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1

ER News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy Research News (ER News) is a bimonthly newsletter supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research. This newsletter focuses on informing engineers, researchers, and the interested public of the latest research and technology advancements at OER. Topics include energy generation, microbiology, the Human Genome Project, global weather change, computing, and more. Users may register for an email reminder (topic list) that announces each new issue. Back issues (to April 1995) are available.

1995-01-01

2

ER stress and neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by disturbances in the structure and function of the ER with the accumulation of misfolded proteins and alterations in the calcium homeostasis. The ER response is characterized by changes in specific proteins, causing translational attenuation, induction of ER chaperones and degradation of misfolded proteins. In case of prolonged or aggravated ER stress, cellular signals

D Lindholm; H Wootz; L Korhonen

2006-01-01

3

Going to the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... to Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

4

Control Characteristics of ER Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful development of a new generation of technology incorporating an electro-rheological (ER) fluid requires three principal ingredients; advanced ER fluid, reliable mechanical mechanism and efficacious control scheme. This paper discusses the third one. After describing general, but stringent requirements for semiactive or active control systems featuring the ER fluid, feedback control characteristics of some specific ER devices are presented; a frequency-dependent feedback control of mode shape in a smart flexible structure containing the ER fluid, an optimal control of vibration in a semi-active suspension installed with ER shock absorbers, and a neural network control of position in a hydraulic ER valve-cylinder system.

Choi, Seung-Bok

5

ERS Data Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors which affect ERS-1 data policy are summarized. The pricing policy is aimed at three major targets: (1) to identify a partnership with meteorological/sea state forecasting organizations which is consistent with their modus operandi which at the sam...

L. Marelli

1988-01-01

6

ERs Dispensing More Narcotic Painkillers  

MedlinePLUS

... ER doctors can feel pressure to "make patients happy," said Mazer-Amirshahi's colleague Dr. Jesse Pines, who ... and aren't given one may not be happy about it. ACEP spokesman Stanton agreed that ER ...

7

The ER and Cell Calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium is one of the most versatile messengers in biological systems, translating developmental and\\u000a environmental cues into cellular responses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutes one of the\\u000a most important calcium holding organelles in higher eukaryotes. Upon stimulation, calcium is released from\\u000a the ER into the cytosol where it may trigger downstream effectors. However, the release of calcium\\u000a may also affect internal ER functions,

Staffan Persson; Jeff Harper

8

Targeting estrogen receptor subtypes (ER? and ER?) with selective ER modulators in ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer cells express both estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER?, and hormonal therapy is an attractive treatment option because of its relatively few side effects. However, estrogen was previously shown to have opposite effects in tumors expressing ER? compared with ER?, indicating that the two receptor subtypes may have opposing effects. This may explain the modest response to nonselective estrogen inhibition in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of selectively targeting each ER subtype on ovarian cancer growth. Ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OV2008, expressing both ER subtypes, were treated with highly selective ER modulators. Sodium 3'-(1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium)-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate (XTT) assay revealed that treatment with 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride (MPP) (ER? antagonist) or 2,3-bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) (ER? agonist) significantly suppressed cell growth in both cell lines. In contrast, 4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) (ER? agonist) or 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP) (ER? antagonist) significantly enhanced cell growth. These results were confirmed on a xenograft model where SKOV3 cells were injected s.c. into ovariectomized mice. We observed that the average size of xenografts in both the DPN-treated group and the MPP-treated group was significantly smaller than that for the vehicle-treated group. In addition, we found that phospho-AKT expressions in SKOV3 cells were reduced by 80% after treatment with MPP and DPN, indicating that the AKT pathway was involved. The combined treatment with MPP and DPN had a synergistic effect in suppressing ovarian cancer cell growth. Our findings indicate that targeting ER subtypes may enhance the response to hormonal treatment in women with ovarian cancer. PMID:24819599

Chan, Karen Kar-Loen; Leung, Thomas Ho-Yin; Chan, David Wai; Wei, Na; Lau, Grace Tak-Yi; Liu, Stephanie Si; Siu, Michelle K-Y; Ngan, Hextan Yuen-Sheung

2014-01-01

9

Er det noe nytt under solen?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denne artikkelen vil kaste lys på noen aktuelle sider ved fibromyalgi, inklusive nytt om behandling av tilstanden. Først noen påstander: • Fibromyalgi (FM) er ingen sykdom - samtidig er pasien - ten syk. • Diagnostiske kriterier for FM finnes ikke. • All smerte er reell. • Tilstanden er sammensatt og har mange differensialdiag - noser. • Genetiske og hormonelle faktorer

Karstein Haldorsen; AV KARSTEIN HALDORSEN

10

ERS-1 and ERS-2 operational and precise orbit determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the European Space Operations Centre's orbit determination and prediction systems for the ERS-1 mission. The routine operational orbit determination and prediction subsystem is discussed briefly, and statistics of the accuracy compared to the requirements are given. The precise orbit determination subsystem is then described, and the accuracy of its results are compared to those of the operational

R. Zandbergen; J. M. Dow; M. Romay Merino; R. Píriz

1995-01-01

11

ERS Focus On: Educating Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

Clarke, Suzanne

2007-01-01

12

ERS-1 SAR data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

1986-01-01

13

ER-shaping proteins facilitate lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria in S. cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Summary The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of sheets and tubules that extends throughout the cell. Proteins required to maintain this complex structure include the reticulons, reticulon-like proteins, and dynamin-like GTPases called atlastins in mammals and Sey1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells missing these proteins have abnormal ER structure, particularly defects in the formation of ER tubules, but grow about as well as wild-type cells. We screened for mutations that cause cells that have defects in maintaining ER tubules to grow poorly. Among the genes we found were members of the ER mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex that tethers the ER and mitochondria. Close contacts between the ER and mitochondria are thought to be sites where lipids are moved from the ER to mitochondria, a process that is required for mitochondrial membrane biogenesis. We show that ER to mitochondria phospholipid transfer slows significantly in cells missing both ER-shaping proteins and the ERMES complex. These cells also have altered steady-state levels of phospholipids. We found that the defect in ER to mitochondria phospholipid transfer in a strain missing ER-shaping proteins and a component of the ERMES complex was corrected by expression of a protein that artificially tethers the ER and mitochondria. Our findings indicate that ER-shaping proteins play a role in maintaining functional contacts between the ER and mitochondria and suggest that the shape of the ER at ER–mitochondria contact sites affects lipid exchange between these organelles.

Voss, Christiane; Lahiri, Sujoy; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J.; Prinz, William A.

2012-01-01

14

Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

15

ER stress and hepatic lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important player in regulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Perturbation of ER homeostasis, referred as “ER stress,” has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. The liver plays a central role in regulating nutrient and lipid metabolism. Accumulating evidence implicates that ER stress disrupts lipid metabolism and induces hepatic lipotoxicity. Here, we review the major ER stress signaling pathways, how ER stress contributes to the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and the potential causative mechanisms of ER stress in hepatic lipotoxicity. Understanding the role of ER stress in hepatic metabolism may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.

Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Runping

2014-01-01

16

ER2OWL: Generating OWL Ontology from ER Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontology is the fundamental part of Semantic Web. The goal of W3C is to bring the web into (its full potential) a semantic web with reusing previous systems and artifacts. Most legacy systems have been documented in structural analysis and structured design (SASD), especially in simple or Extended ER Diagram (ERD). Such systems need up-gradation to become the part of semantic web. In this paper, we present ERD to OWL-DL ontology transformation rules at concrete level. These rules facilitate an easy and understandable transformation from ERD to OWL. The set of rules for transformation is tested on a structured analysis and design example. The framework provides OWL ontology for semantic web fundamental. This framework helps software engineers in upgrading the structured analysis and design artifact ERD, to components of semantic web. Moreover our transformation tool, ER2OWL, reduces the cost and time for building OWL ontologies with the reuse of existing entity relationship models.

Fahad, Muhammad

17

NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

18

ER sliding dynamics and ER-mitochondrial contacts occur on acetylated microtubules  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is extremely dynamic in animal cells, yet little is known about the mechanism and function of its movements. The most common ER dynamic, termed ER sliding, involves ER tubule extension along stable microtubules (MTs). In this study, we show that ER sliding occurs on nocodazole-resistant MTs that are posttranslationally modified by acetylation. We demonstrate that high MT curvature is a good indicator of MT acetylation and show in live cells that ER sliding occurs predominantly on these curved, acetylated MTs. Furthermore, increasing MT acetylation by drug treatment increases the frequency of ER sliding. One purpose of the ER sliding on modified MT tracts could be to regulate its interorganelle contacts. We find that all mitochondria and many endosomes maintain contact with the ER despite the movements of each. However, mitochondria, but not endosomes, preferentially localize to acetylated MTs. Thus, different ER dynamics may occur on distinct MT populations to establish or maintain contacts with different organelles.

Friedman, Jonathan R.; Webster, Brant M.; Mastronarde, David N.; Verhey, Kristen J.

2010-01-01

19

Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

FULLER, R.K.

1999-02-24

20

3D models of human ER? and ER? complexed with coumestrol.  

PubMed

Coumestrol, a phytoestrogen found in alfalfa, clover, and beans, has nM affinity for both estrogen receptor-? [ER?] and ER?. Recently, a novel activity of coumestrol was reported: coumestrol binding to human ER? represses microglia-mediated inflammation, which is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In contrast, estradiol binding to ER? had little or no effect on repression of microglia-mediated inflammation. Coumestrol and estradiol have several structural differences, which suggest that each ligand could induce different conformations in ER? and, thus, different transcriptional responses in brain microglia. To begin to understand how coumestrol binds to ER? and ER?, we constructed 3D models of coumestrol with human ER? and ER?, which were compared to the structures of these ERs with estradiol. Of four possible orientations of coumestrol in ER? and ER?, one orientation had the most favorable contacts with both ERs. Other phytochemicals may activate ER? and inhibit inflammation in brain microglia and be useful therapeutics for inflammatory conditions in the brain. PMID:24315835

Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Baker, Michael E

2014-02-01

21

Two-quasiparticle structures and isomers in {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er  

SciTech Connect

The stable and neutron-rich isotopes {sup 168}Er, {sup 170}Er, and {sup 172}Er have been studied with Gammasphere using inelastic excitation with energetic {sup 136}Xe beams. The previously assigned structures based on the proposed K{sup p}i=4{sup -} isomeric intrinsic states in both {sup 168}Er and {sup 170}Er have been re-evaluated and an equivalent band identified in {sup 172}Er. In {sup 170}Er, the identification of a K{sup p}i=6{sup -} band with transitions close in energy to those of the 4{sup -} band leads to a modified interpretation, since the overlap would have compromised previous analyses. The g{sub K}-g{sub R} values for the 4{sup -} bands deduced from the in-band gamma-ray intensities for the sequence of isotopes suggest a predominantly two-neutron configuration in {sup 168}Er, an equally mixed two-neutron, two-proton configuration in {sup 170}Er, and a two-proton configuration in {sup 172}Er. A comprehensive decay scheme for the previously proposed 6{sup +} isomer in {sup 172}Er has also been established, as well as band structures built on this isomer that closely resemble the 6{sup +} and 7{sup -} two-neutron structures known in the isotone {sup 174}Yb. The implied K hindrances are discussed. The main decay path of the 6{sup +} isomer occurs through the newly identified 4{sup -} isomer. The measured lifetimes of the 4{sup -} and 6{sup +} isomers in {sup 172}Er are 57(3) and 822(90) ns, respectively. Multiquasiparticle calculations support the suggested configuration changes across the isotopic chain.

Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, R.S.P.E, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Watanabe, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Stefanescu, I. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-05-15

22

NONCLASSICAL GENOMIC ER/Sp AND ER/AP-1 SIGNALING PATHWAYS  

PubMed Central

17?-Estradiol (E2) binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) to activate gene expression or repression and this involves both genomic (nuclear) and non-genomic (extranuclear pathways). Genomic pathways include the classical interactions of ligand-bound ER dimers with estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) in target gene promoters. ER-dependent activation of gene expression also involves DNA-bound ER which subsequently interacts with other DNA-bound transcriptions factors and direct ER-transcription factor (protein-protein) interactions where ER does not bind promoter DNA. Ligand-induced activation of ER/specificity protein (Sp) and ER/activating protein-1 [(AP-1) consisting of jun/fos] complexes are important pathways for modulating expression of a large number of genes. This review summarizes some of the characteristics of ER/Sp- and ER/AP-1-mediated transactivation which are dependent on ligand structure, cell context, ER-subtype (ER? and ER?), and Sp protein (Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4) and demonstrates that this non-classical genomic pathway is also functional in vivo.

Safe, Stephen; Kim, Kyoungkim

2008-01-01

23

ER Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that the expression of ER in breast cancer is lower than in the normal breast, suggesting that ER could play an important role in carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we engineered ER-negative MDA-MB-231 (hu- man breast cancer cells) to reintroduce either ER or ER protein with an adenoviral vector. In these cells, ER (as ER) expression was

GWENDAL LAZENNEC; DAMIEN BRESSON; ANNICK LUCAS; CORINE CHAUVEAU; FRANCOISE VIGNON

2010-01-01

24

Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitization of Er emission by Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) is investigated with pulsed and continuous optical pumping, in and off resonance with excited states of Er3+ ion. We show that under high-power pulsed pumping, the excitation process is limited by the finite energy transfer time from Si-nc to Er3+ ions. By comparison between pulsed and steady-state excitation, the concentration of sensitizers

M. B. Wojdak; M. A. J. Klik; M. Forcales Fernandez; O. B. Gusev; T. Gregorkiewicz; D. Pacifici; G. Franzò; F. Priolo; F. Iacona

2004-01-01

25

JMJD6 Regulates ER? Methylation on Arginine  

PubMed Central

ER? functions are tightly controlled by numerous post-translational modifications including arginine methylation, which is required to mediate the extranuclear functions of the receptor. We report that upon oestrogenic stimulation, JMJD6, the only arginine demethylase described so far, interacts with and regulates methylated ER? (metER?) function. Moreover, by combining the silencing of JMJD6 with demethylation assays, we show that metER? is a new substrate for JMJD6. We propose that the demethylase activity of JMJD6 is a decisive regulator of the rapid physiological responses to oestrogen.

Poulard, Coralie; Rambaud, Juliette; Hussein, Nader; Corbo, Laura; Le Romancer, Muriel

2014-01-01

26

Are ER+PR+ and ER+PR- breast tumors genetically different? A CGH array study.  

PubMed

The estrogen receptor (ER) is a well-known predictor of breast cancer response to endocrine therapy. ER+ progesterone receptor (PR)- breast tumors have a poorer response to endocrine therapy and a more aggressive phenotype than ER+PR+ tumors. A comparative genomic hybridization array technique was used to examine 25 ER+PR+ and 23 ER+PR- tumors. Tissue microarrays composed of 50 ER+PR+ and 50 ER+PR- tumors were developed to validate the comparative genomic hybridization array results. The genes of interest were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The ER+PR- group had a slightly different genomic profile when compared with ER+PR+ tumors. Chromosomes 17 and 20 contained the most overlapping gains, and chromosomes 3, 8, 9, 14, 17, 21, and 22 contained the most overlapping losses when compared with the ER+PR+ group. The gained regions, 17q23.2-q23.3 and 20q13.12, and the lost regions, 3p21.32-p12.3, 9pter-p13.2, 17pter-p12, and 21pter-q21.1, occurred at different alteration frequencies and were statistically significant in the ER+PR- tumors compared with the ER+PR+ tumors. ER+PR- breast tumors have a different genomic profile compared with ER+PR+ tumors. Differentially lost regions in the ER+PR- group included genes with tumor suppressor functions and genes involved in apoptosis, mitosis, angiogenesis, and cell spreading. Differentially gained regions included genes such as MAP3K3, RPS6KB1, and ZNF217. Amplification of these genes could contribute to resistance to apoptosis, increased activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and the loss of PR in at least some ER+PR- tumors. PMID:22559974

Carracedo, Alma; Salido, Marta; Corominas, Josep M; Rojo, Federico; Ferreira, Bibiana I; Suela, Javier; Tusquets, Ignasi; Corzo, Cristina; Segura, Marcel; Espinet, Blanca; Cigudosa, Juan C; Arumi, Montserrat; Albanell, Joan; Serrano, Sergi; Solé, Francesc

2012-04-01

27

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

28

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

29

Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P?=?0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR?=?2.20, P?=?0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that between 15.1% and 21.8% patients of IHC-based negative ER status would be classified with ER positive breast cancer. Conclusion/Significance Expression-based ER status classification may complement IHC to minimise false negative ER status classification and optimise patient stratification for endocrine therapies.

Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

2010-01-01

30

Characterization of Er in porous Si  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of porous Si-based Er-doped light-emitting devices is a very promising developing field for all-silicon light emitters. However, while luminescence of Er-doped porous silicon devices has been demonstrated, very little attention has been devoted to the doping process itself. We have undertaken a detailed study of this process, examining the porous silicon matrix from several points of view during and after the doping. In particular, we have found that the Er-doping process shows a threshold level which, as evidenced by the cross correlation of the various techniques used, does depend on the sample thickness and on the doping parameters.

2012-01-01

31

High Performance Calcium Titanate Nanoparticle ER Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of calcium titanate (CTO) nanoparticles was synthesized by means of wet chemical method [1] without coating on the particles. The CTO/silicone oil ER fluid exhibits excellent electrorheological properties: high shear stress (~50-100 kPa) under dc electric field, a low current density (less than 2?A/cm2 at 5kV/mm), and long term stability against sedimentation. Although there are not special additives in the ER fluids, it is found from the chemical analysis that a trace of alkyl group, hydroxyl group, carbonyl group and some ions is remained in the particles which may dominate the ER response.

Wang, Xuezhao; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia; Lu, Kunquan

32

Prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by estrogens requires ER? activation function-2 (ER?AF-2), whereas ER?AF-1 is dispensable.  

PubMed

The beneficial metabolic actions of estrogen-based therapies are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?), a nuclear receptor that regulates gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs): AF-1 and AF-2. Using mouse models deleted electively for ER?AF-1 (ER?AF-1°) or ER?AF-2 (ER?AF-2°), we determined their respective roles in the actions of estrogens on body composition and glucose homeostasis in response to either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). ER?AF-2° males and females developed accelerated weight gain, massive adiposity, severe insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance--quite reminiscent of the phenotype observed in mice deleted for the entire ER? protein (ER?(-/-)). In striking contrast, ER?AF-1° and wild-type (wt) mice shared a similar metabolic phenotype. Accordingly, 17?-estradiol administration regulated key metabolic genes in insulin-sensitive tissues and conferred a strong protection against HFD-induced metabolic disturbances in wt and ER?AF-1° ovariectomized mice, whereas these actions were totally abrogated in ER?AF-2° and ER?(-/-) mice. Thus, whereas both AFs have been previously shown to contribute to endometrial and breast cancer cell proliferation, the protective effect of estrogens against obesity and insulin resistance depends on ER?AF-2 but not ER?AF-1, thereby delineating new options for selective modulation of ER?. PMID:23903353

Handgraaf, Sandra; Riant, Elodie; Fabre, Aurélie; Waget, Aurélie; Burcelin, Rémy; Lière, Philippe; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-François; Gourdy, Pierre

2013-12-01

33

ERs See Spike in Traumatic Brain Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. ERs See Spike in Traumatic Brain Injuries Researchers say increased awareness, diagnosis could explain ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Traumatic Brain Injury TUESDAY, May 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- There's ...

34

FIRE_CI2_ER2_MAS  

... Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus 2 NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) Data Project ... Order  ASDC Order Tool Parameters:  Infrared Radiance Visible Radiance Order Data:  ASDC Order ...

2014-04-28

35

Fusing a lasting relationship between ER tubules  

PubMed Central

Atlastin is an integral membrane GTPase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro and in vivo analyses indicate that atlastin is a membrane fusogen capable of driving membrane fusion, suggesting a role in ER structure and maintenance. Interestingly, mutations in the human atlastin-1 gene, SPG3A, cause a form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). The etiology of HSP is unclear but two predominant forms of the disorder are caused by mutant proteins that affect ER structure, formation, and maintenance in motor neurons. In this review, we describe what is known about the molecular mechanism of atlastin function and its potential role in HSP. Greater understanding of the function of atlastin and associated proteins should lend significant insight into normal ER biogenesis and maintenance, as well as the pathology of disease.

Moss, Tyler J.; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A.

2011-01-01

36

Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

Gleckler, B.P.

1998-07-01

37

Calibration: Practical Experience with ERS-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measureme...

J. Louet

1993-01-01

38

ERS-1: 18 Months in Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viewgraphs of the ERS-1 mission outline initial objectives, the orbit configuration, the instrumentation, the international cooperation, and the objectives still to be achieved. Graphs of specified performances include orbit control, inclination correctio...

J. Louet

1993-01-01

39

Simultaneous amplification by Er ions and SRS in an Er-doped germano-silica fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flat signal gain over in the entire C- and L-bands by erbium (Er) ions' radiative transition and stimulated Raman scattering in an Er-doped germano-silica fiber can be obtained if proper values of the concentration of Er and background loss in a fiber core are obtained during the fiber fabrication process. The optimized conditions for the flat C- and L-band

H. S. Seo; Y. G. Choi; B. J. Park; D. H. Cho; K. H. Kim

2003-01-01

40

Ethylene Insensitivity Conferred by Arabidopsis ERS Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERS (ethylene response sensor), a gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene hormone-response pathway, was uncovered by cross-hybridization with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. The deduced ERS protein has sequence similarity with the amino-terminal domain and putative histidine protein kinase domain of ETR1, but it does not have a receiver domain as found in ETR1. A missense mutation identical to the dominant

Jian Hua; Caren Chang; Qi Sun; Elliot M. Meyerowitz

1995-01-01

41

Topography over South America from ERS altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

1997-01-01

42

Antiferromagnetic Ordering in ErPO4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic susceptibility and dM/dB as a function of field have been measured for ErPO4 from 25 mK to 4.2 K. They show that ErPO4 orders antiferromagnetically with T sub N = 100 plus or minus 2 mK with the spins along the tetragonal a-axes. A magnetic p...

B. W. Mangum D. B. Utton

1975-01-01

43

The Aspergillus nidulans peripheral ER: disorganization by ER stress and persistence during mitosis.  

PubMed

The genetically amenable fungus Aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. We exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the ER labeled with the translocon component Sec63, endogenously tagged with GFP, to study the organization of 'secretory' ER domains. The Sec63 A. nidulans ER network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelopes. In hyphae, the most abundant peripheral ER structures correspond to plasma membrane-associated strands that are polarized, but do not invade the hyphal tip dome, at least in part because the subapical collar of endocytic actin patches constrict the cortical strands in this region. Thus the subapical endocytic ring might provide an attachment for ER strands, thereby ensuring that the growing tip remains 'loaded' with secretory ER. Acute disruption of secretory ER function by reductive stress-mediated induction of the unfolded protein response results in the reversible aggregation of ER strands, cessation of exocytosis and swelling of the hyphal tips. The secretory ER is insensitive to brefeldin A treatment and does not undergo changes during mitosis, in agreement with the reports that apical extension continues at normal rates during this period. PMID:23826221

Markina-Iñarrairaegui, Ane; Pantazopoulou, Areti; Espeso, Eduardo A; Peñalva, Miguel A

2013-01-01

44

Optical properties of PMMA polymer doped with Er3+ and Er3+\\/Yb3+ ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report about fabrication and properties of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions. The reported layers were fabricated by spin coating onto Si, Si\\/SiO2 or onto glass substrates. For the Er and Yb doping ErCl3 and YbCl3 or ErF3 and YbF3 powder dissolved in C5H9NO or C2H6OS were used. The research was focused on investigation of

V. Prajzler; I. Huttel; O. Lyutakov; J. Spirkova; J. Oswald; Z. Burian; V. Jerabek

2008-01-01

45

Genetic rescue of nonclassical ER? signaling normalizes energy balance in obese Er?-null mutant mice.  

PubMed

In addition to its role in reproduction, estradiol-17? is critical to the regulation of energy balance and body weight. Estrogen receptor ?-null (Er?-/-) mutant mice develop an obese state characterized by decreased energy expenditure, decreased locomotion, increased adiposity, altered glucose homeostasis, and hyperleptinemia. Such features are reminiscent of the propensity of postmenopausal women to develop obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms by which ER? signaling maintains normal energy balance, however, have remained unclear. Here we used knockin mice that express mutant ER? that can only signal through the noncanonical pathway to assess the role of nonclassical ER? signaling in energy homeostasis. In these mice, we found that nonclassical ER? signaling restored metabolic parameters dysregulated in Er?-/- mutant mice to normal or near-normal values. The rescue of body weight and metabolic function by nonclassical ER? signaling was mediated by normalization of energy expenditure, including voluntary locomotor activity. These findings indicate that nonclassical ER? signaling mediates major effects of estradiol-17? on energy balance, raising the possibility that selective ER? agonists may be developed to reduce the risks of obesity and metabolic disturbances in postmenopausal women. PMID:21245576

Park, Cheryl J; Zhao, Zhen; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine; Lazic, Milos; Chambon, Pierre; Krust, Andrée; Weiss, Jeffrey; Clegg, Deborah J; Dunaif, Andrea; Jameson, J Larry; Levine, Jon E

2011-02-01

46

The Aspergillus nidulans Peripheral ER: Disorganization by ER Stress and Persistence during Mitosis  

PubMed Central

The genetically amenable fungus Aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. We exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the ER labeled with the translocon component Sec63, endogenously tagged with GFP, to study the organization of ‘secretory’ ER domains. The Sec63 A. nidulans ER network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelopes. In hyphae, the most abundant peripheral ER structures correspond to plasma membrane-associated strands that are polarized, but do not invade the hyphal tip dome, at least in part because the subapical collar of endocytic actin patches constrict the cortical strands in this region. Thus the subapical endocytic ring might provide an attachment for ER strands, thereby ensuring that the growing tip remains ‘loaded’ with secretory ER. Acute disruption of secretory ER function by reductive stress-mediated induction of the unfolded protein response results in the reversible aggregation of ER strands, cessation of exocytosis and swelling of the hyphal tips. The secretory ER is insensitive to brefeldin A treatment and does not undergo changes during mitosis, in agreement with the reports that apical extension continues at normal rates during this period.

Markina-Inarrairaegui, Ane; Pantazopoulou, Areti; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Penalva, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

47

Rtn1p is involved in structuring the cortical ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The ER contains both cisternal and reticular elements in one contiguous structure. We identified rtn1?in a systematic screen for yeast mutants with altered ER morphology. The ER in rtn1?cells is predominantlycisternal rather than reticular, yet the net surface area of ER is not significantlychanged. Rtn1-GFP associates with the reticular ER at the cell cortex and with the tubules that

Johan-Owen De Craene; Jeff Coleman; Paula Estrada de Martin; Marc Pypaert; Scott Anderson; John R. Yates; Susan Ferro-Novick; Peter Novick

2006-01-01

48

Prevention of ER-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The successful demonstration that the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer has stimulated great interest in using drugs to prevent breast cancer in high-risk women. In addition, recent results from breast cancer treatment trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be even more effective at preventing breast cancer than are SERMs. However, while SERMs and aromatase inhibitors do prevent the development of many estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers, these drugs do not prevent the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify agents that can prevent ER-negative breast cancer. We have studied the cancer preventative activity of several classes of drugs for their ability to prevent ER-negative breast cancer in preclinical models. Results from these studies demonstrate that rexinoids (analogs of retinoids that bind and activate RXR receptors), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (such as EGFR inhibitors and dual kinase inhibitors that block EGFR and HER2/neu signaling), and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors all prevent ER-negative breast cancer in transgenic mice that develop ER-negative breast cancer. Other promising agents now under investigation include vitamin D and vitamin D analogs, drugs that activate PPAR-gamma nuclear receptors, and statins. Many of these agents are now being tested in early phase cancer prevention clinical trials to determine whether they will show activity in breast tissue and whether they are safe for use in high-risk women without breast cancer. The current status of these studies will be reviewed. It is anticipated that in the future, drugs that effectively prevent ER-negative breast cancer will be used in combination with hormonal agents such SERMs or aromatase inhibitors to prevent all forms of breast cancer.

Li, Yuxin

2014-01-01

49

Endothelial vasodilator production by ovine uterine and systemic arteries: ovarian steroid and pregnancy control of ER? and ER? levels  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy and the follicular phase are physiological states of elevated oestrogen levels and rises in uterine blood flow (UBF). The dramatic increase in utero-placental blood flow during gestation is required for normal fetal growth and development. Oestrogen exerts its vasodilatory effect by binding to its specific oestrogen receptors (ER) in target cells, resulting in increased expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to relax vascular smooth muscle (VSM). However, the regulation of endothelial versus VSM ER? and ER? expression in uterine arteries (UAs) during the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and with exogenous hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are currently unknown. ER mRNA and protein localization was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) using 35S-labelled riboprobes and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. UA endothelial (UAendo), UA VSM, omental artery endothelium (OA endo), and OA VSM proteins were isolated and ER? and ER? protein expression was determined by Western analysis. We observed by ISH and IHC that ER? and ER? mRNA and protein were localized in both UAendo and UA VSM. Immunoblot data demonstrated ovarian hormone specific regulation of ER? and ER? protein in UAendo and UA VSM. Compared to luteal phase sheep, both ER? and ER? levels in UAendo were elevated in follicular phase sheep. Whereas ER? was elevated by pregnancy in UAendo and UA VSM, ER? was not appreciably altered. eNOS was increased in UAendo from follicular and pregnant sheep. Ovariectomized ewes (OVEX) had substantially reduced UAendo ER?, but not UAendo ER? or OAendo ER? and ER?. In contrast, OVEX increased UA VSM ER? and ER? and decreased OA VSM ER? and ER?. Treatment with oestradiol-17? (E2?), but not progesterone or their combination, increased UAendo ER? levels. The reduced ER? in UAendo from OVEX ewes was reversed by E2? and progesterone treatment. While ER? and eNOS were not elevated in any other reproductive or non-reproductive endothelia tested, ER? was augmented by pregnancy in uterine, mammary, placenta, and coronary artery endothelia. ER? and ER? mRNA and protein are expressed in UA endothelium with expression levels depending on the endocrine status of the animal, indicating UA endothelium is a target for oestrogen action in vivo, and that the two receptors appear to be differentially regulated in a spatial and temporal fashion with regard to the reproductive status or HRT.

