?t) and spectroscopic quality factor (X). With 980 nm excitation, duration lengthening of 1.54 ?m emission and intensity enhancement of green upconversion emission were observed for Zn:Yb:Er:LiNbO3 crystal.

  8. Roscovitine, a selective CDK inhibitor, reduces the basal and estrogen-induced phosphorylation of ER-? in human ER-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    W?sierska-G?dek, Józefa; Gritsch, David; Zulehner, Nora; Komina, Oxana; Maurer, Margarita

    2011-03-01

    Roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, arrests human estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle and concomitantly induces apoptosis via a p53-dependent pathway. The effect of ROSC is markedly diminished in MCF-7 cells maintained in the presence of estrogen-mimicking compounds. Therefore, we decided to examine whether ROSC has any effect on the functional status of the ER-? transcription factor. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC abolished the activating phosphorylation of CDK2 and CDK7 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. This inhibition of site-specific modification of CDK7 at Ser164/170 prevented phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and reduced basal phosphorylation of ER-? at Ser118 in non-stimulated MCF-7 cells (resulting in its down-regulation). In MCF-7 cells, estrogen induced strong phosphorylation of ER-? at Ser118 but not at Ser104/Ser106. ROSC prevented this estrogen-promoted activating modification of ER-?. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether the activity of ROSC could be enhanced by combining it with an anti-estrogen. Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), affected breast cancer cell lines irrespective of their ER status. In combination with ROSC, however, it had a different impact, enhancing G(1) or G(2) arrest. Our results indicate that ROSC prevents the activating phosphorylation of ER-? and that its mode of action is strongly dependent on the cellular context. Furthermore, our data show that ROSC can be combined with anti-estrogen therapy. The inhibitory effect of TAM on ER-negative cancer cells indicates that SERMs crosstalk with other steroid hormone receptors. PMID:21328450

  9. Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri restores endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox homeostasis, suppresses ER stress, and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet B-irradiated HaCaT cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Zhong, Feng; Han, Yantao; Gao, Hui; Wang, Chunbo; Peng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Methods: In HaCaT cells at 4 h or 18 h after UVB irradiation, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cellular apoptosis was detected with annexin V-FITC/PI staining by flow cytometry. The expression levels of PDI, Ero-1?, GRP78, and CHOP were assessed by Western blot analysis. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by fluorescent probe JC-1. Caspase activities were detected with fluorogenic substrates. Results: PCF alleviated cell viability loss and inhibited apoptosis in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Moreover, PCF increased the expression levels of PDI and Ero-1?, which were related with the ER redox homeostasis. Furthermore, PCF treatment inhibited the expression of GRP78 at 4 h after UVB irradiation, and suppressed CHOP expression at 18 h post-irradiation, indicating that PCF could inhibit UVB-evoked ER stress in the early stage post-irradiation, and suppress the ER stress-induced apoptosis in the late stage. In addition, PCF alleviated UVB-induced MMP loss, and inhibited the activation of caspase-9/-3, in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. On the other hand, MMP loss and caspase-9/-3 activation could be partly blocked by the ER stress inhibitor 4-PBA. Conclusions: PCF inhibits UVB-induced apoptosis through restoring ER redox homeostasis, suppressing ER stress, and inhibiting ER stress-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in HaCaT cells. These findings provide evidence for the mechanism underlying UVB-induced skin damages, and support the promising role of PCF in treatment of the diseases.

  10. Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

  11. PI(3)P-bound UVRAG coordinates Golgi-ER retrograde and Atg9 transport by differential interactions with the ER tether and the Beclin1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Hyung; Zhang, Tian; Ghozalli, Irene; Pirooz, Sara Dolatshahi; Zhao, Zhen; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Li, Baihong; Oh, Soohwan; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Wang, Hong-Gang; Minassian, Arlet; Feng, Pinghui; Deretic, Vojo; Pepperkok, Rainer; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Yoon, Ho Sup; Liang, Chengyu

    2013-01-01

    ER-Golgi membrane transport and autophagy are intersecting trafficking pathways that are tightly regulated and crucial for homeostasis, development and diseases. Here, we identify UVRAG, a Beclin1-binding autophagic factor, as a PI(3)P-binding protein that depends on PI(3)P for its ER localization. We further show that UVRAG interacts with RINT-1, and acts as an integral component of the RINT-1-containing ER tethering complex, which couples phosphoinositide metabolism to COPI-vesicle tethering. Displacement or knockdown of UVRAG profoundly disrupted COPI cargo transfer to the ER and Golgi integrity. Intriguingly, autophagy caused the dissociation of UVRAG from the ER tether, which in turn worked in concert with the Bif-1-Beclin-PI(3)KC3 complex to mobilize Atg9 translocation for autophagosome formation. These findings identify a regulatory mechanism that coordinates Golgi-ER retrograde and autophagy-related vesicular trafficking events through physical and functional interactions between UVRAG, phosphoinositide, and their regulatory factors, thereby ensuring spatiotemporal fidelity of membrane trafficking and maintenance of organelle homeostasis. PMID:24056303

  12. Structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics for a-IGZO thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics on the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. Compared with the Er2O3 dielectric, the a-IGZO TFT device incorporating an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric exhibited a low threshold voltage of 0.39 V, a high field-effect mobility of 8.8 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold swing of 143 mV/decade, and a high Ion/Ioff current ratio of 4.23 × 107, presumably because of the reduction in the oxygen vacancies and the formation of the smooth surface roughness as a result of the incorporation of Ti into the Er2TiO5 film. Furthermore, the reliability of voltage stress can be improved using an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric. PMID:23294730

  13. Expression of the Collagen Adhesin ace by Enterococcus faecalis Strain OG1RF is not Repressed by Ers but Requires the Ers box

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Hook, Magnus; Murray, Barbara E.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of adhesin to collagen of Enterococcis faecalis (ace), a known virulence factor, is increased by environmental signals such as the presence of serum, high temperature, and bile salts. Currently, the enterococcal regulator of survival (Ers) of E. faecalis strain JH2-2 is the only reported repressor of ace. Here, we show that for strain OG1RF, Ers is not involved in the regulation of ace. Our data showed similar levels of ace expression by OG1RF and its ?ers derivative in the presence of bile salts, serum, and high temperature. Using ace promoter-lacZ fusions and site-directed mutagenesis, we confirmed these results and further showed that, while the previously designated Ers box is important for increased expression from the ace promoter of OG1RF, the region responsible for the increase is bigger than the Ers box. In summary, these results indicate that, in strain OG1RF, Ers is not a repressor of ace expression. Although JH2-2 and OG1RF differ by 6 nucleotides in the region upstream of ace as well as in production of Fsr and gelatinase, the reason(s) for the difference in ace expression between JH2-2 and OG1RF and for increased ace expression in bile, serum and at 46°C remain(s) to be determined. PMID:23551253

  14. Strong sub-bandgap absorption in GaSb/ErSb nanocomposites attributed to plasma resonances of semimetallic ErSb nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M. P.; Driscoll, D. C.; Brown, E. R.; Gossard, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    We report experimental evidence for strong surface plasma resonances on semimetallic ErSb nanoparticles grown epitaxially in semiconducting GaSb by molecular beam epitaxy. The infrared transmission spectra of ErSb/GaSb superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy showed a pronounced attenuation peak below the band gap of GaSb, not observed in a GaSb epitaxial control layer containing no ErSb. We attribute the attenuation peak to a surface plasmon resonance on the ErSb particles. The position of this peak shifts to longer wavelengths with increased ErSb deposition, from 2.4 ?m for the smallest deposition to 3.8 ?m for the largest deposition. In addition, the attenuation strength increases with the total amount of ErSb contained in the sample. The strongest effective attenuation coefficient was measured to be 1.4×104 cm-1, which is nearly equal to the cross bandgap absorption of the bulk GaSb at 1 ?m.

  15. 40 CFR 721.4100 - Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle. 721.4100 Section 721.4100 Protection of...Substances § 721.4100 Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  16. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters32012-07-01 2012-07-01falseWater control management (ER 1110-2-240...Navigation and Navigable WatersCORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.5Water control management (ER...

  17. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters32014-07-01 2014-07-01falseWater control management (ER 1110-2-240...Navigation and Navigable WatersCORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.5Water control management (ER...

  18. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters32013-07-01 2013-07-01falseWater control management (ER 1110-2-240...Navigation and Navigable WatersCORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.5Water control management (ER...

  19. 33 CFR 222.5 - Water control management (ER 1110-2-240).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters32010-07-01 2010-07-01falseWater control management (ER 1110-2-240...Navigation and Navigable WatersCORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT...ENGINEERING AND DESIGN § 222.5Water control management (ER...

  20. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 10-1-54 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Management Programs c. ER 1110-2-1156, Safety of Dams - Policy and Procedures d. ER 1110-1-8158, Corps Wide............................................................................................. 7 APPENDIXES Appendix A ­ Roles and Responsibilities Matrix-Dam Safety Program................... A mandatory center of expertise and standardization located within the Vicksburg District, U.S. Army Corps

  1. 1. Why is the Employees Retirement System of Texas (ERS) conducting a dependent eligibility

    E-print Network

    Gelfond, Michael

    with Aon Hewitt to conduct a dependent eligibility audit for the Texas Employees Group Benefits Program coverage. 2. Who is Aon Hewitt and why are they part of the audit? Aon Hewitt is the third-party that ERS Plan (TIPP) for ERS. For the audit, Aon Hewitt will: · Send letters and emails to participants

  2. Paramagnetic resonance of Nd3+, Dy3+, Er3+ and Yb3+ in YVO4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Ranon

    1968-01-01

    The paramagnetic resonance spectra of Nd3+, Dy3+, Er3+ and Yb3+ in YVO4 were measured at X and Ka bands and at 4.2 and 1.8°K. Spin Hamiltonian parameters were determined and the ground state eigen-functions are discussed. The relaxation time of Er3+ was measured at X band.

  3. High-power diode-pumped Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber laser

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    applications like remote sensing, free-space communications, range detection, and designation. The opticalHigh-power diode-pumped Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber laser Igor Martial,1,2,* Julien Didierjean,2 describe an efficient laser emission from a directly grown Er3+ :YAG single-crystal fiber

  4. Inflation of the Aira Caldera (Japan) detected over Kokubu urban area using SAR interferometry ERS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Remy; S. Bonvalot; M. Murakami; P. Briole; S. Okuyama

    2007-01-01

    Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 descending orbit data acquired over Aira Caldera between June 1995 and November 1998 were used to create 36 differential interferograms. Although the interferograms exhibit a relatively low level of coherence, even for couples sampling short time intervals (6 months), Synthetique Aperture Radar (SAR) observations reveal a distinct range change pattern over Kokubu urban area whose amplitude

  5. Inflation of Aira Caldera (Japan) detected over Kokubu urban area using SAR interferometry ERS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Remy; S. Bonvalot; M. Murakami; P. Briole; S. Okuyama

    2006-01-01

    Nine ERS-1 and ERS-2 descending orbit data acquired over the Aira Caldera between June 1995 and November 1998 were used to create 31 differential interferograms. Although the interferograms exhibit a relatively low level of coherence, even for couples sampling short time intervals (6 months), Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DinSAR) reveals a pattern of range change signal during the observation

  6. Green emission from Er-doped GaN powder Huaqiang Wu,a

    E-print Network

    Lipson, Michal

    analysis reveals that Er atoms are distributed across powder particles. © 2005 American Institute electroluminescence from rare earth RE -doped GaN brings significant interest to this class of materials for possible. Favennec et al.6 reported a strong dependence of the emission intensity of the Er3+ ions on the band gap

  7. Application of k-Nearest Neighbor on Feature Projections Classi er to Text Categorization

    E-print Network

    Güvenir, H. Altay

    -NN ex- cept it nds the nearest neighbors according to each feature separately. Then it combines-NNFP classi er nds the k-Nearest Neighbors sep- arately for each feature whereas the k-NN classi er nds the k

  8. 7 CFR 1794.22 - Categorically excluded proposals requiring an ER.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for the ER. (12) Installing a heat recovery steam generator and steam turbine...covered in the ER. (b) Water and waste program. For certain proposed...for not granting a CE for water and waste projects. An EA must be...

  9. The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Dianne S.

    2014-01-01

    How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER. PMID:25287301

  10. Estimating Slip Distribution for the Izmit Mainshock from Coseismic GPS, ERS-1, RADARSAT, and SPOT Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt L. Feigl; Francesco Sarti; Helene Vadon; Simon McClusky; Semih Ergintav; Philippe Durand; Roland Burgmann; Alexis Rigo; Didier Massonnet; Rob Reilinger

    2002-01-01

    We use four geodetic satellite systems (Global Positioning System (GPS), European Remote Sensing (ERS), RADARSAT, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)) to measure the permanent deformation field pro- duced by the I úzmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. We emphasize measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by ERS and RADARSAT and their geodetic

  11. Kinesin Is the Motor for Microtubule-mediated Golgi-to-ER Membrane Traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Lippincott-Sehwa; Nelson B. Cole; Alex Marotta; Patricia A. Conrad

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and dynamics of both the ER and Golgi complex in animal cells are known to be dependent on microtubules; in many cell types the ER extends toward the plus ends of microtubules at the cell periphery and the Golgi clusters at the minus ends of microtubules near the centrosome. In this study we provide evidence that the microtubule

  12. Gain Improvement of Er-doped Amplifiers for the Feedback Filters 

    E-print Network

    Song, Xiaomin

    2012-02-14

    . .............................................................................................. 56 22 Strip diffused Er. ................................................................................................ 56 23 Optisystem setup: sweeping Er strip width ........................................................ 57... of the waveguide with Bragg gratings. ........................... 87 55 Broadband transmittance spectrum for TE input polarization ........................... 88 56 Transmittance and reflectance simulation for Si overlay Bragg grating (TE mode, 10e...

  13. Mutant SOD1 inhibits ER-Golgi transport in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Julie D; Farg, Manal A; Soo, Kai Ying; Walker, Adam K; Halloran, Mark; Turner, Bradley J; Nagley, Phillip; Horne, Malcolm K

    2014-04-01

    Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase is misfolded in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but it is not clear how this triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or other pathogenic processes. Here, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) is predominantly found in the cytoplasm in neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show that mSOD1 inhibits secretory protein transport from the ER to Golgi apparatus. ER-Golgi transport is linked to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation and axonal transport and we also show that inhibition of ER-Golgi trafficking preceded ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, protein aggregation and apoptosis in cells expressing mSOD1. Restoration of ER-Golgi transport by over-expression of coatomer coat protein II subunit Sar1 protected against inclusion formation and apoptosis, thus linking dysfunction in ER-Golgi transport to cellular pathology. These findings thus link several cellular events in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis into a single mechanism occurring early in mSOD1 expressing cells. PMID:24134191

  14. ERS-1 - Our new window on the oceans for the 1990s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Llewellyn-Jones

    1986-01-01

    ESA's First Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) due for launch in 1989 will monitor a carefully selected set of geophysical parameters in an effort to describe the state of the sea-surface. The payload instruments of ERS-1, how they make their measurements, and how the data will be dealt with, are described and discussed. The payload consists of three microwave radars: (1)

  15. Towards Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized lasers and optical amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Polman, Albert

    distance Weak couplingInter- mediate coupling Strong coupling #12;1.5 µm mode imaged through green threshold depends on Er concentration: experiment & theory Not enough Er To overcome losses High power;Silicon quantum dot waveguide confines IR light 458 nm 1.5 µm #12;-4 -2 0 2 4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 x

  16. Er du masterstudent ved HF? Har du problemer med gjennomfre masteroppgaven?

    E-print Network

    Løw, Erik

    18.02.2008 Er du masterstudent ved HF? Har du problemer med å gjennomføre masteroppgaven? Har du skrivesperre? Har du problem med å strukturere arbeidet eller mangler du noen å diskutere oppgaven med? Har du studievaner. Dette er et tilbud til deg som holder på med masteroppgaven, men som har stoppet opp. Ta kontakt

  17. Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

    1985-03-01

    /sup 51/Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer.

  18. ApoER2 Function in the Establishment and Maintenance of Retinal Synaptic Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Justin H.; Klein, Martin; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Dickey, Chad A.; Tharkur, Jeremy; Masiulis, Irene; Ding, Jindong; Locke, Kirstin G.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Birch, David G.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Herz, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of inner retinal circuitry are poorly understood. Reelin and apolipoprotein E (apoE), ligands of apoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), are involved in retinal development and degeneration, respectively. Here we describe the function of ApoER2 in the developing and adult retina. ApoER2 expression was highest during postnatal inner retinal synaptic development and was considerably lower in the mature retina. Both during development and in the adult ApoER2 was expressed by A-II amacrine cells. ApoER2 knockout (KO) mice had rod bipolar morphogenic defects, altered A-II amacrine dendritic development, and impaired rod-driven retinal responses. The presence of an intact ApoER2 NPxY motif, necessary for binding disabled-1 (Dab1) and transducing the Reelin signal, was also necessary for development of the rod bipolar pathway while the alternatively-spliced exon19 was not. Mice deficient in another Reelin receptor, very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), had normal rod bipolar morphology but altered A-II amacrine dendritic development. VLDLR KO mice also had reductions in oscillatory potentials and delayed synaptic response intervals. Interestingly, age-related reductions in rod and cone function were observed in both ApoER2 and VLDLR KOs. These results support a pivotal role for ApoER2 in the establishment and maintenance of normal retinal synaptic connectivity. PMID:21976526

  19. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section...Lump-Sum Payment § 234.47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there...

  20. 20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section...Lump-Sum Payment § 234.47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if it appears that there...

  1. A general constitutive equation of an ER suspension based on the internal variable theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wang; Z. Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Summary. A microstructural constitutive theory of ER suspensions was formulated in this investigation. The framework was based on the internal variable theory and the mechanism analysis. The ER suspension consists of fine particles with high dielectric constant and the supporting fluid. Under the action of the electric field, the polarized particles will aggregate together to form the chain-like structures along

  2. Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Evidence for the ER =EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharibyan, Hrant; Penna, Robert F.

    2014-03-01

    If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER =EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area of Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges (or wormholes) connecting them. We show that the geometrical entropy of classical ER bridges satisfies the subadditivity, triangle, strong subadditivity, and Cadney-Linden-Winter inequalities. These are nontrivial properties of entanglement entropy, so this is evidence for ER =EPR. We further show that the entanglement entropy associated with classical ER bridges has nonpositive tripartite information. This is not a property of entanglement entropy, in general. For example, the entangled four qubit pure state |GHZ4?=(|0000?+|1111?)/?2 has positive tripartite information, so this state cannot be described by a classical ER bridge. Large black holes with massive amounts of entanglement between them can fail to have a classical ER bridge if they are built out of |GHZ4? states. States with nonpositive tripartite information are called monogamous. We conclude that classical ER bridges require monogamous EPR correlations.

  3. FINAL REPORT DOE/ER/63705-1

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Street; F.L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

    2005-10-31

    Our DOE project is one of the efforts that comprised the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program [VTMX] of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy and was supported originally by DOE grant ER 62847. The Advanced Regional Prediction System [ARPS] computer code was used to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. This continuation grant was designed to allow us to complete our work on VTMX. The primary outcome of this grant was the completion of the dissertation of Dr. Ying Chen. In that work, several turbulence models were tested, a new surface vegetation model was developed, and Weather Research and Forecast code simulations were compared with ARPS runs.

  4. An updated period analysis for ER Orionis: A definitive solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    An updated period analysis for the overcontact eclipsing binary ER Orionis is presented. Featured is an improved derivation of parameters for the light time effect (LTE) due to the third star (in actuality, a pair of stars) utilising the latest set of eclipse timings. The very good fit between the eclipse timing differences (ETD) plot (otherwise known as an O-C diagram) and the theoretical ETD curve makes possible an improved determination of the rate of mass interchange between the binary pair, dm1/dt = +1.83(6) × 10-7 M?/year. In addition, the mass of the companion system (in actuality, m3 sin i) and the elements of its orbit were computed. A suggestion is made for a method of future determination of the inclination of the orbit of the companion system.

  5. ASF Design Considerations for Radarsat/ERS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, D.; Bicknell, T.; Tankenson, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the requirements and the design considerations of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ground data system for the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks (UAF) for the new era of Radarsat/ERS-2 missions. These include a new data acquisition planning capability to manage more satellites with global planning and to manage more than one instrument mode; a new archive strategy that is cheaper, faster, and better; a product generation system to produce data on demand and to produce data for the varied instruments and modes; and a product verification ability for the new and old products. In response to these new functional requirements, JPL is using a design approach that emphasizes an open systems, client/server architecture based on industry standards and commercial off-the-shelf technology.

  6. Investigation of 166Er in the respective ( n, n'?) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govor, L. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Berendakov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The spectrum, angular distribution, and linear polarization of gamma rays from the ( n, n'?) reaction on 166Er were measured in a beam of reactor fast neutrons. The known scheme of levels and gamma transitions for this nucleus was supplemented. Previously unknown gamma transitions and levels were found along with their features. The completeness of the scheme of levels whose quantum numbers J ? range from 0+ to 4+ and whose excitation energy extends up to 1.9 MeV was established. The absence of rotational levels for the nonrotational states at 1703.11 keV (2+), 1713.42 keV (0+), and 1760.51 keV (4+) was confirmed.

  7. Involvement of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Homotypic Membrane Fusion in ER Dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegansV?

    PubMed Central

    Poteryaev, Dmitry; Squirrell, Jayne M.; Campbell, Jay M.; White, John G.; Spang, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major intracellular membrane system. The ER is essential for protein and lipid biosynthesis, transport of proteins along the secretory pathway, and calcium storage. Here, we describe our investigations into the dynamics and regulation of the ER in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Using a GFP fusion to the ER-resident signal peptidase SP12, we observed the morphological transitions of the ER through fertilization and the early cell-cycles in living embryos. These transitions were tightly coordinated with the division cycle: upon onset of mitosis, the ER formed structured sheets that redispersed at the initiation of cleavage. Although microtubules were not required for the transition of the ER between these different states, the actin cytoskeleton facilitated the dispersal of the ER at the end of mitosis. The ER had an asymmetric distribution in the early embryo, which was dependent on the establishment of polarity by the PAR proteins. The small GTPase ARF-1 played an essential role in the ER dynamics, although this function appeared to be unrelated to the role of ARF-1 in vesicular traffic. In addition, the ER-resident heat shock protein BiP and a homologue of the AAA ATPase Cdc48/p97 were found to be crucial for the ER transitions. Both proteins have been implicated in homotypic ER membrane fusion. We provide evidence that homotypic membrane fusion is required to form the sheet structure in the early embryo. PMID:15716356

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-18-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-12-01

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  10. ER Stress Response in Human Cellular Models of Senescence.

    PubMed

    Matos, Liliana; Gouveia, Alexandra Monteiro; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The aging process is characterized by progressive accumulation of damaged biomolecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, as result of increased oxidative stress accompanying cellular senescence. In agreement, we hypothesized that WI-38 human cellular models of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-SIPS) or copper sulfate (CuSO4-SIPS) would present endoplasmic reticulum chaperoning mechanisms impairment and unfolded protein response activation. Results show that in replicative senescence and CuSO4-SIPS, immunoglobulin binding protein, calnexin, protein disulfide isomerase, and ER oxireductin-1 levels adjust to restore proteostasis and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)-, and pancreatic ER kinase (PERK)-mediated unfolded protein response are activated. However, H2O2-SIPS does not exhibit IRE1 and ATF6 pathways activation but a PERK-mediated upregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, showing that CuSO4-SIPS mimics better the endoplasmic reticulum molecular events of replicative senescence than H2O2-SIPS. Moreover, unfolded protein response activation is required for both SIPS models induction, because PERK and IRE1 inhibitors decreased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase appearance. In CuSO4-SIPS, the decrease in senescence levels is associated with PERK-driven, but IRE1 independent, cell cycle arrest while in H2O2-SIPS cell proliferation is PERK independent. These results add a step further on the molecular mechanisms that regulate senescence induction; moreover, they validate CuSO4-SIPS model as a useful tool to study cellular stress responses during aging, hoping to postpone age-related health decline. PMID:25149687

  11. Stress sensing in plants by an ER stress sensor/transducer, bZIP28.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Renu; Deng, Yan; Howell, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of ER stress sensors are known in plants, membrane-associated basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and RNA splicing factors. ER stress occurs under adverse environmental conditions and results from the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. One of the membrane-associated transcription factors activated by heat and ER stress agents is bZIP28. In its inactive form, bZIP28 is a type II membrane protein with a single pass transmembrane domain, residing in the ER. bZIP28's N-terminus, containing a transcriptional activation domain, is oriented towards the cytoplasm and its C-terminal tail is inserted into the ER lumen. In response to stress, bZIP28 exits the ER and moves to the Golgi where it is proteolytically processed, liberating its cytosolic component which relocates to the nucleus to upregulate stress-response genes. bZIP28 is thought to sense stress through its interaction with the major ER chaperone, binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP). Under unstressed conditions, BIP binds to intrinsically disordered regions in bZIP28's lumen-facing tail and retains it in the ER. A truncated form of bZIP28, without its C-terminal tail is not retained in the ER but migrates constitutively to the nucleus. Upon stress, BIP releases bZIP28 allowing it to exit the ER. One model to account for the release of bZIP28 by BIP is that BIP is competed away from bZIP28 by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. However, other forces such as changes in energy charge levels, redox conditions or interaction with DNAJ proteins may also promote release of bZIP28 from BIP. Movement of bZIP28 from the ER to the Golgi is assisted by the interaction of elements of the COPII machinery with the cytoplasmic domain of bZIP28. Thus, the mobilization of bZIP28 in response to stress involves the dissociation of factors that retain it in the ER and the association of factors that mediate its further organelle-to-organelle movement. PMID:24616727

  12. ER? upregulates Phd3 to ameliorate HIF-1 induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Zehr, Jordan A.; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Morselli, Eugenia; Amelotte, Mason; Palmer, Biff F.; Gupta, Rana K.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) promotes fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissues, while estrogens and Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?) have the opposite effect. Here we identify an Estrogen Response Element (ERE) in the promoter of Phd3, which is a negative regulatory enzyme of HIF-1, and we demonstrate HIF-1? is ubiquitinated following 17-? estradiol (E2)/ER? mediated Phd3 transcription. Manipulating ER? in vivo increases Phd3 transcription and reduces HIF-1 activity, while addition of PHD3 ameliorates adipose tissue fibrosis and inflammation. Our findings outline a novel regulatory relationship between E2/ER?, PHD3 and HIF-1 in adipose tissues, providing a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of E2/ER? in adipose tissue. PMID:25161887

  13. The Emerging Roles of Viroporins in ER Stress Response and Autophagy Induction during Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Torres, Jaume; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are small hydrophobic viral proteins that oligomerize to form aqueous pores on cellular membranes. Studies in recent years have demonstrated that viroporins serve important functions during virus replication and contribute to viral pathogenicity. A number of viroporins have also been shown to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or its associated membranous organelles. In fact, replication of most RNA viruses is closely linked to the ER, and has been found to cause ER stress in the infected cells. On the other hand, autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved “self-eating” mechanism that is also observed in cells infected with RNA viruses. Both ER stress and autophagy are also known to modulate a wide variety of signaling pathways including pro-inflammatory and innate immune response, thereby constituting a major aspect of host-virus interactions. In this review, the potential involvement of viroporins in virus-induced ER stress and autophagy will be discussed. PMID:26053926

  14. Metal/semiconductor superlattices containing semimetallic ErSb nanoparticles in GaSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M. P.; Driscoll, D. C.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of a metal/semiconductor composite consisting of epitaxial semimetallic ErSb particles in a GaSb matrix. The ErSb nucleates in an island growth mode leading to the spontaneous formation of nanometer-sized particles. These particles are found to preferentially grow along a [011] direction on a (100) GaSb surface. The particles can be overgrown with GaSb to form an epitaxial superlattice consisting of ErSb particles between GaSb spacer layers. The size of the ErSb particles increases monotonically with the deposition. The carrier concentrations in the superlattices are found to be dependent on both the size and density of the ErSb particles. Smaller particles and closer layer spacings reduce the hole concentration in the film.

  15. Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F., E-mail: doty@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G. [AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

  16. Electrochemical Preparation of Al-Li-Er-Tm Alloys by Co-reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Zhang, Milin; Han, Wei; Li, Mei; Ye, Ke; Yang, Yusheng; Yan, Yongde; Zhang, Meng

    2013-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Al, Li, Er, and Tm was investigated on tungsten electrodes in LiCl-KCl-AlF3-ErCl3-TmCl3 melts. The results indicated that the co-reduction of Al, Li, Er, and Tm occurs at current densities more negative than -0.469 A cm-2 or applied potentials more negative than -2.31 V. The strengthen phases of Al3Er and Al3Tm were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. ICP-AES analyses showed that the content of lithium, erbium, and thulium in Al-Li-Er-Tm alloys could be controlled by adjusting AlF3 concentration and electrochemical parameters.

  17. Optical activation of Si nanowires using Er-doped, sol-gel derived silica

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Kiseok; Shin, Jung H.; Park, Oun-Ho; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Jung-Chul; Choi, Heon-Jin [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Materials Science and Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei, 120-74 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-31

    Optical activation of Si nanowires (Si-NWs) using sol-gel derived Er-doped silica is investigated. Si-NWs of about 100 nm diameter were grown on Si substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid method using Au catalysts and H{sub 2} diluted SiCl{sub 4}. Afterwards, Er-doped silica sol-gel solution was spin-coated, and annealed at 950 deg. C in flowing N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} environment. Such Er-doped silica/Si-NWs nanocomposite is found to combine the advantages of crystalline Si and silica to simultaneously achieve both high carrier-mediated excitation efficiency and high Er{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency while at the same time providing high areal density of Er{sup 3+} and easy current injection, indicating the possibility of developing sol-gel activated Si-NWs as a material platform for Si-based photonics.

  18. Systematic study of excited 0+ states in the Er isotopes populated in the (p , t) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Finlay, A.; Kisliuk, D.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Jamieson, D. S.; Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Triambak, S.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The nature of excited 0+ states in well-deformed nuclei continue to pose a challenge in nuclear structure. Often, even the nature of the first excited 0+ state, 02+, is unclear and interpretations involving ? vibrations, pairing excitations, two-phonon ? vibrations, etc., have been advanced with different degrees of success. A major issue historically has been lack of data on excited 0+ states. In light of this, the study of the Er isotopes has been extended via the 162Er and 164Er (p , t) reactions. The experiments were performed at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory using 22 MeV proton beams on highly-enriched targets of 162,164Er, and the reaction products were analyzed with the Q3D spectrograph. Strong populations of the 02+ states have been observed. The systematics of the strong population of the 0+ states in the Er (p , t) reactions sheds light on the underlying nature of these levels.

  19. Structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitride-ErN: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Santhosh, M.; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Kanagaprabha, S.; Iyakutti, K.

    2015-06-01

    The structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitride ErN is investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure ErN is stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that ErN is half metallic at normal pressure. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) phase is observed in ErN. Ferromagnetic to non magnetic phase transition is predicted in ErN at high pressure.

  20. Intensities of hypersensitive transitions in garnet crystals doped with Er3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bol'Shakova, E. V.; Malov, A. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.; Nishchev, K. N.

    2011-06-01

    We examine the oscillator strengths and the intensity parameters ? t ( t = 2, 4, 6) of yttrium-aluminum, scandium-containing, and gallium garnet crystals doped with Er3+ ions. A comparative analysis of the oscillator strengths and the intensity parameters ? t ( t = 2, 4, 6) of garnets with different contents of Al3+ and Sc3+ ions (Gd2.4Er0.5Sc1.8Al3.3O12, Gd2.4Er0.5Sc1.9Al3.2O12, Gd2.4Er0.5Sc2.0Al3.1O12) is performed, as a result of which the oscillator strengths and the intensity parameters ? t ( t = 2, 4, 6) of these crystals are shown to have close values. We find that Ca3(NbGa)5O12 crystals doped with Er3+ ions are characterized by highest values of the oscillator strengths for hypersensitive transitions and of the intensity parameter ?2 of Er3+ ions compared to the values of these quantities in the examined garnet crystals, which is determined by the fact that the symmetry of the local environment of Er3+ ions in these crystals is C 1, C 2, or C 2?. We reveal that, as the concentration of Er3+ ions in these crystals increases from 1 to 39 at %, both the oscillator strength of the hypersensitive transition 4 I 15/2 ? 2 H 11/2 of Er3+ ions and their intensity parameter ?2 tend to decrease, which can be related to an increase in the relative fraction of Er3+ ions with higher symmetry of the local environment.

  1. The Aggregation-Prone Intracellular Serpin SRP-2 Fails to Transit the ER in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Richard M; Cummings, Erin E; O'Reilly, Linda P; Miedel, Mark T; Silverman, Gary A; Luke, Cliff J; Perlmutter, David H; Pak, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusions bodies (FENIB) is a serpinopathy that induces a rare form of presenile dementia. Neuroserpin contains a classical signal peptide and like all extracellular serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) is secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway. The disease phenotype is due to gain-of-function missense mutations that cause neuroserpin to misfold and aggregate within the ER. In a previous study, nematodes expressing a homologous mutation in the endogenous Caenorhabditis elegans serpin, srp-2, were reported to model the ER proteotoxicity induced by an allele of mutant neuroserpin. Our results suggest that SRP-2 lacks a classical N-terminal signal peptide and is a member of the intracellular serpin family. Using confocal imaging and an ER colocalization marker, we confirmed that GFP-tagged wild-type SRP-2 localized to the cytosol and not the ER. Similarly, the aggregation-prone SRP-2 mutant formed intracellular inclusions that localized to the cytosol. Interestingly, wild-type SRP-2, targeted to the ER by fusion to a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide, failed to be secreted and accumulated within the ER lumen. This ER retention phenotype is typical of other obligate intracellular serpins forced to translocate across the ER membrane. Neuroserpin is a secreted protein that inhibits trypsin-like proteinase. SRP-2 is a cytosolic serpin that inhibits lysosomal cysteine peptidases. We concluded that SRP-2 is neither an ortholog nor a functional homolog of neuroserpin. Furthermore, animals expressing an aggregation-prone mutation in SRP-2 do not model the ER proteotoxicity associated with FENIB. PMID:25786854

  2. Orthorhombic KSc2F7:Yb/Er nanorods: controlled synthesis and strong red upconversion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yujie; Teng, Xue; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Lili; Pei, Wenbo; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, we have synthesized orthorhombic phase KSc2F7:20%Yb/2%Er (KSc2F7:Yb/Er) nanorods and further studied the crystal structure and morphology evolution, as well as their upconversion (UC) properties under varying F- contents and reaction temperatures. Different from ?-NaYF4:20%Yb/2%Er (NaYF4:Yb/Er) nanorods that usually give strong green UC luminescence, strong red UC emission was observed in KSc2F7:Yb/Er nanorods under 980 nm laser excitation. Their UC mechanisms are further analyzed and compared. This study provides a novel type of rare earth nanorods with strong red UC emissions which have great potential in high resolution 3-dimensional bioimaging, color displays, solid-state lasers, and photocatalysis.For the first time, we have synthesized orthorhombic phase KSc2F7:20%Yb/2%Er (KSc2F7:Yb/Er) nanorods and further studied the crystal structure and morphology evolution, as well as their upconversion (UC) properties under varying F- contents and reaction temperatures. Different from ?-NaYF4:20%Yb/2%Er (NaYF4:Yb/Er) nanorods that usually give strong green UC luminescence, strong red UC emission was observed in KSc2F7:Yb/Er nanorods under 980 nm laser excitation. Their UC mechanisms are further analyzed and compared. This study provides a novel type of rare earth nanorods with strong red UC emissions which have great potential in high resolution 3-dimensional bioimaging, color displays, solid-state lasers, and photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01840g

  3. RIPK1 promotes death receptor-independent caspase-8-mediated apoptosis under unresolved ER stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Estornes, Y; Aguileta, M A; Dubuisson, C; De Keyser, J; Goossens, V; Kersse, K; Samali, A; Vandenabeele, P; Bertrand, M J M

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and results in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims at restoring ER homeostasis. However, when the stress is too severe the UPR switches from being a pro-survival response to a pro-death one, and the molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress-mediated death have remained incompletely understood. In this study, we identified receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-a kinase at the crossroad between life and death downstream of various receptors-as a new regulator of ER stress-induced death. We found that Ripk1-deficient MEFs are protected from apoptosis induced by ER stressors, which is reflected by reduced caspase activation and PARP processing. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic role of Ripk1 is independent of its kinase activity, is not regulated by its cIAP1/2-mediated ubiquitylation, and does not rely on the direct regulation of JNK or CHOP, two reportedly main players in ER stress-induced death. Instead, we found that ER stress-induced apoptosis in these cells relies on death receptor-independent activation of caspase-8, and identified Ripk1 upstream of caspase-8. However, in contrast to RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of TNFR1, we did not find Ripk1 associated with caspase-8 in a death-inducing complex upon unresolved ER stress. Our data rather suggest that RIPK1 indirectly regulates caspase-8 activation, in part via interaction with the ER stress sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1). PMID:25476903

  4. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; He, H. J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhuge, L. J.; Ye, C.; Wu, X. M.