Byers, Michael J; Zangl, Amy; Phernetton, Terrance M; Lopez, Gladys; Chen, Dong-bao; Magness, Ronald R

2005-01-01

50

Concentration of Er3+ ion effect on optical bistability and multistability in Er3+: YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) behavior in a 35 nm solid Er3+: YAG crystal with a four-level system proposed for an atomic medium inside a unidirectional ring cavity. It is found that the intensity and frequency detuning of the signal and coupling fields as well as Er3+ concentration can influence the OB and OM behavior.

Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

2014-05-01

51

Immunohistochemical Expression of ER?, ER?, and TFF1 in Type I and II Ovarian Tumors.  

PubMed

Surface epithelial tumors of the ovary are no longer considered as a single disease but are divided into types I and II on the basis of their molecular features, cell of origin, and their behavior. A possible direct action of gonadal steroids on ovarian carcinogenesis has been suggested. The current information about the possible role of TFF1 in ovarian tumors,, together with its relationship to the estrogen receptor (ER) status, is insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate ER?, ER?, and TFF1 expression in type I and II ovarian tumors and their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters of each type. The present study was carried out on 97 ovarian tumors [20 benign, 15 borderline, and 62 malignant (36 type I and 26 type II tumors)]. ER? expression was significantly in favor of type II tumors (P=0.04), whereas high TFF1 expression was significantly in favor of type I tumors (P=0.02). ER? and ER? showed a significant positive correlation in benign cases (P=0.004) and in type I tumors (P=0.006), but not in type II tumors. In type I tumors, the expression of ER? was correlated with serous carcinoma (P=0.002) and bilaterality (P=0.05), whereas TFF1 was correlated with mucinous carcinoma (P=0.02), unilaterality (P=0.04), early FIGO staging (P=0.01), and a low mitotic count (P=0.03). A high ER?:ER? H score ratio was associated with advanced FIGO staging in both type I (P=0.05) and type II tumors (P=0.009). The difference in the expression of ER? and TFF1 between type I and II tumors may be indicative of the difference in their origin and molecular pathway. The ER?:ER? ratio is more important in determining the net result of ER effects than the evaluation of each receptor separately, and the high ratio may promote progression to advanced stage in type I and II ovarian tumors. High TFF1 expression in ovarian mucinous carcinoma may indicate that their mucinous differentiation is toward an intestinal type rather than an endocervical type. TFF1 expression in ovarian tumors seems to occur independent of the status of the ER. PMID:24162262

Abdou, Asmaa G; Aiad, Hayam A; Asaad, Nancy Y; Abd El-Wahed, Moshira M; Serag El-Dien, Marwa

2014-07-01

52

Optical properties of PMMA polymer doped with Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report about fabrication and properties of polymethylmethacrylate doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions. The reported layers were fabricated by spin coating onto Si, Si/SiO2 or onto glass substrates. For the Er and Yb doping ErCl3 and YbCl3 or ErF3 and YbF3 powder dissolved in C5H9NO or C2H6OS were used. The research was focused on investigation of the influence of the amount of the dopants on the photoluminescence spectra at 1.55 ?m. It was found that the increasing Er3+ content increased the intensity of the luminescence and that co-doping with ytterbium ions increased the intensity of the luminescence as well.

Prajzler, V.; Huttel, I.; Lyutakov, O.; Spirkova, J.; Oswald, J.; Burian, Z.; Jerabek, V.

2008-03-01

53

DNA as a component of ER materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is known as a typical biopolymer, has been utilized for a few types of ER materials. Suspensions were prepared with the particles of DNA, DNA/lipid complexes, and LDH (layered double hydroxide)/DNA composites. The purified DNA showed larger ER effect than the others, but this particle tended to absorb water, which caused less stability. Preliminary experiments of preparing composite with LDH indicated that this inorganic material would be useful for hydrophobic modification of DNA particles, although further optimization of composite preparation is needed. In addition, the LDH/DNA suspensions showed interesting behaviours under some conditions, which indicated possibility for controlling ER property in a wide range.

Minagawa, K.; Aoki, Y.; Berber, M. R.; Mori, T.; Tanaka, M.

2009-02-01

54

ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP  

SciTech Connect

Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

Gerald Heymsfield

2010-12-20

55

Transmembrane Protein 208: A Novel ER-Localized Protein That Regulates Autophagy and ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are both tightly regulated cellular processes that play central roles in various physiological and pathological conditions. Recent reports have indicated that ER stress is a potent inducer of autophagy. However, little is known about the underlying molecular link between the two processes. Here we report a novel human protein, transmembrane protein 208 (TMEM208) that can regulate both autophagy and ER stress. When overexpressed, TMEM208 impaired autophagy as characterized by the decrease of the accumulation of LC3-II, decreased degradation of autophagic substrates, and reduced expression of critical effectors and vital molecules of the ER stress and autophagy processes. In contrast, knockdown of the TMEM208 gene promoted autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II, increased degradation of autophagic substrates, and enhanced expression levels for genes key in the ER stress and autophagic processes. Taken together, our results reveal that this novel ER-located protein regulates both ER stress and autophagy, and represents a possible link between the two different cellular processes.

Zhao, Yuanbo; Hu, Jia; Miao, Guangyan; Qu, Liujing; Wang, Zhenda; Li, Ge; Lv, Ping; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

2013-01-01

56

Caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental hard tissues can be ablated efficiency by (lambda) equals 3 micrometers laser irradiation with minimal subsurface thermal damage. However, the potential of lasers operating in the region of the infrared for caries preventive treatments has not been investigated. In this study, the caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) and Er:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) laser radiation on dental enamel was evaluated at various irradiation intensities. Pulsed IR radiometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to measure the time-resolved surface temperatures during laser irradiation and to detect changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependent on the wavelength, irradiation intensity, and the number of laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicated that ablation was initiated at temperatures of approximately 300 degree(s)C for Er:YAG and 800 degree(s)C for Er:YSGG laser irradiation, well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component (m.p. equals 1200 degree(s)C). Nevertheless, there was marked caries inhibition for irradiation intensities below those temperature thresholds, notably 60% and 40% inhibition was achieved after Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation, respectively. These results indicate that the Er:YSGG laser can be used effectively for both preventive dental treatments and for hard tissue removal.

Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D.; Visuri, Steven R.; Seka, Wolf D.; Walsh, Joseph T.

1996-04-01

57

Material characterization of ER fluids at high frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the material characterization of ER fluids at high frequencies is studied. To characterize the properties at high frequencies, an experimental apparatus is provided, based upon the wave transmission through ER fluids in the presence of electric field. Details of the experiment and how to extract the complex shear modulus of ER fluids are addressed. A moderate increase in the storage modulus and loss modulus was observed when the weight ratio of ER particles and the electric field were increased. The proposed method is a comprehensive material characterization of ER fluids in high frequencies for ER smart structures.

Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok

2003-10-01

58

Er3+ Photoluminescence from Er-doped Silicon-Rich Silicon Oxide Films Deposited by Laser Ablation of a Si:Er Target in an Oxygen Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new pulsed laser deposition method for fabricating Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO:Er) films. A target composed of a pure Si disk and an Er metal strip was ablated by a line-focused laser beam in oxygen atmosphere. The oxygen concentration that determines the relative concentrations of the three phases (Si-Si, SiOx, and SiO2) in the film was easily controlled by varying the ambient oxygen pressure. The photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 ?m from Er3+ ions was strongly dependent on the amount of the Si-Si phase in the SRSO:Er films.

Ha, Jeong Sook; Jang, Young Rae; Yoo, Keon Ho; Bae, Chang Hyun; Nam, Sang Hwan; Jeon, Ji Seon; Park, Seung Min

2004-04-01

59

Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

2011-01-01

60

ER and vacuoles: never been closer  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the gateway for intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins, soluble cargoes and lipids. In all eukaryotes, the best described mechanism of exiting the ER is via COPII-coated vesicles, which transport both membrane proteins and soluble cargoes to the cis-Golgi. The vacuole, together with the plasma membrane, is the most distal point of the secretory pathway, and many vacuolar proteins are transported from the ER through intermediate compartments. However, past results and recent findings demonstrate the presence of alternative transport routes from the ER towards the tonoplast, which are independent of Golgi- and post-Golgi trafficking. Moreover, the transport mechanism of the vacuolar proton pumps VHA-a3 and AVP1 challenges the current model of vacuole biogenesis, pointing to the endoplasmic reticulum for being the main membrane source for the biogenesis of the plant lytic compartment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on the transport routes towards the vacuole and discusses the possible mechanism of vacuole biogenesis in plants.

Viotti, Corrado

2014-01-01

61

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

62

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

63

ER Visits Peak When Kids Barred from Child Care: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. ER Visits Peak When Kids Barred From Child Care: Study Many working parents ... ill child. So working parents may rush the kid to an ER or urgent care center rather ...

64

Bayesian analysis of Er\\/ M\\/1 and Er\\/ M\\/ c queues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian inference and prediction tasks for Er\\/M\\/1 and Er\\/M\\/c queues are undertaken. Equilibrium probabilities of the queue size and waiting time distributions are estimated using conditional Monte-Carlo simulation methods. We illustrate that some standard queueing measures do not exist when independent priors are used for the arrival and service rates of a G\\/M\\/1 queue.

M. P. Wiper

1998-01-01

65

The ERS-1 and ERS-2 wind scatterometers, system performance and data products  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 17 July 1991 ESA launched ERS-I into a Sun-synchronous, polar orbit, followed by ERS-2 in 1995. The satellite carries three active microwave instruments: a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a wind scatterometer, and a radar altimeter (RA) and an infrared-visible Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR). The satellite has a standard orbit repeat cycle of 35 days. Two other repeat cycles

E. P. W. Attema; P. Lecomte

1998-01-01

66

Infrared radiometry of dental enamel during Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved infrared radiometry was used to measure surface temperatures during pulsed Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation of dental enamel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the melting and vaporization thresholds and to characterize other changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple-pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependant on the

Daniel Fried; Steven R. Visuri; John D. Featherstone; Joseph T. Walsh; Wolf D. Seka; Richard E. Glena; Sandra M. McCormack; Harvey A. Wigdor

1996-01-01

67

ER-Golgi Traffic Is a Prerequisite for Efficient ER Degradation  

PubMed Central

Protein quality control is an essential function of the endoplasmic reticulum. Misfolded proteins unable to acquire their native conformation are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, retro-translocated back into the cytosol, and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We show that efficient degradation of soluble malfolded proteins in yeast requires a fully competent early secretory pathway. Mutations in proteins essential for ER-Golgi protein traffic severely inhibit ER degradation of the model substrate CPY*. We found ER localization of CPY* in WT cells, but no other specific organelle for ER degradation could be identified by electron microscopy studies. Because CPY* is degraded in COPI coat mutants, only a minor fraction of CPY* or of a proteinaceous factor required for degradation seems to enter the recycling pathway between ER and Golgi. Therefore, we propose that the disorganized structure of the ER and/or the mislocalization of Kar2p, observed in early secretory mutants, is responsible for the reduction in CPY* degradation. Further, we observed that mutations in proteins directly involved in degradation of malfolded proteins (Der1p, Der3/Hrd1p, and Hrd3p) lead to morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, escape of CPY* into the secretory pathway and a slower maturation rate of wild-type CPY.

Taxis, Christof; Vogel, Frank; Wolf, Dieter H.

2002-01-01

68

ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the gastric muscle injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rats with diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Gastric emptying was determined at the 4th and 12th week. The ultrastructural changes in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess apoptosis of SMCs. Expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the ER-specific apoptosis mediator, caspase-12 protein, was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in the control rats at the 12th wk (40.71% ± 2.50%, control rats vs 54.65% ± 5.22%, diabetic rats; P < 0.05). Swollen and distended ER with an irregular shape was observed in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats. Apoptosis of gastric SMCs increased in the diabetic rats in addition to increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. CONCLUSION: ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats with gastroparesis.

Chen, Xia; Fu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Xian

2014-01-01

69

Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals  

SciTech Connect

The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

Malov, A V [N.P. Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk (Russian Federation); Popov, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

2010-08-03

70

Increased ER-mitochondrial coupling promotes mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetics during early phases of ER stress  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca2+ transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca2+ transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response.

Bravo, Roberto; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Bui, Michael; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Ferreira, Jorge; Iglewski, Myriam; Chiong, Mario; Simmen, Thomas; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Lavandero, Sergio

2011-01-01

71

ER71 directs mesodermal fate decisions during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Er71 mutant embryos are nonviable and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. To further define the functional role for ER71 in cell lineage decisions, we generated genetically modified mouse models. We engineered an Er71-EYFP transgenic mouse model by fusing the 3.9 kb Er71 promoter to the EYFP reporter gene. Using FACS and transcriptional profiling, we examined the EYFP(+) population of cells in Er71 mutant and wild-type littermates. In the absence of ER71, we observed an increase in the number of EYFP-expressing cells, increased expression of the cardiac molecular program and decreased expression of the hemato-endothelial program, as compared with wild-type littermate controls. We also generated a novel Er71-Cre transgenic mouse model using the same 3.9 kb Er71 promoter. Genetic fate-mapping studies revealed that the ER71-expressing cells give rise to the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the wild-type background. In the absence of ER71, these cell populations contributed to alternative mesodermal lineages, including the cardiac lineage. To extend these analyses, we used an inducible embryonic stem/embryoid body system and observed that ER71 overexpression repressed cardiogenesis. Together, these studies identify ER71 as a critical regulator of mesodermal fate decisions that acts to specify the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages at the expense of cardiac lineages. This enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern mesodermal fate decisions early during embryogenesis. PMID:21989919

Rasmussen, Tara L; Kweon, Junghun; Diekmann, Mackenzie A; Belema-Bedada, Fikru; Song, Qingfeng; Bowlin, Kathy; Shi, Xiaozhong; Ferdous, Anwarul; Li, Tongbin; Kyba, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J

2011-11-01

72

ER71 directs mesodermal fate decisions during embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Er71 mutant embryos are nonviable and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. To further define the functional role for ER71 in cell lineage decisions, we generated genetically modified mouse models. We engineered an Er71-EYFP transgenic mouse model by fusing the 3.9 kb Er71 promoter to the EYFP reporter gene. Using FACS and transcriptional profiling, we examined the EYFP+ population of cells in Er71 mutant and wild-type littermates. In the absence of ER71, we observed an increase in the number of EYFP-expressing cells, increased expression of the cardiac molecular program and decreased expression of the hemato-endothelial program, as compared with wild-type littermate controls. We also generated a novel Er71-Cre transgenic mouse model using the same 3.9 kb Er71 promoter. Genetic fate-mapping studies revealed that the ER71-expressing cells give rise to the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the wild-type background. In the absence of ER71, these cell populations contributed to alternative mesodermal lineages, including the cardiac lineage. To extend these analyses, we used an inducible embryonic stem/embryoid body system and observed that ER71 overexpression repressed cardiogenesis. Together, these studies identify ER71 as a critical regulator of mesodermal fate decisions that acts to specify the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages at the expense of cardiac lineages. This enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern mesodermal fate decisions early during embryogenesis.

Rasmussen, Tara L.; Kweon, Junghun; Diekmann, Mackenzie A.; Belema-Bedada, Fikru; Song, Qingfeng; Bowlin, Kathy; Shi, Xiaozhong; Ferdous, Anwarul; Li, Tongbin; Kyba, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M.; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

73

Gain calculation for Er\\/Yb-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gain and output power as a function of pump power has been calculated for short Er\\/Yb doped single mode fibers for various fiber parameters. The calculation shows (i) small signal gain increases with increasing Er concentration, (ii) long fiber lengths provide both higher gain and higher output, (iii) calculated gain is larger for higher Er emission cross section, and, (iv)

Qiang Wang; Robert G. Ahrens; Niloy K. Dutta

2004-01-01

74

Targeting Auto Theft with a Regional Rask Force and Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the wake of rising motor vehicle thefts during the late 1980s and early 1990s, San Diego's Regional Auto Theft Task Force (RATT) was formed in July 1992 as a proactive approach to the investigation, apprehension, and prosecution of auto thieves, partic...

C. Rienick D. H. Mulmat R. Melton S. Pennell

2000-01-01

75

Comparison of Heat Deposition of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Lasers in Hard Dental Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comparative study of residual heat deposition of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers during ablation of hard dental tissues. Residual heat deposition was obtained from measured irradiated hard tissue temperature decay characteristics immediately following Erbium laser pulses. The measured residual heat was larger in enamel than in dentine for both Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG sources. The amount of the

Tadej Perhavec; Janez Diaci

2009-01-01

76

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2013-04-01

77

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2009-04-01

78

20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and...

2010-04-01

79

Autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase regulates ER stress and cell death through control of ER calcium release  

PubMed Central

Autocrine motility factor/ phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) promotes cell survival by the pAkt survival pathway. Its receptor, gp78/AMFR, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation. We demonstrate here that AMF/PGI also protects against thapsigargin (TG)- and tunicamycin (TUN)-induced ER stress and apoptosis. AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response is receptor mediated as it is not observed in gp78/AMFR-knockdown HEK293 cells. However, AMF/PGI protection against the ER stress response by TG and TUN was mediated only partially through PI3K/Akt activation. AMF/PGI reduction of the elevation of cytosolic calcium in response to either TG or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation with ATP was gp78/AMFR-dependent, independent of mitochondrial depolarization and not associated with changes in ER calcium content. These results implicate regulation of ER calcium release in AMF/PGI protection against ER stress and apoptosis. Indeed, sequestration of cytosolic calcium with BAPTA-AM limited the ER stress response. Importantly, elevation of cytosolic calcium upon treatment with the calcium ionophore ionomycin, while not inducing an ER stress response, did prevent AMF/PGI protection against ER stress. By regulating ER calcium release, AMF/PGI interaction with gp78/AMFR therefore protects against ER stress identifying novel roles for these cancer-associated proteins in promoting tumor cell survival.

Fu, M; Li, L; Albrecht, T; Johnson, J D; Kojic, L D; Nabi, I R

2011-01-01

80

Protein Folding and Quality Control in the ER  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) uses an elaborate surveillance system called the ER quality control (ERQC) system. The ERQC facilitates folding and modification of secretory and membrane proteins and eliminates terminally misfolded polypeptides through ER-associated degradation (ERAD) or autophagic degradation. This mechanism of ER protein surveillance is closely linked to redox and calcium homeostasis in the ER, whose balance is presumed to be regulated by a specific cellular compartment. The potential to modulate proteostasis and metabolism with chemical compounds or targeted siRNAs may offer an ideal option for the treatment of disease.

Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro

2011-01-01

81

Calibration: Practical experience with ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurement parameters are radar backscattering, target position, target speed, and polarization. SAR calibration facilitates quantitative measurements needed to derive geophysical parameters of the area under observation from basic SAR measurements (e.g. soil moisture, biomass, ocean wave energy, ocean currents, ice type, and ice flow).

Louet, Jacques

1993-01-01

82

Ternary systems {Dy, Er}FeB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens for investigation were prepared from materials with weight fractions of not less than 0.995 Dy or Er (REMs), 0.9996 Fe, and 0.9994 B. After being mixed, the iron and boron, which were in powder form, were pressed into compacts, and these were then melted together with the solid REMs in an electric arc furnace provided with a purified argon

G. V. Chernyak; N. F. Chaban; Yu. B. Kuz'ma

1983-01-01

83

ER-12-1 completion report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

1996-12-01

84

Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of 166Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative intensities of gamma rays of 166Er from the decays of 166mHo were precisely measured with a calibrated Ge(Li) detector. Errors of relative gamma-ray intensities are about 0.5% for strong gamma rays. Angular correlations for 11 cascades were measured with Ge(Li) and NaI(T1) detectors. The B(E2) ratios were deduced from the relative gamma-ray intensities and the adopted values of the

Kazuo Kato; Masaharu Hoshi; Yasukazu Yoshizawa

1981-01-01

85

Present statue of Japanese ERS-1 Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Resources Satellite 1 (ERS-1) will be launched in the FY 1990 with the H-1 rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. ERS-1 will seek to firmly establish remote sensing technologies from space by using synthetic aperture radar and optical sensors, as well as primarily exploring for non-renewable resources and also monitoring for land use, agriculture, forestry, fishery, conservation of environment, prevention of disasters, and surveillance of coastal regions. ERS-1 is a joint project in which the main responsibility for the development of the mission equipment is assumed by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, MITI, and the Technology Research Association of Resources Remote Sensing System, while that for the satellite itself and launching rocket is assumed by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA). In relation to this project, users have maintained a close working relationship with the manufacturers after submitting their requirements in 1984 on the specifications of the mission equipments. This missions parameters are outlined.

Ishiwada, Yasufumi; Nemoto, Yoshiaki

1986-01-01

86

Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K  

SciTech Connect

Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

Dzevenko, M., E-mail: mashadzev@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Kalychak, Ya. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv , Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

2011-10-15

87

Fabrication and properties of highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly transparent Er:YAG ceramics with different Er doping concentrations were fabricated by a reactive sintering method under vacuum. The optical properties and the microstructures of the Er:YAG ceramics were investigated. For 3 mm thickness samples, the in-line transmittances of the as-fabricated Er:YAG ceramics at the wavelength of 1100 nm and 400 nm were about 84% and 82%, respectively. The micrograph of the Er:YAG transparent ceramics exhibited a pore-free structure and the average grain size was about 10 ?m. The grain boundary of the ceramics was clean and no secondary phase was detected. The absorption and emission spectra, the fluorescence decay traces of the Er:YAG ceramics were measured and discussed. The ceramics obtained may have potential use for eye-safe solid-state lasers partly replacing Er:YAG single crystals.

Qin, Xianpeng; Yang, Hao; Zhou, Guohong; Luo, Dewei; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Shiwei; Ma, Jan; Tang, Dingyuan

2012-04-01

88

Sec12 Binds to Sec16 at Transitional ER Sites  

PubMed Central

COPII vesicles bud from an ER domain known as the transitional ER (tER). Assembly of the COPII coat is initiated by the transmembrane guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12. In the budding yeast Pichia pastoris, Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites. Previously, we found that the tER localization of P. pastoris Sec12 requires a saturable binding partner. We now show that this binding partner is Sec16, a peripheral membrane protein that functions in ER export and tER organization. One line of evidence is that overexpression of Sec12 delocalizes Sec12 to the general ER, but simultaneous overexpression of Sec16 retains overexpressed Sec12 at tER sites. Additionally, when P. pastoris Sec12 is expressed in S. cerevisiae, the exogenous Sec12 localizes to the general ER, but when P. pastoris Sec16 is expressed in the same cells, the exogenous Sec12 is recruited to tER sites. In both of these experimental systems, the ability of Sec16 to recruit Sec12 to tER sites is abolished by deleting a C-terminal fragment of Sec16. Biochemical experiments confirm that this C-terminal fragment of Sec16 binds to the cytosolic domain of Sec12. Similarly, we demonstrate that human Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites, likely due to association with a C-terminal fragment of Sec16A. These results suggest that a Sec12–Sec16 interaction has a conserved role in ER export.

Montegna, Elisabeth A.; Bhave, Madhura; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Glick, Benjamin S.

2012-01-01

89

The ablation threshold of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation in dental enamel.  

PubMed

The scientific investigation of fundamental problems plays a decisive role in understanding the mode of action and the consequences of the use of lasers on biological material. One of these fundamental aspects is the investigation of the ablation threshold of various laser wavelengths in dental enamel. Knowledge of the relationships and influencing factors in the laser ablation of hard tooth tissue constitutes the basis for use in patients and the introduction of new indications. The present paper examines the ablation threshold of an Er:YAG laser (lambda=2.94 micro m) and an Er:YSGG laser (lambda=2.79 micro m) in human dental enamel. To this end, 130 enamel samples were taken from wisdom teeth and treated with increasing energy densities of 2-40 J/cm(2). The sample material was mounted and irradiated on an automated linear micropositioner. Treatment was performed with a pulse duration of tau(P(FWHM)) approximately 150 micro s and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz for both wavelengths. The repetition rate of the laser and the feed rate of the micropositioner resulted in overlapping of the single pulses. The surface changes were assessed by means of reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the results, it was possible to identify an energy density range as the ablation threshold for both the Er:YAG and the Er:YSGG laser. With the Er:YAG laser, the transition was found in an energy density range of 9-11 J/cm(2). The range for the Er:YSGG laser was slightly higher at 10-14 J/cm(2). PMID:12417978

Apel, C; Meister, J; Ioana, R S; Franzen, R; Hering, P; Gutknecht, N

2002-01-01

90

The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS.

Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

2014-01-01

91

Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-?m eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

2012-05-01

92

ER? suppresses slug expression directly by transcriptional repression  

PubMed Central

Two of the most common signalling pathways in breast cancer are the ER (oestrogen receptor) ligand activation pathway and the E-cadherin snai1 slug EMT (epithelial–mesenchymal transition) pathway. Although these pathways have been thought to interact indirectly, the present study is the first to observe direct interactions between these pathways that involves the regulation of slug expression. Specifically we report that ligand-activated ER? suppressed slug expression directly by repression of transcription and that knockdown of ER? with RNA interference increased slug expression. More specifically, slug expression was down-regulated in ER?-negative MDA-MB-468 cells transfected with ER? after treatment with E2 (17?-oestradiol). The down-regulation of slug in the ER?-positive MCF-7 cell line was mediated by direct repression of slug transcription by the formation of a co-repressor complex involving ligand-activated ER? protein, HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1) and N-CoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). This finding was confirmed by sequential ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) studies. In the MCF-7 cell line, slug expression normally was low. In addition, knockdown of ER? with RNA interference in this cell line increased slug expression. This effect could be partially reversed by treatment of the cells with E2. The efficacy of the effect of ER? on slug repression was dependent on the overall level of ER?. These observations confirmed that slug was an E2-responsive gene.

Ye, Yin; Xiao, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Yearsley, Kurtis; Gao, Jian-Xin; Barsky, Sanford H.

2008-01-01

93

Modulation of ?CaMKII signaling by rapid ER? action  

PubMed Central

The estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER? and ER?, modulate numerous signaling cascades in the brain to result in a variety of cell fates including neuronal differentiation. We report here that 17?-estradiol (E2) rapidly stimulates the autophosphorylation of ?-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (?CaMKII) in immortalized NLT GnRH neurons, primary hippocampal neurons, and Cos7 cells co-transfected with ER? and ?CaMKII. The E2-induced ?CaMKII autophosphorylation is ER?-and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent. Interestingly, the hormone-dependent association of ER? with ?CaMKII attenuates the positive effect of E2 on ?CaMKII autophosphorylation, suggesting that ER? plays a complex role in modulating ?CaMKII activity and may function to fine-tune ?CaMKII-triggered signaling events. However, it appears as though the activating signal of E2 dominates the negative effect of ER since there is a clear, positive downstream response to E2-activated ?CaMKII; pharmacological inhibitors and RNAi technology show that targets of ER?-mediated ?CaMKII signaling include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2). These findings suggest a novel model for the modulation of ?CaMKII signaling by ER?, which provides a molecular link as to how E2 might influence brain function.

O'Neill, Erin E.; Blewett, Alexis R.; Loria, Paula M.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

2008-01-01

94

Caffeine attenuated ER stress-induced leptin resistance in neurons.  

PubMed

Exposing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to stress causes the accumulation of unfolded proteins, and subsequently results in ER stress. ER stress may be involved in various disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Leptin is an important circulating hormone, that inhibits food intake and accelerates energy consumption, which suppresses body weight gain. Recent studies demonstrated that leptin resistance is one of the main factors involved in the development of obesity. We and other groups recently reported the role of ER stress in the development of leptin resistance. Therefore, identifying drugs that target ER stress may be a promising fundamental strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeine could affect ER stress and the subsequent development of leptin resistance. We showed that caffeine exhibited chaperone activity, which attenuated protein aggregation. Caffeine also inhibited the ER stress-induced activation of IRE1 and PERK, which suggested the attenuation of ER stress. Moreover, caffeine markedly improved ER stress-induced impairments in the leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, these results suggest caffeine may have pharmacological properties that ameliorate leptin resistance by reducing ER stress. PMID:24699176

Hosoi, Toru; Toyoda, Keisuke; Nakatsu, Kanako; Ozawa, Koichiro

2014-05-21

95

Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses  

PubMed Central

In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS).

Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

2012-01-01

96

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

97

High-spin structure in154Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spin states in the nucleus154Er have been reinvestigated using the123Sb(35Cl, 4 n) reaction and a variety of spectroscopic techniques including excitation functions, ?-? coincidences, ? angular distribution and linear polarization measurements. From the measured energies, relative intensities and transition multipolarities a new level scheme has been deduced up to an excitation energy of ˜12 MeV and spin 36. An interpretation of the experimental results is given in terms of the deformed Woods-Saxon orbitals. Gigantic backbending (superdeformation) effect is studied theoretically within the cranking model.