    2015-01-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf2+ and Hf4+. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO2, HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 °C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power.

  5. ELECTRONIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE HYDRIDES OF ErFe2 FROM 5 7 Fe AND , 6 6

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ELECTRONIC AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF THE HYDRIDES OF ErFe2 FROM 5 7 Fe AND , 6 6 Er MOSSBAUER intermetallic ErFe2 are considered. For ErFe2H3.es, X-ray analyses showed the presence of an expanded C15 cubic transition me- tal intermetallic compounds readily absorb large quantities of hydrogen /1,2/. The hydrogen

  6. Dokumentasjon av engelskkunnskaper Ved gjennomgangen av de enkelte lands utdanninger, er nivet i engelsk vurdert spesielt. For hvert

    E-print Network

    Fomin, Fedor V.

    Mars 2007 Språkkrav Dokumentasjon av engelskkunnskaper Ved gjennomgangen av de enkelte lands utdanninger, er nivået i engelsk vurdert spesielt. For hvert land er det anført om det er krav til engelsk, samt et tall. Tallet angir hvilke søkergrupper fra vedkommende land som kan fritas: 1) Søkere fra land

  7. ER 100/200, PP C184/284 GSI Section Notes Energy & Society Week 15: Transportation, Climate Change Mitigation

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ER 100/200, PP C184/284 GSI Section Notes Energy & Society Week 15: Transportation, Climate/20,000 = 23% #12;ER 100/200, PP C184/284 GSI Section Notes Energy & Society Week 15: Transportation of 20 years, and a capacity factor of 35%. #12;ER 100/200, PP C184/284 GSI Section Notes Energy

  8. Development of an ErNi liquid alloy ion source L. C. Chao and A. J. Steckla)

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    ­Ni alloy. Figure 1 shows the phase diagram of the Er­Ni binary system.13 From the diagram one can observe that a mixture of erbium and nickel at an atomic percent ratio of 69 Er :31 Ni produces a eutectic binary alloyDevelopment of an Er­Ni liquid alloy ion source L. C. Chao and A. J. Steckla) Nanoelectronics

  9. 76 FR 15808 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, and -900ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...900, and -900ER Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...900, and -900ER series airplanes. That AD currently...hardware is installed, one-time torquing of the nut and...900, and -900ER series airplanes. That NPRM...hardware is installed, one-time torquing of the nut...

  10. 75 FR 1297 - Airworthiness Directives; Boeing Model 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, and -900ER Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...900, and -900ER Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...900, and -900ER series airplanes. The existing...hardware is installed, one-time torquing of the nut and...900, and -900ER series airplanes. That AD superseded...require a shorter compliance time for the actions...

  11. Corpus-based NP Modi er Generation Hua Cheng and Massimo Poesio and Renate Henschel y and Chris Mellish

    E-print Network

    Poesio, Massimo

    Corpus-based NP Modi#12;er Generation Hua Cheng and Massimo Poesio and Renate Henschel y and Chris and analysed the np modi#12;ers in a corpus of mu- seum descriptions to discover rules for the se- lection and realisation of such modi#12;ers, in par- ticular non-referring ones. We implemented the regularities

  12. Differential binding of prohibitin-2 to estrogen receptor ? and to drug-resistant ER? mutants.

    PubMed

    Chigira, Takeru; Nagatoishi, Satoru; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine resistance is one of the most challenging problems in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ER? is controlled by several coregulators, including prohibitin-2 (PHB2). Because of its ability to repress the transcriptional activity of activated ER?, PHB2 is a promising antiproliferative agent. In this study, were analyzed the interaction of PHB2 with ER? and three mutants (Y537S, D538G, and E380Q) that are frequently associated with a lack of sensitivity to hormonal treatments, to help advance novel drug discovery. PHB2 bound to ER? wild-type (WT), Y537S, and D538G, but did not bind to E380Q. The binding thermodynamics of Y537S and D538G to PHB2 were favorably altered entropically compared with those of WT to PHB2. Our results show that PHB2 binds to the ligand binding domain of ER? with a conformational change in the helix 12 of ER?. PMID:26049107

  13. Multicolor Photodetector of a Single Er(3+)-Doped CdS Nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Dedong, Hou; Ying-Kai, Liu; Yu, De-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Er(3+)-doped CdS nanoribbons (Er-CdS NRs) are synthesized by thermal evaporation and then characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and absorption spectra. The Er-CdS NR photodetector is studied systematically, including spectral response, light intensity response, and photoconductance (G) versus temperature (T). It is found that Er-CdS NR has the ability of detecting multicolor light including blue, red, and near-infrared light with higher responsivity (R ? ) and external quantum efficiency (?). The conductance of Er-CdS NR under dark conditions decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 87-237 K, while its conductance increases with increasing temperature in the range of 237-297 K when T is larger than 237 K. These results indicated that ionized impurities and the intrinsic excitation are responsible for the conductance change of Er-CdS NR in the dark. The superior performance of the Er-CdS NR device offers an avenue to develop highly sensitive multicolor photodetector applications. PMID:26153123

  14. Influence of doping concentration on microstructure evolution and sintering kinetics of Er:YAG transparent ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Ivanov, Maxim; Ba, Xuewei; Yuan, Yong; Lin, Li; Chen, Min; Liu, Wenbin; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Chen, Haohong; Pan, Yubai; Cheng, Xiaonong; Guo, Jingkun

    2014-11-01

    Erbium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) transparent ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated from powder mixtures of ?-Al2O3, Y2O3, and Er2O3 with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids by solid-state reactive sintering. The sintering temperatures were from 1500 °C up to 1750 °C. Densification, microstructure evolution and optical transparency of Er:YAG ceramics with different doping concentrations were examined. For all the doping concentration, fully dense Er:YAG transparent ceramics with homogeneous grain size distributions around 20-23 ?m were obtained by sintering at 1750 °C for 50 h, whose transmittances were all above 83% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. The grain growth kinetic of Er:YAG ceramics was also investigated as a function of erbium content. The calculated activation energies for grain growth of the 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 at%Er:YAG ceramics were 779, 855, 805, and 861 kJ/mol, respectively. The luminescence spectra were also measured and discussed.

  15. The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8 protein, VAP, is required for ER protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Moustaqim-Barrette, Amina; Lin, Yong Q.; Pradhan, Sreeparna; Neely, Gregory G.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A familial form of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS8) is caused by a point mutation (P56S) in the vesicle-associated membrane protein associated protein B (VapB). Human VapB and Drosophila Vap-33-1 (Vap) are homologous type II transmembrane proteins that are localized to the ER. However, the precise consequences of the defects associated with the P56S mutation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its role in the pathology of ALS are not well understood. Here we show that Vap is required for ER protein quality control (ERQC). Loss of Vap in flies shows various ERQC associated defects, including protein accumulation, ER expansion, and ER stress. We also show that wild type Vap, but not the ALS8 mutant Vap, interacts with a lipid-binding protein, Oxysterol binding protein (Osbp), and that Vap is required for the proper localization of Osbp to the ER. Restoring the expression of Osbp in the ER suppresses the defects associated with loss of Vap and the ALS8 mutant Vap. Hence, we propose that the ALS8 mutation impairs the interaction of Vap with Osbp, resulting in hypomorphic defects that might contribute to the pathology of ALS8. PMID:24271015

  16. Taurine supplementation restores insulin secretion and reduces ER stress markers in protein-malnourished mice.

    PubMed

    Batista, Thiago Martins; da Silva, Priscilla Muniz Ribeiro; Amaral, Andressa Godoy; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a cellular response to increased intra-reticular protein accumulation or poor ER function. Chronic activation of this pathway may lead to beta cell death and metabolic syndrome (MS). Poor nutrition during perinatal period, especially protein malnutrition, is associated with increased risk for MS in later life. Here, we analyzed the effects of taurine (TAU) supplementation upon insulin secretion and ER stress marker expression in pancreatic islets and in the liver from mice fed a low-protein diet. Malnourished mice had lower body weight and plasma insulin. Their islets secreted less insulin in response to stimulatory concentrations of glucose. TAU supplementation increased insulin secretion in both normal protein and malnourished mice. Western blot analysis revealed lower expression of the ER stress markers CHOP and ATF4 and increased phosphorylation of the survival protein Akt in pancreatic islets of TAU-supplemented mice. The phosphorylation of the mitogenic protein extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) was increased after acute incubation with TAU. Finally, the ER stress markers p-PERK and BIP were increased in the liver of malnourished mice and TAU supplementation normalized these parameters.In conclusion, malnutrition leads to impaired islet function which is restored with TAU supplementation possibly by increasing survival signals and lowering ER stress proteins. Lower ER stress markers in the liver may also contribute to the improvement of insulin action on peripheral organs. PMID:23392878

  17. PEX16 contributes to peroxisome maintenance by constantly trafficking PEX3 via the ER

    PubMed Central

    Aranovich, Alexander; Hua, Rong; Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Kim, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. However, its role in peroxisome maintenance is unclear. To explore ER involvement in the maintenance of peroxisomes, we redirect a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP), PEX3, to directly target to the ER using the N-terminal ER signal sequence from preprolactin. Using biochemical techniques and fluorescent imaging, we find that ER-targeting PEX3 (ssPEX3) is continuously imported into pre-existing peroxisomes. This suggests that the ER constitutively provides membrane proteins and associated lipids to pre-existing peroxisomes. Using quantitative time-lapse live-cell fluorescence microscopy applied to cells that were either depleted of or exogenously expressing PEX16, we find that PEX16 mediates the peroxisomal trafficking of two distinct peroxisomal membrane proteins, PEX3 and PMP34, via the ER. These results not only provide insight into peroxisome maintenance and PMP trafficking in mammalian cells but also highlight important similarities and differences in the mechanisms of PMP import between the mammalian and yeast systems. PMID:25002403

  18. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    PubMed Central

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ?F/F0. PMID:23685703

  19. Magnetoelectric orthorhombic and multiferroic hexagonal ErMnO3: THz hybrid modes in RMnO3(R) = Nd, Er, Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, N. E.; Ta Phuoc, V.; Del Campo, L.; de Sousa Meneses, D.; Echegut, P.; Holldack, K.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    We report on far- and mid-infrared emission, reflection, and transmission spectra of metastable orthorhombic perovskite (Pbnm-TN ~ 42 K) and hexagonal (P63cm- TN ~ 84 K) ErMnO3. The number of phonon modes remains constant from 300 K to 4 K. Magnetically disordered electrons in fluctuating orbitals lead to an ambient THz broad reflectivity band. On cooling toward TN the electrons exhibit increasing charge and magnetic short-range correlations and condense into soft bands that harden at about TN as magnetic order sets in. However, at difference of NdMnO3 and TmMnO3 that show correlation with a gap opening in transverse acoustical phonon dispersion and spin order, hexagonal ErMnO3 develops at 5 K a set of four strong hybridized modes centered ~ 70 cm-1 in addition to one peaking at ~ 96 cm-1 and another weaker at ~ 44 cm-1. Orthorhombic ErMnO3 develops a 46 cm-1 band and a very strong one at 91cm-1 that seems to correlate to a weaker 98 cm-1 phonon in the short-range only magnetic order environment. We conclude that Er3+ paramagnetic fluctuations increases Mn spins frustration in both compounds being the disruption strongest in orthorhombic ErMnO3 where the THz band and short range magnetic onset may be traced even at 150 K, probably, due to the increment in the Jahn-Teller distortion.

  20. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) and Negative (ER-) Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Semaan, Suzan M.; Wang, Xu; Marshall, Alan G.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining) and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples. PMID:22773931

  1. Transport Anisotropy in ErNi2B2C Along c-AXIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    The resistivities along c-axis ?c(H, T) of ErNi2 B2C have been measured with H? and H? c-axis for 2 < T < 300 K and the superconducting upper critical field Hc2(T) curves of ErNi2B2C were constructed for each magnetic fields. Our Hc2(T) curves have been compared and discussed with those from ?ab(H, T) measurements which explain the anisotropy and its temperature dependence of Hc2(T) are thought to arise from magnetic pair breaking and the anisotropic field dependence of Néel temperature TN originated from Er+3 sublattice.

  2. Effect of Dy3+ on the Luminescence of Y3OCl7:Yb3+.Er3+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuo Seki; Yoshitaka Furukawa

    1971-01-01

    Conversion efficiency of infrared stimulable phosphor Y3OCl7:Yb3+.Er3+ is significantly influenced by the presence of a trace of Dy2O3 in the starting materials. In the present experiments, effects of Dy3+ on the luminescence of Y3OCl7:Yb3+.Er3+ were examined under infrared and ultraviolet excitations at room temperature. The experiments indicate that degradation of the conversion efficiency is primarily due to depopulation of 4I11\\/2(Er3+)

  3. On the dynamics of population inversion for 3 ?m Er3+ lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voicu Lupei; Serban Georgescu; V. Florea

    1993-01-01

    A generalized model for 3-?m (4I11\\/2 ?4I13\\/2)Er lasers is proposed. The essential energy transfer processes present in the single-doped Er 3+ systems (up-conversion from 4I13\\/2, up-conversion from 4 I11\\/2, cross-relaxation from 4S 3\\/2), as well as those present in Cr3+ codoped Er 3+ systems, are taken into account. In the frame of this model, the main features of 3 ?m

  4. Upconversion photoluminescence and EXAFS of Er3+ and Ho3+ codoped with Li+ ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yunfeng; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhou, Long; Song, Yinglin

    2015-02-01

    Infrared-to-visible upconversion emission intensities are investigated in Li+/Er3+, Li+/Ho3+/Yb3+ and Li+/Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped oxide nanocrystals. By introducing Li+ ion, the upconversion emission intensity of rare-earth ions are significantly enhanced comparing with that without the Li+ ion. The local structure around Er3+ and Ho3+ ions are studied by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. After doping Li+ ion, both the average bond lengths of Er-O and Ho-O are decreased.

  5. Erbium nanoparticle doped fibers for efficient, resonantly-pumped Er-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, E. Joseph; Baker, Colin C.; Askins, Charles G.; Fontana, Jake P.; Hunt, Michael P.; Peele, John R.; Marcheschi, Barbara A.; Oh, Euneku; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Zhang, Jun; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Merkle, Larry D.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) doping is a new technique for making erbium-doped fibers (EDFs); the Er ions are surrounded by a cage of aluminum and oxygen ions, substantially reducing Er3+ ion-ion energy exchange and its deleterious effects on laser performance. Er-Al-doped NPs have been synthesized and doped in-situ into the silica soot of the preform core. We report the first known measurements of NP-doped EDFs in a resonantly-core pumped master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configuration; the optical-to-optical slope efficiency was 80.4%, which we believe is a record for this type of fiber.

  6. Er:YAB nanoparticles and vitreous thin films by the polymeric precursor method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro J. Q. Maia; Alain Ibanez; Luc Ortega; Valmor R. Mastelaro; Antonio C. Hernandes

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of Y0.9Er0.1Al3(BO3)4 crystalline powders and vitreous thin films were studied. Precursor solutions were obtained using a modified polymeric precursor\\u000a method using d-sorbitol as complexant agent. The chemical reactions were described. Y0.9Er0.1Al3(BO3)4 composition presents good thermal stability with regard to crystallization. The Y0.9Er0.1Al3(BO3)4 crystallized phase can be obtained at 1,150 °C, in agreement with other authors. Crack- and porosity-free films

  7. Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ in a zinc borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozza, Giorgio; Ajò, David; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo; Casarin, Maurizio

    1996-02-01

    4ZnO · 3B 2O 3 glasses doped with Nd 3+ and Er 3+ were investigated by optical spectroscopy. Emission transition probabilities, radiative life-times and fluorescence branching ratios for several excited states of the Nd 3+ and Er 3+ ions were estimated from the room temperature absorption spectra. The stimulated emission cross sections ?p for the near infrared laser transitions of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ were obtained from laser-excited luminescence spectra. The values of ?p are comparable with those shown by glasses used in solid state laser applications.