Beck, F. A.; Dudek, J.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J. C.; Nourreddine, A.; Schutz, Y.; Vivien, J. P.; Hubert, Ph; Dassié, D.; Bastin, G.; Nguyen, L.; Thibaud, J. P.; Nazarewicz, W.

1984-06-01

98

Expression of ER?, ER? and Her-2 and distribution of molecular subtypes in Uygur and Han patients with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER) ? and ? and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2), as well as the distribution of breast cancer molecular subtypes in Uygur and Han breast cancer patients. Cancer tissues were collected and analyzed from 709 breast cancer patients enrolled between January 2000 and December 2010. The expression levels of ER?, ER? and Her-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The differences in expression and molecular subtype distribution between Uygur and Han patients with breast cancer were analyzed using a Pearson’s ?2 test. Statistically significant differences were observed in the expression levels of ER?, ER? and Her-2 between the Uygur and Han patients with breast cancer (P<0.05). The expression levels of ER? (++), ER? (+++) and Her-2 (+++) in Uygur patients were significantly higher, while the expression levels of ER? (+++) in Uygur patients were significantly lower when compared with Han patients. The percentage of luminal A type breast cancer in Uygur patients was significantly lower when compared with the Han patients, whereas the percentages of basal-like and Her-2 overexpression types were significantly higher than those in Han patients (P<0.05). Therefore, expression levels of ER?, ER? and Her-2, and molecular subtypes of breast cancer were significantly different between the Uygur and Han populations.

GUO, LIYING; HOU, XUEQIN; DILIMINA, YILAMU; WANG, BOWEI

2014-01-01

99

ERS-1 and ERS-2 tandem mission: Orbit determination, prediction and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short summary of the successful orbit operations during the ERS-2 Launch and Early Orbit Phase, the transition to and implementation of the tandem mission for the two satellites is described, including a comparison of the required and achieved ground track spacing. The new implementation of the routine operational and precise orbit determination and prediction systems is presented briefly,

R Zandbergen; J. M Dow; M Romay Merino; R Píriz; F Martínez Fadrique

1997-01-01

100

ERS-1 and ERS-2 tandem mission: orbit determination, prediction and maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short summary of the successful orbit operations during the ERS-2 Launch and Early Orbit Phase, the transition to and implementation of the tandem mission for the two satellites is described, including a comparison of the required and achieved ground track spacing. The new implementation of the routine operational and precise orbit determination and prediction systems is presented briefly,

R. Zandbergen; J. M. Dow; M. Romay Merino; R. Píriz; F. Martínez Fadrique

1997-01-01

101

Infrared radiometry of dental enamel during Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved infrared radiometry was used to measure surface temperatures during pulsed Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation of dental enamel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the melting and vaporization thresholds and to characterize other changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple-pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependant on the wavelength, fluence, and pre- exposure to laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicate that ablation is initiated at temperatures well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component. Ablation occurred at lower surface temperatures and at a lower fluences for Er:YAG than for Er:YSGG laser irradiation: 400 degrees C versus 800 degrees C and above 7 J/cm2 versus 18/Jcm2, respectively. However, the measured surface temperatures were higher at (lambda) equals 2.79 (Mu) m than at (lambda) equals 2.94 during low fluence irradiation. Spatially dependent absorption in the enamel matrix is proposed to explain this apparent contradiction.

Fried, Daniel; Visuri, Steven R.; Featherstone, John D.; Walsh, Joseph T.; Seka, Wolf D.; Glena, Richard E.; McCormack, Sandra M.; Wigdor, Harvey A.

1996-10-01

102

Bonding to Er-YAG-laser-treated Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Er-YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin. We tested the hypothesis that dentin adhesion is affected by Er-YAG laser conditioning. Superficial or deep dentin from human molars was: (a) acid-etched with 35% H3PO4; (b) irradiated with an Er-YAG laser (KaVo) at 2 Hz and 180 mJ, with water-cooling; and (c) laser-and acid-etched. Single Bond

L. Ceballos; M. Toledano; R. Osorio; F. R. Tay; G. W. Marshall

2002-01-01

103

Radiation Hydrodynamics with FLOW-ER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of radiative transport are an important aspect of many astrophysical fluid problems, such as binary star accretion discs and common envelope evolution. Unfortunately, the full radiative transport problem is seven dimensional and outside the realm of current computational capabilities. The gray field flux limited diffusion (FLD) approximation has been shown to provide a feasible four dimensional approximation to the full radiative transport problems in many cases. The flux is approximated through an algebraic expression which interpolates between the two extremes of diffusive and free streaming radiation. FLD allows for the exchange of energy and momentum between the fluid and radiation field. We are implementing this into our current Newtonian astrophysical fluid simulation code named FLOW-ER. Unlike other FLD codes, FLOW-ER handles shocks without the use of artificial viscosity. At this point, the code runs in 1D and 2D on a single processor. The ultimate goal is a fully 3D parallel code running on an adaptive mesh. Presented are results for test cases in 1D and 2D, compared to analytic results where available, and to ZeusMP2 when not. This research has been supported, in part, by NSF grants AST-0407070 and AST-0708551.

Marcello, Dominic; Tohline, J. E.; Motl, P. M.

2008-03-01

104

Development of an ER Action Indicator Mouse for the Study of Estrogens, Selective ER Modulators (SERMs), and Xenobiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a transgenic mouse that functions as a reporter of ER activity, termed ER action indicator (ERIN), by incorporating a transgene with an estrogen-responsive pro- moter (three copies of the vitellogenin estrogen response el- ement with a minimal thymidine kinase promoter) linked to the reporter gene-galactosidase. Evaluation of ER activity in female ERIN mice demonstrated estrogen-inducible expres- sion

SUSAN C. NAGEL; JENNIFER L. HAGELBARGER; DONALD P. MCDONNELL

2001-01-01

105

Progranulin is required for proper ER stress response and inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis through TNFR2.  

PubMed

Progranulin (PGRN) was reported to be a stress-response factor in response to hypoxia and acidosis. Here we present evidences demonstrating that PGRN is also an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responsive factor: PGRN expression was induced and its activation of Erk1/2 and Akt signaling enhanced in response to ER stress; Normal ER stress response was lost in PGRN deficient cells and PGRN deficient cells became hypersusceptible to ER stress-induced apoptosis; additionally, recombinant PGRN could rescue the defects in ER-stress responses seen in PGRN deficient cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that PGRN/TNFR2 was critical for PGRN mediated regulation of ER stress response: similar to PGRN, the expression of TNFR2, but not TNFR1, was also induced in the course of ER stress; in addition, the association between PGRN and TNFR2 was markedly enhanced following ER stress; More importantly, PGRN protection of ER stress induced apoptosis was abolished when TNFR2 signaling was blocked. In addition, the 2nd and 3rd cysteine-rich domains (CRD) in the extracellular portion of TNFR2 (CRD2CRD3), known to directly bind to PGRN, disturbed the interaction of PGRN with TNFR2, and in turn abolished PGRN-mediated activation of Erk1/2 and Akt signaling and protection against apoptosis in response to ER-stress. Collectively, PGRN plays an important role in ER stress and regulates ER stress response through interacting with TNFR2. This study provides new insight into PGRN regulation of stress response and may also present PGRN as a potential molecular target for treating stress-associated disorders. PMID:24703938

Li, Meiling; Liu, Yanna; Xia, Fei; Wu, Zhimeng; Deng, Li; Jiang, Rong; Guo, Feng-Jin

2014-07-01

106

Bond strength of composites on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an in vitro study the bond strength of composite materials on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-radiated enamel was examined. The results achieved on enamel surfaces conditioned conventionally using the acid etching method served as a control. On 80 extracted cariesfree third molars an enamel area of 4 X 4 mm was conditioned with three different systems. The Er:YAG laser was

Christian Apel; Norbert Gutknecht

1999-01-01

107

The different roles of ER subtypes in cancer biology and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By eliciting distinct transcriptional responses, the oestrogen receptors (ERs) ER? and ER? exert opposite effects on cellular processes that include proliferation, apoptosis and migration and that differentially influence the development and the progression of cancer. Perturbation of ER subtype-specific expression has been detected in various types of cancer, and the differences in the expression of ERs are correlated with the

Christoforos Thomas; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

2011-01-01

108

Decay of sup 156 Er compound nucleus  

SciTech Connect

Charged particles and high energy {gamma} rays from the decay of the {sup 156}Er compound nucleus populated at {ital E}{sub {ital x}}=47 MeV excitation energy by the {sup 12}C+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 92}Zr reactions have been measured to study possible nonstatistical or entrance channel effects. The experimental spectra and published evaporation residue and neutron data are compared with statistical model calculations. The comparison shows that the statistical model with standard parametrization of level density and yrast lines describes reasonably well the bulk of experimental observables but not the shape of neutron spectra if account is taken of the enhancement factor for {ital E}2 transitions. The discrepancies between experimental data and model calculations are discussed.

Fornal, B.; Gramegna, F.; Prete, G. (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)); D'Erasmo, G.; Fiore, E.M.; Fiore, L.; Pantaleo, A.; Paticchio, V.; Viesti, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)); Blasi, P.; Lucarelli, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)); Anghinolfi, M.; Corvisiero, P.; Taiuti, M.; Zucchiatti, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Genova, I-16146 Genova (Italy)); Bortignon, P.F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Istituto di Ingegneria Nucleare di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)); Ferrer, C.; Nardelli, G.; Nebbia, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova, (Italy) Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy))

1990-10-01

109

Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser.  

PubMed

We report a resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1645 nm, exhibiting 43% optical efficiency and 54% incident slope efficiency and emitting 7-W average power when repetitively Q switched at 10 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the best performance (conversion efficiency and average power) obtained from a bulk solid-state Q-switched erbium laser. At a 1.1-kHz pulse repetition frequency the laser produces 3.4-mJ pulses with a corresponding peak power of 162 kW. Frequency doubling to produce 822.5-nm, 4.7-kW pulses at 10 kHz was performed to demonstrate the laser's utility. PMID:15181990

Young, York E; Setzler, Scott D; Snell, Kevin J; Budni, Peter A; Pollak, Thomas M; Chicklis, E P

2004-05-15

110

Tunable CW Er:YLF Diode-Pumped Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report a 4-W, 2810-nm, diode-pumped, cw Er:YLF laser, to the best of our knowledge the highest power yet achieved for a cw Er-doped laser operating on the(4)I(11/12) - (4)I(13/2) transition. We tuned the laser on 11- different lines in the 2720-2840-nm...

A. Dergachev P. F. Moulton

2003-01-01

111

Electron Spin Resonance of Er in High Susceptibility Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic resonance of Er in dilute Pt and Pd based alloys is reported. Large negative g shifts in both hosts are inferred from the systematics of the hyperfine coupling, and the proportionality of Er and Gd g shifts to the host metal susceptibility of...

C. Rettori D. Davidov D. Shaltiel L. J. Tao R. Orbach

1971-01-01

112

Photoluminescence of Er-implanted KTP and RTP crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystalline samples of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and rubidium titanyl phosphate (RTP) were implanted with 150 keV Er + ions to a fluence of 5 × 10 15 cm -2 at room temperature. In order to recrystallize the amorphized implanted region the samples were subjected to isochronal incremental annealings in air at temperatures between 400 and 640 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry studies were performed for the as-implanted state and after each annealing step. The study of the 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 PL transition of Er 3+ at 10 K reveals that Er centers in recrystallized KTP are similar to those observed in KTP:Er single crystals but differ from previous PL results in Er-implanted KTP. In the case of RTP a Rb loss at the surface is observed and the PL seems to be due to the overlapping emissions of Er centers similar to those of bulk RTP:Er crystals and those present in a Rb-deficient phase, like ErPO 4.

Kling, A.; Rico, M.; Zaldo, C.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

2004-06-01

113

A trip to the ER: coping with stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a coordinated adaptive program called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR alleviates stress by upregulating protein folding and degradation pathways in the ER and inhibiting protein synthesis. With a basic conceptual framework for the UPR, including the identification of key mediators of the response, now

D. Thomas Rutkowski; Randal J. Kaufman

2004-01-01

114

Role of Codopants in Er Doped Si Material and Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this investigation was to determine the role of co- dopants in the effort to obtain useful EL from Er doped Si devices. One unforeseen difficulty was the essential role that co-dopants played in the simple epitaxial growth of Er doped Si mater...

W. Varhue

2001-01-01

115

Specifications of the magnetic ordering in composite C 60:Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous behavior of C 60+ EPR signal in a composite C60 : Er 3+ is studied at low temperatures 1.7 K< T<77 K. The line width ? H and resonance fields of EPR line have a specific temperature dependence and significant anisotropy tightly connected with the shape of the sample. The data reflect new ferromagnetic properties induced by Er 3+ ions.

Shanina, B. D.; Konchits, A. A.; Kolesnik, S. P.; Katsaj, M. Ya

2000-07-01

116

ER Stress in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A New Therapeutic Target.  

PubMed

Abstract Significance: Diabetes and other diseases that comprise the metabolic syndrome have reached epidemic proportions. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most prevalent complication of diabetes, affecting ?50% of diabetic patients. Characterized by chronic pain or loss of sensation, recurrent foot ulcerations, and risk for amputation, DPN is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanisms underlying DPN pathogenesis are complex and not well understood, and no effective treatments are available. Thus, an improved understanding of DPN pathogenesis is critical for the development of successful therapeutic options. Recent Advances: Recent research implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a novel mechanism in the onset and progression of DPN. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a well-orchestrated signaling cascade responsible for relieving stress and restoring normal ER function. Critical Issues: During times of extreme or chronic stress, such as that associated with diabetes, the UPR may be insufficient to alleviate ER stress, resulting in apoptosis. Here, we discuss the potential role of ER stress in DPN, as well as evidence demonstrating how ER stress intersects with pathways involved in DPN development and progression. An improved understanding of how ER stress contributes to peripheral nerve dysfunction in diabetes will provide important insight into DPN pathogenesis. Future Directions: Future studies aimed at gaining the necessary insight into ER stress in DPN pathogenesis will ultimately facilitate the development of novel therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 621-633. PMID:24382087

O'Brien, Phillipe D; Hinder, Lucy M; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

2014-08-01

117

ER 101: 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know  

MedlinePLUS

ER 101 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know The more you know about the care you receive in the ER, the happier — and probably healthier — ... with physicians you’re instructed to see. Emergency physicians are specialists Emergency medicine is a medical specialty ...

118

Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus–host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling.

Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

2014-01-01

119

High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration

C. Hagen; A. Heinrich; B. Nussbaumer

2011-01-01

120

Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee

A. Heinrich; A. Vizhanyo; P. Krammer; S. Summer; S. Gross; T. Bragagna; C. Böhler

2011-01-01

121

Bioactive Dietary Supplements Reactivate ER Expression in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Active Chromatin Modifications  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Although tamoxifen therapy is successful for some patients, it does not provide adequate benefit for those who have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative cancers. Therefore, we approached novel treatment strategies by combining two potential bioactive dietary supplements for the reactivation of ER? expression for effective treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer with tamoxifen. Bioactive dietary supplements such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and sulforaphane (SFN) inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively, which are of central importance to cancer prevention. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer cells with GTPs and SFN alone or in combination leads to the reactivation of ER? expression. The combination of 20 µg/mL GTPs and 5 µM SFN was found to be the optimal dose of ER?-reactivation at 3 days in MDA-MB-231 cells. The reactivation of ER? expression was consistently correlated with ER? promoter hypomethylation and hyperacetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the ER? promoter revealed that GTPs and SFN altered the binding of ER?-transcriptional co-repressor complex thereby contributing to ER?-reactivation. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen in combination with GTPs and SFN significantly increased both cell death and inhibition of cellular proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells in comparison to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Collectively, our findings suggest that a novel combination of bioactive-HDAC inhibitors with bioactive-demethylating agents is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens.

Meeran, Syed M.; Patel, Shweta N.; Li, Yuanyuan; Shukla, Samriddhi; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

2012-01-01

122

ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL and TOGA ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

1999-01-01

123

Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

2001-08-01

124

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24 Section 222.24 Employees...Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A...

2009-04-01

125

Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

2011-01-01

126

Enhanced Crystallization and Sensitization of Si Nanocrystals in Al2O3:Er/Si:Er Multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced crystallization of Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has been achieved in an Al2O3:Er/Si:Er multilayer structure, which is fabricated by pulsed laser deposition and subsequent rapid thermal annealing. The Er atoms introduce strains in the initial amorphous Si layers and serve as nucleation centers that enhance the crystallization of Si NCs at low annealing temperatures. The average size of Si NCs is well controlled by adjusting the Si layer thickness. Thanks to the formation of Si NCs and the favored chemical environment of Er3+ after annealing around 600-700°C, optimized photoluminescence peaked at 1.54 ?m has been obtained. The present results stress the importance of controlling the formation of Si NCs to improve the performance of Er3+ luminescence.

Wang, Jun-Zhuan; Yang, Xin-Xin; Wei, Xiao-Xu; Yu, Lin-Wei; Shi, Yi

2013-11-01

127

Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.  

PubMed

Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers. PMID:22413290

Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

2011-11-01

128

Er-related luminescence in Er,O-codoped InGaAs\\/GaAs multiple-quantum-well structures grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have grown Er,O-codoped InGaAs\\/GaAs multiple-quantum-well (MQW:Er,O) structures by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE), and investigated their luminescence properties. The MQW structures are designed to emit light at 0.98 mum for direct excitation of Er ions. Degradation of the structures due to introduction of Er and oxygen is not observed in x-ray diffraction patterns. Er ions doped with oxygen

A. Koizumi; H. Moriya; N. Watanabe; Y. Nonogaki; Y. Fujiwara; Y. Takeda

2002-01-01

129

Comparing efficiency and root surface morphology after scaling with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the root morphology of teeth and efficiency of scaling after using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Thirty-two periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. The border of an appropriate calculus was marked using a diamond bur on each tooth, and the calculus was divided into two almost equal parts. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, power of 1 W, and energy density of 17.7 J/cm2 and an Er:YAG laser with pulse energy of 200 mJ, power of 2.4 W, and energy density of 21 J/cm2 were used to remove the calculus. The time for scaling was recorded for each group, and using stereomicroscopic analysis, the calculus remnant, carbonization, and number of craters were investigated. The mean time required for calculus removal in the Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser groups was 15.22 ± 6.18 seconds and 7.12 ± 4.11 seconds, respectively. The efficiency of calculus removal in the Er:YAG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group. Under stereomicroscope examination, no carbonization or remaining calculus was found in samples from either group, but all samples had craters. The number of craters in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er:YAG laser group. According to the parameters used and limitations of this study, there was no significant difference in efficiency per power for calculus removal between the two groups. PMID:24116368

Etemadi, Ardavan; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Razavi, Fahime; Aoki, Akira; Azad, Reza Fekr; Chiniforush, Nasim

2013-01-01

130

ER Calcium and Alzheimer's Disease: In a State of Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive either to the lipid messenger inositol trisphosphate(IP3) or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an integral membrane protein in the ER; mutations in PS1 that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release and also enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.

Mark P. Mattson (Baltimore;National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program REV)

2010-03-23

131

Neonatal agonism of ER? impairs male reproductive behavior and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

The organization of the developing male rodent brain is profoundly influenced by endogenous steroids, most notably estrogen. This process may be disrupted by estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) resulting in altered sex behavior and the capacity to attract a mate in adulthood. To better understand the relative role each estrogen receptor (ER) subtype (ER? and ER?) plays in mediating these effects, we exposed male Long Evans rats to estradiol benzoate (EB, 10 ?g), vehicle, or agonists specific for ER? (DPN, 1 mg/kg) or ER? (PPT, 1 mg/kg) daily for the first four days of life, and then assessed adult male reproductive behavior and attractiveness via a partner preference paradigm. DPN had a greater adverse impact than PPT on reproductive behavior, suggesting a functional role for ER? in the organization of these male-specific behaviors. Therefore the impact of neonatal ER? agonism was further investigated by repeating the experiment using vehicle, EB and additional DPN doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg bw). Exposure to DPN suppressed male reproductive behavior and attractiveness in a dose dependent manner. Finally, males were exposed to EB or an environmentally relevant dose of genistein (GEN, 10 mg/kg), a naturally occurring xenoestrogen, which has a higher relative binding affinity for ER? than ER?. Sexual performance was impaired by GEN but not attractiveness. In addition to suppressing reproductive behavior and attractiveness, EB exposure significantly lowered the testis to body weight ratio, and circulating testosterone levels. DPN and GEN exposure only impaired behavior, suggesting that disrupted androgen secretion does not underlie the impairment.

Sullivan, Alana W.; Hamilton, Peter; Patisaul, Heather B.

2011-01-01

132

Electronic structure and optical properties of Er5Si3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a joint experimental and theoretical investigation of optical properties and electronic structure of Er5Si3. Rare-earth alloy optical constants have been measured in the wavelength range 0.22-15 ?m (0.083-5.64 eV), as well as other spectral and electronic characteristics. Spin-polarized calculations of the electronic structure have been performed employing the LSDA+U method accounting for electronic correlations in the 4f shell of Er. All main features of the experimental optical conductivity in the interband region have been well interpreted using the convolution of the calculated densities of states of Er5Si3.

Knyazev, Yu. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Kuz`min, Yu. I.

2014-06-01

133

Protein quality control in the ER: balancing the ubiquitin chequebook  

PubMed Central

Protein maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is subject to stringent quality control. Terminally misfolded polypeptides are usually ejected into the cytoplasm and targeted for destruction by the proteasome. Ubiquitin conjugation is essential for both extraction and proteolysis. Here, we discuss the role of the ubiquitin conjugation machinery in this pathway and focus on the role of ubiquitin ligase complexes as gatekeepers for membrane passage. We then examine the type of ubiquitin modification applied to the misfolded ER protein and the role of de-ubiquitylating enzymes in the extraction of proteins from the ER.

Claessen, Jasper H.L.; Kundrat, Lenka; Ploegh, Hidde L.

2013-01-01

134

Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

1994-01-01

135

Concentration dependence of upconversion emission from Er:YAG fibers.  

PubMed

Fibers of Er:YAG have been grown using the laser-heated pedestal growth method. Fibers with Er concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 10 mol. % have been produced and excitation at 965 nm has been used to produce intense upconversion emission at green and red wavelengths. The dependence of ground state absorption and upconversion emission on dopant concentration has been studied and shown to exhibit lower levels of self-absorption than previously reported. At Er concentrations of 5 mol. % and above; however, the variation of upconversion emission intensity with pump power deviates from theoretical predictions, exhibiting saturation behavior consistent with concentration quenching. PMID:23164850

Sharp, J H; Shi, P C W; Watson, I A

2012-11-15

136

Exploiting MEK Inhibitor-Mediated Activation of ER? for Therapeutic Intervention in ER-Positive Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

While the clinical benefit of MEK inhibitor (MEKi)-based therapy is well established in Raf mutant malignancies, its utility as a suppressor of hyperactive MAPK signaling in the absence of mutated Raf or Ras, is an area of ongoing research. MAPK activation is associated with loss of ER? expression and hormonal resistance in numerous malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that MEKi induces a feedback response that results in ER? overexpression, phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of ER-regulated genes. Mechanistically, MEKi-mediated ER? overexpression is largely independent of erbB2 and AKT feedback activation, but is ERK-dependent. We subsequently exploit this phenomenon therapeutically by combining the ER-antagonist, fulvestrant with MEKi. This results in synergistic suppression of tumor growth, in vitro and potentiation of single agent activity in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts. Thus, we demonstrate that exploiting adaptive feedback after MEKi can be used to sensitize ER?-positive tumors to hormonal therapy, and propose that this strategy may have broader clinical utility in ER?-positive ovarian carcinoma.

Hou, June Y.; Rodriguez-Gabin, Alicia; Samaweera, Leleesha; Hazan, Rachel; Goldberg, Gary L.; Horwitz, Susan Band; McDaid, Hayley M.

2013-01-01

137

Exploiting MEK inhibitor-mediated activation of ER? for therapeutic intervention in ER-positive ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

While the clinical benefit of MEK inhibitor (MEKi)-based therapy is well established in Raf mutant malignancies, its utility as a suppressor of hyperactive MAPK signaling in the absence of mutated Raf or Ras, is an area of ongoing research. MAPK activation is associated with loss of ER? expression and hormonal resistance in numerous malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that MEKi induces a feedback response that results in ER? overexpression, phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of ER-regulated genes. Mechanistically, MEKi-mediated ER? overexpression is largely independent of erbB2 and AKT feedback activation, but is ERK-dependent. We subsequently exploit this phenomenon therapeutically by combining the ER-antagonist, fulvestrant with MEKi. This results in synergistic suppression of tumor growth, in vitro and potentiation of single agent activity in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts. Thus, we demonstrate that exploiting adaptive feedback after MEKi can be used to sensitize ER?-positive tumors to hormonal therapy, and propose that this strategy may have broader clinical utility in ER?-positive ovarian carcinoma. PMID:23390495

Hou, June Y; Rodriguez-Gabin, Alicia; Samaweera, Leleesha; Hazan, Rachel; Goldberg, Gary L; Horwitz, Susan Band; McDaid, Hayley M

2013-01-01

138

Absorption and photoluminescence properties of Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses with various concentrations of Er and Yb were fabricated. The absorption and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured and analyzed. For the Er- doped soda-slilicate glasses, the optimum Er concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm turns out to be 0.5 at. %, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectrum increases from 18 to 26 nm, with the increase of the concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 at. %. The PL intensity of Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate glasses with an Er concentration of 0.5 at. % is enhanced approximately by four times, and the optimum Yb concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm is analyzed to be 3.0 at. %. The PL spectrum becomes broader with increasing the Yb concentration, up to a FWHM of 80 nm at 6.0 at. %. Yb. The relation between the absorption and PL spectra, together with the mechanism of PL broadening, has also been addressed.

Li, S. F.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Lee, Y. P.

2004-11-01

139

Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

2014-05-01

140

Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone at the ER-Mitochondrion Interface Mediates the Mitochondrion-ER-Nucleus Signaling for Cellular Survival  

PubMed Central

The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

2013-01-01

141

Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er 3+ single doped and Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped YAl 3(BO 3) 4 crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er 3+-doped and Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) single crystals have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method using a new flux system, namely NaF-MoO 3-B 2O 3. The Er 3+ concentrations were 1.3 mol% for both single doped and co-doped crystals and the Yb 3+ concentration in the Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped crystal was 20.0 mol% in the raw materials. The distribution coefficients of Er 3+ single doped and Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped crystals were measured. The polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra of Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped crystal were recorded and compared with those of Er 3+ single doped crystal. The results demonstrate that Er 3+-Yb 3+ co-doped YAB crystal is a potential candidate for 1.55 ?m laser materials.

You, Weixiong; Lin, Yanfu; Chen, Yujin; Luo, Zundu; Huang, Yidong

2004-10-01

142

Estradiol and ER? agonists enhance recognition memory, and DPN, an ER? agonist, alters brain monoamines  

PubMed Central

Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ER?-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER?-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4 h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2–4 h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ER? contributes to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60–130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40–80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER? mediates sub chronic and acute effects of estrogens on recognition memory and that memory enhancements by DPN may occur, in part, through alterations in monoaminergic containing systems primarily in PFC and hippocampus.

Jacome, Luis F.; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S.; Luine, Victoria

2010-01-01

143

Quantitative Expression of Estrogen Receptor on Relapse Biopsy for ER-positive Breast Cancer: Prognostic Impact.  

PubMed

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of quantitative estrogen receptor (ER) expression at relapse for ER-positive breast cancer with ER-positive recurrence. Patients and Methods: A total of 81 patients with ER-positive primary breast cancer and ER-positive paired recurrence were included. ER expression was evaluated as the percentage of tumor cells staining for ER under immunohistochemistry. Samples were defined as ER-high (ER >50%) or ER-low (ER ?10% and ?50%). Results: Quantitative ER expression on relapse biopsy was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in multivariate analysis, both as a continuous (hazard ratio=0.8; 95% confidence interval=0.7-0.92, p=0.001) and as a categorical (ER-high vs. ER-low; hazard ratio=0.26; 95% confidence interval=0.11-0.59, p=0.001) variable. Patients whose status changed from ER-high (primary BC) to ER-low (relapse) had the poorest outcome, with a 10-year overall survival rate of 14%. Conclusion: Even in the case of maintenance of ER-positivity on primary and relapse of breast cancer, recurrence biopsy provides prognostic information. PMID:24982383

Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Piacentini, Federico; Dominici, Massimo; Omarini, Claudia; Goubar, Aicha; Ficarra, Guido; Conte, Pierfranco; Guarneri, Valentina

2014-07-01

144

Spectroscopic studies of Er-centers in MOCVD grown GaN layers highly doped with Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the high-resolution photoluminescence (PL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of highly Er-doped (2×1020 to 2×1021cm?3) MOCVD grown GaN epilayers. The high-resolution Fourier transform of the 4I13\\/2?4I15\\/2 PL of Er3+ near 1.5?m, site-selective PL and PL excitation measurements show that in MOCVD grown GaN only one type of Er-centers exists. This conclusion has been confirmed by ESR

K. Makarova; M. Stachowicz; V. Glukhanyuk; A. Kozanecki; C. Ugolini; J. Y. Lin; H. X. Jiang; J. Zavada

2008-01-01

145

Study of collective 0^+ excitations in ^162Er at ISAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-lying intrinsic excitations of ^162Er were populated in ? decay and studied through ?-ray spectroscopy at TRIUMF ISAC using the GPS tape collector. Parent ^162Yb nuclei from the ISAC separator were embedded into an aluminized mylar tape and transported to a shielded detector area for low background spectroscopy of the daughter. ?-? coincidence measurements were performed using a compact configuration of two 80%-efficiency coaxial Ge detectors. The new data lead to revision of the ? decay scheme for ^162Er and provide branching ratios or limits for transitions depopulating the two lowest excited K^?=0^+ bands. Supported by the US DOE under grants DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and DE-FG02-88ER-40417.

Caprio, M. A.; Casten, R. F.; Zamfir, N. V.; Ball, G. C.; Jackson, K. P.; Amaudruz, P. A.; Thomas, J.-C.

2001-10-01

146

Electron Microprobe Analysis of Irradiated S8ER Cladding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive precipitation was observed in S8ER cladding following irradiation. Electron microprobe analysis was proposed as a means to identify these precipitates. Subsequently, the electron microprobe was successfully used for qualitative analysis of unirr...

W. E. Krupp L. Cooper

1967-01-01

147

Regulation of coat assembly- sorting things out at the ER  

PubMed Central

Summary of Recent Advances The small GTPase Sar1 resides at the core of a regulatory cycle that controls protein export from the ER in COPII vesicles. Recent advances in minimally reconstituted systems indicate continual flux of Sar1 through GTPase cycles facilitates cargo concentration into forming vesicles that ultimately bud from membranes. During export from ER membranes, this GTPase cycle is harnessed through the combinatorial power of multiple coat subunits and cargo adaptors to sort an expanding array of proteins into ER-derived vesicles. The COPII budding machinery is further organized into higher-order structures at transitional zones on the ER surface where the large multi-domain Sec16 protein appears to perform a central function.

Miller, Elizabeth A.; Barlowe, Charles

2010-01-01

148

Calibration of the ERS-1 SAR Fast-Delivery Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of performing absolute radiometric calibration of ERS-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Fast Delivery (FD) images is investigated. A 1.5 month time series during the first ice phase included fourteen satellite overpasses and showed that the...

L. M. H. Ulander

1993-01-01

149

Stability Considerations for the ERS-1 Wind Scatterometer Radiometric Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiometric stability of the ERS-1 wind scatterometer is discussed. Instability sources and compensation techniques are summarized. The temperature and time characteristics of the identified contributors to instability are extremely complex and so a set o...

D. J. Q. Carter

1988-01-01

150

5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... Emergency Physicians A very short site blurb should go here Social Media ACEP in Social Media Campaigns ... Safety En Español ER 101 Where Should I Go? Check In Medical Tests Admission to the Hospital ...

151

Spectroscopic study of Er:Sm doped barium fluorotellurite glass.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er(3+), Sm(3+) and Er(3+):Sm(3+) ions codoped barium fluorotellurite (BFT) glasses. Different Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions were observed under 532 nm and 976 nm laser excitations. Energy transfer from Er(3+) ion to Sm(3+) ion was confirmed on the basis of luminescence intensity variation and decay curve analysis in both the cases. Under green (532 nm) excitation emission intensity of Sm(3+) ion bands improves whereas on NIR (976 nm) excitation new emission bands of Sm(3+) ions were observed in Er:Sm codoped samples. Ion interactions and the different energy transfer parameters were also calculated. PMID:20510646

Bahadur, A; Dwivedi, Y; Rai, S B

2010-09-15

152

Physical aspects of cavity formation of Er-laser radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New possibilities of hard tooth tissues removal efficiency increasing by YAG:Er laser radiation, optimum focusing, reduction of pulse duration, spray and contour method are investigated and demonstrated in the present work.

Grigori B. Altshuler; Andrey V. Belikov; Andrey V. Erofeev; A. V. Skripnik

1995-01-01

153

Physical aspects of cavity formation of Er-laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New possibilities of hard tooth tissues removal efficiency increasing by YAG:Er laser radiation, optimum focusing, reduction of pulse duration, spray and contour method are investigated and demonstrated in the present work.

Altshuler, Grigori B.; Belikov, Andrey V.; Erofeev, Andrey V.; Skripnik, A. V.

1995-05-01

154

Er:YAG laser radiation etching of enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the effects of acid treatment and Er:YAG laser radiation on the enamel. The permanent human molars were used. Oval cavities in the buccal surface were prepared and the edges of cavities were irradiated by Er:YAG radiation. The energy of laser was 105 mJ and repetition rate 1 Hz. The radiation was focused by CaF2 lens and the sample was placed in the focus. Ten samples were etched by 35 percent phosphoric acid during 60 s. Than cavities were filled with composite resin following manufacturers directions. By laser etching the structure enamel in section was rougher. The optimal connection between the enamel and composite resin was achieved in 75 percent by acid etching and in 79.2 percent by Er:YAG laser etching. Er:YAG laser etching could be alternative method for etching of enamel.

Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

1996-12-01

155

The Grand Banks ERS-1 SAR wave spectra validation experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.

Vachon, P. W.; Dobson, F. W.; Smith, S. D.; Anderson, R. J.; Buckley, J. R.; Allingham, M.; Vandemark, D.; Walsh, E. J.; Khandekar, M.; Lalbeharry, R.

1993-01-01

156

Orbit determination error analyses for POPSAT and ERS-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The missions of both the future ESA geodetic POPSAT and remote-sensing ERS-1 satellites require that the orbits are known very accurately. This paper summarizes some results of POPSAT and ERS-1 orbit determination error analyses for 1-5 day arcs of tracking data acquired by global tracking networks, and of error analyses to estimate the accuracy with which the positions of ground

K. F. Wakker; B. A. C. Ambrosius

1985-01-01

157

An Overview of ER2 Platform Science during TC4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft flew 11 science flight out of San Jose, Costa Rica during July and August 2007 as part of the NASA-sponsored Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The ER-2 flew a remote sensing payload consisting of passive optical and microwave imagers (MAS\\/MASTER, CoSSIR, AMPR), a high spectral resolution IR imager (S-HIS), active sensors (CPL

S. Platnick; P. A. Newman

2007-01-01

158

Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.  

PubMed

The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

2014-01-01

159

Pulpal response to exposure with Er:YAG laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulpal response to the Er:YAG laser after accidental exposure of the pulp. Study Design: Cavities were prepared, and pulps were exposed by either Er:YAG laser or mechanically by a slow-speed conventional handpiece (control group) in 76 maxillary first molars of male Wistar rats. Rats were killed immediately, at 3 days,

Jayanetti Asiri Jayawardena; Junji Kato; Kayoko Moriya; Yuzo Takagi

2001-01-01

160

Photoluminescence spectra of n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and p-AlGaN:(Er + Zn) heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Luminescence intensity of heterostructures based on n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) is higher by more than an order of magnitude than the corresponding intensity of separate n-ZnO, p-GaN:(Er + Zn), and AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers. Most likely, this phenomenon is due to the effective tunneling recombination of charge carriers caused by a decrease in the concentration of the nonradiative recombination centers located between the n-ZnO/p-GaN:(Er + Zn) and n-ZnO/AlGaN:(Er + Zn) layers.

Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: margaret.m@mail.ioffe.ru; Krivolapchuk, V. V., E-mail: vlad.krivol@mail.ioffe.ru; Feoktistov, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Danilovskii, E. Yu.; Kuzmin, R. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Razumov, S. V. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15

161

Hepatoprotective role of Sestrin2 against chronic ER stress.  

PubMed

Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBP?). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in the liver of wild-type (WT) mice, can provoke Sestrin2-deficient mice to develop severe ER stress-associated liver pathologies such as extensive liver damage, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. These pathologies are suppressed by liver-specific Sestrin2 reconstitution, mTORC1 inhibition or chemical chaperone administration. The Sestrin2-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) may be a general protective mechanism against ER stress-associated diseases. PMID:24947615

Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Insook; Semple, Ian A; Kim, David N; Kim, Myungjin; Nam, Myeongjin; Zhang, Deqiang; Yin, Lei; Lee, Jun Hee

2014-01-01

162

A Switch From Life To Death in ER stressed ? cells  

PubMed Central

? cell death is an important pathogenic component of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings indicate that cell signaling pathways emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play an important role in the regulation of ? cell death during the progression of diabetes. Homeostasis within the ER must be maintained to produce properly folded secretory proteins, such as insulin, in response to the body's need for them. However, the sensitive protein-folding environment in the ER can be perturbed by genetic and environmental factors leading to ER stress. To counteract ER stress, ? cells activate cell signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR functions as a binary switch between life and death regulating both survival and death effectors. The outcome of this switch depends on the nature of the ER stress condition, the regulation of UPR activation, and the expression and activation of survival and death components. This review will discuss the mechanisms and the components in this switch and highlight the roles of this UPR balancing act between life and death in ? cells.

Oslowski, Christine M.; Urano, Fumihiko

2013-01-01

163

Er:Yag laser: the promising procedure for caries treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser for caries removal was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. As the in vitro study, thirty-two extracted human teeth with cervical root caries were used. An axially divided half of each caries lesion was treated with the Er:YAG laser, and the other was removed with round steel burs mounted on a micromotor or was left untreated as a control. Laser irradiation was performed in contact and non-contact mode at 145 mJ/pulse (51.3 J/cm2/pulse) and 10 pps under water spray. Conventional micromotor treatment was performed at 10,000 rpm using some different size of round steel burs. Measurement of time required for caries removal, histological observation of decalcified serial sections, SEM observation and hardness measurement of the cavity floor dentin were conducted with both laser and conventional treatments. In addition to the above in vitro study, the usefulness of root caries treatment with the Er:YAG laser was assessed in vivo as a clinical trial. The results indicated that removal of carious dentin using the Er:YAG laser was completed effectively to the same extent as the conventional treatment and thermal damage of the lased cavity was minimum. The Er:YAG laser treatment diminished unpleasant sound and vibration, when compared with the conventional rotary technique. We conclude that the Er:YAG laser possesses the promising characteristics for caries removal.

Ishikawa, Isao; Aoki, Akira; Watanabe, Hisashi; Ando, Yoshinori; Yamada, Toshimoto; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

1996-04-01

164

Contact of cis-Golgi with ER exit sites executes cargo capture and delivery from the ER  

PubMed Central

Protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus is mediated by coat complex II (COPII) vesicles. It has been believed that COPII vesicles containing cargo are released from the ER exit sites (ERES) into the cytosol and then reach and fuse with the first post-ER compartment, cis-Golgi or ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). However, it still remains elusive how cargo loading to vesicles, vesicle budding, tethering and fusion are coordinated in vivo. Here we show, using extremely high speed and high resolution confocal microscopy, that the cis-Golgi in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae approaches and contacts the ERES. The COPII coat cage then collapses and the cis-Golgi captures cargo. The cis-Golgi, thus loaded with cargo, then leaves the ERES. We propose that this ‘hug-and-kiss’ behaviour of cis-Golgi ensures efficient and targeted cargo transport from the ERES to cis-Golgi.

Kurokawa, Kazuo; Okamoto, Michiyo; Nakano, Akihiko

2014-01-01

165

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234...47 Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be...benefits payable to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or...

2013-04-01

166

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section...50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General...an additional amount payable to a widow(er), disabled widow(er), child,...

2013-04-01

167

The unfolded protein response: controlling cell fate decisions under ER stress and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a salient feature of specialized secretory cells and is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic signalling network that orchestrates the recovery of ER function, and failure to adapt to ER stress results in apoptosis.

Claudio Hetz

2012-01-01

168

ER?, SKP2 and E2F-1 form a feed forward loop driving late ER? targets and G1 cell cycle progression.  

PubMed

Estrogen triggers transactivation coupled estrogen receptor ? (ER?) proteolysis, but mechanisms thereof remain obscure. Present data link estrogen:ER?-driven transcription with cell cycle progression. Although liganded ER? induces many genes within 1-4 h, gene activation after 6 h is thought to be indirect. Here, we identify SKP2 as a late-acting coactivator that drives ER? targets to promote G1-to-S progression. Data support a model in which estrogen-activated cyclin E-CDK2 binds and phosphorylates ER?S341, to prime ER?-SCF(SKP2) binding via SKP2-L248QTLL252 in late G1. SKP2 activates ER? ubiquitylation and proteolysis. Putative late ER? targets were identified by expression profiling. SKP2 knockdown attenuated E2F-1 and BLM induction. SKP2 overexpression, but not coactivator motif mutant SKP2-L248QTAA252, enhanced estrogen-induced E2F-1 and BLM expression. SKP2 knockdown impaired estrogen-stimulated ER?, SKP2, SRC3 and RNA polymerase II recruitment to E2F-1 and BLM promoters. This work not only identifies these late-activated genes as bona fide ER? targets but describes a novel mechanism for their periodic activation. SKP2 serves as dual ER? E3 ligase/coactivator for late-activated target genes, revealing a novel mechanism whereby ER?/SCF(SKP2) transactivation of E2F-1 feeds forward to drive G1-to-S. PMID:23770852

Zhou, W; Srinivasan, S; Nawaz, Z; Slingerland, J M

2014-05-01

169

Cellular localization of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) and -beta (ER?) mRNA in the boar testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boar testes synthesize high amounts of estrogens which are known to stimulate several male sexual functions in a variety of\\u000a extragonadal target tissues. Possible effects within the testis depend on the existence of the estrogen receptor subtypes\\u000a ? and ? (ER?, ER?). The precise cellular localization of these subtypes within the testis was, so far, based mainly on protein\\u000a expression

O. Lekhkota; R. Brehm; R. Claus; A. Wagner; R. M. Bohle; M. Bergmann

2006-01-01

170

A novel Er(III) sensor based on a new hydrazone for the monitoring of Er(III) ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

N?-(2-Hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethylidene) benzohydrazide (HDEBH) was found to be a suitable neutral pseudo-ionophore for the preparation of a highly selective Er(III) membrane sensor. Poly vinyl chloride (PVC)-based membranes of HDEBH with potassium tetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as an anionic additive, and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), nitrobenzene (NB), and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as Er(III) sensors. A

Mohammad Reza Ganjali; Farnoush Faridbod; Parviz Norouzi; Mehdi Adib

2006-01-01

171

Double-Q magnetic structures and strong planar anisotropy in tetragonal ErRu Ge and ErRu Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Single crystal magnetization measurements and powder neutron diffraction on tetragonal ErRu2Ge2 as well as anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements on ErRu2Si2 are presented. Besides the huge crystal field contribution to the uniaxial anisotropy, which favors the basal plane, a strong\\u000a in-plane anisotropy is evidenced. From these features and neutron diffraction experiments it is shown that

A. Garnier; D. Gignoux; B. Ouladdiaf; D. Schmitt; T. Shigeoka

2000-01-01

172

Association of TRPS1 gene with different EMT markers in ER?-positive and ER?-negative breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different subtypes. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) gene, a GATA-type transcription factor, has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in tumour invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to elucidate the different roles and clinical relevance of TRPS1 in different estrogen receptor (ER) expression subtypes of breast cancer. Methods An immunohistochemical study was performed. The correlation between clinicopathological features and other biomarker profiles were analysed statistically. Result TRPS1 expression was correlated with the patients’ age (P?=?0.017). It was positively related with ER? (P?ER? (P?=?0.001) status, but negatively associated with Ki67 (P?=?0.002) and HER2 (P?=?0.025) status. In ER?-positive breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was positively associated with the expression of E-cadherin (P?ER? (P?=?0.03), and p53 (P?=?0.002) status, while in ER?-negative breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was correlated with slug (P?=?0.004), vimentin (P?=?0.003), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P?=?0.031), and IMP3 (P?=?0.005) expression. Conclusions Based on our findings, we conclude that TRPS1 is positively associated with E-cadherin and ?-catenin status in ER?-positive breast cancer cells, while it is also significantly associated with mesenchymal markers of EMT in ER?-negative breast cancer cells. TRPS1 can be a prognostic marker depending on the type of breast cancer. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8686515681264281

2014-01-01

173

BmCREC is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and required for ER/Golgi morphology.  

PubMed

Silkworm posterior silkgland is a model for studying intracellular trafficking. Here, using this model, we identify several potential cargo proteins of BmKinesin-1 and focus on one candidate, BmCREC. BmCREC (also known as Bombyx mori DNA supercoiling factor, BmSCF) was previously proposed to supercoil DNA in the nucleus. However, we show here that BmCREC is localized in the ER lumen. Its C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF is recognized by the KDEL receptor, and subsequently it is retrogradely transported by coat protein I (COPI) vesicles to the ER. Lacking the HDEF tetrapeptide of BmCREC or knocking down COPI subunits results in decreased ER retention and simultaneously increased secretion of BmCREC. Furthermore, we find that BmCREC knockdown markedly disrupts the morphology of the ER and Golgi apparatus and leads to a defect of posterior silkgland tube expansion. Together, our results clarify the ER retention mechanism of BmCREC and reveal that BmCREC is indispensable for maintaining ER/Golgi morphology. PMID:23921381

Wang, Qiao; Shen, Birong; Zheng, Pengli; Feng, Hui; Guo, Yige; Cao, Wenyuan; Chen, Liang; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Guodong; Xu, Sizheng; Shen, Weide; Chen, Jianguo; Teng, Junlin

2013-09-13

174

Involvement of Syntaxin 18, an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-localized SNARE Protein, in ER-mediated Phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is thought to play an important structural and functional role in phagocytosis. According to this model, direct membrane fusion between the ER and the plasma or phagosomal membrane must precede further invagination, but the exact mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether various ER-localized SNARE proteins are involved in this fusion process. When phagosomes were isolated from murine J774 macrophages, we found that ER-localized SNARE proteins (syntaxin 18, D12, and Sec22b) were significantly enriched in the phagosomes. Fluorescence and immuno-EM analyses confirmed the localization of syntaxin 18 in the phagosomal membranes of J774 cells stably expressing this protein tagged to a GFP variant. To examine whether these SNARE proteins are required for phagocytosis, we generated 293T cells stably expressing the Fc? receptor, in which phagocytosis occurs in an IgG-mediated manner. Expression in these cells of dominant-negative mutants of syntaxin 18 or D12 lacking the transmembrane domain, but not a Sec22b mutant, impaired phagocytosis. Syntaxin 18 small interfering RNA (siRNA) selectively decreased the efficiency of phagocytosis, and the rate of phagocytosis was markedly enhanced by stable overexpression of syntaxin 18 in J774 cells. Therefore, we conclude that syntaxin 18 is involved in ER-mediated phagocytosis, presumably by regulating the specific and direct fusion of the ER and plasma or phagosomal membranes.

Tamura, Taku; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Hiromi; Yokoya, Sachihiko; Miura, Megumi; Nagaya, Hisao; Wada, Ikuo

2006-01-01

175

Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic and laser properties of three different Er3+-doped garnet systems are characterized by employing the Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The three garnet hosts are Y3Al5O12 (YAG), Y3Sc2Ga3O12 (YSGG), and Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG). The JO model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er3+ (4f11) transitions to establish the so-called JO intensity parameters: ?2, ?4, and ?6 in the three garnet hosts. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities of transitions) and branching ratios of the Er3+ transitions from the excited state J manifolds to the lower-lying J' manifolds. The predicted decay rates and branching ratios of these Er3+ transitions in YAG, YSGG, and GGG hosts are compared. From the radiative decay rates, the radiative lifetimes of the Er3+ excited states are determined in the three garnets and are also compared. We also report the spectroscopic quality factors, ?4/?6, obtained for the three garnets. The quantum efficiencies of the 4I13/2-->4I15/2 Er3+ transition in YAG, YSGG, and GGG are determined to be ~79%, 82%, and 85%, respectively.

Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Bradley, William M.; Perez, John J.; Gruber, John B.; Zandi, Bahram; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Trussell, C. Ward; Kokta, Milan R.

2003-03-01

176

An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. PMID:24373967

Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Rapoport, Tom A

2014-01-16

177

The Verdet constant of Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the measurement of the Verdet constant of undoped and Er-doped crystalline YAG and tellurite glass at 1645 nm. The undoped YAG value is compared to those measured using visible light. We show that the paramagnetic nature of Er reduces the Verdet constant but that the decrease is probably not significant for the typical Er doping levels used in Er:YAG or in Er:tellurite-glass mid-IR lasers.

Harris, Lachlan; Ottaway, David; Veitch, Peter J.

2012-02-01

178

ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

Nakano, Ryohei T; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

2014-01-01

179

Epigenetic regulation of the ER? gene on the estrogen signal transfection pathway in colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We studied the regulatory effects of the estragen receptor? (ER?) gene on the downstream estrogen signal transfection pathway\\u000a in colon cancer cells and the possible mechanisms involved. A human ER? gene recombinant expression plasmid, pEGFP-C1-ER?,\\u000a was constructed and transfected into the Caco-2 colon cancer cell line, a line with low ER? gene expression. The expression\\u000a of ER? mRNA and protein

Ronglin Zhai; Guobin Wang; Kailin Cai; Kaixiong Tao; Fei Xu; Wanli Zhang; Zhiyong Wang

2010-01-01

180

The research and development on Pu'er tea fermentation automatic control technology and key equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper carried out the research on Pu'er fermentation automatic control process, using engineering and biotechnology and the application of parameters in the critical link of Pu'er tea quality formation. Pu'er tea fermentation plant design were optimized; the tide proportion before Pu'er tea fermentation had been carried out accurate quantitative and automatic control study; the temperature and humidity of Pu'er

Yunzhan Huang; Hongjie Zhou; Tongqiang Xiong; Yongjie Zhao

2010-01-01

181

MGMT Inhibition Restores ER? Functional Sensitivity to Antiestrogen Therapy  

PubMed Central

Antiestrogen therapy resistance remains a huge stumbling block in the treatment of breast cancer. We have found significant elevation of O6 methylguanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT) expression in a small sample of consecutive patients who have failed tamoxifen treatment. Here, we show that tamoxifen resistance is accompanied by upregulation of MGMT. Further we show that administration of the MGMT inhibitor, O6-benzylguanine (BG), at nontoxic doses, leads to restoration of a favorable estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation phenotype (high p-ER? Ser167/low p-ER? Ser118), which has been reported to correlate with sensitivity to endocrine therapy and improved survival. We also show BG to be a dual inhibitor of MGMT and ER?. In tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, BG alone or in combination with antiestrogen (tamoxifen [TAM]/ICI 182,780 [fulvestrant, Faslodex]) therapy enhances p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) expression, cytochrome C release and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, all indicative of apoptosis. In addition, BG increases the expression of p21cip1/waf1. We also show that BG, alone or in combination therapy, curtails the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. In tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 breast cancer xenografts, BG alone or in combination treatment causes significant delay in tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry confirms that BG increases p21cip1/waf1 and p-ER? Ser167 expression and inhibits MGMT, ER?, p-ER? Ser118 and ki-67 expression. Collectively, our results suggest that MGMT inhibition leads to growth inhibition of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer in vitro and in vivo and resensitizes tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells to antiestrogen therapy. These findings suggest that MGMT inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for overcoming antiestrogen resistance.

Bobustuc, George C; Smith, Joshua S; Maddipatla, Sreeram; Jeudy, Sheila; Limaye, Arati; Isley, Beth; Caparas, Maria-Lourdes M; Constantino, Susan M; Shah, Nikita; Baker, Cheryl H; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Baidas, Said; Konduri, Santhi D

2012-01-01

182

Interaction of Er:YAG laser radiation with ureter tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the work was to investigate the possibility of the ureter wall perforation by Er:YAG laser radiation and to explore the basic interaction characteristics for ureter surface and its deep structures. For these experiments Er:YAG laser system (wavelength 2.94 ?m) working in free-running and Q-switched regime was utilized. Laser radiation was delivered to the investigated tissue by a special waveguide system. The basic part was a cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (inner/outer diameter 700/850 ?m or 320/450 ?m). Sealed cap of the waveguide was used for contact treatment. Maximum interaction pulse energy and length for free-running Er:YAG I laser with the 700?m waveguide were 100mJ and 200?s, respectively (corresponding intensity was 130 kW/cm2). Similarly the maximum interaction pulse energy and length for free-running Er:YAG II laser with the 320 ?m waveguide were 80 mJ and 200 ?s , respectively (corresponding intensity was 500 kW/cm2). Maximum interaction pulse energy and length in Q-switched regime were 17 mJ and 70 ns, respectively (corresponding intensity 63 MW/cm2). The number of pulses needed to perforate the ureter wall tissue (thickness ~1 mm) for using long 200 ?s Er:YAG pulses (thermal ablation) and short 70 ns Er:YAG pulses (photoablation) was found. From the histological evaluation it follows that the application of Q-switched Er:YAG laser radiation on ureteral tissue resulted in minimum adjacent tissue alteration (up to 50?m from the surface) without any influence on the deeper layers.

Jelínkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; N?mec, Michal; Šulc, Jan; Köhler, Oto; Drlík, Pavel; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

2005-11-01

183

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section 228.17 Employees'...

2013-04-01

184

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow(er), and a surviving divorced spouse. 228.10 Section 228.10 Employees' Benefits...

2013-04-01

185

CSrc and Her2 Signaling Pathways Cooperate with Estrogen to Promote ER Phosphorylation, Ubiquitination and Proteolysis in ER Negative Breast Cancers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. On third of new breast cancers do not express estrogen receptor (ER) protein and these have a worse prognosis than ER positive breast cancers. The ER is a ligand activated transcription factor. Estrogen:...

I. Chu

2007-01-01

186

Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 ?s at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 ?m diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was used during irradiation, there was a high chance that the veneer would fractured during debonding. However if samples were not stored in water and only air spray was used, 75% of the veneers could be removed without any fracture. The use of an Er:YAG laser can be effective in not only debonding porcelain veneers and preserving tooth structure, but also in maintaining veneer integrity.

Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

2010-02-01

187

Optical waveguide amplifiers based on Er-doped phosphate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there is a strong interest in developing planar waveguide amplifiers at 1.53 ?m with small dimensions of only a few centimeters. Trivalent Er shows a light emission around 1.53 ?m because of its intra- 4f transition. Er-doped planar waveguide amplifiers have potential applications in optical telecommunication and signal processing systems as integrated devices. Several multicomponent phosphate glasses, highly doped with Er ions, are prepared by common glass melting techniques. By applying a special heat-treatment on the as-melted glasses, the photoluminescence lifetime of Er ions for the 4I13/2-[4I]15/2 transition increases substantially, typically from 1-2 ms up to 7 ms for a sample doped with 2 mole % Er2O3. The increase of the photoluminescence lifetime is ascribed to a decrease in concentration of hydroxyl groups incorporated in the glass, which is confirmed by IR absorption spectroscopic measurements. The luminescence concentration quenching mechanism by hydroxyl groups is modelled. RF-sputtering techniques are applied to produce Er-doped phosphate glass waveguides on silicon substrates. The optimized Er-doped phosphate glass disks are used as the sputtering targets. The films are deposited in an O2/Ar atmosphere at a low pressure. A waveguide background loss as low as 0.9 dB/cm has been achieved at 1.3 ?m. A strip-loaded waveguide structure is applied to fabricate the channel waveguides, with a minimized influence on Er luminescence properties. Finally, net gain of 4.1 dB at 1.535 ?m is measured for a 10 mm long waveguide with a launched pump power of 21 mW at 980 nm. The amplifying properties of the waveguide are modelled and the upconversion coefficient is determined to be 2.6×10-18 cm- 3/s, one of the lowest among the known Er host materials. Furthermore, the model shows that it is feasible to achieve an optical gain of more than 20 dB by increasing the waveguide length to 4.9 cm. In conclusion, a comprehensive study has been conducted on the development of an optical waveguide amplifier at 1.53 ?m, including material host optimization, device fabrication and optical characterization. The study is of great significance for optical telecommunication and other related areas.

Yan, Yingchao

1997-07-01

188

Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er : YAB single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er-doped VAB (YAl3(BO3)(4)) is a potential self-frequency-doubling laser material. Single crystals were grown by the top-seeded flux method. The absorption spectra of the infrared Er3+ transitions were monitored in YAB crystals in the 9-300 K temperature range by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. In the whole spectral range the energy levels and Stark components of 12 transitions were detectable. In this paper the two infrared transitions (from the I-4(15/2) ground state to the I-4(13/2) and I-4(11/2) levels) were analyzed in detail. The low temperature absorption spectra of Er:YAB consist of sharp lines, the number of which corresponds to the theoretical predictions. This suggests that Er3+ ions occupy one specific lattice site (yttrium positions) with negligible aggregation at the higher dopant concentrations investigated (i.e. 0.12 Er atom/YAB mole).

Foldvari, I.; Beregi, E.; Capelletti, R.; Baraldi, A.; Munoz, A.; Sosa, R.

2003-01-01

189

ER Ursae Majoris: A dwarf nova with surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ER Ursae Majoris is a relatively bright member of the SU UMa-type dwarf novae that undergoes frequent eruptions of amplitude ~2 mag every ~4 d. In addition to these ordinary dwarf-nova outbursts, ER UMa shows brighter eruptions (superoutbursts) lasting ~20 d with a recurrence time of ~44 d. As other members of the SU UMa class, ER UMa displays a characteristic periodic modulation (superhumps) in its light curve during the course of a superoutburst, the period being a few percent longer than the orbital period of the underlying binary system. A routine photometric patrol of ER UMa during its January 2011superoutburst became much more interesting after noticing the presence of an additional modulation in its light curve, with a period slightly shorter than the orbital period. Similar photometric waves (known as negative superhumps) have already been observed in other cataclysmic variables, mainly in nova-like systems, but only in a small handful of SU UMa-type stars during quiescence, and never before during a superoutburst. We report in this communication the results of a worldwide photometric campaign that was orchestrated right after the discovery of negative superhumps in ER UMa, and provide a thorough analysis of the data obtained from more than 10 stations of the Center of Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) network, which include more than 1000 hours of photometric data over a 4-month baseline on 2011, and a similar (still in progress) dense coverage in 2012.

de Miguel, Enrique; Patterson, Joe; Kemp, Jonathan; Stein, William; Roberts, George; Campbell, T.; Hambsch, Franz-J.; Krajci, Tom; Dvorak, Shawn; Koff, Robert A.; Morelle, Etienne; Potter, Michael; Cejudo, David; Brady, Steve; Menzies, Kenneth

2012-05-01

190

ER stress and hormetic regulation of the aging process.  