  8. Magnetic properties of Er(Co, Mn)O 3 perovskites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Antunes; V. Gil; C. Moure; O. Peña

    2007-01-01

    The erbium-based manganite ErMnO3 has been partially substituted at the manganese site by Co in the general formula ErCoxMn1?xO3. The perovskite orthorhombic structure is found from x(Co)=0.3 up to x(Co)=0.7, provided that the synthesis is performed under oxygenation conditions to favour the presence of Co3+. Magnetic properties show unusual phenomena, correlated with the presence of different magnetic entities (i.e., Er3+,

  9. Power scaling of resonantly cladding-pumped, Yb-free, Er-doped LMA fiber lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dubinskii; J. Zhang; I. Kudryashov

    2009-01-01

    The results of the recent major efforts in power scaling of resonantly cladding-pumped Yb-free Er fiber lasers are presented.\\u000a Commercially available Yb-free Er-doped large mode area Er60-20\\/125 (LMA) DC fibers were tested in two regimes: (i), as a\\u000a booster amplifier in a single-frequency (SF) MOPA configuration and, (ii), in a Bragg grating (FBG) based narrowband fiber\\u000a laser configuration. We obtained

  10. What ER radiologists need to know about radiation risks.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The annual per capita medical dose in the US is currently 3 mSv, and has increased by about 600% since the early 1980s. Medical doses now account for approximately 50% of the total US population dose, and will likely continue to increase for the foreseeable future. An average patient at a Level 1 trauma center, with an Injury Severity Score of 14, is expected to undergo imaging procedures that will result in an effective dose of approximately 40 mSv. The median age of a trauma patient in the ER setting is about 30 years, and the male cancer incidence from this amount of radiation is estimated to be approximately 0.3%, with the female risk being approximately 55% higher. For radiation protection purposes, scientific radiation protection authorities consider that the available evidence shows the linear no threshold (LNT) model to be the most prudent one for radiation protection purposes. Accepting that diagnostic examinations are associated with finite radiation risks requires policies that protect patients from unnecessary radiation. Clinical practice should therefore ensure that: (a) tests should only be ordered when the results are expected to affect patient management; (b) non-ionizing alternatives (i.e., US and MR) be considered, particularly for pediatric patients; (c) only indicated exams should be performed where the patient benefit is judged to exceed any radiation risk; and (d) for indicated examinations, all radiation exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). PMID:19247699

  11. Stratospheric constituent trends from ER-2 profile data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Proffitt, Michael H.; Kelly, Ken K.; Lait, Leslie R.; Newman, Paul A.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, Jim R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1990-01-01

    Trend analysis of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition's ER-2 profile data reveals an average decrease in N2O on potential temperature isentropes which can be attributed to diabatic cooling of inner vortex air. This conclusion is independently supported by radiative transfer computations. Trends in ozone and water vapor over the same period are not consistent with the magnitude of the diabatic descent. After accounting for the diabatic motion (estimated from N2O), an additional 0.44 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous O3 decrease above 440 K (about 20 km) is needed to balance the continuity equation. This ozone decrease suggests additional photochemical destruction of ozone in the presence of the high amounts of ClO observed during the mission. A 0.4 + or - 0.3 percent/day average anomalous increase in H2O is also observed near 420 K (about 18 km) which may be due to the evaporation of ice crystals falling from higher, colder stratospheric layers.

  12. Completion Report for Well ER-7-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

  13. Study of Negative and Positive Superhumps in ER Ursae Majoris

    E-print Network

    Ohshima, Tomohito; Pavlenko, Elena; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Krajci, Thomas; Baklanov, Alex; Samsonov, Denis; Antonyuk, Oksana; Malanushenko, Viktor; Andreev, Maksim; Noguchi, Ryo; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Nomoto, Takashi; Ono, Rikako; Nakagawa, Shin'ichi; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Aoki, Tomoya; Kawabata, Miho; Kimura, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Shugarov, Sergey Yu; Katysheva, Natalia; Voloshina, Irina; Zemko, Polina; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Ruiz, Javier; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Virnina, Natalia; Virtanen, Jani; Miller, Ian; Boitnott, Boyd; Littlefield, Colin; James, Nick; Tordai, Tamas; Robaert, Fidrich; Padovan, Stefono; Miyashita, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We carried out the photometric observations of the SU UMa-type dwarf nova ER UMa during 2011 and 2012, which showed the existence of persistent negative superhumps even during the superoutburst. We performed two-dimensional period analysis of its light curves by using a method called "least absolute shrinkage and selection operator" (Lasso) and "phase dispersion minimization" (PDM) analysis, and we found that the period of negative superhumps systematically changed between a superoutburst and the next superoutburst. The trend of the period change can beinterpreted as reflecting the change of the disk radius. This change of the disk radius is in good agreement with the predicted change of the disk radius by the thermal-tidal instability (TTI) model. The normal outbursts within a supercycle showed a general trend that the rising rate to maximum becomes slower as the next superoutburst approaches. The change can be interpreted as the consequence of the increased gas-stream flow onto the inner region of the disk ...

  14. Luminescence quantum efficiency at 1.5 ?m of Er3+-doped tellurite glass determined by thermal lens spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. S.; Santos, F. A.; Yukimitu, K.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Silva, J. R.; Baesso, M. L.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Lima, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Erbium doped tellurite glasses (TeO2 + Li2O + TiO2) were prepared by conventional melt-quenching method to study the influence of the Er3+ concentration on the luminescence quantum efficiency (?) at 1.5 ?m. Absorption and luminescence data were used to characterize the samples, and the ? parameter was measured using the well-known thermal lens spectroscopy. For low Er3+ concentration, the measured values are around 76%, and the concentration behavior of ? shows Er-Er and Er-OH- interactions, which agreed with the measured lifetime values.

  15. Sumoylation regulates ER stress response by modulating calreticulin gene expression in XBP-1-dependent mode in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yunki; Lee, Dukgyu; Kalichamy, Karunambigai; Hong, Seong-Eui; Michalak, Marek; Ahnn, Joohong; Kim, Do Han; Lee, Sun-Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Excessive accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress, which induces a set of genes, including those encoding ER-resident chaperones, to relieve the detrimental effects and recover homeostasis. Calreticulin is a chaperone that facilitates protein folding in the ER lumen, and its gene expression is induced by ER stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sumoylation conjugates small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins with target proteins to regulate a variety of biological processes, such as protein stability, nuclear transport, DNA binding, and gene expression. In this study, we showed that C. elegans X-box-binding protein 1 (Ce-XBP-1), an ER stress response transcription factor, interacts with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC-9 and a SUMOylation target. Our results indicated that abolishing sumoylation enhanced calreticulin expression in an XBP-1-dependent manner, and the resulting increase in calreticulin counteracted ER stress. Furthermore, sumoylation was repressed in C. elegans undergoing ER stress. Finally, RNAi against ubc-9 mainly affected the expression of genes associated with ER functions, such as lipid and organic acid metabolism. Our results suggest that sumoylation plays a regulatory role in ER function by controlling the expression of genes required for ER homeostasis in C. elegans. PMID:24933177

  16. ER stress response in NG108-15 cells involves upregulation of syntaxin 5 expression and reduced amyloid ? peptide secretion.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kei; Saito, Ayako; Akagawa, Kimio

    2015-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer?s disease (AD). We previously showed that manipulation of the ER-Golgi-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (ER-Golgi SNARE) syntaxin 5 (Syx5) causes changes in Golgi morphology and the processing of AD-related proteins. To understand the pathophysiologic significance of these phenomena, we examined whether the expression of Syx5 is altered by ER stress. De novo synthesis of ER-Golgi SNARE Syx5 and Bet1 was induced by various ER stressors. Elevated expression of Syx5 and Bet1 was associated with increased levels of these proteins in vesicular components, including ER-Golgi-intermediate-compartment/vesicular tubular clusters. In addition, ER stress diminished amyloid ? (A?) peptide secretion. Knockdown of Syx5 expression enhanced the secretion of A? peptides under condition without ER stress. Moreover, diminished A? peptide secretion resulting from ER stress was significantly reversed by Syx5 knockdown. These findings suggest that Syx5 plays important roles in ?-amyloid precursor protein processing and in the ER stress response that precedes apoptotic cell death and may be involved in the crosstalk between these two pathways. PMID:25596448

  17. Flavonoids from Herba epimedii selectively activate estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and stimulate ER-dependent osteoblastic functions in UMR-106 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hui-Hui; Fung, Chung-Yan; Mok, Sao-King; Wong, Ka-Chun; Ho, Ming-Xian; Wang, Xin-Luan; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2014-09-01

    Total flavonoids in Herba epimedii (HEP) have been demonstrated to protect against bone loss and bone deterioration associated with estrogen deficiency without exerting any uterotrophic effects. However, it is unclear how flavonoids in HEP exert their protective effects on bone and if different flavonoids exert estrogenic actions in bone cells via similar mechanism of actions. The present study aims to investigate the bone anabolic effects of four major flavonoids isolated from HEP, namely icariin, baohuoside-I, epimedin B and sagittatoside A as well as the mechanism involved in mediating their estrogenic actions in rat osteoblastic-like UMR-106 cells. All tested compounds significantly stimulated the cell proliferation rate, alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression in UMR-106 cells and their effects could be abolished by co-incubation with 10(-6)M ICI 182,780. None of the flavonoids exhibited binding affinities toward ER? and ER?. However, sagittatoside A selectively activated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity via ER?. In addition, icariin and sagittatoside A induced ER? phosphorylation at serine 118 residue. Taken together, our results indicated that all four flavonoids from HEP stimulated ER-dependent osteoblastic functions in UMR-106 cells, but only two of them appeared to exert their actions by ligand-independent activation of ER?. Our study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the estrogen-like protective effects on bone by flavonoids are mediated via mechanisms that are distinct from the classical actions of estrogen. PMID:24607839

  18. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  19. Et tableau er en perfekt balanceret struktur som den flgende hvor der i lighed med en bunke glder, at hvis en knude har snner, s er disses

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    ,1) (0,0) X Xy #24; #24;9 hvor der i lighed med en bunke gælder, at hvis en knude har sønner, så er disses værdier større end eller lig med knudens værdi. Knuderne kan nummereres, så roden har nummer (0,0) og sønnerne til knuden med nummer (i; j) har numrene (i + 1; j) og (i + 1; j + 1). Et blad er en

  20. Et tableau er en perfekt balanceret struktur som den flgende hvor der i lighed med en bunke glder, at hvis en knude har snner, sa er disses

    E-print Network

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    $$W hvor der i lighed med en bunke gælder, at hvis en knude har sønner, s°a er disses værdier større end eller lig med knudens værdi. Knuderne kan nummereres, s°a roden har nummer (0,0) og sønnerne til knuden med nummer (i, j) har numrene (i+1, j) og (i+1, j +1). Et blad er en knude uden sønner, og højden

  1. eLEARNING FOR BATCH CONTROL Outi Rask and Seppo Kuikka

    E-print Network

    ENVIRONMENTS 2.1 On learning in general Good learning results depend on a student's motivation, activity parts of efficient learning. Cognitive psychology is one of the key issues when talking about learning, reasoning, conception, parlance and thinking. In the learning environment, various cognitive tools are used

  2. A bijective census of nonseparable planar maps Gilles Schae er and Benjamin Jacquard

    E-print Network

    Schaeffer, Gilles

    A bijective census of nonseparable planar maps Gilles Schae#11;er and Benjamin Jacquard #3; LIX)! (i + 1)!(j + 1)!(2i + 1)!(2j + 1)! ; (2) #3; Gilles.Schaeffer@lix.polytechnique.fr, Benjamin.Jacquard@lix

  3. Verdensklasse eller bllys Sine kvaliteter til trods er den amerikanske hospitalsserie House

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ... See that's another example of Ed's brillance. Whenever one of his drugs is about to lose its patent he prioriteringer. De væsentligste af disse er dels den store vægt, der bliver lagt på erhvervsinteresser, dels

  4. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G.

    2015-06-01

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PL studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.

  5. Temperature dependence of sensitized Er3+ luminescence in silicon-rich oxynitride films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of sensitized Er3+ emission via localized states and silicon nanoclusters has been studied to get an insight into the excitation and de-excitation processes in silicon-rich oxynitride films. The thermal quenching of Er3+ luminescence is elucidated by terms of decay time and effective excitation cross section. The temperature quenching of Er3+ decay time demonstrates the presence of non-radiative trap states, whose density and energy gap between Er3+4I13/2 excited levels are reduced by high-temperature annealing. The effective excitation cross section initially increases and eventually decreases with temperature, indicating that the energy transfer process is phonon assisted in both samples. PMID:25258608

  6. Aberrant substrate engagement of the ER translocon triggers degradation by the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase

    E-print Network

    Greenblatt, Wesley H.

    Little is known about quality control of proteins that aberrantly or persistently engage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized translocon en route to membrane localization or the secretory pathway. Hrd1 and Doa10, the ...

  7. Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ladinsky, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    During mitosis, the nuclear envelope merges with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and nuclear pore complexes are disassembled. In a current model for reassembly after mitosis, the nuclear envelope forms by a reshaping of ER tubules. For the assembly of pores, two major models have been proposed. In the insertion model, nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope after their formation. In the prepore model, nucleoporins assemble on the chromatin as an intermediate nuclear pore complex before nuclear envelope formation. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscope tomography, we find that the mitotic assembly of the nuclear envelope primarily originates from ER cisternae. Moreover, the nuclear pore complexes assemble only on the already formed nuclear envelope. Indeed, all the chromatin-associated Nup107–160 complexes are in single units instead of assembled prepores. We therefore propose that the postmitotic nuclear envelope assembles directly from ER cisternae followed by membrane-dependent insertion of nuclear pore complexes. PMID:21825076

  8. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) model, based on consideration of multiple energetically reasonable conformations of flexible chemicals was developed using a training set of 232 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements. The training set include...

  9. ER fluid applications to vibration control devices and an adaptive neural-net controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Shin; Ura, Tamaki

    1993-07-01

    Four applications of electrorheological (ER) fluid to vibration control actuators and an adaptive neural-net control system suitable for the controller of ER actuators are described: a shock absorber system for automobiles, a squeeze film damper bearing for rotational machines, a dynamic damper for multidegree-of-freedom structures, and a vibration isolator. An adaptive neural-net control system composed of a forward model network for structural identification and a controller network is introduced for the control system of these ER actuators. As an example study of intelligent vibration control systems, an experiment was performed in which the ER dynamic damper was attached to a beam structure and controlled by the present neural-net controller so that the vibration in several modes of the beam was reduced with a single dynamic damper.

  10. Magnetocaloric effects in Er1?xTbxAl2 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Mahmud; Gschneidner, Jr., K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2010-04-21

    The magnetocaloric properties of the (Er{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x})Al{sub 2} alloys have been evaluated by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. It is shown that by partial substitution of Er by Tb the ferromagnetic ordering temperature of (Er{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x})Al{sub 2} can be tuned over a wide range of temperatures, that is from 13 K (ErAl{sub 2}) to 110 K (TbAl{sub 2}). Over the entire temperature range the alloy system exhibits large magnetocaloric effect. For a field change of 5 T, the observed magnetic entropy changes peaks from -18 J/kg K (x = 0.20) to -12 J/kg K (x = 0.90). The adiabatic temperature changes measured for selected alloys in the series show a maximum value of 6 K when the magnetic field is changed from 0 to 5 T.

  11. Design and control of 4 DOF ER haptic master for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Cho, Han-Jun; Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2012-04-01

    In this research, a new type of haptic master device using electrorheological (ER) fluid for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is proposed. The proposed haptic master consists of an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion (X, Y, Z) and an ER brake for 1-DOF translational motion (Z). Principal design parameters of the haptic master are determined based on Bingham characteristic of ER fluid and geometrical constraints. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed haptic master, control performance is evaluated. In order to achieve desired force trajectories, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is designed and implemented. Both torque and force tracking control performances show that the proposed haptic master can be effectively applied to surgical robot system.

  12. Membrane permeability transition and dysfunction of rice mitochondria effected by Er(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-zhong; Jiang, Feng-lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT. PMID:25249020

  13. Optical properties and laser performance of some Yb 3+, Er 3+ and Tm 3+-doped silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souriau, J. C.; Romero, R.; Borel, C.; Wyon, Ch.; Li, C.; Moncorgé, R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the main spectroscopic characterizations and laser experiments carried out on two new crystal hosts: the yttrium orthosilicate Y 2SiO 5 and the silicate oxyapatite SrY 4(SiO 4) 3O (hereafter noted SYS), doped with ytterbium and erbium for a 1.55 ?m laser emission and with thulium for a 2 ?m emission. Four new lasers have been demonstrated at 1.554 ?m, 1.576 ?m, 1.99 ?m and 2.05 ?m for respectively Yb, Er:SYS; Yb,Er:Y 2SiO 5; Tm:SYS and Tm:Y 2SiO 5. If for Yb,Er-codoped materials laser performances are still poor compared with the Yb,Er phosphate glass, the Tm-doped materials exhibit laser performances similar to the Tm: YAG and look very promising.

  14. The interaction between ER and NF?B in resistance to endocrine therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine therapy is a commonly used treatment for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Although endocrine therapy has a favorable outcome in many patients, development of resistance is common. Recent studies have shown that NF?B, a transcription factor regulating a wide variety of cellular processes, might play a role in the development of endocrine resistance. The precise interaction between ER and NF?B and how this contributes to the attenuated responsiveness of ER-positive breast cancer cells to hormonal treatment remains unclear. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action for both transcription factors and focuses on the current knowledge explaining how ER and NF?B affect each other's activity and how this cross-talk might contribute to the development of an endocrine resistance phenotype in breast cancer cells. PMID:22963717

  15. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped lead phosphate glasses for photonic application 4-23-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Guedes, I. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil; Moura, A. L. Moura [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; de Araujo, M. T. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Jacinto, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Vermelho, M. V. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Brazil; Loong, C. K. [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+-doped lead phosphate glasses have been investigated, and Judd-Ofelt analysis was used to evaluate the effect of increasing the Er3+ content on the glass matrices. The intensity-dependent Judd=-Ofelt parameters: (4) and (6) remained constant while (2) decreased. Photoluminescence analysis revealed a low up-conversion efficiency through the weak green (530 and 550 nm) and red (660 nm) signals that were present under excitation at 800 nm. The concentration quenching effect on the lifetime of the Er3+: 4I13/2 4I15/2 (1530 nm) transition is also evaluated as a result of the addition of Er3+ to the lead phosphate glass composition. The observed relatively large reduction in the lifetime reflects the significant effects of non-radiative processes in this system. The potential use of these glasses as photonic devices is also discussed.

  16. Interleaving Bu er Insertion and Transistor Sizing into a Single Optimization

    E-print Network

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    S. Sapatnekar, Cyrus Bamji and Juho Kim August 12, 1997 Abstract Bu er insertion is a technique of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Cyrus Bamji is with Cadence Design Systems, San Jose, CA 95134. Juho Kim

  17. MUNFAMEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION Room ER4047 Alexander Murray Building

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    MUNFAMEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND FACULTY ASSOCIATION Room ER4047 Alexander Murray Building OF REGENTS REPORT ON AUTONOMY OF THE UNIVERSITY Memorial University of Newfoundland Faculty Association at Memorial University of Newfoundland entitled Balancing Autonomy and Accountability. Given our frequently

  18. A REACTIVITY PATTERN OF DISCRIMINATION OF ER AGONISM AND ANTAGONISM BASED ON 3-D MOLECULAR ATTRIBUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various models have been developed to predict the relative binding affinity (RBA) of chemicals to estrogen receptors (ER). These models are important for prioritizing chemicals for screening in biological assays assessing the potential for endocrine disruption. One shortcoming of...

  19. Organelle autoregulation-stress responses in the ER, Golgi, mitochondria and lysosome.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanae; Yoshida, Hiderou

    2015-04-01

    Organelle autoregulation is a homeostatic mechanism to regulate the capacity of each organelle according to cellular demands. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response increases the expression of ER chaperones and ER-associated degradation factors when the capacity of the ER becomes insufficient, e.g. during cellular differentiation or viral propagation, and which can be restored through increased synthesis of secretory or membrane proteins. In the Golgi stress response, insufficient organelle capacity is responded to by augmentation of glycosylation enzyme expression and vesicular transport components. The mitochondrial stress response upregulates mitochondrial chaperone and protease expression in the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space when unfolded proteins accumulate in the mitochondria. The lysosome stress response is activated during autophagy to enhance the function of the lysosome by transcriptional induction of lysosome genes including cathepsins. However, many of the molecular mechanisms of organelle autoregulation remain unclear. Here, we review recent discoveries in organelle autoregulation and their molecular mechanisms. PMID:25657091

  20. Scanning capacitance microscopy of ErAs nanoparticles embedded in GaAs pn junctions

    E-print Network

    Yu, Edward T.

    the subject of intense research for applications such as multijunction tan- dem solar cells,1 thermoelectric buried ErAs nanoparticles at lateral length scales of 20-30 nm. Numerical modeling indicates

  1. Crystallization and spectroscopic properties in Er3+ doped oxyfluorogermanate glass ceramics containing Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuebo; Qiu, Sawei; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Jianbei

    2015-07-01

    The Er3+ doped oxyfluorogermanate glasses, with a composition containing Na element, were synthesized by the conventional melting-quenching technique. When Na element was introduced into the composition of oxyfluorogermanate glass, the crystals behavior was investigated in details. Depending on the annealing procedure supplied, thermal annealing of precursor glasses in the system GeO2/BaF2/AlF3/Na2O/NaF/ZnO/GdF3/ErF3 led to the precipitation of different crystal phase nanocrystals. It was confirmed the nanocrystals in GC600 is orthorhombic NaBaAlF6 which led to enhance obviously in the UC luminescence of Er3+. However, the nanocrystals in G585 led to decrease in the UC luminescence, which indicated few Er ions enter into the lattice of this nanocrystal phase. The reason of the decrease in UC emission intensity of GC585 was analyzed.

  2. Signal enhancement in Er 3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters rib-waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Daldosso, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.; Pellegrino, P.; Garrido, B.; Pavesi, L.

    2007-05-01

    The use of broadband efficient sensitizers for Er 3+ ions relaxes the expensive conditions needed for the pump source and raises the performances of the optical amplifier. Within this context Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) in silica matrices have revealed as optimum sensitizers and open the route towards electrically pumped optical amplifiers. In this work we present insertion losses and pump/probe measurements, which have been carried out on rib-loaded waveguides containing Er 3+ ions coupled to Si-nc. These samples have been prepared by a multi-wafers reactive magnetron cosputtering of a pure silica target topped with Er IIO 3 pellets. Our objective with this research is to characterize, understand and optimize the main factors that are preventing net optical gain in these samples, i.e. low excitable erbium fraction through the nanoclusters. Evidences of signal enhancement and partial inversion of the Er 3+ ions excited via Si-nc will be presented and discussed.

  3. Structural and electrical characteristics of Er{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, T.-M.; Shu, W.-H.; Hong, J.-L. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2007-05-28

    The authors report on the structural and electrical characteristics of high-k erbium titanium oxide (Er{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}) gate dielectrics deposited on Si (100) substrates by reactive rf sputtering. They find that the capacitance value of Er{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} gate dielectric annealed at 700 deg. C is higher compared to other annealing temperatures and exhibits a lower hysteresis voltage as well as interface trap density in C-V curves. This dielectric also shows almost negligible charge trapping under high constant voltage stress. This phenomenon is attributed to an amorphous Er{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} structure and the suppression of the interfacial layer and Er silicate observed from x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively.

  4. The unfolded protein response transducer IRE1? prevents ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kezhong; Wang, Shiyu; Malhotra, Jyoti; Hassler, Justin R; Back, Sung Hoon; Wang, Guohui; Chang, Lin; Xu, Wenbo; Miao, Hongzhi; Leonardi, Roberta; Chen, Y Eugene; Jackowski, Suzanne; Kaufman, Randal J

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular organelle responsible for protein folding and assembly, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and calcium storage. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive intracellular stress response to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. In this study, we show that the most conserved UPR sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1 ? (IRE1?), an ER transmembrane protein kinase/endoribonuclease, is required to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis under ER stress conditions through repressing hepatic lipid accumulation and maintaining lipoprotein secretion. To elucidate physiological roles of IRE1?-mediated signalling in the liver, we generated hepatocyte-specific Ire1?-null mice by utilizing an albumin promoter-controlled Cre recombinase-mediated deletion. Deletion of Ire1? caused defective induction of genes encoding functions in ER-to-Golgi protein transport, oxidative protein folding, and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins, and led to selective induction of pro-apoptotic UPR trans-activators. We show that IRE1? is required to maintain the secretion efficiency of selective proteins. In the absence of ER stress, mice with hepatocyte-specific Ire1? deletion displayed modest hepatosteatosis that became profound after induction of ER stress. Further investigation revealed that IRE1? represses expression of key metabolic transcriptional regulators, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ?, C/EBP?, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), and enzymes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis. IRE1? was also found to be required for efficient secretion of apolipoproteins upon disruption of ER homeostasis. Consistent with a role for IRE1? in preventing intracellular lipid accumulation, mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Ire1? developed severe hepatic steatosis after treatment with an ER stress-inducing anti-cancer drug Bortezomib, upon expression of a misfolding-prone human blood clotting factor VIII, or after partial hepatectomy. The identification of IRE1? as a key regulator to prevent hepatic steatosis provides novel insights into ER stress mechanisms in fatty liver diseases associated with toxic liver injuries. PMID:21407177

  5. Research on laser diode end-pumped Er:YSGG/YSGG composited crystal at 2.79 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Benjian; Kang, Hongxiang; Jie, Liang; Peng, Chen; Fu, Huaixiu

    2014-12-01

    Lasers at 2.79 ?m emitted by Er:YSGG crystal have attracted considerable interest in biological and medical applications. However, due to the thermal effect of laser crystal, the output power has been limited. In this paper, the advantages of Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal in reducing thermal effects and achieving high output power are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The numerical results show that the temperature rising and total thermal deformation of Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal are evidently reduced because the undoped YSGG absorbs the heat generated from the Er:YSGG. The maximum temperature rising reduces with increasing of the length of undoped YSGG crystal, and its location moves from the pump face to the inside of the Er:YSGG. The optical path difference of the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal is obviously reduced comparing with that of Er:YSGG crystal, which indicates the thermal focal length of the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal is increased, and the thermal effects are reduced. In experiments, the maximum continuous wave output power of 900 mW with slope efficiency of 12.1% at wavelength of 2.79 ?m is obtained in laser diode end pumped Er:YSGG/YSGG crystal. To our knowledge, the output power of Er:YSGG/YSGG crystal is the highest value for the laser diode end pumped Er:YSGG crystal. The thermal focal length of the Er:YSGG/YSGG measured in experiment is increased comparing with that of Er:YSGG. Investigations have demonstrated that the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal has a great advantage in reducing the influence of thermal effects and achieving high output power.

  6. Phosphorylation of ETS transcription factor ER81 in a complex with its coactivators CREB-binding protein and p300.

    PubMed

    Papoutsopoulou, S; Janknecht, R

    2000-10-01

    The ETS protein ER81 is a DNA-binding factor capable of enhancing gene transcription and is implicated in cellular transformation, but presently the mechanisms of its actions are unclear. In this report, ER81 is shown to coimmunoprecipitate with the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and the related p300 protein (together referred to as CBP/p300). Moreover, confocal laser microscopic studies demonstrated that ER81 and p300 colocalized to nuclear speckles. In vitro and in vivo interaction studies revealed that ER81 amino acids 249 to 429, which encompass the ETS DNA-binding domain, are responsible for binding to CBP/p300. However, mutation of a putative protein-protein interaction motif, LXXLL, in the ETS domain of ER81 did not affect interaction with CBP/p300, whereas DNA binding of ER81 was abolished. Furthermore, two regions within CBP, amino acids 451 to 721 and 1891 to 2175, are capable of binding to ER81. Consistent with the physical interaction between ER81 and the coactivators CBP and p300, ER81 transcriptional activity was potentiated by CBP/p300 overexpression. Moreover, an ER81-associated protein kinase activity was enhanced upon p300 overexpression. This protein kinase phosphorylates ER81 on serines 191 and 216, and mutation of these phosphorylation sites increased ER81 transcriptional activity in Mv1Lu cells but not in HeLa cells. Altogether, our data elucidate the mechanism of how ER81 regulates gene transcription, through interaction with the coactivators CBP and p300 and an associated kinase that may cell type specifically modulate the ability of ER81 to activate gene transcription. PMID:10982847

  7. Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 ?m has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O2 and N2, have been investigated. It was found that only in O2 the Bi3+ valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi0 metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O2. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi3+ absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m.

  8. Robust hollow devices and waveguides for Er:YAG laser radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Wang; Y. Matsuura; M. Miyagi

    1998-01-01

    Fluorocarbon-polymer (FCP) coated silver hollow stainless steel (St) devices and waveguides have been developed for Er:YAG laser radiation. Full liquid phase techniques have been adopted to coat the silver and FCP layers inside the stainless steel hollow structure. Both straight and bent robust hollow devices have been fabricated as the output optical elements for the delivery system of medical Er:YAG

  9. ER-2 lidar observations from the October 1986 fire cirrus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A description of the ER-2 lidar data characteristics and available products, plus flight times and locations is presented for the FIRE cirrus experiment of October 13 through November 2, 1986. The CALS airborne lidar was flown for this experiment on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The primary objectives of the CALS observations were to intensively measure cirrus cloud top height and structure for basic cirrus studies and for validation of satellite cloud retrievals.

  10. Similarities and differences in structure, expression, and functions of VLDLR and ApoER2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil S Reddy; Teal E Connor; Edwin J Weeber; William Rebeck

    2011-01-01

    Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR) and Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 (ApoER2) are important receptors in the brain\\u000a for mediating the signaling effects of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin, affecting neuronal function in development\\u000a and in the adult brain. VLDLR and ApoER2 are members of the low density lipoprotein family, which also mediates the effects\\u000a of numerous other extracellular ligands,

  11. Pu-Er Tea automated fermentation system based on PLC and WINCC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqiang Wu; Hongjie Zhou; Yunzhan Huang; Yongjie Zhao

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces SIMTIC S7-300 programmable controller and configuration software WINCC6.0 of German Siemens, and the application in the Pu-Er Tea automated fermentation system. The system contains the upper computer and the lower computer. The upper computer is composed of PC and configuration software WINCC6.0.The lower computer is composed of PLC S7-300. Appling the system to Pu-Er Tea fermentation production,

  12. The ER Folding Helpers: A Connection Between Protein Maturation, Stress Responses and Plant Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Vitale; Jürgen Denecke

    The main resident proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) collaborate to ensure that newly synthesized\\u000a secretory proteins acquire their correct conformation. Most ER residents are therefore, directly or indirectly,\\u000a folding helpers and controllers of the quality of newly synthesized secretory polypeptides. Genetic approaches\\u000a have revealed that these helpers are necessary for virtually any major aspect of plant life, from differentiation

  13. Specific heat study of the magnetic properties of ErFe4Al8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Hagmusa; E. Brück; F. R. de Boer; K. H. J. Buschow

    1999-01-01

    Specific heat measurements have been performed on the tetragonal ThMn12-type compounds ErFe4Al8 and YFe4Al8 in the temperature range 1.5-200 K. There are only very small anomalies associated with the magnetic ordering of the Fe sublattice in the high-temperature part of the specific heat curves. A sharp peak in the specific heat, signalling the magnetic ordering of the Er moments at

  14. Specific heat study of the magnetic properties of ErFe 4Al 8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. H. M Hagmusa; E. H. Bruck; F. R. de Boer; K. H. J. Buschow

    1999-01-01

    Specific heat measurements have been performed on the tetragonal ThMn12-type compounds ErFe4Al8 and YFe4Al8 in the temperature range 1.5–200 K. There are only very small anomalies associated with the magnetic ordering of the Fe sublattice in the high-temperature part of the specific heat curves. A sharp peak in the specific heat, signalling the magnetic ordering of the Er moments at

  15. Expression profiling on soybean leaves reveals integration of ER and osmotic-stress pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André ST Irsigler; Maximiller DL Costa; Ping Zhang; Pedro AB Reis; Ralph E Dewey; Rebecca S Boston; Elizabeth PB Fontes

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the potential of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response to accommodate adaptive pathways, its integration with other environmental-induced responses is poorly understood in plants. We have previously demonstrated that the ER-stress sensor binding protein (BiP) from soybean exhibits an unusual response to drought. The members of the soybean BiP gene family are differentially regulated by osmotic stress and

  16. Antigen retrieval to improve the immunocytochemistry detection of sigma-1 receptors and ER chaperones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abasha Lewis; Eri Hayashi; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Tsung-Ping Su

    2011-01-01

    Molecular chaperones localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen constitutively or cellular stress-dependently associate\\u000a with a variety of proteins to promote their proper folding or to inhibit protein misfolding. ER chaperones preferentially\\u000a form large complexes with co-chaperones and\\/or misfolded proteins in a highly crowded cellular environment that often hampers\\u000a their detection by immunocytochemistry (ICC). This study establishes an antigen retrieval

  17. Mitotic Golgi is in a Dynamic Equilibrium Between Clustered and Free Vesicles Independent of the ER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Jesch; Amy J. Mehta; Meel Velliste; Robert F. Murphy; Adam D. Linstedt

    2001-01-01

    Golgi inheritance during cell division involves Golgi dis-assembly but it remains unclear whether the break-down product is dispersed vesicles, clusters of vesicles or a fused ER\\/Golgi network. Evidence against the fused ER\\/Golgi hypothesis was previously obtained from subcellular fractionation studies, but left con-cerns about the means used to obtain and disrupt mi-totic cells. Here, we performed velocity gradient analy-sis on

  18. Cloning of bovine estrogen receptor beta (ER?): expression of novel deleted isoforms in reproductive tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Walther; Chrisostomos Lioutas; Gina Tillmann; Richard Ivell

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs coding for bovine estrogen receptor beta (ER?) isoforms were cloned from bovine granulosa cells using a combination of several RT-PCR strategies. The cloned full-length receptor contains an open reading frame of 474 amino acids encoding a protein with high homology to the ER? sequences from other species. A second isoform nearly totally lacking the ligand binding domain was cloned

  19. Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4:Er,Yb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Aarts; B. M. van der Ende; A. Meijerink

    2009-01-01

    Downconversion is a promising avenue to boost the efficiency of solar cells by absorbing one higher energy visible photon and emitting two lower energy near-infrared (NIR) photons. Here the efficiency of downconversion for the (Er3+,Yb3+) couple is investigated in NaYF4, a well-known host lattice for efficient upconversion with (Er3+,Yb3+). Analysis of the excitation and emission spectra for NaYF4 doped with

  20. Controlled synthesis and morphology dependent upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajuan Sun; Yue Chen; Lijin Tian; Yi Yu; Xianggui Kong; Junwei Zhao; Hong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Size and morphology controlled NaYF4:Yb, Er nanocrystals were synthesized via the hydrothermal method. Polydentate ligands, such as EDTA and citrate, were used in the synthesis of cubic and hexagonal Yb3+, Er3+ codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals as a means of controlling the size and morphology of the nanocrystals. Subsequently, the particle size was found to be dependent on the nucleation rate, which,

  1. NaYF4: Yb,Er-an efficient upconversion phosphor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Menyuk; K. Dwight; J. W. Pierce

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the infrared-pumped visible luminescence of NaYF4 : Yb, Er show it to have at least twice the visible output of YF3 : Yb, Er when pumped with a narrow-band excitation source at the optimum frequency. It is also free from saturation effects until very intense excitation levels are reached. The mechanism for red upconversion appears to change with

  2. Yeast Derlin Dfm1 interacts with Cdc48 and functions in ER homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian K. Sato; Randolph Y. Hampton

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have identified Derlin-1, a protein that associates with the AAA-ATPase p97 and is implicated in late steps in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Derlin-1 has two Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues, Der1p and Dfm1p. While Der1p has been studied extensively, little is known about Dfm1p. Accordingly, we investigated the role of Dfm1p in ERAD, ER homeostasis and interactions with the yeast

  3. ER-associated degradation in protein quality control and cellular regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph Y Hampton

    2002-01-01

    The ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway directs ubiquitin-mediated degradation of a variety of ER-associated misfolded and normal proteins. Recent studies have delineated the molecular machinery responsible for protein ubiquitination and highlighted mechanistic questions surrounding the recognition, extraction and proteasomal destruction of the diverse array of ERAD substrates. Consideration of separate lines of work on this versatile pathway now indicate that despite

  4. Effect of ER-? gene disruption on estrogenic regulation of anxiety in female mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Tomihara; Tomoko Soga; Masayoshi Nomura; Kenneth S. Korach; Jan-Åke Gustafsson; Donald W. Pfaff; Sonoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that long-term estrogen treatment in gonadectomized female mice increases anxiety levels. On the other hand, a recent study has reported that estrogen may down-regulate the levels of anxiety by acting through estrogen receptor (ER) ?. In the present study, we investigated the role of ER-? in the regulation of anxiety levels in female mice after long-term

  5. Composite resin bond strength to primary dentin prepared with Er, Cr:YSSG laser.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eric C; Chenard, Torin; Caputo, Angelo A; Amodeo, Michael; Chung, Evelyn M; Rizoiu, Ioana M

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of a hybrid composite resin bonded to primary dentin prepared with an Er, Cr:YSGG hydrokinetic laser compared to conventional bur prepared primary dentin. The results suggest that primary dentin surfaces treated with the Er, Cr:YSGG laser, with or without etching, may provide comparable or increased composite resin bond strengths depending upon bonding agent used. PMID:16302599

  6. GIS Rseau Amrique latine. Actes du 1er Congrs du GIS Amrique latine : Discours et

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    GIS Réseau Amérique latine. Actes du 1er Congrès du GIS Amérique latine : Discours et pratiques de 1 halshs-00151682,version1-5Jun2007 Author manuscript, published in "GIS Réseau Amérique latine. Actes du 1er Congrès du GIS Amérique latine : Discours et pratiques de pouvoirs en Amérique latine, de

  7. Polarized spectral properties of Er3+ ions in NaGd(WO4)2 crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Huang; X. H. Gong; Y. J. Chen; Y. F. Lin; J. S. Liao; X. Y. Chen; Z. D. Luo; Y. D. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Polarized spectral properties of Er3+:NaGd(WO4)2 single crystal are reported. The crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The Judd Ofelt theory was applied to analyze the polarized absorption spectra and then calculate the spontaneous emission probabilities, radiative lifetimes, and branching ratios. Fluorescence decay curves of the 4 I 13\\/2, 4 I 11\\/2, and 4 S 3\\/2 multiplets for the Er3+

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-4

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-09-01

    Well ER-EC-4 was drilled for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 263.7 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,062.8 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 228.3 meters, two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 35 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 286.5 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well was collared in basalt and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon, and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from this well helps pinpoint the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southern Nevada volcanic field.