PubMed

An ability to mount a stress resistance under pressure is a major host defence mechanism and has been a fundamental force during evolution. However, the adaptation capacity clearly declines during aging and this loss of stress resistance accelerates the aging process exposing the organism to degenerative diseases. The effect of stress on organisms seems to be a dose-dependent response, i.e. mild stress induces a stress tolerance and extends the lifespan whereas excessive stress accentuates the aging process. This paradox is known as hormesis in aging research. It is essential to distinguish the intensity of cellular stress and thus mount an appropriate host defence. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains three branches of stress transducers, i.e. IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 pathways, all of which recognize stress-related disturbances in the function of ER. These transducers trigger a complex signaling network which activates an unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, ER stress transducers can distinguish the intensity of ER stress and induce a dose-dependent UPR, either adaptive response to stress or apoptotic cell death. The efficiency of the stress recognition system and UPR signaling declines during aging. We will discuss the role of ER stress in hormetic regulation of aging process and longevity. PMID:20416402

Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

2010-07-01

191

Synthesis and Characterization of Er-doped Si Nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the discovery of photoluminescence from porous Si, much attention has been paid to the application of Si to optoelectronic devices. Instead of porous Si, Si nanocrystals have become increasingly popular. Unlike porous Si, the size of Si nanocrystals is controllable and they have a specific shape, which can be used to control infrared radiation. Erbium is a common element used to dope SiO2 due to its specific emission wavelength. We have used a pyrolysis method to synthesize Er-doped Si nanocrystals, using disilane (Si_2H_6) and ErTMHD. The reaction temperature was 1000 ^0C. The silicon/erbium colloids were collected in ethylene glycol. After centrifugation, sonication and extraction, UV-vis spectroscopy shows an absorption tail. Conventional TEM has been employed to analyze the size distribution of the silicon clusters. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the structure, defects and size distribution of the nanocrystals. SADP demonstrates that the Si nanocrystals are the diamond cubic phase. XEDS composition analysis of the silicon clusters confirms the presence of Er quantitatively. No other Er-containing compounds were detected. Our results show that quantum-confined Er-doped Si nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized.

Chen, Yandong; Pinizzotto, R. F.; John, J.; Coffer, J.

1998-03-01

192

Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

193

The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.  

PubMed

Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortl

Weaver, D A

194

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

195

Microtensile bond strength analysis of adhesive systems to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin.  

PubMed

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments (control, diamond bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser) on sound dentin surface morphology and on microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Sixteen dentin fragments were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?4), and different surface treatments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Ninety-six third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n?=?12) according to type of surface treatment and adhesive system: G1 = Control + Clearfil SE Bond (SE); G2 = Control + Single Bond (SB); G3 = diamond bur (DB) + SE; G4 = DB + SB, G5 = Er:YAG laser (2.94 ?m, 60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/cm(2)) + SE; G6 = Er:YAG + SB, G7 = Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 ?m, 50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/cm(2)) + SE; and G8 = Er,Cr:YSGG + SB. Composite blocks were bonded to the samples, and after 24-h storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to ?TBS test. Bond strength values (in megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (??=?0.05). G1 (54.69?±?7.8 MPa) showed the highest mean, which was statistically significantly higher than all the other groups (p?Er,Cr:YSGG treatment, in which the systems did not differ statistically from each other. Based on the irradiation parameters considered in this study, it can be concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation presented lower values than the control group; however, their association with self-etching adhesive does not have a significantly negative effect on sound dentin (?TBS values of >20 MPa). PMID:23354743

Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Moretto, Simone Gonçalves; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

2014-03-01

196

Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 °C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 °C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 ?m related to 4I 13/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 ? 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 ? 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 ?m combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers indicate that these optical systems may be considered as promising materials for Er-doped optical amplifiers operating within third telecommunication window.

Lisiecki, Rados?aw; Augustyn, El?bieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; ?elechower, Micha?

2011-09-01

197

Optical characterization, luminescence properties of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses for broadband amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, optical absorption and emission spectra and luminescence decay lifetimes of different concentrations, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mol% of Er3+ and 0.1Er3+/0.5Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses (TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnONb2O5) were reported. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined and used to calculate spontaneous radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (?R), branching ratios (?) and stimulated emission cross-sections (?P) for certain emission transitions. NIR emission at 1.5?m and up-conversion spectra of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses were measured under excitation wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption, emission and gain cross-sections for 4I13/2?4I15/2 transition of Er3+ are determined. The peak emission cross-section of this transition is found to be higher (9.95×10-21 cm2) for 0.1 mol% of Er3+ and lower (6.81×10-21 cm2) for 1.0 mol% of Er3+ doped tellurite glasses, which is comparable to other oxide glasses. The larger peak emission cross-section for lower concentration of Er3+ is due to the high refractive index of glass matrix (2.1547), relation established from Judd-Ofelt theory. The observed full-widths at half maxima (FWHM) for lower and higher concentrations of Er3+ are 64nm and 96 nm respectively. The larger values of FWHM and peak emission cross-sections are potentially useful for optical amplification processes in the design of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFs). Under 980 nm excitation three strong up-conversion bands were observed at 530nm, 546nm and 665nm. The pump power dependent intensities and mechanisms involved in the up-conversion process have been studied. The luminescence decay profiles for 4I13/2 level were reported for all glass matrices.

Meruva, Seshadri; Carlos, Barbosa Luiz; Alberto Peres, Ferencz Junior Julio

2014-03-01

198

Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2008-11-11

199

Absorption Studies of the Er Ion Doped PLMNT and PLZT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel PLMNT opto-ceramics has recently been developed by a high-tech company in the field of electro-optic materials and devices; it is a breakthrough in and a milestone of the electro-optic technology and will lead a new generation of optical devices which would outperform any known devices in the field. Another material PLZT has been found in recent years to make outstanding optical devices such as VOA (Variable Optical Attentuator) used in optical communications. It will be very interesting to look at the Er ion doped PLMNT and PLZT for their potential light amplifier applications. In this presentation, we will report our absorption studies in these two brand new materials: Er:PLMNT and Er:PLZT. This research is the first work in their optical property studies. We believe that our results would be very helpful in their future applications in new optical devices.

Lortie, Leanne; Chen, Xuesheng

2002-10-01

200

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Disrupts Estrogen-Signaling through Up-Regulation of Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?)  

PubMed Central

?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that ?9-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17?-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from ?9-THC’s ability to inhibit E2-liganded ER? activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) ?9-THC up-regulates ER?, a repressor of ER?, inhibiting the expression of E2/ER?-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) ?9-THC induction of ER? modulates E2/ER? signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that ?9-THC’s antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ER? disruption of E2/ER? signaling.

Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Aramaki, Hironori

2014-01-01

201

Probing of local alloy disorder in InGaN using Er3+ ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on studies to probe the local lattice disorder in InGaN:Er epilayers using the 1.54 ?m emission of Er3+ ions. The InGaN layers were doped during MOCVD growth with Er to a concentration of about 2.3%. Site selective optical spectroscopy and excitation photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to show that in InGaN:Er two classes of the emitting Er centers can be distinguished: (i) one leading to emission of Er3+ which is nearly the same as in GaN:Er, except nonuniform broadening and (ii) another that yields new emission features not having its counterpart in GaN:Er. The latter emission is interpreted as originating from Er-complexes involving one or more In atoms in the second coordination sphere. The observed fluorescence line broadening and wavelength shifts in the emission wavelength indicate the extent of the disorder in the metallic sublattice.

Stachowicz, M.; Kozanecki, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J.

2014-08-01

202

Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ER ?-Mannosidase: A Reevaluation of the Role of the Enzyme on ER-associated Degradation  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that creation of Man8GlcNAc2 isomer B (M8B) by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ?-mannosidase I constitutes a signal for driving irreparably misfolded glycoproteins to proteasomal degradation. Contrary to a previous report, we were able to detect in vivo (but not in vitro) an extremely feeble ER ?-mannosidase activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The enzyme yielded M8B on degradation of Man9GlcNAc2 and was inhibited by kifunensin. Live S. pombe cells showed an extremely limited capacity to demannosylate Man9GlcNAc2 present in misfolded glycoproteins even after a long residence in the ER. In addition, no preferential degradation of M8B-bearing species was detected. Nevertheless, disruption of the ?-mannosidase encoding gene almost totally prevented degradation of a misfolded glycoprotein. This and other conflicting reports may be best explained by assuming that the role of ER mannosidase on glycoprotein degradation is independent of its enzymatic activity. The enzyme, behaving as a lectin binding polymannose glycans of varied structures, would belong together with its enzymatically inactive homologue Htm1p/Mnl1p/EDEM, to a transport chain responsible for delivering irreparably misfolded glycoproteins to proteasomes. Kifunensin and 1-deoxymannojirimycin, being mannose homologues, would behave as inhibitors of the ER mannosidase or/and Htm1p/Mnl1p/EDEM putative lectin properties.

Movsichoff, Federico; Castro, Olga A.; Parodi, Armando J.

2005-01-01

203

Elevated Oestrogen Receptor Splice Variant ER??5 Expression in Tumour-adjacent Hormone-responsive Tissue  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to prostate or endometrial cancer is linked with obesity, a state of oestrogen excess. Oestrogen receptor (ER) splice variants may be responsible for the tissue-level of ER activity. Such micro-environmental regulation may modulate cancer initiation and/or progression mechanisms. Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantitatively assess the levels of four ER splice variants (ER??3, ER??5, ER?2 and ER?5), plus the full-length parent isoforms ER? and ER?1, in high-risk [tumour-adjacent prostate (n = 10) or endometrial cancer (n = 9)] vs. low-risk [benign prostate (n = 12) or endometrium (n = 9)], as well as a comparison of UK (n = 12) vs. Indian (n = 15) benign prostate. All three tissue groups expressed the ER splice variants at similar levels, apart from ER??5. This splice variant was markedly raised in all of the tumour-adjacent prostate samples compared to benign tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis for ER?2 in prostate tissue demonstrated that such splice variants are present in comparable, if not greater, amounts as the parent full-length isoform. This small pilot study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of ER splice variants in these tissue sites and suggests that ER??5 may be involved in progression of prostate adenocarcinoma.

Taylor, Sian E.; Patel, Imran I.; Singh, Paras B.; Nicholson, Caroline M.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Gopala Krishna, R. K.; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

2010-01-01

204

Significance of ER-Src axis in hormonal therapy resistance  

PubMed Central

The estrogen receptor (ER) is implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Despite positive effects of hormonal therapy, initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently occurs. Recent studies suggested ER?-coregulator PELP1 and growth factor receptor ErbB2/HER2 play an essential role in hormonal therapy responsiveness. Src axis couples ER? with HER2 and PELP1, thus representing a new pathway for targeted therapy resistance. To establish the significance of ER–Src axis in PELP1 and HER2 mediated therapy resistance, we have generated model cells that stably express Src-shRNA under conditions of PELP1, HER2 deregulation. Depletion of Src using shRNA substantially reduced E2 mediated activation of Src and MAPK activation in resistant model cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src using dasatinib, an orally available inhibitor substantially inhibited the growth of therapy resistant MCF7–PELP1, MCF7–HER2, and MCF7–Tam model cells in proliferation assays. In post-menopausal xenograft based studies, treatment with dasatinib significantly inhibited the growth of therapy resistant cells. IHC analysis revealed that the tumors were ER? positive, and dasatinib treated tumors exhibited alterations in Src and MAPK signaling pathways. Combinatorial therapy of tamoxifen with dasatinib showed better therapeutic effect compared to single agent therapy on the growth of therapy resistant PELP1 driven tumors. The results from our study showed that ER–Src axis play an important role in promoting hormonal resistance by protooncogenes such as HER2, PELP1, and blocking this axis prevents the development of hormonal independence in vivo. Since PELP1, HER2, and Src kinase are commonly deregulated in breast cancers, combination therapies using both endocrine agents and dasatinib may have better therapeutic effect by delaying the development of hormonal resistance.

Vallabhaneni, Sreeram; Nair, Binoj C.; Cortez, Valerie; Challa, Rambabu; Chakravarty, Dimple; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.

2011-01-01

205

Passively Q-switched resonantly pumped Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary investigation of the passively Q-switched resonantly pumped Er:YAG laser system operating at wavelength 1645 nm has been performed. The output characteristics of the designed and constructed laser, i.e., the output energy, temporal profile, and spatial beam structure were registered. The Er:YAG laser crystals longitudinally pulse-pumped by Erbium glass laser radiation (repetition rate 0.5 Hz, wavelength 1535 nm) were investigated. The passive Q-switch was a Co:MALO (Co2+:MgAl2O4) crystal. To optimize the system, three Er:YAG crystals with various in Erbium/Yttrium concentration and length were studied in the free-running regime. The curved pumping mirror of linear hemispherical oscillator had a high transmittance at the pumping wavelength and maximal reflectance at the generating wavelength around 1645 nm. The output flat dielectric coupler reflectance was 90 % at 1645 nm. Out of the three Er:YAG active laser crystals, the best output characteristics in free running regime were reached for the medium with Er3+ concentration 0.2 at.% Er/Y and length 25 mm. For the Q-switching, three saturable absorbers Co:MALO with various length, that is various transmission, were investigated. These crystals had no anti-reflection layer and were placed between the active crystal and output mirror. The laser resonator length was 162 mm. For an incident pump energy of 131 mJ, the 1.6 mJ Q-switched single pulse energy with 58 ns pulse duration (FWHM) was obtained. The corresponding peak power was 28 kW. The spatial beam structure was close to the fundamental profile.

Nemec, Michal; Jelínkova, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

2010-04-01

206

Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science degree in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1979. He has accumulated more than 5,800 hours of flying time over a period of 33 years and is currently the oldest active U-2/ER-2 pilot.

1998-01-01

207

Ferromagnetism in ErTi2Ga4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of an intermetallic compound ErTi2Ga4 with the tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure was investigated. The magnetic measurements on the poly- and single crystalline specimens have shown that the compound is a ferromagnet with Tc of 10 K and the ordered magnetic moment (µ=9 µB/f.u.) parallel to the a-axis. It was found also that the magnetic isotherms of polycrystalline ErTi2Ga4 do not obey the Arrot's relationship (linearity between M2 and H/M), which suggests that the coupling of the moment fluctuation is quite weak in this system.

Abe, Hideki; Yoshii, Kenji; Kitazawa, Hideaki

2001-10-01

208

Decay of 170Ho Isomers to Levels in 170Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta- and gamma-rays emitted in the decay of 170Ho isomers have been studied with Ge(Li), NaI(Tl) and plastic detectors. Sources were prepared by the 170Er(n, p)170Ho reaction with about 15 MeV neutrons. Fifty gamma-rays have been observed and thirty-six of them are assigned to the 170Er level scheme including seven new levels at 1010.5, 1217.3, 1900.5, 1982.6, 2039.3, 2684.8 and

Kiyoshi Kawade; Akira Hiei; Hiroshi Yamamoto; Susumu Amemiya; Toshio Katoh

1974-01-01

209

Topographic mapping from ERS-1 and SEASAT radar interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radar interferometric technique for topographic mapping of surfaces yields a high resolution, globally consistent approach to generation of digital elevation models. The technique is illustrated with maps generated from SEASAT and European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) data. A SEASAT interferometric image of a forested area which includes some unvegetated lava flows is analyzed. An analysis of errors expected from application of the technique to maps generated from ERS-1 data is presented. An orbital scenario for a global mapping mission is outlined.

Zebker, Howard A.; Villasenor, John; Madsen, Soren N.

1992-01-01

210

Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

Spangler, Lee H.

1994-01-01

211

Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

Spangler, Lee H.

1994-12-01

212

Decay studies of 215-217Th using ER- ?- ?- ? coincidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay of 215-217Th was investigated by ER-?-?-? coincidence measurements. The nuclei were produced by the reaction 170Er(50Ti, xn)220-xTh. Evaporation residues recoiling out of the target were separated in flight by the velocity filter SHIP and stopped in a position-sensitive 16-strip PIPS-detector in order to study their subsequent decays. Associated ?-rays were detected by a fourfold Ge-Clover detector. In the present work we extracted new and improved data for 215-217Th including isomeric decays. The results are discussed and compared to previously published data.

Kuusiniemi, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Sulignano, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Mann, R.

2005-09-01

213

High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 ?s combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.

2011-02-01

214

ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

2011-12-01

215

Vaaisible upconversion emission of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped LiInO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-indium oxide is a high-density (5.9 g·cm-3), wide band-gap semiconductor with promising applications for scintillating detection of solar neutrinos as well as for efficient phosphorescence when doped with Er3+ or Sm3+ ions. In this report, we demonstrate visible upconversion emission of Er3+-doped LiInO2 synthesized by a simple solid-state chemistry procedure and discuss mechanisms responsible for pumping the Er3+ ions to upper levels. Intense upconversion emission is observed in the green and red spectral regions under near-infrared excitation, and it is greatly enhanced by co-doping with Yb3+ ions. We also examined the upconversion intensity change as a function of temperature, and, consequently, possible applications of this material as a low-temperature sensor.

Dja?anin, Ljubica R.; Drami?anin, Miroslav D.; Luki?-Petrovi?, Svetlana R.; Petrovi?, Dragoslav M.; Nikoli?, Marko G.

2012-04-01

216

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

Greg Ruskauff

2011-12-01

217

Calumenin has a role in the alleviation of ER stress in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis causes ER stress (ERS), and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) that consequently reduces accumulation of unfolded proteins by increasing the quantity of ER chaperones. Calumenin, a Ca(2+)-binding protein with multiple EF hand motifs, which is located in the ER/SR, is highly expressed during the early developmental stage of the heart, similar to other ER-resident chaperones. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of calumenin during ERS in the heart. Like other chaperones (e.g., GRP94 and GRP78), calumenin expression was highly upregulated during ERS induced by 10 ?g/ml tunicamycin, but attenuated in the presence of 500 ?M PBA, the chemical chaperone in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). Upon 7.5-fold overexpression of calumenin using a recombinant adenovirus system, the expression levels of ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-elF2?) and ER-initiated apoptosis markers (CHOP and p-JNK) were reduced, whereas the survival protein BCL-2 was upregulated during ERS compared to the control. Evaluation of cell viability by TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was also significantly reduced by calumenin overexpression in ERS-induced cells. Taken together, our results suggest that calumenin plays an essential role in the alleviation of ERS in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. PMID:24012670

Lee, Joo Hee; Kwon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Han

2013-09-27

218

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard...

2004-01-01

219

Activation of PERK signaling attenuates Abeta-mediated ER stress.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity still remain unknown. Here, we show that treatment of Abeta triggers the UPR in the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Abeta mediated UPR pathway accompanies the activation of protective pathways such as Grp78/Bip and PERK-eIF2alpha pathway, as well as the apoptotic pathways of the UPR such as CHOP and caspase-4. Knockdown of PERK enhances Abeta neurotoxicity through reducing the activation of eIF2alpha and Grp8/Bip in neurons. Salubrinal, an activator of the eIF2alpha pathway, significantly increased the Grp78/Bip ER chaperone resulted in attenuating caspase-4 dependent apoptosis in Abeta treated neurons. These results indicate that PERK-eIF2alpha pathway is a potential target for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. PMID:20463975

Lee, Do Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Do Hee; Noh, Yoo Hun; Yu, Kweon; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Jun Young; Youn, Young Chul; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Kim, Dae Kyong; Lee, Won Bok; Kim, Sung Su

2010-01-01

220

Excitation and deexcitation of Er31 in crystalline silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependent measurements of the 1.54 mm photoluminescence of Er implanted N codoped crystalline Si are made. Upon increasing the temperature from 12 to 150 K, the intens- ity quenches by more than a factor thousand, while the lifetime quenches from 420 to 3 ms. The quenching processes are described by an impurity Auger energy transfer model that includes bound

P. G. Kik; M. J. A. de Dood; K. Kikoin; A. Polman

221

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

222

Development status of the ERS-1 SAR antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10 m x 1 m planar array antenna for the ERS-1 satellite is described. It features metallized CFRP waveguides as radiating elements and feeding network components, CFRP sandwich reinforcements of the mechanical panels, a deployable truss structure, and mechanism for launch fixation, release, and deployment. Mechanical design of the antenna structure towards satisfactory dynamic properties in launch configuration within

R. Wagner; H. J. Luhmann; R. Sippel; M. Westphal

1986-01-01

223

ERS 1: Surface Wind Ambiguity Removal by Objective Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objective methods, to be applied in real-time within 3 hr of the observation time, in order to deliver unambiguous ERS-1 surface winds to the user community are discussed. A method independent of any external information such as a first guess, a method us...

F. Delsol E. Hellsten

1986-01-01

224

Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (-6 km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles

David T. Sandwell; Walter H. F. Smith

1997-01-01

225

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

NONE

1998-02-01

226

Intercomparison of ERS-2 and QuikSCAT winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since June 1999, two satellite scatterometers are operational. The European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) scatterometer and the NASA Seawind scatterometer onboard the QuikSCAT satellite, provide estimation of surface wind vectors with high spatial and temporal resolutions, using different frequencies and resolution configurations. The paper presents the intercomparison between measurements inferred from the two sensors. On average, the two wind vectors

A. Bentamy; E. Autret; P. Queffeulou; Y. Quilfen

2000-01-01

227

Genetic Variants in ER Cofactor Genes and Endometrial Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

Given that the transcriptional regulatory activity of estrogen receptor (ER) is modulated by its biochemical cofactors, genetic variation within the ER cofactor genes may alter cellular response to estrogen exposure and consequently modify the risk for endometrial cancer. We genotyped 685 tagging SNPs within 60 ER cofactor genes in 564 endometrial cancer cases and 1,510 controls from Sweden, and tested their associations with the risk of endometrial cancer. We investigated the associations of individual SNPs by using a trend test as well as multiple SNPs within a gene or gene complex by using multi-variant association analysis. No significant association was observed for any individual SNPs or genes, but a marginal association of the cumulative genetic variation of the NCOA2 complex as a whole (NCOA2, CARM1, CREBBP, PRMT1 and EP300) with endometrial cancer risk was observed (Padjusted?=?0.033). However, the association failed to be replicated in an independent European dataset of 1265 cases and 5190 controls (P?=?0.71). The results indicate that common genetic variants within ER cofactor genes are unlikely to play a significant role in endometrial cancer risk in European population.

Li, Yuqing; Low, Hui-Qi; Foo, Jia Nee; Darabi, Hatef; Einarsd?ttir, Kristjana; Humphreys, Keith; Spurdle, Amanda; Easton, Douglas F.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Czene, Kamila; Chia, Kee Seng; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun

2012-01-01

228

Technological Process Control Computer System ER-II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nomenclature of the general purpose process control system ER-2 is reviewed with the detailed justification of the technical and economic reasons for the choice of the particular units of the system. The considerations are carried out on the transfer ...

A. Davor G. Vladimir M. Bozidar S. Adnan

1971-01-01

229

Change detection techniques for ERS-1 SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques for detecting temporal changes in satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are compared, using both theoretical predictions and spaceborne SAR data collected by the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. In a first set of techniques, changes are detected based on differences in the magnitude of the signal intensity between two dates. Ratioing of the multidate radar intensities is

Eric J. M. Rignot; Jakob J. van Zyl

1993-01-01

230

High-Performance 1645-nm Er: YAG Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency and output of the resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er: AYG laser at 1645 nm using 0.25% doped crystal out-performed the 0.5% doped crystal. in addition to the reported decrease in efficiency because of cooperative up conversion, a significant ...

D. Chen M. Birnbaum S. M. Beck T. S. Rose

2007-01-01

231

Flexible waveguides for Er-YAG laser radiation delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible plastic waveguides (FPW) were devised for the delivery of Er-YAG laser radiation. The FPW characteristics were studied under various conditions. In vitro studies were carried out to explore the drilling procedure on extracted teeth and the FPW-tissue mutual effects. The results which were obtained proved that the FPW as a delivery device might be a substitute hand applicator for

Israel Gannot; S. Schrunder; Jacob Dror; A. Inberg; Thomas Ertl; Johannes Tschepe; Gerhard J. Muller; Nathan Croitoru

1995-01-01

232

Laser treatment of enamel and dentine by different Er lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of primary comparative investigation of possible application of lasers based on four different Er-doped crystals (YAG, YLF, YSGG, YAP) are presented. The influence of laser wavelength and temporal structure of laser radiation on efficiency of hard tooth tissues treatment is considered. The experimental data on damage thresholds and efficiency of enamel and dentine removal under influence of submillisecond

Grigori B. Altshuler; Andrey V. Belikov; Andrey V. Erofeev

1994-01-01

233

Estrogen Alleviates Acetic Acid-Induced Gastric or Colonic Damage via Both ER?- and ER?-Mediated and Direct Antioxidant Mechanisms in Rats.  

PubMed

In order to demonstrate the possible protective effects of estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER? receptor subtypes in the pathogenesis of colonic and gastric oxidant damage, experimental ulcer and colitis were induced by acetic acid, and the animals were randomly divided as colitis, ulcer, and their corresponding non-ulcer and non-colitis control groups. Each group of rats was treated intramuscularly with the vehicle, selective ER? agonist propylpyrazole-triol (1 mg/kg), ER? agonist diarylpropionitrile (1 mg/kg), non-selective ER agonist 17? estradiol (E2; 1 mg/kg), or E2 plus non-selective ER antagonist ICI-182780 (1 mg/kg). The results revealed that induction of ulcer or colitis resulted in systemic inflammation as assessed by increased levels of plasma TNF-? and IL-6 levels. In both tissues, the presence of oxidant damage was verified by histological analysis and elevated myleoperoxidase activity. In the colitis and ulcer groups, both ER agonists and the non-selective E2 reversed the oxidative damage in a similar manner. These findings indicate that estrogen acts via both ER?- and ER?-mediated and direct antioxidant mechanisms, where both ER subtypes play equal and efficient roles in the anti-inflammatory action of estrogen, in limiting the migration of neutrophils to the inflamed tissue, reducing the release and activation of cytokines and thereby alleviating tissue damage. PMID:24323397

Kumral, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir; Memi, Gülsün; Ercan, Feriha; Ye?en, Berrak C

2014-06-01

234

HDLs protect the MIN6 insulinoma cell line against tunicamycin-induced apoptosis without inhibiting ER stress and without restoring ER functionality.  

PubMed

HDLs protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis induced by several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, including thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate and insulin over-expression. This protection is mediated by the capacity of HDLs to maintain proper ER morphology and ER functions such as protein folding and trafficking. Here, we identified a distinct mode of protection exerted by HDLs in beta cells challenged with tunicamycin (TM), a protein glycosylation inhibitor inducing ER stress. HDLs were found to inhibit apoptosis induced by TM in the MIN6 insulinoma cell line and this correlated with the maintenance of a normal ER morphology. Surprisingly however, this protective response was neither associated with a significant ER stress reduction, nor with restoration of protein folding and trafficking in the ER. These data indicate that HDLs can use at least two mechanisms to protect beta cells against ER stressors. One that relies on the maintenance of ER function and one that operates independently of ER function modulation. The capacity of HDLs to activate several anti-apoptotic pathways in beta cells may explain their ability to efficiently protect these cells against a variety of insults. PMID:23994023

Puyal, Julien; Pétremand, Jannick; Dubuis, Gilles; Rummel, Coralie; Widmann, Christian

2013-12-01

235

Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precision images (PRI) of the synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean. For calculation of the wind speed the C-band model (CMOD4) is used, which was originally developed by Stoffelen and Anderson [1993] for the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive wind fields from measurements of the wind scatterometer (SCAT). In the case of the ERS-1/2 SAR the CMOD4 is used to compute the wind speed from the normalized radar backscatter cross section (NRCS) and the incidence angle of the radar beam, both computed from the SAR.PRI data. The third input variable is the wind direction, which is estimated from the wind streaks in the images or from ground truth measurements. The SAR data are affected by a power loss, caused by saturation of the analog to digital converter (ADC) of the SAR. Therefore the images have to be recalibrated. Errors in the derived wind speed are mainly due to ADC saturation and uncertainties of the input wind direction. These errors are estimated for various wind conditions. Mesoscale wind fields computed from ERS-1/2 SAR.PRI images taken between the Shetland Islands and the west coast of Norway are compared to ground truth measurements and modeled wind fields from the German weather service (DWD). Wind fields of the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model Geesthacht simulation model of the atmosphere (GESIMA) are compared to the derived wind field of the ERS-1 SAR.PRI image at the island Rügen in the Baltic Sea.

Lehner, S.; Horstmann, J.; Koch, W.; Rosenthal, W.

1998-04-01

236

78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release...has determined that METADATE ER (methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCl)) extended-release...new drug applications (ANDAs) for methylphenidate HCl extended-release tablet,...

2013-07-05

237

Hormonal Resistance And Metastasis ER-Coregulartor-Src Signaling Targeted Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estrogen receptor (ER) is implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Despite positive effects of hormonal therapy, initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently occurs. To establish the significance of ER-Src axis in PELP1 and ...

R. Vadlamudi

2011-01-01

238

NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation shows views of the ER-2, NASA's Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing. The presentation briefly reviews the successes of the ER-2, and what the facility provides.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

239

76 FR 33030 - Agency Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity Under OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/ er) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Information from Remarried Widow/er, VA Form 21-4103. OMB Control Number: 2900-0038....