  9. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  10. Completion Report for Well ER-12-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

  11. ER-? mediates 17 ?-estradiol attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sheila M.; Aksenova, Marina V.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2010-01-01

    The protective actions of estrogen have been well evaluated in various models of neurodegeneration. These neuroprotective mechanisms may include a direct neuronal anti-apoptotic effect as estrogen modulates actions of key regulators of the mitochondrial/intrinsic apoptotic cascade. We tested the ability of estrogen to protect against apoptotic signaling in cortical cell cultures exposed to Tat 1-86 (50nM), and additionally, whether the beneficial actions of estrogen involved an estrogen receptor sensitive mechanism. We demonstrated that estrogen pretreatment significantly delayed Tat-induced cell death in primary cortical cultures. Pretreatment with 17?-estradiol (10nM) attenuated the increased expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, pro-apoptotic protein Bax and activation of caspases linked to mitochondrial apoptotic pathway following Tat exposure. In addition, select components of apoptotic pathway signaling appear more sensitive to estrogen receptor (ER) activation, as the addition of ER antagonist ICI 182,780 reversed estrogen downregulation of Bax and caspase 3, while estrogen effects on Tat-induced Bcl-2 and caspase 9 expression were maintained. Moreover, the addition of preferential ER? and ER? antagonists (MPP dihydrochloride and PHTPP) indicated that estrogen effects on caspase 3 may be mediated by both receptor subtypes, while ER? was more involved in estrogen effects on Bax. Our data suggest that estrogen intervenes against HIV Tat-induced cortical neuronal dysfunction via intersecting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway signaling in an ER-sensitive manner. PMID:20340172

  12. Broadband infrared emission from Er-Tm :Al2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhisong; Serna, R.; Afonso, C. N.; Vickridge, I.

    2005-09-01

    Thin films of amorphous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) co-doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ have been synthesized by alternate pulsed laser deposition. When pumped at 794 nm a broad emission band over 1400-1700 nm is observed. Two peaks related to the 1540 nm band from Er3+ and to the 1640 nm band from Tm3+ are clearly distinguished. The photoluminescence intensity ratio of the 1640-1540 nm emissions has been controlled by modifying the Tm concentration. A spectrum with a fairly flat profile and a full width at half maximum of 230 nm is obtained for an Er concentration of 7.2×1019cm-3 and a [Tm]/[Er] concentration ratio of 3. It is found that the Er3+ to Tm3+ energy transfer processes play an important role in the definition of the luminescent response. The large width of the emission band and the excellent optical and thermomechanical properties of the Er-Tm co-doped Al2O3 signal this system as a potential candidate for the development of broadband integrated optical amplifiers.

  13. Rab18 and a Rab18 GEF complex are required for normal ER structure

    PubMed Central

    Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Anderson, Rachel; Carpanini, Sarah; Aligianis, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The ancestral Rab GTPase Rab18 and both subunits of the Rab3GAP complex are mutated in the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that the Rab3GAP complex is a specific Rab18 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The Rab3GAP complex localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is necessary for ER targeting of Rab18. It is also sufficient to promote membrane recruitment of Rab18. Disease-associated point mutations of conserved residues in either the Rab3GAP1 (T18P and E24V) or Rab3GAP2 (R426C) subunits result in loss of the Rab18 GEF and membrane-targeting activities. Supporting the view that Rab18 activity is important for ER structure, in the absence of either Rab3GAP subunit or Rab18 function, ER tubular networks marked by reticulon 4 were disrupted, and ER sheets defined by CLIMP-63 spread out into the cell periphery. Micro syndrome is therefore a disease characterized by direct loss of Rab18 function or loss of Rab18 activation at the ER by its GEF Rab3GAP. PMID:24891604

  14. Ube2g2–gp78-mediated HERP polyubiquitylation is involved in ER stress recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Long; Liu, Weixiao; Zhang, Huihui; Liu, Chao; Shang, Yongliang; Ye, Yihong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A large number of studies have focused on how individual organisms respond to a stress condition, but little attention has been paid to the stress recovery process, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress recovery. Homocysteine-induced ER protein (HERP) was originally identified as a chaperone-like protein that is strongly induced upon ER stress. Here we show that, after ER stress induction, HERP is rapidly degraded by Ube2g2–gp78-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The polyubiquitylation of HERP in vitro depends on a physical interaction between the CUE domain of gp78 and the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of HERP, which is essential for HERP degradation in vivo during ER stress recovery. We further show that although HERP promotes cell survival under ER stress, high levels of HERP expression reduce cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that HERP plays a dual role in cellular stress adaptation. Together, these results establish the ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation of HERP as a novel mechanism that fine-tunes the stress tolerance capacity of the cell. PMID:24496447

  15. Er:YAG laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosion: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, R S; Colucci, V; Lepri, T P; Alexandria, A K; Maia, L C; Galo, R; Borsatto, M C; Corona, S A M

    2015-07-01

    This in situ study evaluated the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation in controlling the progression of enamel erosion-like lesions. Fifty-six enamel slabs (330 KHN?±?10 %) with one fourth of the surface covered with resin composite (control area) were submitted to initial erosion-like lesion formation with citric acid. The slabs were divided into two groups: irradiated with Er:YAG laser and non-irradiated. Fourteen volunteers used an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs, in two phases of 5 days each. During the intraoral phase, in a crossed-over design, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in citric acid while the other half used deionized water, both for 5 min, three times per day. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. ANOVA revealed that when deionized water was used as immersion solution during the intraoral phase, lower values of wear were showed when compared with the groups that were eroded with citric acid, whether irradiated or non-irradiated with Er:YAG laser. When erosion with citric acid was performed, Er:YAG laser was not able to reduce enamel wear. Small changes on enamel surface were observed when it was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser irradiation did not reduce the progression of erosive lesions on enamel submitted to in situ erosion with citric acid. PMID:24985348

  16. Induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions by Kv2.1 potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Fox, Philip D; Haberkorn, Christopher J; Akin, Elizabeth J; Seel, Peter J; Krapf, Diego; Tamkun, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Junctions between cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) and the plasma membrane are a subtle but ubiquitous feature in mammalian cells; however, very little is known about the functions and molecular interactions that are associated with neuronal ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Here, we report that Kv2.1 (also known as KCNB1), the primary delayed-rectifier K(+) channel in the mammalian brain, induces the formation of ER-plasma-membrane junctions. Kv2.1 localizes to dense, cell-surface clusters that contain non-conducting channels, indicating that they have a function that is unrelated to membrane-potential regulation. Accordingly, Kv2.1 clusters function as membrane-trafficking hubs, providing platforms for delivery and retrieval of multiple membrane proteins. Using both total internal reflection fluorescence and electron microscopy we demonstrate that the clustered Kv2.1 plays a direct structural role in the induction of stable ER-plasma-membrane junctions in both transfected HEK 293 cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. Glutamate exposure results in a loss of Kv2.1 clusters in neurons and subsequent retraction of the cER from the plasma membrane. We propose Kv2.1-induced ER-plasma-membrane junctions represent a new macromolecular plasma-membrane complex that is sensitive to excitotoxic insult and functions as a scaffolding site for both membrane trafficking and Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:25908859

  17. Mission planning for an Earth observation low Earth orbiter: ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockyer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    ERS-1, the first European Remote Sensing satellite, has a payload which consists primarily of microwave instruments and is in a polar sun-synchronous orbit. All ground and on-board activities from user requests to delivery of data products are combined into one integrated system. In view of the high number of products which can be generated by ERS-1, the Mission Planning System (MPS), which plans the on-board activities of ERS-1, is an essential tool for operations since manual planning of the large number of daily operations is out of the question. In addition the MPS, in line with the integrated nature of the ERS-1 system, also plans activities at the prime ground station, including among others, the operation of the payload data processing systems there. This paper outlines the operations concepts for ERS-1 mission planning, and describes the Mission Planning System used at the ERS-1 Control Center. Novel functionalities, such as automatic resource clash resolution, are described. A critical discussion gives lessons learned for future mission planning systems.

  18. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  19. INTRAPUPAL TEMPERATURE VARIATION DURING ER,CR:YSGG ENAMEL IRRADIATION ON CARIES PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Soares-Geraldo, Débora; Biella-Silva, Ana Cristina; Silva, Amanda Verna; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown the cariostatic effect of Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 ?m) laser irradiation on human enamel and have suggested its use on caries prevention. However there are still no reports on the intrapulpal temperature increase during enamel irradiation using parameters for caries prevention. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the temperature variation in the pulp chamber during human enamel irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at different energy densities. Fifteen enamel blocks obtained from third molars (3 x 3 x 3 mm) were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=5): G1 – Er,Cr:YSGG laser 0.25 W, 20 Hz, 2.84 J/cm2, G2 – Er,Cr:YSGG laser 0.50 W, 20 Hz, 5.68 J/cm2, G3 – Er,Cr:YSGG laser 0.75 W, 20 Hz, 8.52 J/cm2. During enamel irradiation, two thermocouples were fixed in the inner surface of the specimens and a thermal conducting paste was used. One-way ANOVA did not show statistically significant difference among the experimental groups (?=0.05). There was intrapulpal temperature variation ?0.1°C for all irradiation parameters. In conclusion, under the tested conditions, the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser with parameters set for caries prevention lead to an acceptable temperature increase in the pulp chamber. PMID:19089198

  20. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  1. Neutron diffraction structure study of Er and Yb doped YAl3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sváb, E.; Beregi, E.; Fábián, M.; Mészáros, Gy.

    2012-06-01

    Neutron diffraction structure study has been performed on YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB), on doped Y0.88Er0.12Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Er0.5Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Yb0.5Al3(BO3)4 and on co-doped Y0.84Er0.01Yb0.15Al3(BO3)4 compositions. It was established that the doped compounds are isostructural to YAB. The neutron diffraction pattern have been be fitted in space group R32 using the triple hexagonal Wyckoff notation. Both Er3+ and Yb3+ ions occupy the Y3+ (3a) sites and not the Al3+ (9d) sites, as it was suggested previously. The lattice parameters are decreasing with increasing amount of the dopant elements. Slight changes are revealed in the positional parameters and interatomic distances with increasing concentration of the dopant ions. For the co-doped Y0.84Er0.01Yb0.15Al3(BO3)4 the changes are more significant than for the doped YAB compounds with only one type of dopant element, Er or Yb.

  2. Bacterial and fungal communities in Pu'er tea samples of different ages.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianqing; Zhu, Zixiang; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xingzhong

    2013-08-01

    Pu'er is a major kind of postfermented tea and is made with a "large leaf" variety of Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis assamica), whose distribution is limited to the mountains of southern Yunnan, China. The quality of Pu'er tea is believed to increase with storage (aging, maturing) because of postfermentation by microbes. The effect of storage period (from < 1 to 192 mo) on the bacteria and fungi in Pu'er tea was investigated by a culture-dependent and a PCR-DGGE method. The individual numbers of fungi and bacteria decreased with increasing storage time and were significantly greater in ripened tea than in raw Pu'er tea. Both methods indicated that yeast, Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. were the dominant fungi in almost all the samples. However, the common bacteria detected by the culture-dependent method were species of Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Sporosarcina, and Bacillus, whereas those detected by PCR-DGGE were species of Staphylococcus, Arthrobacter, and Streptomyces. According to ordination analysis, bacterial community structure differed between ripened and raw Pu'er tea. Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with aging time, while fungal diversity in both raw and ripened tea increased during the first 60 mo of aging and then decreased. Changes in polyphenol content were correlated with the changes in fungal diversity. These results suggest that the relationship between storage time and the quality of Pu'er tea is complex and involves changes in polyphenol content and microbial abundance and diversity. PMID:23957415

  3. False positives in MALDI-TOF detection of ER{beta} in mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Schwend, Thomas [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet/NOVUM, Haelsovaegen 7, S-141 86 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet/NOVUM, Haelsovaegen 7, S-141 86 Huddinge (Sweden)]. E-mail: jan-ake.gustafsson@mednut.ki.se

    2006-05-12

    Recently, Yang et al. reported that estrogen receptor beta (ER{beta}) is a mitochondrial protein rather than a nuclear receptor. Because this claim would lead to a significant change in our understanding of estrogen signaling, we have attempted to reproduce the MALDI-TOF data of Yang et al. We separated proteins extracted from mouse liver mitochondria by SDS-PAGE and analysed a gel band covering the molecular weight range of 50-65 kDa by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Analysis of the data with the MASCOT database algorithm provided no evidence for the presence of ER{beta} in the mitochondria. If we search (as the authors did) with only the peptide masses which match to tryptic fragments of ER{beta}, ER{beta} is identified with a significant score of 69. However, fragmentation of these peptides shows that they are not from ER{beta}. Our conclusion is that ER{beta} cannot be identified by MALDI-TOF from a mixture of mitochondrial proteins resolved on SDS-PAGE.

  4. Involvement of the Akt signaling pathway in ER-?36/GRP94-mediated signaling in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    FU, ZHENGQI; ZHEN, HONGYAN; ZOU, FENG; WANG, XUMING; CHEN, YING; LIU, LIJIANG

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) has been implicated in the promotion of tumor proliferation and metastasis. Previous studies have found that GRP94 is involved in the malignant growth of gastric carcinoma cells through estrogen receptor-?36 (ER-?36)-mediated estrogen signaling, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36 in tumor specimens from gastric cancer patients by immunohistochemistry, and found that both GRP94 and ER-?36 were highly expressed in the cytoplasms of gastric carcinoma cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10?12 M for 24 h increased the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt at the Ser473 site (Ser473-Akt). In established SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with knockdown of ER-?36 expression, the levels of GRP94 and Ser473-Akt expression were significantly reduced. Thus, the Akt signaling pathway is a potentially important signaling pathway in ER-?36-GRP94-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:25295093

  5. Wild-type oestrogen receptor beta (ER?1) mRNA and protein expression in Tamoxifen-treated post-menopausal breast cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A O'Neill; M P A Davies; A M Shaaban; H Innes; A Torevell; D R Sibson; C S Foster

    2004-01-01

    This study has tested the hypothesis that comparison of protein and mRNA expression for ER? and ER?1 by human breast cancers provides novel information relating to the clinical and pathological characteristics of human breast cancers. Expression of ER? and ER?1 was identified in 167 invasive cancers from postmenopausal women treated only with endocrine therapy. The cohort included 143 cases receiving

  6. Development of a geography-referenced regional exposure assessment tool for European rivers - great-er contribution to great-er #1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Feijtel; G. Boeije; M. Matthies; A. Young; G. Morris; C. Gandolfi; B. Hansen; K. Fox; M. Holt; V. Koch; R. Schroder; G. Cassani; D. Schowanek; J. Rosenblom; H. Niessen

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the GREAT-ER project is to develop and validate a powerful and accurate aquatic chemical exposure prediction tool for use within the EU environmental risk assessment schemes. Current techniques to estimate regional predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) use a generic multimedia ‘unit world’ approach and do not account for spatial and temporal variability in landscape characteristics, river flows and\\/or

  7. Magnetic properties of ErRu 2Si 2, ErOs 2Si 2 and DyRu 2Si 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, A.; Kmiec, R.; Malaman, B.; Ressouche, E.; Sanchez, J. P.; Tomala, K.; Venturini, G.

    1994-07-01

    ErRu 2Si 2, ErOs 2Si 2 and DyRu 2Si 2 have been investigated by magnetization, neutron diffraction and Mössbauer measurements. These intermetallics were shown to order magnetically at low temperature and to exhibit metamagnetic-like behaviour. ErRu 2Si 2 if TN = 5.7 K and ErOs 2Si 2 ( TN = 4.7 K) present sine-modulated magnetic structures characterized by a wavevector Q = ( qx, 0, 0) with q x = {1}/{5} (Ru) and {5}/{17} (Os). In both compounds the moments are aligned along the b-axis and a partial squaring of the modulation was inferred from Mössbauer and neutron diffraction measurements performed at 1.6 K. DyRu 2Si 2 orders at TN = 29 K with a sine-wave modulation, Q = ( {2}/{9}, 0, 0) , of the moments parallel to the c-axis. A squaring up of the magnetic occurs at about 19 K it is complete at 1.6 K where ?Dy = 10 ?B, in agreement with the Mössbauer data.

  8. Effect of Si and Er Co-doping on Green Electroluminescence from GaN:Er ELDs Rui Wang, and Andrew J Steckl

    E-print Network

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed with a Melles Griot 325nm He-Cd laser spectra. Ring diode structures were patterned by photolithography with a Karl Suss MJB3 mask aligner. ITO electrodes were rapid thermal annealed. GaN ELDs doped with Er only were also fabricated with the same

  9. Genome-wide screen identifies a novel p97/CDC-48-dependent pathway regulating ER-stress-induced gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Marza, Esther; Taouji, Saïd; Barroso, Kim; Raymond, Anne-Aurélie; Guignard, Léo; Bonneu, Marc; Pallares-Lupon, Néstor; Dupuy, Jean-William; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Rosenbaum, Jean; Palladino, Francesca; Dupuy, Denis; Chevet, Eric

    2015-03-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR(ER)) to restore ER homeostasis. The AAA(+) ATPase p97/CDC-48 plays key roles in ER stress by promoting both ER protein degradation and transcription of UPR(ER) genes. Although the mechanisms associated with protein degradation are now well established, the molecular events involved in the regulation of gene transcription by p97/CDC-48 remain unclear. Using a reporter-based genome-wide RNAi screen in combination with quantitative proteomic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have identified RUVB-2, a AAA(+) ATPase, as a novel repressor of a subset of UPR(ER) genes. We show that degradation of RUVB-2 by CDC-48 enhances expression of ER stress response genes through an XBP1-dependent mechanism. The functional interplay between CDC-48 and RUVB-2 in controlling transcription of select UPR(ER) genes appears conserved in human cells. Together, these results describe a novel role for p97/CDC-48, whereby its role in protein degradation is integrated with its role in regulating expression of ER stress response genes. PMID:25652260

  10. Accelerated Mammary Maturation and Differentiation, and Delayed MMTV-Neu-Induced Tumorigenesis of K303R Mutant ER? Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herynk, MH; Lewis, MT; Hopp, TA; Medina, D; Corona-Rodriguez, A; Cui, Y; Beyer, AR; Fuqua, SAW

    2015-01-01

    We identified a somatic mutation in ER? in breast cancer causing a lysine to arginine transition (K303R) resulting in hypersensitivity to estrogen, altered associations with coactivators and corepressors, and altered posttranslational modifications of ER?. We have developed a transgenic mouse expressing the K303R mutant ER? under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. At 4 months of age, K303R ER? transgenic animals demonstrate precocious alveolar budding compared with wild-type ER? transgenic mice or nontransgenic littermates. Despite these morphologic differences, K303R ER? transgenic mice displayed no differences in levels of ER?, progesterone receptor, or proliferation at this time-point. Pregnancy or chronic estrogen plus progesterone exposure in K303R ER? transgenic mice also resulted in significantly more alveolar budding, increased ?-casein production, and dilated ducts when compared with nontransgenic littermates. To examine the effects of mutant expression on tumorigenesis, mutant ER? mice were crossed with FVB-MMTVneu mice and significantly delayed time to neu-mediated tumorigenesis in bigenic animals. In contrast, mutant expression did not affect carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that aberrant estrogenic signaling through the K303R ER? mutation may lead to precocious alveolar budding in virgin mice, and to an expedited maturation and differentiation phenotype in the mammary glands of hormonally-stimulated animals. PMID:19561644

  11. Energy transfer and enhanced 1.53 µm band signal gain in Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite glass fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaxun; Yin, Dandan; Zheng, Shichao; Xu, Xingchen

    2013-11-01

    A detailed study of the energy transfer between Er3+ and Ce3+ ions and its enhanced effects on the 1.53 µm band signal gain in Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite glass fiber under the excitation of 980 nm is reported. The absorption spectra, visible upconversion spectra, infrared fluorescence spectra of Er3+ doped and Er3+/Ce3+ codoped glass samples were measured, and the 1.53 µm band signal gain of Er3+ doped and Er3+/Ce3+ codoped glass fiber was calculated based on the rate and power propagation equations. Codoping Ce3+ with Er3+ ions can significantly suppress the visible upconversion emission and meanwhile improves the 1.53 µm band fluorescence, and an increment of about 6.4 dB signal gain at 1532 nm was found in a 40 cm glass fiber with 150 mW pumping power at 980 nm, which is ascribed to the energy transfer between Er3+ and Ce3+ ions. The quantitative analysis showed that the energy transfer between Er3+ and Ce3+ ions is a one phonon and two phonon-assisted energy transfer process. The results indicated that Er3+/Ce3+ codoping is a suitable scheme for low phonon energy tellurite glass fiber applied for broadband and high gain EDFA.

  12. Structural, thermal and spectroscopic properties of highly Er3+-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses for photonic application

    SciTech Connect

    Kesavulu, C.R. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Sreedhar, V.B.; Jayasankar, C.K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Jang, Kiwan [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Soo [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo, E-mail: ssyi@silla.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Er{sup 3+}-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Structural, thermal and spectroscopic properties have been carried out. • SALSFEr glasses exhibit intense green and weak red emissions at 365 nm excitation. • Major laser transition for Er{sup 3+} ion in SALSFEr glasses is {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} ? {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (1.53 ?m). • These results suggest the possibility of using SALSFEr glasses as photonic devices. - Abstract: The Er{sup 3+}-doped novel oxyfluoride glasses of composition (43 ? x)SiO{sub 2}–10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–24LiF–23SrF{sub 2}–xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where x = 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mol%, have been prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, optical absorption spectra, visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) emission spectra measurements. Judd–Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (?{sub ?}, ? = 2, 4 and 6) have been derived from the absorption spectrum of 1.0 mol% Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped glass and are in turn used to calculate radiative properties for the important luminescent levels of Er{sup 3+} ions. The studied glasses show intense green and weak red visible emissions under 365 nm excitation. The decrease in visible emission intensities with concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions has been explained due to energy transfer processes between Er{sup 3+} ions. Upon excitation at 980 nm laser diode, an intense 1.53 ?m NIR emission has been observed with the maximum full width at half maximum (FWHM) for Er{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluoride glasses. The higher Er{sup 3+} ion doping capability and relatively high gain and broad emission at 1.5 ?m are the most notable features of these glasses to realize efficient short-length optical amplifiers.

  13. Caractérisation spectroscopique et étude structurale de RbEr(PO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horchani, K.; Amami, J.; Merle, D.; Férid, M.

    2004-12-01

    Crystals of RbEr(PO3)4 have been grown by the flux technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis absorbance and infrared spectroscopy. Single crystal structure of RbEr(PO3)4 has been solved, it crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with lattice parameters : a = 10,2419(2), b = 8,8349(2), c = 10,9361(2) Å, ß = 106,229(2)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure has been refined yielding a final R(F2) = 0.026 for 2206 independent reflections (Fo2 ? 2?(Fo2)). The RbEr(PO3)4 structure is characterized by helical ribbons (PO3)? running along the c-axis. The erbium ions have an eightfold coordination. The ErO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other in the sense that they do not share any oxygen atom. The minimal distance between two atoms of erbium is 6,2583 Å. Le polyphosphate RbEr(PO3)4 est synthétisé, sous forme monocristalline, par la méthode de flux ; ce composé est caractérisé par diffraction RX, spectroscopie d’absorption optique et spectroscopie de vibration IR. L’étude structurale de RbEr(PO3)4 a montré que ce polyphosphate cristallise dans le système monoclinique, de groupe d’espace P21/n, les paramètres de maille sont : a = 10,2419(2), b = 8,8349(2), c = 10,9361(2) Å, ß = 106,229(2)°, Z = 4. L’affinement conduit à un facteur de confiance R(F2) = 0.026, pour 2206 réflexions indépendantes (Fo2 ? 2?(Fo2)). La structure de RbEr(PO3)4 est caractérisée par une chaîne hélicoïdale (PO3)? se développant le long de l’axe c. Les atomes d’erbium ont un environnement de 8 oxygènes. Les polyèdres ErO8 sont isolés les uns des autres, ils ne présentent aucun atome d’oxygène en commun. La distance Er-Er la plus courte mesure 6,258 (Å).

  14. [Preparation and photoluminescence study of Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics].

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun-ming; Li, Yong-xiu; Deng, Li-ping

    2008-10-01

    Y2O3 acted as the matrix material, which was doped with different concentrations of Er3+, Er3+ : Y2O3 nanocrystalline powder was prepared by co-precipitation method, and Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics was fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1700 degrees C, 1 x 10(-3) Pa for 8 h. By using the X-ray diffraction (D/MAX-RB), transmission electron microscopy(Philips EM420), automatic logging spectrophotometer(DMR-22), fluorescence analyzer (F-4500) and 980 nm diode laser, the structural, morphological and luminescence properties of the sample were investigated. The results show that Er3+ dissolved completely in the Y2O3 cubic phase, the precursor was amorphous, weak diffraction peaks appeared after calcination at 400 degrees C, and if calcined at 700 degrees C, the precursor turned to pure cubic phase. With increasing the calcining temperature, the diffraction peaks became sharp quickly, and when the calcining temperature reached 1100 degrees C, the diffraction peaks became very sharp, indicating that the grains were very large. The particles of Er+ : Y2O3 is homogeneous and nearly spherical, the average diameter of the particles is in the range of 40-60 nm after being calcined at 1000 degrees C for 2 h. The relative density of Er3+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics is 99.8%, the transmittance of the Er2+ : Y2O3 transparent ceramics is markedly lower than the single crystal at the short wavelength, but the transmittance is improved noticeably with increasing the wavelength, and the transmittance exceeds 60% at the wavelength of 1200 nm. Excited under the 980 nm diode laser, there are two main up-conversion emission bands, green emission centers at 562 nm and red emission centers at 660 nm, which correspond to (4)S(3/2) / (2)H(11/2) - (4)I(15/2) and (4)F(9/2) - (4)I(15/2) radiative transitions respectively. By changing the doping concentrations of Er3+, the color of up-conversion luminescence can be tuned from green to red gradually. The luminescence intensity is not reinforce with the increase in the concentration, so the doping concentration of Er3+ should not exceed 2%. If the doping concentration of Er3+ exceeds the range, the concentration has very small effect on the improvement of luminescence intensity. PMID:19123383

  15. Comparison of Er-doped sol-gel glasses with various hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Qing; Zhou, Yan; Lam, Yee Loy; Ooi, Boon Siew; Chan, Yuen Chuen; Kam, Chan Hin

    1999-11-01

    Using the sol-gel process, we prepared three groups of Er-doped glasses, namely, Er-doped Si02-A101.5 (SAB) glass, Er-doped Si02-Ti02-A101.5 (STAE) glass, and Er-doped Si02-Ge02-Al01.5 (SGAE) glass. Various erbium concentration and different host composition under the same processing condition have been studied in order to optimize the material composition to get the strongest fluorescence emission for each material system. It has been found that for SAE glass, the strongest fluorescence emission is obtained when the mole ratio of the three constituent oxides is lOOSiO2 : 20A101.5 2ErO1.5. For the STAE material system, the best composition ratio for the strongest fluorescence emission is 93 Si02 : 7TiO2: 20A101.5 : lErO1.5, whereas the value for SGAE glass is 9OSiO2:lOGeO2 : 2OAlO1.5: 1ErO1.5. But the relative lifetimes were obtained with the recipe lOOSiO2:10A101.5:1ErO1.5 for SAE series, 90 Si02:lOGeO2:1OAlO1.5: 1ErO1.5 for STAE group and 93 Si02:7Ti02:20A101.5:1ErO1.5 for STAE group. Using these recipes, three 20-layer (up to 2.5 ?m) crack-free films have been deposited on silica-on-silicon (SOS) substrates with multiple spin-coating and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Only the STAE film and the SGAE film are found to guide light. The experimental results show that STAB glasses have higher hydrophilicity than SGAE glasses and SGAE glasses has lower crystallization temperature than STAE glasses. The fact that these waveguiding films emit relatively strong fluorescence around the wavelength of 1.55 ?m implies that such planar waveguides are potential candidates from which integrated optical waveguide amplifiers and lasers operating at the third optical fiber communication window can be fabricated.

  16. Mammalian ER mannosidase I resides in quality control vesicles, where it encounters its glycoprotein substrates

    PubMed Central

    Benyair, Ron; Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Mazkereth, Niv; Shai, Ben; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum ?1,2 mannosidase I (ERManI), a central component of ER quality control and ER-associated degradation (ERAD), acts as a timer enzyme, modifying N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins with time. This process halts glycoprotein folding attempts when necessary and targets terminally misfolded glycoproteins to ERAD. Despite the importance of ERManI in maintenance of glycoprotein quality control, fundamental questions regarding this enzyme remain controversial. One such question is the subcellular localization of ERManI, which has been suggested to localize to the ER membrane, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), and, surprisingly, recently to the Golgi apparatus. To try to clarify this controversy, we applied a series of approaches that indicate that ERManI is located, at the steady state, in quality control vesicles (QCVs) to which ERAD substrates are transported and in which they interact with the enzyme. Both endogenous and exogenously expressed ERManI migrate at an ER-like density on iodixanol gradients, suggesting that the QCVs are derived from the ER. The QCVs are highly mobile, displaying dynamics that are dependent on microtubules and COP-II but not on COP-I vesicle machinery. Under ER stress conditions, the QCVs converge in a juxtanuclear region, at the ERQC, as previously reported. Our results also suggest that ERManI is turned over by an active autophagic process. Of importance, we found that membrane disturbance, as is common in immunofluorescence methods, leads to an artificial appearance of ERManI in a Golgi pattern. PMID:25411339

  17. Computational analysis of the roles of ER-Golgi network in the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background ER-Golgi network plays an important role in the processing, sorting and transport of proteins, and it's also a site for many signaling pathways that regulate the cell cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests that, the stressed ER and malfunction of Golgi apparatus are associated with the pathogenesis of cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous work discovered and verified that altering the expression levels of target SNARE and GEF could modulate the size of Golgi apparatus. Moreover, Golgi's structure and size undergo dramatic changes during the development of several diseases. It is of importance to investigate the roles of ER-Golgi network in the cell cycle progression and some diseases. Results In this work, we first develop a computational model to study the ER stress-induced and Golgi-related apoptosis-survival signaling pathways. Then, we propose and apply both asynchronous and synchronous model checking methods, which extend our previous verification technique, to automatically and formally analyze the ER-Golgi-regulated signaling pathways in the cell cycle progression through verifying some computation tree temporal logic formulas. Conclusions The proposed asynchronous and synchronous verification technique has advantages for large network analysis and verification over traditional simulation methods. Using the model checking method, we verified several Alzheimer's disease and cancer-related properties, and also identified important proteins (NF?B, ATF4, ASK1 and TRAF2) in the ER-Golgi network, which might be responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and AD. Our studies indicate that targeting the ER stress-induced and Golgi-related pathways might serve as potent therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25522186

  18. Tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of ER stress in Vero E6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lankinen, Hilkka; Putkuri, Niina; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Tula virus is a member of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the ER-Golgi compartment. We recently found that Tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [Li, X.D., Kukkonen, S., Vapalahti, O., Plyusnin, A., Lankinen, H., Vaheri, A., 2004. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3261-3268.]. However, the cellular mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the progressive replication of Tula virus in Vero E6 cells initiates several death programs that are intimately associated with ER stress: (1) early activation of ER-resident caspase-12; (2) phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target transcriptional factor, c-jun; (3) induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, or C/EBP homologous protein (Gadd153/chop); and (4) changes in the ER-membrane protein BAP31 implying cross-talk with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that a sustained ER stress was induced marked by an increased expression of an ER chaperone Grp78/BiP. Taken together, we have identified involvement of ER stress-mediated death program in Tula virus-infected Vero E6 cells which provides a new approach to understand the mechanisms in hantavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15708603

  19. ER-based double iCre fusion protein allows partial recombination in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Emilio; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Lemberger, Thomas; Shimshek, Derya R; Sprengel, Rolf; Mantamadiotis, Theo

    2002-11-01

    Here we describe the generation of a new tamoxifen-inducible double Cre fusion protein generated by fusing two ERT2 domains onto both ends of the iCre recombinase (a codon improved Cre recombinase). This Cre fusion protein (ERiCreER) had a twofold increased activity in cell culture assays than the previously described MerCreMer Cre double fusion protein. ERiCreER was targeted to the brain by placing it under the control of the promoter from the CamKIIalpha gene using a 170 kb BAC. The fusion protein was detected in hippocampus, cortex, striatum, thalamus, and hypothalamus but not in cerebellum. The ERiCreER was cytoplasmatic in the absence of tamoxifen and translocated into the nucleus upon tamoxifen administration. The activity of the ERiCreER was tested in vivo by mating the CamKIIalpha ERiCreER transgenic line with mice harbouring exon 10 of the CREB gene flanked by two LoxP sites. In the absence of tamoxifen, no background activity was detected in mice older than 6 months. After tamoxifen administration, most if not all of the ERiCreER fusion protein translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus; however, only 5-10% of the "floxed" CREB allele was recombined. Recombination was also visualised at the cellular level by following the upregulation of the CREM protein, which corresponds precisely with CREB loss/recombination. Unlike in other tissues (Sohal et al., 2001; Tannour-Louet et al., 2002), it appears that in brain, although ERiCreER can bind tamoxifen, the Cre-recombinase cannot be fully activated. PMID:12395386

  20. Mammalian ER mannosidase I resides in quality control vesicles, where it encounters its glycoprotein substrates.

    PubMed

    Benyair, Ron; Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Mazkereth, Niv; Shai, Ben; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2015-01-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum ?1,2 mannosidase I (ERManI), a central component of ER quality control and ER-associated degradation (ERAD), acts as a timer enzyme, modifying N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins with time. This process halts glycoprotein folding attempts when necessary and targets terminally misfolded glycoproteins to ERAD. Despite the importance of ERManI in maintenance of glycoprotein quality control, fundamental questions regarding this enzyme remain controversial. One such question is the subcellular localization of ERManI, which has been suggested to localize to the ER membrane, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), and, surprisingly, recently to the Golgi apparatus. To try to clarify this controversy, we applied a series of approaches that indicate that ERManI is located, at the steady state, in quality control vesicles (QCVs) to which ERAD substrates are transported and in which they interact with the enzyme. Both endogenous and exogenously expressed ERManI migrate at an ER-like density on iodixanol gradients, suggesting that the QCVs are derived from the ER. The QCVs are highly mobile, displaying dynamics that are dependent on microtubules and COP-II but not on COP-I vesicle machinery. Under ER stress conditions, the QCVs converge in a juxtanuclear region, at the ERQC, as previously reported. Our results also suggest that ERManI is turned over by an active autophagic process. Of importance, we found that membrane disturbance, as is common in immunofluorescence methods, leads to an artificial appearance of ERManI in a Golgi pattern. PMID:25411339

  1. Nanostructured Er2O3 thin films grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Dang, Van-Son; Ney, Andreas; de los Arcos, Teresa; Devil, Anjana