2011-06-07

240

76 FR 15053 - Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection (Information From Remarried Widow/er) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...information technology. Title: Information from Remarried Widow/er, VA Form 21-4103. OMB Control Number: 2900-0038....

2011-03-18

241

ER?1 expression is regulated by miR-92 in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

ER?1 downregulation occurs in many breast cancers but the responsible molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that levels of ER?1 expression are negatively regulated by the microRNA miR-92. Expression analysis in a cohort of primary breast tumours confirmed a significant negative correlation between miR-92 and both ER?1 mRNA and protein. Inhibition of miR-92 in MCF-7 cells increased ER?1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas miR-92 overexpression led to ER?1 downregulation. Reporter constructs containing candidate miR-92 binding sites in the 3?-UTR of ER?1 suggested by bioinformatics analysis confirmed that miR-92 downregulated ER?1 via direct targeting of its 3?-UTR. Our results define a potentially important mechanism for downregulation of ER?1 expression in breast cancer.

Al-Nakhle, H; Burns, PA; Cummings, M; Hanby, AM; Hughes, TA; Satheesha, S; Shaaban, AM; Smith, L; Speirs, V

2010-01-01

242

Cell Cycle Regulatory Roles of ER-Alpha in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The roles of estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER) in normal mammary gland development and in transformation to a tumor phenotype have been extensively studied. However, although the cumulative data suggests an important role for ER in breast cancer, the fu...

S. Kamrani

2007-01-01

243

GM1-ganglioside accumulation at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes links ER stress to Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitochondria-associated ER membranes or MAMs define the sites of endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondria juxtaposition that control Ca2+ flux between these organelles. We found that in a mouse model of the human lysosomal storage disease GM1-gangliosidosis, GM1-ganglioside accumulates in the glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) fractions of MAMs, where it interacts with the phosphorylated form of IP3 receptor-1, influencing the activity of this channel. Ca2+ depleted from the ER is then taken up by the mitochondria, leading to Ca2+ overload in this organelle. The latter induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), opening of the permeability transition pore and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study identifies the GEMs as the sites of Ca2+ diffusion between the ER and the mitochondria. We propose a new mechanism of Ca2+-mediated apoptotic signalling, whereby GM1 accumulation at the GEMs alters Ca2+ dynamics and acts as a molecular effector of both ER stress–induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of neuronal cells.

Sano, Renata; Annunziata, Ida; Patterson, Annette; Moshiach, Simon; Gomero, Elida; Opferman, Joseph; Forte, Michael; d'Azzo, Alessandra

2009-01-01

244

Activating transcription factor 4, an ER stress mediator, is required for, but excessive ER stress suppresses osteoblastogenesis by bortezomib.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in matrix-producing osteoblasts and plays an essential role in osteoblastogenesis. Although the bone anabolic activity of proteasome inhibitors has been demonstrated, the roles of ER stress induced by proteasome inhibition in osteoblastogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we show that bortezomib translationally increases protein levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a downstream mediator of ER stress, in bone marrow stromal cells and MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells. The suppression of ATF4 expression by siRNA abrogated osteocalcin expression and mineralized nodule formation by MC3T3-E1 cells induced by bortezomib, indicating a critical role for ATF4 in bortezomib-mediated osteoblastogenesis. However, bortezomib at 20 nM or higher abolished the mineralized nodule formation along with reductions in the expression of osteoblastogenesis mediators ?-catenin and Osterix. Furthermore, at 50 nM, bortezomib induced the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting activation of the ATF4-CHOP pro-apoptotic pathway. These results suggest that a low dose of bortezomib induces osteogenic activity, but that, in contrast, excessive ER stress caused by bortezomib at higher doses hampers osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, dosing schedules for proteasome inhibitors warrant further study to maximize anabolic actions without compromising anti-MM activity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). PMID:23708974

Nakamura, Shingen; Miki, Hirokazu; Kido, Shinsuke; Nakano, Ayako; Hiasa, Masahiro; Oda, Asuka; Amou, Hiroe; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Harada, Takeshi; Fujii, Shiro; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Kagawa, Kumiko; Ozaki, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

2013-07-01

245

Two-quasiproton states in 168Er studied by the 169Tm( overlinet, ?) 168Er reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 169Tm( overlinet, ?) 168Er reaction has been studied using 17 MeV polarized tritons from the Los Alamos National Laboratory tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The ?-spectra were analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrometer. The overall energy resolution was typically 15 keV (FHWM) and angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were obtained for levels up to 2.7 MeV. The fact that spins and parities for all levels up to ? 2 MeV were previously known from an extensive series of (n, ?) studies made it possible to determine specific two-quasiproton structures for many bands from the present results. The K? = 2 + ?-vibrational band was found to have a large {3}/{2}+ [411] p + {1}/{2}+[411] p admixture, consistent with the predicted microscopic composition of this phonon, but no {5}/{2}[413] p - {1}/{2}+ [411] p component was observed. The K? = 0 4+ band at 1833 keV has ˜ 25% of the {1}/{2}+ [411] p - {1}/{2}+[411] p two-quasiproton strength. This is in excellent agreement with the Soloviev model but is inconsistent with the interacting boson model, in which the K? = 0 4+ band is composed almost completely of multiphonon configurations that should not be populated in a single-nucleon transfer reaction. The K ? = 4 -, {7}/{2}-[523] p + {1}/{2}+ [411] p two-quasiproton and the K ? = 4 -, {7}/{2}+[633] n + {1}/{2}-[521] n two-quasineutron states are mixed strongly with each other, but the two K? = 3 - bands composed of antiparallel couplings of the same particles are not. A good qualitative explanation of this mixing pattern is provided in terms of the effective neutron-proton interaction.

Burke, D. G.; Davidson, W. F.; Cizewski, J. A.; Brown, Ronald E.; Sunier, J. W.

1985-11-01

246

New Er-based materials for active magnetic refrigeration below 20K  

SciTech Connect

High magnetic field (0 to 9.85 T) low temperature (1.2 to 30 K) heat capacity of five as-cast alloys: Er{sub 3}AlC, Er{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5}, Er{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.25}, Er{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.1} and ErAgGa revealed that four of them can be used as efficient active magnetic regenerators for magnetic refrigerators at low temperature. Only one of the carbide phases (Er{sub 3}AlC) is a single phase material, while the remaining three alloys are found to be two-phase equilibrium mixtures of Er{sub 3}AlC and Er{sub 2}Al. Er{sub 3}AlC probably orders antiferromagnetically, and ErAgGa forms a low temperature ({approximately}3 to {approximately}5 K) non-magnetic atom disorder (NMAD) spin glass system. All alloys (except Er{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.1}) show a sufficiently high magnetocaloric effect in a range 4 to 20 K with a maximum adiabatic temperature rise of {approximately}12.5 K at {approximately}5 K for Er{sub 3}AlC for magnetic field change from 0 to 7.5 T. In the carbides series, the maximum adiabatic temperature change gradually decreases from {approximately}12.5 K to {approximately}6 K and the magnetocaloric peak temperature increases from {approximately}5 K to {approximately}9 K with decreasing carbon content. The adiabatic temperature rise for the ErAgGa is {approximately}10% higher and covers a wider range of useful temperatures than that of the {approximately}50:50 mixture of Er{sub 3}AlC and Er{sub 2}Al (Er{sub 3}AlC{sub 0.5}).

Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Zimm, C.B. [Astronautics Corp. of America, Madison, WI (United States)

1997-06-01

247

Polybasic Trafficking Signal Mediates Golgi Export, ER Retention or ER Export and Retrieval Based on Membrane-Proximity  

PubMed Central

Trafficking of integral membrane proteins between the ER and Golgi complex, and protein sorting and trafficking between the TGN and endosomal/lysosomal compartments or plasma membranes, are dependent on cis-acting, linear amino acid sorting signals. Numerous sorting signals of this type have been identified in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins, several of which rely on basic residues. A novel Golgi export signal that relies on a membrane-proximal polybasic motif (PBM) was recently identified in the reptilian reovirus p14 protein, a representative of an unusual group of bitopic fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins encoded by fusogenic orthoreoviruses and responsible for cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, cell surface immunofluorescence, and endoglycosidase H assays, we now show the p14 PBM can mediate several distinct trafficking functions depending on its proximity to the transmembrane domain (TMD). When present within 4-residues of the TMD it serves as a Golgi export signal, but when located at the C-terminus of the 68-residue p14 cytoplasmic endodomain it functions as an ER retention signal. The PBM has no effect on protein trafficking when located at an internal position in the cytoplasmic domain. When present in both membrane-proximal and -distal locations, the PBMs promote export to, and efficient retrieval from, the Golgi complex. Interestingly, the conflicting trafficking signals provided by two PBMs induces extensive ER tubulation and segregation of ER components. These studies highlight how a single trafficking signal in a simple transmembrane protein can have remarkably diverse, position-dependent effects on protein trafficking and ER morphogenesis.

Duncan, Roy

2014-01-01

248

Small regulators, major consequences - Ca²? and cholesterol at the endosome-ER interface.  

PubMed

The ER is the largest cellular compartment and a major storage site for lipids and ions. In recent years, much attention has focused on contacts between the ER and other organelles, and one particularly intimate relationship is that between the ER and the endosomal system. ER-endosome contacts intensify when endosomes mature, and the ER participates in endosomal processes, such as the termination of surface receptor signaling, multi-vesicular body formation, and transport and fusion events. Cholesterol and Ca(2+) are transferred between the ER and endosomes, possibly acting as messengers for ER-endosome crosstalk. Here, we summarize different types of ER-endosomal communication and discuss membrane contact sites that might facilitate this crosstalk. We review the protein pairs that interact at the ER-endosome interface and find that many of these have a role in cholesterol exchange. We also summarize Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and endosomes, and hypothesize that ER-endosome contacts integrate several cellular functions to guide endosomal maturation. We post the hypothesis that failure in ER-endosome contacts is an unrecognized but important contributor to diseases, such as Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24554437

van der Kant, Rik; Neefjes, Jacques

2014-03-01

249

Multiple mechanisms determine ER network morphology during the cell cycle in Xenopus egg extracts  

PubMed Central

In metazoans the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) changes during the cell cycle, with the nuclear envelope (NE) disassembling and reassembling during mitosis and the peripheral ER undergoing extensive remodeling. Here we address how ER morphology is generated during the cell cycle using crude and fractionated Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We show that in interphase the ER is concentrated at the microtubule (MT)-organizing center by dynein and is spread by outward extension of ER tubules through their association with plus ends of growing MTs. Fusion of membranes into an ER network is dependent on the guanosine triphosphatase atlastin (ATL). NE assembly requires fusion by both ATL and ER-soluble N-ethyl-maleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors. In mitotic extracts, the ER converts into a network of sheets connected by ER tubules and loses most of its interactions with MTs. Together, these results indicate that fusion of ER membranes by ATL and interaction of ER with growing MT ends and dynein cooperate to generate distinct ER morphologies during the cell cycle.

Wang, Songyu; Romano, Fabian B.; Field, Christine M.

2013-01-01

250

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.61 Who is...

2013-04-01

251

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.65 Who is an...

2010-04-01

252

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.61 Who is...

2010-04-01

253

20 CFR 220.30 - Special period required for eligibility of widow(er)s.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. 220.30 Section 220.30 Employees...period required for eligibility of widow(er)s. In order to be found disabled for any regular employment, a widow(er) must have a permanent physical or...

2013-04-01

254

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218...Annuity Ends § 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When a widow(er)'s annuity is based on age, the...

2013-04-01

255

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61 Section 216.61 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.61 Who is...

2009-04-01

256

20 CFR 216.65 - Who is an employee's widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Who is an employee's widow(er). 216.65 Section 216.65 Employees...RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.65 Who is an...

2009-04-01

257

20 CFR 218.17 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. 218.17 Section 218...Begins § 218.17 When a remarried widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A remarried widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either...

2013-04-01

258

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218... § 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age. When the remarried widow(er) annuity is based on age, the...

2013-04-01

259

20 CFR 218.13 - When a widow(er) annuity begins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true When a widow(er) annuity begins. 218.13 Section 218.13...an Annuity Begins § 218.13 When a widow(er) annuity begins. (a) A widow(er) annuity begins on the later of either the...

2013-04-01

260

20 CFR 222.24 - Relationship as remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Relationship as remarried widow(er). 222.24 Section 222.24 Employees...Surviving Divorced Spouse, or Remarried Widow(er) § 222.24 Relationship as remarried widow(er). (a) New eligibility. A...

2013-04-01

261

Rice crops monitoring in the Mekong river delta using combined ERS and RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary findings on the use of combined ERS and RADARSAT SAR images in rice crops monitoring is described in this paper. ERS and RADARSAT (S6 mode) images of the Mekong river delta during the rice seasons in 1997 were used. Different growth stages of rice can be identified in the ERS-RADARSAT false colour composite images

S. C. Liew; P. Chen; S. P. Kam; T. P. Tuong; V. Q. Minh; H. Lim

1998-01-01

262

Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), chemical chaperone, enhances function of islets by reducing ER stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure to acute or chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been known to induce dysfunction of islets, leading to apoptosis. The reduction of ER stress in islet isolation for transplantation is critical for islet protection. In this study, we investigated whether tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) could inhibit ER stress induced by thapsigargin, and restore the decreased glucose stimulation index of islets.

Yeon Yi Lee; Shin Hee Hong; Ye Jin Lee; Sung Soo Chung; Hye Seung Jung; Sang Gyu Park; Kyong Soo Park

2010-01-01

263

Characterisation of human oestrogen receptor beta (ER?) splice variants in neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Oestrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? are members of the ligand-activated superfamily of nuclear receptors and mediate most facets of oestrogen signalling. Several naturally occurring splice variants of each ER have been identified in the human brain, yet the biological significance of these splice variants in the brain remains unknown. In the present study, we exploit the unique structural differences of the human ER? splice variants to determine the functional significance of individual ER domains in the brain. We previously established that full-length rodent ER? (i.e. rER?1) has constitutive transcriptional activity in neuronal cells in the absence of ligand. By contrast to the rodent splice variants, the human ER? splice variants used in the present study contain varying length truncations of exon 8, which encodes for the E/F domains. Our results reveal that, in neuronal cells, each human-specific ER? splice variant constitutively activated promoters mediated by a canonical oestrogen response element and repressed promoters mediated by activator protein-1 sites via p38 activity. From these data, we conclude that the C-terminus, encoding the AF-2 region and F domain, is not essential for the constitutive properties of human ER?. Taken together, these studies show that human-specific ER? variants are constitutively active and also provide novel insight into the contributions of the functional domains of ER? towards mediating constitutive transcription at various promoters in neuronal cells. PMID:22577883

Mott, N N; Pak, T R

2012-10-01

264

Power Scaling of Resonantly Cladding-Pumped, Yb-Free, Er-Doped LMA Fiber Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the recent major efforts in power scaling of resonantly cladding-pumped Yb-free Er fiber lasers are presented. Commercially available Yb-free Er-doped large mode area Er60-20/125 (LMA) DC fibers were tested in two regimes: (i), as a booster...

I. Kudryashov, J. Zhang, M. Dubinskii

2009-01-01

265

The EDOP Radar System on the High-Altitude NASA ER2 Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA ER-2 high-altitude ( 20 km) aircraft that emulates a satellite view of precipitation systems carries a variety of passive and active ( lidar ) remote sensing instruments. A new Doppler weather radar system at X band ( 9.6 GHz ) called the ER-2 Doppler radar ( EDOP ) has been developed and flown on the ER-2 aircraft. EDOP

Gerald M. Heymsfield; Steven W. Bidwell; I. Jeff Caylor; Syed Ameen; Shaun Nicholson; Wayne Boncyk; Lee Miller; Doug Vandemark; Paul E. Racette; Louis R. Dod

1996-01-01

266

Electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate gate dielectric formed by interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate film formed by the interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films. The increase in rapid thermal annealing temperature leads to the reduction of the interface trap density by one order of magnitude, indicating the improvement in the interface quality of Er-silicate gate dielectric. The increased capacitance value of Er-silicate gate dielectric with thermal treatment is attributed in part to the reduction of SiO{sub 2} thickness and to the increase in the relative dielectric constant of Er-silicate film caused by the chemical bonding change from Si-rich to Er-rich silicate.

Choi, Chel-Jong; Jang, Moon-Gyu; Kim, Yark-Yeon; Jun, Myung-Sim; Kim, Tae-Youb; Song, Myeong-Ho [IT Convergence Technology Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-02

267

Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material.

Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

2012-01-01

268

Androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-?) expression in the testis of the newt, Triturus marmoratus marmoratus during the annual cycle  

PubMed Central

Expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) and estrogen receptor beta (ER-?) in the testis of the marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus marmoratus) was investigated, with special attention to changes during the annual testicular cycle, using light microscopy immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Primordial germ cells, primary and secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes showed a positive reaction to the 3 receptor antibodies during the annual reproductive cycle. Follicular cells were positive to AR, ER-? and ER-? during the spermiogenesis and quiescence periods in the glandular tissue. Interstitial cells showed reactivity to AR, ER-? and ER-? in the spermiogenesis and the quiescence periods, and presented no labelling to these receptors in the proliferative period. These findings suggest that, as in mammals, there is an androgen-estrogen regulation of the function and development of the newt testis.

ARENAS, M. I.; ROYUELA, M.; LOBO, M. V. T.; ALFARO, J. M.; FRAILE, B.; PANIAGUA, R.

2001-01-01

269

ER membrane protein complex required for nuclear fusion  

PubMed Central

Diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae form after the mating of two haploid cells of the opposite mating type. After fusion of the two plasma membranes of the mating cells, a dinucleated cell forms initially in which the two haploid nuclei then rapidly fuse to form a single diploid nucleus. This latter event, called karyogamy, can be divided into two distinct steps: the microtubule-based movement that causes the two nuclei to become closely juxtaposed and the fusion of the nuclear membranes. For the membrane fusion step, one required component, the ER luminal protein Kar2p (BiP), has been identified. For topological reasons, however, it has been unclear how Kar2p could function in this role. Kar2p is localized to the luminal (i.e., noncytoplasmic) face of the ER membrane, yet nuclear fusion must initiate from the cytosolic side of the outer nuclear membrane or the ER membrane with which it is contiguous. There is both genetic and biochemical evidence that Kar2p interacts with Sec63p, an ER membrane protein containing both luminal and cytosolic domains that is involved in protein translocation across the membrane. We have isolated novel sec63 mutant alleles that display severe karyogamy defects. Disruption of the genes encoding other Sec63p-associated proteins (Sec71p and Sec72p) also results in karyogamy defects. A suppressor mutant (sos1-1) partially corrects the translocation defect but does not alleviate the karyogamy defect. sec61 and sec62 mutant alleles that cause similar or more severe protein translocation defects show no karyogamy defects. Taken together, these results suggest a direct role for Sec63p, Sec71p, and Sec72p in nuclear membrane fusion and argue against the alternative interpretation that the karyogamy defects result as an indirect consequence of the impaired membrane translocation of another component(s) required for the process. We propose that an ER/nuclear membrane protein complex composed of Sec63p, Sec71p, and Sec72p plays a central role in mediating nuclear membrane fusion and requires ER luminally associated Kar2p for its function.

1996-01-01

270

17?-Estradiol enhances ? 5 integrin subunit gene expression through ER?–Sp1 interaction and reduces cell motility and invasion of ER?-positive breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In breast tumors the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is known to be associated with a more favorable prognosis.\\u000a ER? expression has been reported to reduce the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. Recently, we have observed that\\u000a extracellular matrix proteins activate ER? and that both liganded and unliganded receptor modulate cell invasiveness acting\\u000a at nuclear level. To explain

Diego Sisci; Emilia Middea; Catia Morelli; Marilena Lanzino; Saveria Aquila; Pietro Rizza; Stefania Catalano; Ivan Casaburi; Marcello Maggiolini; Sebastiano Andò

2010-01-01

271

Applications of the ER-2 meteorological measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA ER-2 aircraft is used as a platform for high altitude atmospheric missions. The Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was developed specifically for atmospheric research to provide accurate high resolution measurements of pressure, temperature, and the 3-D wind vector with a sampling rate of 5/s. The MMS consist of three subsystems: (1) an air motion sensing system to measure the velocity of the air with respect to the aircraft; (2) a high resolution inertial navigation system (INS) to measure the velocity of the aircraft with respect to the earth; and (3) a data acquisition system to sample, process, and record the measurement quantities. MMS data have been used extensively by ER-2 investigators in elucidating the polar ozone chemistry. Herein, applications on atmospheric dynamics are emphasized. Large scale (polar vortex, potential vorticity, model atmosphere), mesoscale (gravity waves, mountain waves) and microscale (heat fluxes) atmospheric phenomena are investigated and discussed.

Chan, K. Roland; Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, T. Paul; Bowen, Stuart W.; Dean-Day, Jonathan

1991-01-01

272

Hollow polycarbonate fiber for Er:YAG laser light delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed hollow fibers with polycarbonate (PC) capillaries for use as a supporting tube. The PC capillaries were prepared by using a glass-drawing technique. Hollow PC fibers are safer and more flexible than hollow glass fibers because no fragments are released when the fibers are broken in various applications. Inner coating layers of silver and cyclic olefin polymer (COP) enhanced the reflection rate at the Er:YAG laser light wavelength. Using these fibers, we attained low loss for Er:YAG laser light transmission. By adjusting the drawing temperature in the fabrication of the PC capillaries, we created a smooth inner surface and uniform PC capillaries. We also demonstrated low-loss properties for visible pilot beams.

Nakazawa, Masayuki; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Iwai, Katsumasa; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

2006-05-01

273

Tooth pulp reaction following Er:YAG laser application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YAG laser irradiation was performed on dental hard substances of beagle dogs. Two, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after laser exposure at various intensities and repetition rates the teeth and especially the pulps were analyzed histologically. No reaction of the pulp was found after enamel or pulpfar dentine exposure to the laser beam even at a radiant exposure of 30 J/cm2 per pulse. Fluorescent marking sections of the teeth showed neoformation of calcified dentin after 6 and 8 weeks following laser light impact to the pulpnear dentin or artificial opening of the pulp cavity. These results correspond to the observations of pulp microcirculation during Er:YAG laser irradiation.

Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

1991-05-01

274

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview  

PubMed Central

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients.

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

275

Techniques and applications of SAR interferometry for ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) demonstrated that it is possible to measure high resolution topography over large areas using interferometry with repeat orbit data sets. Given that the ERS-1 orbit is known with high precision, an automatic system for generation of interferograms is presented. Least squares estimation using ground control points provides an accurate method for determining the precise interferometric baseline. The system parameters which affect the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are errors in the interferometric baseline, decorrelation caused by baseline separation, thermal noise, and surface change. An adaptive filter based on the local interferometric coherence was developed to improve phase unwrapping of the interferogram. Final accuracies of the DEM's generated for single scene pairs in Alaska (U.S.) and Bonn (Germany) are on the order of 5 to 10 m.

Werner, Charles L.; Small, David L.; Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Zebker, Howard A.

1993-01-01

276

Upconversion dynamics in Er 3+-doped fluoroindate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms and dynamics of the upconversion emissions in Er 3+-doped fluoroindate glasses by exciting in the range from 955 to 975 nm have been investigated. The upconversion emissions observed at 545 and 660 nm have been analysed studying their dependence on excitation intensity and Er 3+ concentration. Temperature dependence of the upconversion efficiency for these emissions has been measured in the range from 10 to 295 K. The temporal evolution of the 545 nm upconversion emission has been obtained as a function of the wavelength of the pulsed excitation. From the analysis of these measurements with a proposed model, the relative weight of excited state absorption and energy transfer has been obtained.

Martín, I. R.; Vélez, P.; Rodríguez, V. D.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Lavín, V.

1999-05-01

277

Completion report for well ER-30-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

278

Shaping the sperm head: an ER enzyme leaves its mark.  

PubMed

Lipid storage diseases are debilitating inherited metabolic disorders that stem from the absence of specific lysosomal enzymes that degrade selected lipids. Most characteristically, these disorders affect the nervous and the reticulo-endothelial systems, with massive organomegaly resulting from the presence of engorged, lipid-laden macrophages. In this issue of the JCI, Yildiz et al. describe the role of the ER-resident enzyme beta-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) in mice (see the related article beginning on page 2985). Surprisingly, GBA2 deficiency leaves bile acid and cholesterol metabolism intact, instead causing lipid accumulation in the ER of testicular Sertoli cells, round-headed sperm (globozoospermia), and impaired male fertility. PMID:17080191

Roy, Angshumoy; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M

2006-11-01

279

Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw

1996-03-01

280

Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

1992-01-01

281

Enhancement of 1536 nm emission of Er doped ZnO nanopowder by Ag doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er, Er-Ag and Er-Mg co-doped ZnO nanopowders were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared samples were studied by XRD and SEM, respectively. The effect of Ag and Mg on visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders have been systematically investigated. We found that Mg did not change the visible and IR emission properties of Er doped ZnO nanopowders. But, addition of Ag drastically decreases the visible emission and enhances the IR emission at 1536 nm.

Zamiri, Reza; Poor, Hamid-Reza Bahari; Rebelo, Avito; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Ferreira, J. M. F.

2014-06-01

282

Misfolding of Mutated Vasopressin Causes ER-Retention and Activation of ER-Stress Markers in Neuro-2a Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a peptide hormone normally secreted from neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. In Familial Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus (FNDI), an autosomal dominant form of central diabetes insipidus, mutations of pro-vasopressin appear to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing a lack of biologically active AVP in the blood. To investigate the effect of pro-vasopressin mutations regarding intracellular functions of protein targeting and secretion, we created two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R, and G17V in frame with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and pro-vasopressin (VP) in frame with red fluorescent protein (VP-RFP). Fluorescence microscopy of Neuro-2a cells expressing these constructs revealed co-localization of VP-GFP and VP-RFP to punctate granules along the length and accumulating at the tips of neurites, characteristic of regulated secretory granules. In contrast, the two FNDI-associated amino acid substitution mutants, e.g., G14R-GFP, and G17VGFP, were localized to a perinuclear region of the Neuro-2a cells characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-expression of these mutants with VP-RFP showed VP-RFP was retained in the ER, co-localized with the mutants suggesting the formation of heterodimers as found in FNDI. Stimulated secretion experiments indicated that VP-GFP was secreted in an inducible manner whereas, G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP were retained to nearly 100% within the cells. Analysis by western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated an increased protein and mRNA expression for an ER resident molecular chaperone, BiP. Further analysis of ER-storage disease-associated proteins such as caspase 12 and CHOP showed an increase in these as well. The results suggest that G14R-GFP and G17V-GFP are retained in the ER of Neuro-2a cells, resulting in up-regulation of the molecular chaperone BiP, and activation of the ER-storage disease-associated caspase cascade system.

Yan, Zhongyu; Hoffmann, Andrea; Kaiser, Erin Kelly; Grunwald, William C.; Cool, David R.

2014-01-01

283

The Hyperactive Double Suns of the Binary ER Vulpeculae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ER Vul is a detached binary consisting of a pair of rapidly rotating (P = 0.69d) solar-like G1 and G2 V stars with the strongest coronal and chromospheric emissions of any main-sequence G-type star. This activity most likely arises from a vigorous magnetic dynamo produced by tidally enforced rotation. Consequently, it is important to study ER Vul because the physical characteristics of the components (temperatures, masses, and radii) are nearly identical to the Sun except that the stars rotate over 40 times faster. In addition, it is a binary that may be evolving toward the contact state due to large angular momentum loss through magnetic braking and could therefore play a significant role in understanding the formation of W UMa systems. ER Vul can be a unique laboratory for studying solar-like activity at extreme levels for stars that, while rotating rapidly, are not in the complicating contact configuration. Observations of ER Vul were carried out in September 1991 for more than two of its 16 hour orbits with the \\IUE\\ satellite and with ground-based photometry. UV continuum light curves from 1750 to 3150 Angstroms have been produced. Spectroscopically, emission line fluxes of C \\II, C \\IV, He \\II\\ and others show orbital phase correlations with the asymmetric continuum light curves. For example, the strongest C \\IV\\ emission occurs during the orbital phases when the UV and visual continuum fluxes are greatest. We will discuss various models that attempt to explain the behavior of this active binary system. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NAG 5-382 for the \\IUE\\ program. We also thank NSF for grant AST-8616362 in support of the Four College Consortium.

Bradstreet, D. H.; Dewarf, L. E.; Guinan, E. F.; Etzel, P. B.; Olah, K.

1993-12-01

284

Er(3+):Yb(3+)-codoped fiber distributed-feedback laser.  

PubMed

We report what is to our knowledge the first fiber distributed-feedback laser using a single Bragg grating at 1.5 microm written directly into a 2-cm-long Er(3+)-doped fiber codoped with Yb(3+). We obtained robust single-frequency operation by either using one end reflector or locally heating the center of the grating to create the necessary phase shift. PMID:19855753

Kringlebotn, J T; Archambault, J L; Reekie, L; Payne, D N

1994-12-15

285

ER-2 mountain wave encounter over Antarctica: Evidence for blocking  

SciTech Connect

A three dimensional linear model of orographically forced gravity waves (mountain waves) using realistic topography is used to simulate a high altitude (20 km) ER-2 encounter with a large mountain wave over Alexander Island (72{degree}W, 69{degree}-72{degree}S). Reasonable agreement between the linear model and observations is obtained if the effects of low-level flow blocking are taken into account.

Bacmeister, J.T. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Schoeberl, M.R.; Lait, L.R.; Newman, P.A. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Gary, B. (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

1990-01-01

286

Synthesis of Er-complexes for photonic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new approach of introducing erbium ions onto thin surface layers of silica glass substrates based on soaking of solution of erbium complexes. Different types of Er3+ complexes with 2,2?-dipyridyle, 1,10-phenantroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline and ethylendiamine ligands and nitrate, thiocyanate and acetate anions were prepared. Composition of the complexes was determined by elementary analysis and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Decomposition temperature

Zdenek Sofer; Pavlína Tresnáková; Jarmila Špirková; Stanislav Rubás; Martina Kalábová

2007-01-01

287

Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays a key role in the synthesis of a wide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

288

Laser treatment of enamel and dentine by different Er lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of primary comparative investigation of possible application of lasers based on four different Er-doped crystals (YAG, YLF, YSGG, YAP) are presented. The influence of laser wavelength and temporal structure of laser radiation on efficiency of hard tooth tissues treatment is considered. The experimental data on damage thresholds and efficiency of enamel and dentine removal under influence of submillisecond pulses of all four types of lasers are obtained.

Altshuler, Grigori B.; Belikov, Andrey V.; Erofeev, Andrey V.

1994-09-01

289

IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.

2013-02-01

290

?-Synuclein Is Localized to Mitochondria-Associated ER Membranes  

PubMed Central

Familial Parkinson disease is associated with mutations in ?-synuclein (?-syn), a presynaptic protein that has been localized not only to the cytosol, but also to mitochondria. We report here that wild-type ?-syn from cell lines, and brain tissue from humans and mice, is present not in mitochondria but rather in mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM), a structurally and functionally distinct subdomain of the ER. Remarkably, we found that pathogenic point mutations in human ?-syn result in its reduced association with MAM, coincident with a lower degree of apposition of ER with mitochondria, a decrease in MAM function, and an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation compared with wild-type. Although overexpression of wild-type ?-syn in mutant ?-syn-expressing cells reverted the fragmentation phenotype, neither overexpression of the mitochondrial fusion/MAM-tethering protein MFN2 nor inhibition/ablation of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 was able to do so, implying that ?-syn operates downstream of the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery. These novel results indicate that wild-type ?-syn localizes to the MAM and modulates mitochondrial morphology, and that these behaviors are impaired by pathogenic mutations in ?-syn. We believe that our results have far-reaching implications for both our understanding of ?-syn biology and the treatment of synucleinopathies.

Guardia-Laguarta, Cristina; Area-Gomez, Estela; Rub, Cornelia; Liu, Yuhui; Magrane, Jordi; Becker, Dorothea; Voos, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

291

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

Hamilton, Charles E. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Furu, Laurence H. (Modesto, CA) [Modesto, CA

1997-01-01

292

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

1997-04-22

293

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2005-02-01

294

Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: This study was performed in order to establish that the pulpal and dentinal tissue are safe when exposed to the 2.94 micron pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation for the procedures of caries removal, cavity preparation, and etching prior to acid etching. This presentation discusses the histological results of a double-blind study comparing a pulsed Er:YAG with a standard dental drill. Methods: A double-blind histological evaluation of the pulpal and dentinal tissue changes induced by the Erbium laser and the dental drill was conducted on teeth extracted immediately following the dental procedure and at various intervals up to 1 year post-treatment. A statistical analysis was used to determine if any statistically significant clinical differences in dental tissue response could be observed between the Er:YAG laser and the standard dental drill. Conclusions: Analysis of the results indicated there were no significant differences observed between the laser and control groups in this study.

Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

1998-04-01

295

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

296

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

NONE

1997-03-01

297

Completion report for Well ER-19-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) project at the NTS. The goals of the UGTA project include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, migration rates, and quality at the NTS. An additional major objective of drilling Well ER-19-1 was to develop dual-wall, reverse-circulation drilling technology for use on small-diameter wells at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

298

Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 ?M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress.

KRIZANOVA, OLGA; STELIAROVA, IVETA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; PASTOREK, MICHAL; HUDECOVA, SONA

2014-01-01

299

Fabrication and Performance of Ceramic Er123 Oxygen Gas Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen sensing properties of Er123 ceramic material utilizing hot-spot phenomenon have been investigated. Bulk Er123 ceramic with relative density of 72 % was synthesized using solid-state method and single-phase structure of the material was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The Er123 sensor was fabricated by cutting the bulk sample into a rectangular rod shape. I-V characterizations of the sensor before and after appearance of the hot spot were conducted in a chamber with controlled flow rate and partial pressure of oxygen and nitrogen gases. After appearance of the hot spot, the output current strongly depended on oxygen partial pressure (pO2) at a particular selected voltage. The sensor showed good sensing properties with minimum required electric field of about 1.7 V/cm for 0.025% to 100% pO2. The sensor showed very good reproducibility and stability of output current. The oxygen sensing properties are explained in terms of absorption of oxygen gas by the hot spot before dissociating into oxide ions and holes. The conductivity for 5% to 100% pO2 showed good agreement with theoretically predicted proportional relation of conductivity to pO21/6 derived from the mass action law.

Hassan, M.; Yahya, A. K.; Hamid, K. H. Ku; Awang, Z.

2008-05-01

300

Effects of Er:YAG laser on periodontal therapy.  

PubMed

The use of the laser in dentistry has been widening due to its increasing use in surgery and medicine. In the field of periodontology, the most commonly used lasers have been CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. According to the last reviews reporting the use of lasers in periodontal therapy, these lasers were considered unsuitable for dental treatment, due to various shortcomings, such as the carbonization and severe thermal damages caused on the target and surrounding tissues, and therefore their use has been confined to soft tissue procedures. Technological advances and improvements have increased the choices of the available laser systems. Among them, Er:YAG lasers seem to be of promising use. The Er:YAG laser is a solid-state crystal laser operating in the infrared wavelength (2,940 nm). Due to its high absorbability in water and hydroxyapatite, several studies have shown the effectiveness of this laser for both hard and soft tissue ablation, and its bactericidal effects with less or even no pain under clinical applications. The variety of the potential applications for this laser has been studied and the interest about its use in dental practice has increased among practitioners. This review includes studies regarding the use of Er:YAG laser on hard tissue procedures, such as calculus removal and osseous surgery as well as soft tissue management, like gingivectomy, gingival curettage and melanin removal. PMID:12666952

Ishikawa, Isao; Sasaki, Katia Miyuki; Aoki, Akira; Watanabe, Hisashi

2003-01-01

301

Activation of OASIS family, ER stress transducers, is dependent on its stabilization  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress transducers transduce signals from the ER to the cytoplasm and nucleus when unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER. BBF2 human homolog on chromosome 7 (BBF2H7) and old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), ER-resident transmembrane proteins, have recently been identified as novel ER stress transducers that have roles in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activation of BBF2H7 and OASIS under ER stress conditions remain unresolved. Here, we showed that BBF2H7 and OASIS are notably unstable proteins that are easily degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway under normal conditions. ER stress conditions enhanced the stability of BBF2H7 and OASIS, and promoted transcription of their target genes. HMG-CoA reductase degradation 1 (HRD1), an ER-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinated BBF2H7 and OASIS under normal conditions, whereas ER stress conditions dissociated the interaction between HRD1 and BBF2H7 or OASIS. The stabilization of OASIS in Hrd1?/? cells enhanced the expression of collagen fibers during osteoblast differentiation, whereas a knockdown of OASIS in Hrd1?/? cells suppressed the production of collagen fibers. These findings suggest that ER stress stabilizes OASIS family members and this is a novel molecular mechanism for the activation of ER stress transducers.

Kondo, S; Hino, S-I; Saito, A; Kanemoto, S; Kawasaki, N; Asada, R; Izumi, S; Iwamoto, H; Oki, M; Miyagi, H; Kaneko, M; Nomura, Y; Urano, F; Imaizumi, K

2012-01-01

302

Estrogen dependent activation function of ER? is essential for the sexual behavior of mouse females  

PubMed Central

We previously generated and characterized a genuine estrogen receptor (ER) ?-null mouse line (named ER?STL?/L?) and showed that ER?STL?/L? mice were sterile, due to an ovulation impairment in females and to an unknown reason in males, as their reproductive organs and spermatozoid motility appeared normal. We report here an assessment of the sexual behavior of ER?STL?/L? null mice. We found that ER?STL?/L? males display mildly impaired sexual behavior and that ER?STL?/L? females are significantly less receptive and less attractive than wild-type (WT) females. Decreased attractivity is also exhibited by ER?AF20 but not by ER?AF10 mutant females (females devoid of either AF2 or AF1 activation function of ER?). Interestingly, by using an odor preference test, we have determined that the low attractiveness of ER?STL?/L? and ER?AF20 females is related to a deficiency of a volatile chemosignal.

Antal, Maria Cristina; Petit-Demouliere, Benoit; Meziane, Hamid; Chambon, Pierre; Krust, Andree

2012-01-01

303

Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er3+ clustering phenomenon in Ga-Ge-S chalcogenide system is studied using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra from 10 to 500 cm-1 for glasses (100- y)[15Ga2S3-85GeS2]- yEr2S3 ( y=0.08-5.00 mol. %) have been analyzed. To reveal the influence of the chemical composition on the glass structure the intensity of the peak corresponding to Ge-Ge (Ga-Ga) homopolar bonds has been examined. The peak intensity increase with Er2S3 concentration change in the region 0Er2S3)<2 mol. % has been interpreted in terms of the sulphur deficiency in the glass resulting in the formation of S3Ge-GeS3 (S3Ga-GaS3) structural units. The further increase in concentration beyond 2 mol. % reduces the sulphur deficiency, which can be attributed to the formation of the ternary compound Er3GaS6. The structural units Er3GaS6 contain a large mol. fraction of Er3+ or, in other words, Er3+ clusters. The data obtained from the low-frequency Raman spectra (boson band) indicate strong variations of the medium-range order (MRO) in the glasses induced by Er3+. The observed behavior of the MRO size (the correlation length) with increasing of Er2S3 concentration provides for additional evidence of the Er3+ clustering.

Povolotskiy, A.; Ivanova, T.; Manshina, A.; Tver'yanovich, Y.; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Chang, Chu-Lin

2009-09-01

304

Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER? Inhibition  

PubMed Central

The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER? and increased ER? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER? dissociation and ER? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.

Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

2013-01-01

305

17?-Estradiol-induced cell proliferation requires estrogen receptor (ER) ? monoubiquitination.  

PubMed

Protein monoubiquitination (monoUbq) (i.e., the attachment of one single ubiquitin to the substrate) is a non-proteolytic reversible modification that controls protein functions. Among other proteins, the estrogen receptor ? (ER?), which mediates the pleiotropic effects of the cognate hormone 17?-estradiol (E2), is a monoubiquitinated protein. Although it has been demonstrated that E2 rapidly reduces ER? monoUbq in breast cancer cells, the impact of monoUbq in the regulation of the ER? activities is poorly appreciated. Here, we show that mutation of the ER? monoUbq sites prevents the E2-induced ER? phosphorylation in the serine residue 118 (S118), reduces ER? transcriptional activity, and precludes the ER?-mediated extranuclear activation of signaling pathways (i.e., AKT activation) thus impeding the E2-induced cyclin D1 promoter activation and consequently cell proliferation. In addition, the interference with ER? monoUbq deregulates E2-induced association of ER? to the insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1-R). Altogether these data demonstrate an inherent role for monoUbq in ER? signaling and point to the physiological function of ER? monoUbq in the regulation of E2-induced cell proliferation. PMID:21356307

La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Pesiri, Valeria; Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo

2011-07-01

306

Optical properties of Si/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by SMBE method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among Er-doped crystalline Si materials, Si/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures grown by sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) technique present extraordinary optical properties, with a narrow linewidth of the Er-related emission at 1.5 ?m. Based on spectral analysis, the splitting of the ground state of Er 3+ ions and the presence of only a single type of Er-related optical center, labeled Er-1, have been conclusively established. In this contribution, we briefly summarize some of the unique optical properties of Si/Si:Er multi-nanolayer structures: preferential formation of the Er-1 center and its microscopic structure, level of optical activity of Er, and relations with a donor level as well as with oxygen co-doping. Then we report on the most recent results on optical gain in Si/Si:Er multi-nanolayers. From variable stripe-length (VSL) and shifted excitation spot (SES) experiments, we estimated maximum gain cross section of Er-1 in the multi-nanolayer structure at about ?~10 -17 cm 2. We also evaluate the magnitude of induced absorption by free carriers, and show that it precludes observation of the net optical gain.

Ngoc Ha, Ngo; Krasil'nik, Z. F.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

2009-12-01

307

Reduced thermal conductivity in Er-doped epitaxial InxGa1-xSb alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of epitaxially grown semiconducting alloys of InxGa1-xSb is studied and compared to Er doped alloys. At concentrations as low as ~0.4% vol. Er, the Er coalesces to form epitaxially embedded ErSb nanocrystals which reduce the thermal conductivity compared to undoped alloys. The thermomechanical properties of epitaxial ErSb are studied for comparison. ErSb is found to be metallic with significantly higher thermal conductivity and stiffness than InxGa1-xSb alloys. The stiffness and density contrast from ErSb nanocrystals helps explain its high effectiveness as a phonon scattering center, as they are the highest of any known lattice matched material pair.

Feser, Joseph P.; Xu, Dongyan; Lu, Hong; Zhao, Yang; Shakouri, Ali; Gossard, Arthur C.; Majumdar, Arun

2013-09-01

308

Interaction of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) with Estrogen Receptor (ER) ? and Activator Protein 1 (AP1) in Dexamethasone-mediated Interference of ER? Activity*  

PubMed Central

The role of glucocorticoids in the inhibition of estrogen (17-?-estradiol (E2))-regulated estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell proliferation is well established. We and others have seen that synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) antagonizes E2-stimulated endogenous ER? target gene expression. However, how glucocorticoids negatively regulate the ER? signaling pathway is still poorly understood. ChIP studies using ER?- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-positive MCF-7 cells revealed that GR occupies several ER?-binding regions (EBRs) in cells treated with E2 and Dex simultaneously. Interestingly, there was little or no GR loading to these regions when cells were treated with E2 or Dex alone. The E2+Dex-dependent GR recruitment is associated with the displacement of ER? and steroid receptor coactivator-3 from the target EBRs leading to the repression of ER?-mediated transcriptional activation. The recruitment of GR to EBRs requires assistance from ER? and FOXA1 and is facilitated by AP1 binding within the EBRs. The GR binding to EBRs is mediated via direct protein-protein interaction between the GR DNA-binding domain and ER?. Limited mutational analyses indicate that arginine 488 located within the C-terminal zinc finger domain of the GR DNA-binding domain plays a critical role in stabilizing this interaction. Together, the results of this study unravel a novel mechanism involved in glucocorticoid inhibition of ER? transcriptional activity and E2-mediated cell proliferation and thus establish a foundation for future exploitation of the GR signaling pathway in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer.

Karmakar, Sudipan; Jin, Yetao; Nagaich, Akhilesh K.

2013-01-01

309

The disulfide bond pairing of the pheromones Er-1 and Er-2 of the ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi.  

PubMed Central

The disulfide pairings of the two Euplotes raikovi pheromones Er-1 and Er-2 have been determined by chemical and mass spectrometric analyses. Cystine-linked peptides from thermolytic digestions of the native molecules were purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and identified in the known sequences to make the assignments. The same pairing, Cys(I)-Cys(IV), Cys(II)-Cys(VI), and Cys(III)-Cys(V), was found in both pheromones, suggesting that this pattern occurs commonly throughout this family of molecules. This arrangement of disulfides indicates that the three-dimensional structure is defined by three loops, which can vary in size and charge distribution from one pheromone to another.

Stewart, A. E.; Raffioni, S.; Chaudhary, T.; Chait, B. T.; Luporini, P.; Bradshaw, R. A.

1992-01-01

310

Remodeling the Proteostasis Network to Rescue Glucocerebrosidase Variants by Inhibiting ER-Associated Degradation and Enhancing ER Folding  

PubMed Central

Gaucher’s disease (GD) is characterized by loss of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GC) activity. Mutations in the gene encoding GC destabilize the protein’s native folding leading to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of the misfolded enzyme. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity by remodeling the proteostasis network promotes native folding and lysosomal activity of mutated GC variants. However, proteostasis modulators reported so far, including ERAD inhibitors, trigger cellular stress and lead to induction of apoptosis. We show herein that lacidipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker that also inhibits ryanodine receptors on the ER membrane, enhances folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of the most severely destabilized GC variant achieved via ERAD inhibition in fibroblasts derived from patients with GD. Interestingly, reprogramming the proteostasis network by combining modulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and ERAD inhibition remodels the unfolded protein response and dramatically lowers apoptosis induction typically associated with ERAD inhibition.

Wang, Fan; Segatori, Laura

2013-01-01

311

WatER: The proposed Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface water storage and discharge globally. The core mission objective is to describe and understand the continental water cycle and the hydrological processes (e.g., floodplain hydraulics) at work in a river basin. The key question that will be answered by WatER is: "Where is water stored on Earth's land surfaces, and how does this storage vary in space and time?" WatER will facilitate societal needs by (1) improving our understanding of flood hazards; (2) freely providing water volume information to countries who critically rely on rivers that cross political borders; and (3) mapping the variations in water bodies that contribute to disease vectors (e.g., malaria). Conventional altimeter profiles are, without question, incapable of supplying the measurements needed to address scientific and societal questions. WatER will repeatedly measure the spatially distributed water surface elevations (h) of wetlands, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. Successive h measurements yield dh/dt, (t is time), hence a volumetric change in water stored or lost. Individual images of h yield dh/dx (x is distance), hence surface water slope, which is necessary for estimating streamflow. WatER's main instrument is a Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIN) which is the only technology capable of supplying the required imaging capability of h. KaRIN has a rich heritage based on (1) the many highly successful ocean observing radar altimeters, (2) the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and (3) the development effort of the Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA). The interferometric altimeter is a near-nadir viewing, 120 km wideswath based instrument that uses interferometric SAR processing of the returned pulses to yield single-look 5m azimuth and 10m to 70m range resolution, with an elevation accuracy of approximately 50 cm. Polynomial based averaging of heights along the water body increases the height accuracy to about 3 cm. The entire globe is covered twice every 16 days and orbit subcycles allow the average visit to be about half this time at low to mid-latitudes, and almost daily at high latitudes. The WatER mission is an international effort with a large, supporting scientific community. It is already proposed as an ESA Earth Explorer Core mission and will also be jointly submitted to NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder program. WatER is designed to meet high priority targets for all nations and will provide essential data for the EU Water Framework Directive and the European Flood Alert System. WatER will meet the United Nations call for a "greater focus on water related issues", responds to the hydroclimatological needs of the International Working Group on Earth Observations, and answers the U.S. federal government call to focus on our "ability to measure, monitor, and forecast U.S. and global supplies of fresh water".

Alsdorf, D.; Mognard, N.; Rodriguez, E.; Participants, W.

2005-12-01

312

COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

BECHTEL NEVADA

2005-12-01

313

Interference with ER-? enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the selective CDK inhibitor roscovitine towards ER-positive breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

In recent years many risk factors for the development of breast cancer that are linked to estrogens have been identified, and roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, has been shown to be an efficient inhibitor of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Therefore, we have examined the possibility that interference with estrogen signaling pathways, using tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), could modulate the efficacy of treatment with ROSC. In conjunction with TAM, ROSC exhibited enhanced anti-proliferative activity and CDK inhibition, particularly in estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells. The interaction between both drugs was synergistic. However, in ER-?-negative cells the interaction was antagonistic. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC abolished the activating phosphorylation of CDK2 and CDK7 at Ser(164/170). This in turn prevented the phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain of RNA Polymerase II and ER-? at Ser(118), resulting in the down-regulation of the latter. Concomitantly, wt p53 was strongly activated by phosphorylation at Ser(46). Our results demonstrate that ROSC negatively affects the functional status of ER-?, making it potentially useful in the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. PMID:21308739

W?sierska-G?dek, Józefa; Gritsch, David; Zulehner, Nora; Komina, Oxana; Maurer, Margarita

2011-04-01

314

Two-dimensional magnetic order of Er in ErBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction has been used to study the magnetic order of the Er ions in superconducting ErBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. Above the three-dimensional (3D) Neel temperature ({ital T}{sub {ital N}}=0.618 K) a rod of scattering characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) behavior is unambiguously observed, showing that the magnetic interactions of the rare earth ions are highly anisotropic, while there are no significant correlations observed between the sheets of Er spins. The system orders two dimensionally, and as a necessary consequence 3D order also sets in at the same temperature. The order parameter is found to obey the exact Onsager solution for a {ital S}= (1)/(2) , 2D Ising antiferromagnet. At low {ital T}, two separate types of simple 3D antiferromagnetic structures are found, one characterized by a wave vector of ( (1)/(2) , 0,0), and the other by ( (1)/(2) ,0, (1)/(2) ).

Lynn, J.W.; Clinton, T.W.; Li, W. (Center for Superconductivity Research Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (USA) National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA)); Erwin, R.W. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (USA)); Liu, J.Z. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA)); Shelton, R.N.; Klavins, P. (Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (USA))

1990-05-01

315

Different action of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated metabolites on ER? and ER? gene and protein expression.  

PubMed

In our previously published data we showed that PBDEs act as endocrine disruptors in ovarian follicles by altering steroid secretion. In this study we try to answer a question if BDE-47 and its hydroxylated metabolites (5-OH-BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47) can act as endocrine disruptors in the ovary by changing the expression of the steroid nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?), androgen receptor (AR), and receptors associated with the metabolism of xenobiotics and steroid hormones, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X-receptor (PXR), in porcine ovarian follicles. Expression of mRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR, whereas protein level by western blotting. CAR and PXR mRNAs were not expressed in porcine ovarian follicular cells. BDE-47 and its hydroxylated metabolites had no effect on the expression of AR mRNA and protein. Decreased expression of ER? mRNA and protein under BDE-47 influence and increase both ER? and ER? gene and protein expression in cells exposed to hydroxylated metabolites was noted. These findings indicate that BDE-47, by altering the ratio of ER? to ER? toward ER?, and the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47, by increase estrogen receptors expression, may result in excessive ovarian exposure to estrogens. PMID:24956591

Karpeta, Anna; Ptak, Anna; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

2014-08-17

316

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section...COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.17 Adjustments...spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the...

2009-04-01

317

20 CFR 228.17 - Adjustments to the widow(er)'s, disabled widow(er)'s, surviving divorced spouse's, and remarried...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. 228.17 Section...COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.17 Adjustments...spouse's, and remarried widow(er)'s tier I annuity amount. (a) If the...

2010-04-01

318

Direct monitoring of in vivo ER stress during the development of insulin resistance with ER stress-activated indicator transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases in the world, and insulin resistance and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction are the hallmarks of the disease. It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is provoked under diabetic conditions and is possibly involved in the development of insulin resistance. In this study, using ER stress-activated indicator

Kazutomi Yoshiuchi; Hideaki Kaneto; Taka-aki Matsuoka; Kenji Kohno; Takao Iwawaki; Yoshihisa Nakatani; Yoshimitsu Yamasaki; Masatsugu Hori; Munehide Matsuhisa

2008-01-01

319

Functional and Genomic Analyses Reveal an Essential Coordination between the Unfolded Protein Response and ER-Associated Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates gene expression in response to stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We determined the transcriptional scope of the UPR using DNA microarrays. Rather than regulating only ER-resident chaperones and phospholipid biosynthesis, as anticipated from earlier work, the UPR affects multiple ER and secretory pathway functions. Studies of UPR targets engaged in ER-associated protein degradation

Kevin J. Travers; Christopher K. Patil; Lisa Wodicka; David J. Lockhart; Jonathan S. Weissman; Peter Walter

2000-01-01

320

Effects of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the adhesion to eroded dentin.  

PubMed

Limited information is available regarding the adhesion to eroded dentin. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on eroded dentin morphology and on microtensile bond strength (?TBS) of adhesive systems to this substrate. Ninety-six extracted third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n?=?12) according to the type of surface treatment and the adhesive system: G1?=?Control?+?Clearfil SE Bond [SE], G2?=?Diamond bur [DB]?+?SE, G3?=?Er:YAG laser (60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/?cm(2))?+?SE, G4?=?Er,Cr:YSGG laser (50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/?cm(2))?+?SE, G5?=?Control?+?Single Bond [SB], G6?=?DB?+?SB, G7?=?Er:YAG?+?SB, G8?=?Er,Cr:YSGG?+?SB. The erosive cycling was performed by immersion in 0.05 M citric acid (pH 2.3, 10 min, 6x/day) and in supersaturated solution (pH 7.0, 1 h, between acid attacks), during 5 days. Blocks of composite were bonded to the samples according to the manufacturers' instructions. After 24 h-storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to ?TBS test. Each surface treatment was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (n?=?4) and the bond strength values (megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (??=?0.05). All surface treatments lead to changes on eroded dentin. G4 showed the highest bond strength mean (28.3?±?9.2 MPa), which was statistically significant higher than all the other groups (p?Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (4.5 J/cm(2)/50 mJ/30 Hz/140 ?s) prior to bonding with a self-etching adhesive system significantly increases adhesion to eroded dentin, as compared to conventional treatment. PMID:23649611

Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Azambuja, Nilton; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Gutknecht, Norbert; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

2013-05-01

321

Judd-Ofelt Analysis of the Er3+ Ions in Double-Doped CaF2:(Er3+,Yb3+) Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double-doped CaF2:(0.14 mol% ErF3,1.31 mol% YbF3) and CaF2:0.12 mol% ErF3 crystals were grown in our crystal research laboratory using the vertical Bridgman method. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ?2, ?4, and ?6 for f-f transitions of Er3+ ions were determined from the optical absorption spectra using various groups of transitions. Using the J-O parameters the radiative transition probability, oscillator strength, branching ratio and radiative lifetime of Er3+ transitions have been calculated. The radiative transition probability and radiative lifetimes are compared to those of Er3+ transitions in other hosts.

Buse, Gabriel; Preda, Eleonora; Stef, Marius; Pruna, Andreea; Stef, Florentina; Nicoara, Irina

2009-05-01

322

When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility.

Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

2014-01-01

323

Cryptotanshinone induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis in HepG2 and MCF7 cells.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central organelle in eukaryotic cells that functions in protein synthesis and maturation, and also functions as a calcium storage organelle. Perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress, which has been previously associated with a broad variety of diseases. ER stress is generally regarded as compensatory, but prolonged ER stress can activate apoptotic pathways in damaged cells. For this reason, pharmacological interventions that effectively enhance tumor death through ER stress have been the subject of a great deal of attention for anti-cancer therapy. Cryptotanshinone, the major active constituent isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been recently evaluated for its anti-cancer activity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities remain poorly understood. In particular, it remains completely unknown as to whether or not cryptotanshinone can induce ER stress. Herein, we identify cryptotanshinone as a potent stimulator of ER stress, leading to apoptosis in many cancer cell lines, including HepG2 hepatoma and MCF7 breast carcinoma, and also demonstrate that mitogen-activated protein kinases function as mediators in this process. Reactive oxygen species generated by cryptotanshinone have been shown to play a critical role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. Cryptotanshinone also evidenced sensitizing effects to a broad range of anti-cancer agents including Fas/Apo-1, TNF-?, cisplatin, etoposide or 5-FU through inducing ER stress, highlighting the therapeutic potential in the treatment of human hepatoma and breast cancer. PMID:22113823

Park, In-Ja; Kim, Min-Jung; Park, Ock Jin; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

2012-03-01

324

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guenel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dork, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, B?rge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menendez, Primitiva; Muller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labreche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkas, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C

2013-01-01

325

Regulation of Her2/neu promoter activity by the ETS transcription factor, ER81.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the HER2/Neu receptor is correlated to a poor prognosis in tumor patients and leads to stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which in turn activate transcription factors, such as the ETS protein ER81. Here, we have analyzed whether, on the other hand, ER81 may regulate the Her2/neu gene. Indeed, ER81, together with its co-activators, p300 and CBP, activates the Her2/neu promoter, and this activation is enhanced upon stimulation of MAPK pathways as well as by oncogenic HER2/Neu protein. Furthermore, ER81 interacts with one ETS binding site in the Her2/neu promoter, whose mutation decreases ER81-mediated transcription. Activation of the Her2/neu promoter is also diminished upon mutation of MAPK-dependent phosphorylation sites in ER81 or upon deletion of ER81 transactivation domains. In addition, the ER81 DNA-binding domain on its own functions as a dominant-negative molecule, effectively repressing any stimulation of the Her2/neu promoter. Altogether, our results show that ER81 is a component of a positive regulatory feedback loop, in which the HER2/Neu protein activates ER81, as well as p300/CBP via MAPKs causing the upregulation of the Her2/neu gene. PMID:12112028

Bosc, Denis G; Janknecht, Ralf

2002-01-01

326

ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c-regulated dynamic actin filament arrays.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293

Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K; Jokitalo, Eija

2014-04-01

327

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan

2013-04-01

328

ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c-regulated dynamic actin filament arrays  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network.

Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Ramo, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija

2014-01-01

329

The dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p mediates homotypic ER fusion in S. cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of tubules and sheets that requires homotypic membrane fusion to be maintained. In metazoans, this process is mediated by dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) called atlastins (ATLs), which are also required to maintain ER morphology. Previous work suggested that the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p was needed to maintain ER morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this paper, we demonstrate that Sey1p, like ATLs, mediates homotypic ER fusion. The absence of Sey1p resulted in the ER undergoing delayed fusion in vivo and proteoliposomes containing purified Sey1p fused in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Sey1p could be partially replaced by ATL1 in vivo. Like ATL1, Sey1p underwent GTP-dependent dimerization. We found that the residual ER–ER fusion that occurred in cells lacking Sey1p required the ER SNARE Ufe1p. Collectively, our results show that Sey1p and its homologues function analogously to ATLs in mediating ER fusion. They also indicate that S. cerevisiae has an alternative fusion mechanism that requires ER SNAREs.