    2014-07-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of nanostructured Er2O3 thin films was performed using the Er-tris-guanidinate precursor [Er(DPDMG)3] (DPDMG = diisopropyl-2-dimethylamidoguanidinato) as the Er source and oxygen. Film deposition was carried out on Si(100) and quartz glass substrates and the process parameters namely temperature, pressure and oxygen flow rate were varied. The resulting thin films were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for investigating the crystallinity and morphology, respectively. The chemical composition of the film was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Transmittance and absorption spectra of the 600 degrees C film grown on glass substrates were performed by UV-vis measurements revealing more than 80% transmittance. The potential of Er2O3 thin films as gate dielectrics was verified by carrying out capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Dielectric constants estimated from the accumulation capacitance were found to be in the range of 10-12 in AC frequencies of 1 MHz down to 10 kHz and the leakage current of the order of 2 x 10(-8) A/cm2 at the applied field of 1 MV cm(-1) was measured for films deposited under optimised process conditions. The low leakage current and high dielectric constant implies good quality of the Er2O3 layers relevant for high-k applications. These layers were found to be paramagnetic with a slightly reduced magnetic moment of the Er3+ ions. PMID:24757985

  2. GATA Factors Promote ER Integrity and ?-Cell Survival and Contribute to Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Daniel J.; Wilbur, Christopher J.; Long, Simon Y.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Li, Changhong; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F. A.; Pu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ?-cell survival remains poorly understood despite decades of research. GATA transcription factors broadly regulate embryogenesis and influence survival of several cell types, but their role in adult ?-cells remains undefined. To investigate the role of GATA factors in adult ?-cells, we derived ?-cell-inducible Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, along with whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts. ?-Cell Gata4 deletion modestly increased the proportion of dying ?-cells in situ with ultrastructural abnormalities suggesting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Notably, glucose homeostasis was not grossly altered in Gata4- and Gata6-knockout mice, suggesting that GATA factors do not have essential roles in ?-cells. Several ER stress signals were up-regulated in Gata4 and Gata6 knockouts, most notably CHOP, a known regulator of ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, ER stress signals were not elevated to levels observed after acute thapsigargin administration, suggesting that GATA deficiency only caused mild ER stress. Simultaneous deletion of Gata4 and CHOP partially restored ?-cell survival. In contrast, whole-body inducible Gata4 knockouts displayed no evidence of ER stress in other GATA4-enriched tissues, such as heart. Indeed, distinct GATA transcriptional targets were differentially expressed in islets compared with heart. Such ?-cell-specific findings prompted study of a large meta-analysis dataset to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms harbored within the human GATA4 locus, revealing several variants significantly associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We conclude that GATA factors have important but nonessential roles to promote ER integrity and ?-cell survival in a tissue-specific manner and that GATA factors likely contribute to type 1 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. PMID:24284823

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Er{sub 3}SmQ {sub 6} (Q=S, Se) and Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Danielle L. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Rodriguez, Brandon A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Chan, George H. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Van Duyne, Richard P. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States); Ibers, James A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3113 (United States)], E-mail: ibers@chem.northwestern.edu

    2007-05-15

    The interlanthanide compounds Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6}, Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6}, and Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3} have been synthesized from stoichiometric reactions of the elements in a KI salt flux at 1273, 1173, and 1123 K, respectively. Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} and Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6}, which are isostructural and ordered, crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/m in the ScEr{sub 3}S{sub 6} structure type whereas Er{sub 1.12}Sm{sub 0.88}Se{sub 3}, in which the Er and Sm atoms are disordered, crystallizes in space group Pnma in the U{sub 2}S{sub 3} structure type. Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} is a paramagnet with a {mu} {sub eff}=11.25(1) {mu}{sub B}/mol. From optical measurements a direct band gap of 2.0 eV for light perpendicular to the (100) crystal face of Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6} is derived whereas for isostructural Er{sub 3}SmS{sub 6} an optical transition at 2.2-2.4 eV and a broad absorption peak at lower energies are observed. - Graphical abstract: The structure of Er{sub 3}SmSe{sub 6} viewed approximately down [010].

  4. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  5. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1.

    PubMed

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2?, P-PERK, P-IRE1?, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in vitamin B12 induces irreversible ER stress by greater acetylation of HSF1 through decreased SIRT1 expression, whereas adding vitamin B12 produces protective effects in cells subjected to ER stress stimulation. PMID:23519122

  6. Coupling of Stress in the ER to Activation of JNK Protein Kinases by Transmembrane Protein Kinase IRE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumihiko Urano; XiaoZhong Wang; Anne Bertolotti; Yuhong Zhang; Peter Chung; Heather P. Harding; David Ron

    2000-01-01

    Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-\\/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound TRAF2, an adaptor protein that couples plasma membrane

  7. Well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated mixed mullerian tumors have altered ER and PR isoform expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir A Jazaeri; Ken J Nunes; M Susan Dalton; Miaohou Xu; Margaret A Shupnik; Laurel W Rice

    2001-01-01

    Both the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) have two subtypes: ER-? and ?, and PR-A and -B, respectively. These subtypes differ in function and expression, and recent reports have correlated changes in the normal proportions of these isoforms with neoplastic states. We investigated ER and PR isoform expression in normal pre- and post-menopausal endometrium, well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma,

  8. The Truncated Cytoplasmic Tail of HLA-G Serves a Quality-Control Function in PostER Compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungwook Lee; Eunkyung Kim; Sookkyung Chang; Mirim Jin; Kwangseog Ahn

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to the current model of MHC class I trafficking, which predicts that once a MHC class I molecule leaves the ER, it moves to the cell surface by bulk flow, we show that HLA-G that is loaded with suboptimal peptides is retrieved from post-ER compartments to the ER. Loading of HLA-G with high-affinity peptides abrogates this retrieval due

  9. Effect of hydrogen on the magnetic anisotropy and spin–reorientation transition in ErFe 11Ti single crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S Tereshina; S. A Nikitin; V. N Nikiforov; L. A Ponomarenko; V. N Verbetsky; A. A Salamova; K. P Skokov

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties of the intermetallic compound ErFe11Ti are studied. Single crystals of the hydrogen-containing compound were obtained. Magnetic characteristics of the ErFe11Ti and ErFe11TiH single crystals have been investigated in the temperature range 4.2–750 K and in magnetic fields up to 13 kOe. Upon hydrogenation, the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is observed to increase, while

  10. Near-IR Photoresponse in New Up-Converting CdSe/NaYF4:Yb,Er Nanoheterostructures

    E-print Network

    Near-IR Photoresponse in New Up-Converting CdSe/NaYF4:Yb,Er Nanoheterostructures Chenglin Yan nanoheterostructures consisting of lanthanide (Ln)-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals dendritically decorated with CdSe quantum-converting nanocrystals is NaYF4: Yb,Er, in which Yb dopant ions absorb NIR photons and the Er ions emit the up

  11. An investigation of the thermal sensitivity and stability of the -NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanophosphors

    E-print Network

    Ju, Yiguang

    An investigation of the thermal sensitivity and stability of the -NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion of the hexagonal -phase NaYF4:Yb,Er nanophosphors as a function of temperature 300­450 K was examined under 978 nm The lanthanide ions Ln3+ Ln=Yb, Er, Tm, and Ho doped into either fluorides, e.g., NaYF4 and LaF3, or oxides, e

  12. NaYF4:Yb,Er-MoS2: from synthesis and surface ligand stripping to negative infrared photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenbin; Chen, Hu; Chen, Rui; Huang, Jingfeng; Sun, Handong; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2015-05-28

    The synthesis, surface ligand stripping, and infrared optoelectronic device application of NaYF4:Yb,Er-MoS2 nanocomposites are reported. NaYF4:Yb,Er-MoS2 film shows an unusual negative infrared photoresponse after SOCl2/DMF treatment, which exhibits more than two times the photoresponsivity of pure NaYF4:Yb,Er, showing great potential for the development of novel infrared optoelectronic devices. PMID:25941681

  13. Multiple Structurally Distinct ER? mRNA Variants in Zebrafish are Differentially Expressed by Tissue Type, Stage of Development and Estrogen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Kellie A.; Yershov, Anya; Novillo, Apolonia; Callard, Gloria V.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that estrogen-like environmental chemicals interact with the ligand-binding site of estrogen receptors (ER) to disrupt transcriptional control of estrogen responsive targets. Here we investigate the possibility that estrogens also impact splicing decisions on estrogen responsive genes, such as that encoding ER? itself. Targeted PCR cloning was applied to identify six ER? mRNA variants in zebrafish. Sequencing revealed alternate use of transcription and translation start sites, multiple exon deletions, intron retention and alternate polyadenylation. As determined by quantitative (q)PCR, N-terminal mRNA variants predicting long (ER?L) and short (ER?S) isoforms were differentially expressed by tissue-type, sex, stage of development and estrogen exposure. Whereas ER?L mRNA was diffusely distributed in liver, brain, heart, eye, and gonads, ER?S mRNA was preferentially expressed in liver (female > male) and ovary. Neither ER?L nor ER?S transcripts varied significantly during development, but 17?-estradiol selectively increased accumulation of ER?S mRNA (~170-fold by 120 hpf), an effect mimicked by bisphenol-A and diethylstilbestrol. Significantly, a C-truncated variant (ER?S-Cx) lacking most of the ligand binding and AF-2 domains was transcribed exclusively from the short isoform promoter and was similar to ER?S in its tissue-, stage- and estrogen inducible expression. These results support the idea that promoter choice and alternative splicing of the esr1 gene of zebrafish are part of the autoregulatory mechanism by which estrogen modulates subsequent ER? expression, and further suggest that environmental estrogens could exert some of their toxic effects by altering the relative abundance of structurally and functionally distinct ER? isoforms. PMID:24090614

  14. ER stress is the initial response to polyglutamine toxicity in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hitoshi [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: hitoshin@naramed-u.ac.jp; Hamada, Masashi [Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering and High Technology Research Center (HRC), Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Fujikake, Nobuhiro; Nagai, Yoshitaka [Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zhao, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Hatano, Osamu [Department of Anatomy, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Shimoke, Koji [Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering and High Technology Research Center (HRC), Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Isosaki, Minoru; Yoshizumi, Masanori [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ikeuchi, Toshihiko [Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering and High Technology Research Center (HRC), Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2008-12-12

    Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) cause neuronal cell death. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains controversial. In our current study, we have utilized an expanded polyglutamine fusion protein (polyQ81) expression system in PC12 cells to further examine the involvement of ER stress and UPS impairment in cell death. The expression of polyQ81-induced ER stress and cell death. PolyQ81 also induced the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 and an increase in polyubiquitin immunoreactivity, suggesting UPS impairment. ER stress was induced prior to the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Low doses of lactacystin had almost similar effects on cell viability and on the activation of JNK and caspase-3 between normal cells and polyQ81-expressing cells. These results suggest that ER stress mediates polyglutamine toxicity prior to UPS impairment during the initial stages of these toxic effects.

  15. The magnetic structures and transitions of a potential multiferroic orthoferrite ErFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Guo, Peiyin; Ren, Wei; Cao, Shixun; Maynard-Casely, Helen E.; Avdeev, Maxim; McIntyre, Garry J.

    2015-04-01

    Rare-earth orthoferrites are very interesting due to their appealing optical and multiferroic properties. In this study, the magnetic structures and transitions of a typical rare-earth orthoferrite, ErFeO3, have been reinvestigated in detail. The spin-reorientation transition of the Fe3+ magnetic phase and the low-temperature magnetic ordering of Er3+ were observed by neutron powder diffraction. The corresponding magnetic structures have been solved anew by symmetry analysis and refinement of the diffraction results. The magnetic moments of Fe3+ align in an antiferromagnetic way along the c axis with a weak ferromagnetic component along the b axis below the Néel temperature and above the spin-reorientation transition. Below the spin-reorientation transition, the Fe3+ moments rotate into an antiferromagnetic ordering state along the b axis with weak ferromagnetic alignment along the c axis. The spin-reorientation takes place in the bc plane. The Er3+ moments align antiferromagnetically with a Cy mode below 4.5 K. For the Fe3+ moments, an additional Cx mode is induced by the ordering of the Er3+ moments. Namely, they change from GyFz mode into CxGyFz mode in the Pnma space-group setting. This study resolves the long-lasting dispute about the magnetic structure of ErFeO3 at low temperature.

  16. Cell fate following ER stress: just a matter of "quo ante" recovery or death?

    PubMed

    Treglia, A S; Turco, S; Ulianich, L; Ausiello, P; Lofrumento, D D; Nicolardi, G; Miele, C; Garbi, C; Beguinot, F; Di Jeso, B

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex and multifunctional organelle. It is the intracellular compartment of protein folding, a complex task, both facilitated and monitored by ER folding enzymes and molecular chaperones. The ER is also a stress-sensing organelle. It senses stress caused by disequilibrium between ER load and folding capacity and responds by activating signal transduction pathways, known as unfolded protein response (UPR). Three major classes of transducer are known, inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), and protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which sense with their endoluminal domain the state of protein folding, although the exact mechanism(s) involved is not entirely clear. Depending on whether the homeostatic response of the UPR is successful in restoring an equilibrium between ER load and protein folding or not, the two possible outcomes of the UPR so far considered have been life or death. Indeed, recent efforts have been devoted to understand the life/death switch mechanisms. However, recent data suggest that what appears to be a pure binary decision may in fact be more complex, and survival may be achieved at the expenses of luxury cell functions, such as expression of differentiation genes. PMID:22127591

  17. Complications with using ratios for environmental data: Comparing enantiomeric ratios (ERs) and enantiomer fractions (EFs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, E.M.; Helsel, D.R.; Foreman, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Complications arise when ratios are used to present environmental data because ratios are an unbounded, multiplicative scale that can lead to asymmetrical (skewed) data distributions. Enantiomeric ratios (ERs), historically used in discussions of chiral signatures, often are published as mean ER??single-value standard deviation. Application of statistical summaries, such as the widely used sample mean and standard deviation, to skewed ratio data is misleading and often inappropriate. Comparison of statistically summarized ER and enantiomer fraction (EF) data (which are based on a bounded, additive scale) for a range of hypothetical values reveals substantial discrepancies when conversion between ER and EF formats is used. These discrepancies are largest when the ratio data are greater than one and have large variability, because the data are more skewed. In many cases, the use of fractions instead of ratios can help to minimize misrepresentation of environmental data, including chiral data. The use of nonparametric statistical summaries, e.g., median and percentiles, provides a more robust indicator of the typical value and spread for both ER and EF data. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Upconversion properties of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavulu, C. R.; Kiran Kumar, K.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2014-03-01

    Er3+-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass-ceramics containing SrF2 nanocrystals have been prepared and investigated their spectroscopic and luminescence properties. The formation of SrF2 nanocrystals in glass-ceramics were confirmed by Xray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Judd-Ofelt parameters have been evaluated from absorption spectra of the Er3+-doped glass, which in turn used to predict radiative properties for the fluorescent levels of Er3+ ions. The intensities of both Stokes and upconversion (anti-Stokes) emissions significantly increase with increase of the size of the fluoride crystals in the glass matrix. The mechanism of green and red upconversion emissions have been ascribed to two photon processes. The lifetime of the 4S3/2 level of the Er3+ ions in glass-ceramics is found to be slightly higher than that of the counter glass, which may be due to the incorporation of Er3+ ions into the low phonon sites of SrF2 nanocrystals.

  19. The apoptosis inhibitor ARC alleviates the ER stress response to promote ?-cell survival.

    PubMed

    McKimpson, Wendy M; Weinberger, Jeremy; Czerski, Lech; Zheng, Min; Crow, Michael T; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Chua, Streamson C; Kitsis, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes involves insulin resistance and ?-cell failure leading to inadequate insulin secretion. An important component of ?-cell failure is cell loss by apoptosis. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an inhibitor of apoptosis that is expressed in cardiac and skeletal myocytes and neurons. ARC possesses the unusual property of antagonizing both the extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondria/endoplasmic reticulum [ER]) cell death pathways. Here we report that ARC protein is abundant in cells of the endocrine pancreas, including >99.5% of mouse and 73% of human ?-cells. Using genetic gain- and loss-of-function approaches, our data demonstrate that ARC inhibits ?-cell apoptosis elicited by multiple inducers of cell death, including ER stressors tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and physiological concentrations of palmitate. Unexpectedly, ARC diminishes the ER stress response, acting distal to protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring protein 1?, to suppress C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction. Depletion of ARC in isolated islets augments palmitate-induced apoptosis, which is dramatically rescued by deletion of CHOP. These data demonstrate that ARC is a previously unrecognized inhibitor of apoptosis in ?-cells and that its protective effects are mediated through suppression of the ER stress response pathway. PMID:22933109

  20. ER-? mediates 17?-estradiol attenuation of HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sheila M; Aksenova, Marina V; Aksenov, Michael Y; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2010-11-01

    The protective actions of estrogen have been well evaluated in various models of neurodegeneration. These neuroprotective mechanisms may include a direct neuronal antiapoptotic effect as estrogen modulates actions of key regulators of the mitochondrial/intrinsic apoptotic cascade. We tested the ability of estrogen to protect against apoptotic signaling in cortical cell cultures exposed to Tat 1-86 (50 nM), and additionally, whether the beneficial actions of estrogen involved an estrogen receptor sensitive mechanism. We demonstrated that estrogen pretreatment significantly delayed Tat-induced cell death in primary cortical cultures. Pretreatment with 17?-estradiol (10 nM) attenuated the increased expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, proapoptotic protein Bax and activation of caspases linked to mitochondrial apoptotic pathway following Tat exposure. In addition, select components of apoptotic pathway signaling appear more sensitive to estrogen receptor (ER) activation, as the addition of ER antagonist ICI 182780 reversed estrogen downregulation of Bax and caspase 3, while estrogen effects on Tat-induced Bcl-2 and caspase 9 expression were maintained. Moreover, the addition of preferential ER? and ER? antagonists (MPP dihydrochloride and PHTPP) indicated that estrogen effects on caspase 3 may be mediated by both receptor subtypes, whereas, was more involved in estrogen effects on Bax. Our data suggest that estrogen intervenes against HIV-1 Tat-induced cortical neuronal dysfunction via intersecting mitochondrial apoptotic pathway signaling in an ER-sensitive manner. PMID:20340172