Anwar, Kamran; Klemm, Robin W.; Condon, Amanda; Severin, Katharina N.; Zhang, Miao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hu, Junjie; Rapoport, Tom A.

2012-01-01

330

Inheritance of cortical ER in yeast is required for normal septin organization  

PubMed Central

How cells monitor the distribution of organelles is largely unknown. In budding yeast, the largest subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of cortical ER (cER) that adheres to the plasma membrane. Delivery of cER from mother cells to buds, which is termed cER inheritance, occurs as an orderly process early in budding. We find that cER inheritance is defective in cells lacking Scs2, a yeast homologue of the integral ER membrane protein VAP (vesicle-associated membrane protein–associated protein) conserved in all eukaryotes. Scs2 and human VAP both target yeast bud tips, suggesting a conserved action of VAP in attaching ER to sites of polarized growth. In addition, the loss of either Scs2 or Ice2 (another protein involved in cER inheritance) perturbs septin assembly at the bud neck. This perturbation leads to a delay in the transition through G2, activating the Saccharomyces wee1 kinase (Swe1) and the morphogenesis checkpoint. Thus, we identify a mechanism involved in sensing the distribution of ER.

Loewen, Christopher J.R.; Young, Barry P.; Tavassoli, Shabnam; Levine, Timothy P.

2007-01-01

331

Magnetocaloric effect of Er5Si4 under hydrostatic pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the compound Er5Si4 has been investigated as a function of the applied magnetic field (up to 50 kOe) and the hydrostatic pressure (from ambient pressure up to 9 kbar). At constant magnetic field change, increasing the pressure up to 1.4 kbar induces a global rise of the magnetic entropy change, |?Smag| , with the peak at TC?30K growing from 14.9 to 20.1J/kgK . Between 1.4 and 9 kbar, the size and shape of the |?Smag| vs T curve remain nearly constant but the peak moves to higher temperatures and stabilizes above 3.5 kbar at Ttilde 36K . Contrary to many other R5(SixGe1-x)4 compounds, the magnetocaloric effect in Er5Si4 does not originate from the simultaneous field-induced magnetic and structural transformations since previous studies of the compound have demonstrated that moderate steady magnetic fields are not strong enough to induce the M?O(I) transformation at the atmospheric pressure. However, the pressure dependence of the MCE is associated with pressure-induced M?O(I) structural transformation that takes place in Er5Si4 . The increase in the magnetic entropy change occurs because of a modification of the magnetic coupling derived from the differences in the interlayer bonding in the M and O(I) states. This gives rise to an enhancement of the ferromagnetic interactions in the O(I) phase with respect to the ambient pressure M state, resulting in a stronger saturation magnetization and a higher Curie temperature, i.e., TCM=30K and TCO(I)=36K .

Arnold, Z.; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.; Algarabel, P. A.; Kamarad, J.; Ibarra, M. R.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.

2009-04-01

332

Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350  

SciTech Connect

Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

John H. Miller

2005-06-10

333

The active microwave instrument (AMI) for ERS-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance parameters and hardware, including circuitry, of the active microwave imaging systems to be installed on the ESA ERS-1 remote sensing satellite are described. The microwave system will function at 5.3 GHz in three measuring modes, imaging, wave sensing and spectra, and wind vector detection. Each image pixel will represent 15 m resolution, with the ground swatch being 80 km. Data will be generated in either SAR or scatterometer modes. The image signal path in the processing circuitry is traced for each mode. Details of the RF subsystem, the antennas, the high power amplifier, an automated calibrator, the power conditioner, and the scatterometer processor are provided.

Theile, B.; Dieterle, G.; McMillan, I. W.

1983-10-01

334

Interpretation of ERS-SAR images over urban surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary analysis of ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images collected over the Los Angeles basin (CA) are reported. The observations were performed in order to explore the applicability of microwave remote sensing to the study of the energy balance at the urban surface. Large variations of backscatter intensities were observed in the SAR images. The imaging anisotropies observed mask the variations of backscatter due to other processes, illustrating the difficulties of extracting quantitative information from SAR images of urban surfaces.

Dousset, Benedicte

1997-01-01

335

Completion report for well ER-3-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-3-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) at the Nevada Test Site. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling Program and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The well will become part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

336

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-169 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-169 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 169).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

337

Over-expression of methionine sulfoxide reductase A in the endoplasmic reticulum increases resistance to oxidative and ER stresses.  

PubMed

MsrA and MsrB catalyze the reduction of methionine-S-sulfoxide and methionine-R-sulfoxide, respectively, to methionine in different cellular compartments of mammalian cells. One of the three MsrBs, MsrB3, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-type enzyme critical for stress resistance including oxidative and ER stresses. However, there is no evidence for the presence of an ER-type MsrA or the ER localization of MsrA. In this work, we developed an ER-targeted recombinant MsrA construct and investigated the potential effects of methionine-S-sulfoxide reduction in the ER on stress resistance. The ER-targeted MsrA construct contained the N-terminal ER-targeting signal peptide of human MsrB3A (MSPRRSLPRPLSLCLSLCLCLCLAAALGSAQ) and the C-terminal ER-retention signal sequence (KAEL). The over-expression of ER-targeted MsrA significantly increased cellular resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The ER-targeted MsrA over-expression also significantly enhanced resistance to dithiothreitol-induced ER stress; however, it had no positive effects on the resistance to ER stresses induced by tunicamycin and thapsigargin. Collectively, our data suggest that methionine-S-sulfoxide reduction in the ER compartment plays a protective role against oxidative and ER stresses. PMID:24777495

Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Yongjoon; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Oh, Su Young; Kim, Hwa-Young

2014-05-01

338

GaSe:Er3+ crystals for SHG in the infrared spectral range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centimeter-sized Er-doped single crystals were grown from the melts GaSe:Er(0.025, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 at%) by modified vertical Bridgman technology. Real Er content is ascertained as 0.009, 0.019, 0.033, 0.042 and 0.048 at%, respectively. Solubility of Er in GaSe does not exceed 5×10-4. Optimal doping of 0.033 at% of Er was established from SHG experiment. Improved optical quality is identified as a reason of increased nonlinearity for about 24% to that in pure GaSe. New Raman scattering band is found at 2900 cm-1 that properly related to 4F9/2?4I9/2 transition of Er3+ ion.

Feng, Z.-S.; Guo, J.; Xie, J.-J.; Zhang, L.-M.; Gao, J.-Y.; Andreev, Yu. M.; Izaak, T. I.; Kokh, K. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Shaiduko, A. V.; Shabalina, A. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

2014-05-01

339

Luminescence properties of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped glasses in the VUV region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of APLF + Nd and APLF + Er glass, with composition 20Al(PO3)3-80LiF + 1NdF3 and + 1ErF3 (in mol%). APLF + Nd and APLF + Er have a dominant fluorescence peak at 185 nm and 168 nm with decay times of 4.5 ns and 5.8 ns, respectively. Fluorescence from APLF + Nd is attributed to 4f25d ? 4f3 transitions in neodymium (Nd) while fluorescence from APLF + Er is due to spin allowed transition in erbium (Er). This is the first report of VUV fluorescence from rare earth ions doped in glass hosts, which could provide the basis for mass production of VUV emitting materials. Our results also suggest the potential of using APLF + Nd and APLF + Er as neutron scintillators during inertial confinement fusion.

Yamanoi, Kohei; Murata, Takahiro; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fujino, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Satoh, Nakahiro; Kan, Hirofumi

2013-09-01

340

Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy investigation of (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides deposited by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the nature of violet-blue emission from (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides (Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}) using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) measurements. The PL spectra and PAS analysis for a control Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} (Ge+SiO{sub 2}) indicate that Ge-associated neutral oxygen vacancies (Ge-NOV) are likely responsible for the major emission in the violet-blue band. For Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}, both Ge-NOV and GeO color centers are believed to be responsible for the emission band. The addition of Er has a significant influence on the emission, which is discussed in terms of Er-concentration-related structural change in the Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}.

Heng, C. L.; Chelomentsev, E.; Peng, Z. L.; Mascher, P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Simpson, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2009-01-01

341

1.54 ?m photoluminescence of Er-doped GeOx thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous Er-doped GeOx alloys were prepared by evaporation on substrates maintained at 100 °C. Photoluminescence experiments were carried out in the visible and near-infrared ranges. The Er-related peak was observed at 1.54 ?m at room temperature in the as deposited samples. The PL of erbium is characterized by a weak temperature quenching and by a decay time in the millisecond range. The luminescence of Er is a decreasing function of the annealing temperature. Undoped GeOx layers showed a PL band at 800 nm, attributed to defects states, which disappeared when Er is introduced. The intense Er-related luminescence was assigned to an indirect excitation process from defects states to Er ions.

Ardyanian, M.; Rinnert, H.; Vergnat, M.

2007-11-01

342

Aurora-A Mitotic Kinase Induces Endocrine Resistance through Down-Regulation of ER? Expression in Initially ER?+ Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Development of endocrine resistance during tumor progression represents a major challenge in the management of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) positive breast tumors and is an area under intense investigation. Although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, many studies point towards the ‘cross-talk’ between ER? and MAPK signaling pathways as a key oncogenic axis responsible for the development of estrogen-independent growth of breast cancer cells that are initially ER?+ and hormone sensitive. In this study we employed a metastatic breast cancer xenograft model harboring constitutive activation of Raf-1 oncogenic signaling to investigate the mechanistic linkage between aberrant MAPK activity and development of endocrine resistance through abrogation of the ER? signaling axis. We demonstrate for the first time the causal role of the Aurora-A mitotic kinase in the development of endocrine resistance through activation of SMAD5 nuclear signaling and down-regulation of ER? expression in initially ER?+ breast cancer cells. This contribution is highly significant for the treatment of endocrine refractory breast carcinomas, because it may lead to the development of novel molecular therapies targeting the Aurora-A/SMAD5 oncogenic axis. We postulate such therapy to result in the selective eradication of endocrine resistant ER?low/? cancer cells from the bulk tumor with consequent benefits for breast cancer patients.

Opyrchal, Mateusz; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Zhang, Shuya; McCubrey, James; Hawse, John; Goetz, Mattew P.; Lomberk, Gwen A.; Haddad, Tufia; Degnim, Amy; Lange, Carol; Ingle, James N.; Galanis, Evanthia; D'Assoro, Antonino B.

2014-01-01

343

Intra-ER sorting of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3 relies on its luminal domain  

PubMed Central

Summary Pex3 is an evolutionarily conserved type III peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome formation. It is inserted into the ER membrane and sorted via an ER subdomain (the peroxisomal ER, or pER) to peroxisomes. By constructing chimeras between Pex3 and the type III ER membrane protein Sec66, we have been able to separate the signals that mediate insertion of Pex3 into the ER from those that mediate sorting within the ER to the pER subdomain. The N-terminal 17-amino acid segment of Pex3 contains two signals that are each sufficient for sorting to the pER: a chimeric protein containing the N-terminal domain of Pex3 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of Sec66 sorts to the pER in wild type cells, and does not colocalise with peroxisomes. Subsequent transport to existing peroxisomes requires the Pex3 transmembrane segment. When expressed in Drosophila S2R+ cells, ScPex3 targeting to peroxisomes is dependent on the intra-ER sorting signals in the N-terminal segment. The N-terminal segments of both human and Drosophila Pex3 contain intra-ER sorting information and can replace that of ScPex3. Our analysis has uncovered the signals within Pex3 required for the various steps of its transport to peroxisomes. Our generation of versions of Pex3 that are blocked at each stage along its transport pathway provides a tool to dissect the mechanism, as well as the molecular machinery required at each step of the pathway.

Fakieh, Mohammad H.; Drake, Peter J. M.; Lacey, Joanne; Munck, Joanne M.; Motley, Alison M.; Hettema, Ewald H.

2013-01-01

344

Low energy shifted photoluminescence of Er 3+ incorporated in amorphous hydrogenated silicon–germanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low energy shifted photoluminescence from isolated erbium ions incorporated into a-SiGe:H thin films is reported. The Er3+ are thermally diffused from an a-SiGe:H:Er layer to a-SiGe:H subsequently grown, both by magnetron sputtering. The photoluminescence observed is associated with transitions produced by erbium emission centers activated by the oxidation in a 1h annealing process in air at 250°C. The resultant Er3+

E. López-Luna; M. A. Vidal; A. G. Rodríguez; H. Navarro-Contreras; Y. Kudriavtsev; R. Asomoza; A. Villegas

2009-01-01

345

Long-Term Subsidence Monitoring of City Areas at Nordic Latitudes using ERS SAR Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique may be a valuable tool for subsidence monitoring at different places of the Earth surface. Many results have been reported during the 1990 s where data from the ERS-1 and ERS-2 SAR sensors were used. This paper will present the ongoing long-term subsidence project in Norway, AO-1104, that are making use of ERS SAR data.

T. R. Lauknes; Geir Engen; K. A. Høgda; Inge Lauknes; Torbjørn Eltoft; D. J. Weydahl; Knut Eldhuset

2004-01-01

346

Upconversion processes in Er 3+:KPb 2Cl 5 laser crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy transfer and dynamics of excited levels population were studied in erbium doped potassium–lead chloride crystals Er3+:KPb2Cl5 under direct impurity excitation in UV (at 355nm) and IR (975–980nm) spectral ranges. It was shown that emission spectrum of Er3+:KPb2Cl5 crystals strongly depends on excitation spectral range. Under direct UV selective excitation of Er ions the population of lower energy levels goes

A. M. Tkachuk; S. E. Ivanova; M.-F. Joubert; Y. Guyot; L. I. Isaenko; V. P. Gapontsev

2007-01-01

347

Decay Studies of the Even-Even Isotopes, Er172 and Dy166  

Microsoft Academic Search

Er172 and Dy166, with half-lives of 48.7+\\/-0.5 hr and 81.8+\\/-0.2 hr, respectively, were produced by double neutron capture from Er170 and Dy164. Gamma rays of the following energies were found in the decay of Er172: two coincident 50-kev radiations, 72, 128, 170, 200, 410, 440, and 610 kev. The proposed energy levels for Tm172 consistent with the data are as

Ray Gunnink; A. W. Stoner

1962-01-01

348

Comparison between Er:YAG Laser and Conventional Technique for Root Caries Treatment in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium-doped:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the capability of the Er:YAG laser to treat caries. In the present study, the effectiveness of caries removal by using an Er:YAG laser in vitro

A. Aoki; I. Ishikawa; T. Yamada; M. Otsuki; H. Watanabe; J. Tagami; Y. Ando; H. Yamamoto

1998-01-01

349

The gad2 promoter is a transcriptional target of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER?: A unifying hypothesis to explain diverse effects of estradiol  

PubMed Central

Estradiol (E2) regulates a wide range of neural functions, many of which require activation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and/or ER?, ligand-gated transcriptional regulators. Surprisingly, very few neural gene targets of ERs have been identified and these cannot easily explain the myriad effects of E2. GABA regulates most of the same neural functions as E2 and GABAergic neurons throughout the brain contain ER. Therefore, we examined whether E2 directly regulates expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2, the enzyme primarily responsible for GABA synthesis for synaptic release. Using dual-luciferase assays we found that E2, but not other gonadal steroids, stimulated the activity of a 2691-bp rat gad2 promoter reporter construct. Activation required either ER? or ER? and ER? did not repress ER?-mediated transactivation. Site-directed mutagenesis studies identified three EREs with cell-specific functions. An ERE at -711 upstream of the gad2 translational start site was essential for transactivation in both MCF-7 breast cancer cells and SN56.B5.G4 neural cells, but an ERE at -546 enhanced transcription only in neural cells. A third ERE at -1958 was inactive in neural cells, but exerted potent transcriptional repression in E2-treated MCF-7 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in mouse GABAergic N42 cells confirmed that E2 induced ER? binding to a DNA fragment containing sequences corresponding to the -546 and -711 EREs of the rat promoter. Based on these data, we propose that direct transcriptional regulation of gad2 may explain, at least in part, the ability of E2 to impact such a diverse array of neural functions.

Hudgens, Edward D.; Ji, Lan; Carpenter, Clifford D.; Petersen, Sandra L.

2009-01-01

350

Downregulation of RhoGDI? increased migration and invasion of ER+ MCF7 and ER? MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs) can inhibit cell motility, invasion, and metastasis in cancer by inactivating the RhoGTPases. A member of RhoGDI family has been consistently shown to interact with estrogen receptor (ER), and change its transcriptional activity. ER is a receptor known to be inversely correlated with cell motility and invasion in breast cancer. The consequence of RhoGDI? activity on migration and invasion of ER+ and ER? breast cancers is not clear. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible opposing effect of RhoGDI? on the migration and invasion of ER+ MCF7 and ER? MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RhoGDI? was downregulated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDI?, and their ability for migration and invasion was assayed using transwell chambers. It was found that the silencing of RhoGDI? in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased migration and invasion of these cells into the lower surface of porous membrane of the chambers. Overexpression of RhoGDI? in MCF7 cells suppressed their migration and invasion, but no significant effect was found on MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicate that the downregulation of RhoGDI? similarly affects the in vitro migration and invasion of ER+ MCF7 and ER? MDA-MB-231 cells. However, our assays are differently affected by the upregulation of RhoGDI? in these two cell lines and this may be due to the differences in ER expression, primary invasive ability and/or other molecules between these two cell line models which warrant further investigation.

Hooshmand, Somayeh; Ghaderi, Abbas; Yusoff, Khatijah; Karrupiah, Thilakavathy; Rosli, Rozita; Mojtahedi, Zahra

2013-01-01

351

Downregulation of RhoGDI? increased migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs) can inhibit cell motility, invasion, and metastasis in cancer by inactivating the RhoGTPases. A member of RhoGDI family has been consistently shown to interact with estrogen receptor (ER), and change its transcriptional activity. ER is a receptor known to be inversely correlated with cell motility and invasion in breast cancer. The consequence of RhoGDI? activity on migration and invasion of ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancers is not clear. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible opposing effect of RhoGDI? on the migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RhoGDI? was downregulated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDI?, and their ability for migration and invasion was assayed using transwell chambers. It was found that the silencing of RhoGDI? in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased migration and invasion of these cells into the lower surface of porous membrane of the chambers. Overexpression of RhoGDI? in MCF7 cells suppressed their migration and invasion, but no significant effect was found on MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicate that the downregulation of RhoGDI? similarly affects the in vitro migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 cells. However, our assays are differently affected by the upregulation of RhoGDI? in these two cell lines and this may be due to the differences in ER expression, primary invasive ability and/or other molecules between these two cell line models which warrant further investigation. PMID:23563506

Hooshmand, Somayeh; Ghaderi, Abbas; Yusoff, Khatijah; Karrupiah, Thilakavathy; Rosli, Rozita; Mojtahedi, Zahra

2013-01-01

352

Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the energy-transfer processes in Er3+: flouride glasses with doping concentrations of 0.2-18 mol % is presented. Fluorescence wave forms for 11 erbium transitions were measured under 802-nm, 1.5-?m, 975-nm, 520-nm, and 403-nm excitation from a high-energy short-pulse source. The analysis of these data provided a physical understanding of the processes responsible for the temporal behavior of the populations of a large number of energy levels. A comprehensive nine-level rate-equation model of the Er3+ population dynamics in these fluoride glasses is developed. The model performs well in predicting the observed fluorescence behavior of the main fluorescing lines under all pumping conditions. The modeling process allowed 14 ion-ion energy-transfer processes that are important for the population dynamics in these fluoride glasses to be identified and their rate constants obtained. Noticeably, the inclusion of seven three-ion processes was found necessary in order to obtain good fits to the experimental fluorescence wave forms. It was also found that some three-ion processes have a significant effect on the population dynamics of the levels even in lower doping concentrations.

Bogdanov, V. K.; Booth, D. J.; Gibbs, W. E.; Javorniczky, J. S.; Newman, P. J.; Macfarlane, D. R.

2001-05-01

353

Subunit structure of a mammalian ER/Golgi SNARE complex.  

PubMed

SNAP receptor (SNARE) complexes bridge opposing membranes to promote membrane fusion within the secretory and endosomal pathways. Because only the exocytic SNARE complexes have been characterized in detail, the structural features shared by SNARE complexes from different fusion steps are not known. We now describe the subunit structure, assembly, and regulation of a quaternary SNARE complex, which appears to mediate an early step in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport. Purified recombinant syntaxin 5, membrin, and rbet1, three Q-SNAREs, assemble cooperatively to create a high affinity binding site for sec22b, an R-SNARE. The syntaxin 5 amino-terminal domain potently inhibits SNARE complex assembly. The ER/Golgi quaternary complex is remarkably similar to the synaptic complex, suggesting that a common pattern is followed at all transport steps, where three Q-helices assemble to form a high affinity binding site for a fourth R-helix on an opposing membrane. Interestingly, although sec22b binds to the combination of syntaxin 5, membrin, and rbet1, it can only bind if it is present while the others assemble; sec22b cannot bind to a pre-assembled ternary complex of syntaxin 5, membrin, and rbet1. Finally, we demonstrate that the quaternary complex containing sec22b is not an in vitro entity only, but is a bona fide species in living cells. PMID:11035026

Xu, D; Joglekar, A P; Williams, A L; Hay, J C

2000-12-15

354

Completion Report for Well ER-2-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

355

The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

2013-07-01

356

Er,Cr:YSGG Pulsed laser applied to medical dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) pulsed laser, operating at 2780 ? m wavelength, 300 mJ maximum pulse energy, 140 ? s pulse duration and 20 Hz repetition rate, was employed to irradiate human teeth. The photon energy is transmitted to the tooth through an optical fiber with a sapphire tip, which is dipped in an adjustable air/water atomizer spray. Extracted teeth were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath, stored in saline solution, and dried and weighed before each laser treatment. The laser irradiation was performed for 10 s using a 600 ? m focused beam. Each sample was irradiated varying the air/water ratio of the integrated nebulizer spray. After the treatment, the samples were again weighed and produced craters were analyzed with a profilometric system. The crater volume permitted to evaluate the laser ablation yield. Teeth treated with an air/water spray ratio of 95-80% resulted in greatest average quantity of tissue ablation. This investigation confirmed the high efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the ablation of dental hard tissues showing the fundamental role of the water spray, which plays a fundamental role in the quantitative and qualitative modifications of the hard tissue treated, as it will be discussed in detail.

Beltrano, J. J.; Torrisi, L.; Campagna, E.; Rapisarda, E.; Finocchiaro, I.; Olivi, G.

357

Patient's response to cavity preparation using Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient's response to cavity preparation using the Er:YAG laser in comparison to the mechanical drill. The study protocol contained the cavity depth and location, which had to be similar for both preparation methods. The patient's response was evaluated generally and according to the location and depth of the cavities. The study design was evaluated by statistical variance analysis and symmetrical tests. Within a time schedule of 9 months totally 103 patients with 206 cavities were treated conventionally and by laser. The drill was accepted as more inconvenient than the laser in 83 percent and 88 percent would prefer the laser for future cavity preparation. The local anesthesia needed for laser preparation could be reduced to nearly a half of the need for mechanical preparation. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Er:YAG laser partially can replace the drill for cavity preparation and contribute to a more comfortable caries therapy for the patient.

Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

1996-12-01

358

Biocompatibility of Er:YSGG laser radiated root surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers are well known to be effective instruments for the ablation of dental hard tissues. Developments in the last years made it possible to transmit the laser radiation at these wavelengths with flexible fibers. Therefore the application in the periodontal pocket may be possible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro conditions to generate a bioacceptable root surface. Twenty extracted human teeth, stored in an antibiotic solution, were conventionally scaled, root planed and axially separated into two halves. Two main groups were determined. With the first group laser radiation was carried out without and in the second group with spray cooling. The laser beam was scanned about root surface areas. Laser parameters were varied in a selected range. The biocompatibility was measured with the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts and directly compared to conventionally treated areas of the root surfaces. The fibroblasts were qualified and counted in SEM investigations. On conventionally treated areas gingival fibroblasts show the typical uniform cover. In dependance on the root roughness after laser treatment the fibroblasts loose the typical parallel alignment to the root surface. With spray cooling a better in-vitro attachment could be obtained. Without spray cooling the higher increase in temperature conducted to less bioacceptance by the human gingival fibroblasts to the root surface. These results show the possibility of producing bioacceptable root surfaces with pulsed laser radiation in the range of very high water absorption near 3 micrometer.

Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Th.; Schmidt, D.; Purucker, P.; Bernimoulin, J.-P.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1996-01-01

359

Er^3+ Materials for All-Optical Switching and Routing at 1.5 mum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical dephasing and spectral diffusion for the ^4I_15\\/2 rightarrow ^4I_13\\/2 transition of Er^3+ at 1.5 mum in crystals of Y_2SiO_5, Y_2O_3, LiNbO_3, YAG, YAlO_3, CaWO_4, and SrWO4 were investigated using photon echoes and stimulated photon echoes. Er was doped at very low concentration ( ~10 ppm) to minimize dephasing and spectral diffusion by Er-Er mutual spin flips. A homogeneous linewidth

Y. Sun; R. L. Cone; T. L. Harris; R. M. Macfarlane; R. E. Equall

1998-01-01

360

The reciprocal interaction between autophagic dysfunction and ER stress in adipose insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Autophagy, a predominantly cytoprotective process, is an important regulator in diabetic metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses. However, the interaction and biological significance between autophagic imbalance and ER stress involved in insulin resistance remain not fully elucidated. In the present study, when compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects, enhanced ER stress and pronounced protein and mRNA levels of the autophagic genes such as Atg7, LC3A, and LC3B were evident in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. An increased number of autophagosomes and elevated autophagy flux in adipose explants incubated with lysomoal inhibitor were also observed in type 2 diabetes. In addition, adipocytes differentiation was significantly repressed by exogenous ER stress and defective autophagy in vitro. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress in adipocytes can trigger autophagic response and insulin insensitivity that was partially attributed to the upregulation of IRE1-JNK pathway, whereas autophagy deficiency resulted in ER stress and impaired insulin signaling, further supporting the crucial roles of autophagy in ER stress and insulin resistance. Moreover, disturbance of autophagy and insulin sensitivity induced by tunicamycin can be effectively corrected by the addition of osteocalcin in an NF?B-dependent manner in vitro. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a reciprocal functional interaction among autophagy, ER stress, and insulin signaling in adipose tissue of type 2 diabetes and adipocytes, supporting an adaptive role of autophagy-dependent mechanism in response to ER stress-induced insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24309597

Li, Huixia; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jiali; Zang, Weijin; Wu, Shufang; Sun, Hongzhi

2014-02-15

361

ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  

PubMed

Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II-dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II-induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II-dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

Young, Colin N; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Pierce, Joseph P; Morgan, Donald A; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

2012-11-01

362

ApoER2 processing by presenilin-1 modulates reelin expression.  

PubMed

The reelin signaling protein and its downstream components have been associated with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. The reelin signaling pathway begins with the binding of reelin to the transmembrane lipoprotein receptor apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), which in turns induces the sequential cleavage of ApoER2 by the sequential action of ?- and ?-secretases. Using conditional-knockout mice of the catalytic component of the ?-secretase complex, presenilin 1 (PS1), we demonstrated increased brain ApoER2 and reelin protein and transcript levels, with no changes in the number of reelin-positive cells. Using the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, we showed that ApoER2 processing occurs in the presence of PS1, producing an intracellular ApoER2 C-terminal fragment. In addition, the pharmacologic inhibition of ?-secretase in SH-SY5Y cells led to increased reelin levels. Overexpression of ApoER2 decreased reelin mRNA levels in these cells. A luciferase reporter gene assay and nuclear fractionation confirmed that increased amounts of intracellular fragment of ApoER2 suppressed reelin expression at a transcriptional level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated that the intracellular fragment of ApoER2 bound to the RELN promoter region. Our study suggests that PS1/?-secretase-dependent processing of the reelin receptor ApoER2 inhibits reelin expression and may regulate its signaling. PMID:24344333

Balmaceda, Valeria; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Pujadas, Lluis; García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Saura, Carlos A; Nimpf, Johannes; Soriano, Eduardo; Sáez-Valero, Javier

2014-04-01

363

PKA phosphorylation redirects ER? to promoters of a unique gene set to induce tamoxifen resistance.  

PubMed

Protein kinase A (PKA)-induced estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation at serine residue 305 (ER?S305-P) can induce tamoxifen (TAM) resistance in breast cancer. How this phospho-modification affects ER? specificity and translates into TAM resistance is unclear. Here, we show that S305-P modification of ER? reprograms the receptor, redirecting it to new transcriptional start sites, thus modulating the transcriptome. By altering the chromatin-binding pattern, Ser305 phosphorylation of ER? translates into a 26-gene expression classifier that identifies breast cancer patients with a poor disease outcome after TAM treatment. MYC-target genes and networks were significantly enriched in this gene classifier that includes a number of selective targets for ER?S305-P. The enhanced expression of MYC increased cell proliferation in the presence of TAM. We demonstrate that activation of the PKA signaling pathway alters the transcriptome by redirecting ER? to new transcriptional start sites, resulting in altered transcription and TAM resistance. PMID:22907427

de Leeuw, R; Flach, K; Bentin Toaldo, C; Alexi, X; Canisius, S; Neefjes, J; Michalides, R; Zwart, W

2013-07-25

364

1.54 ?m emission mechanism of Er-doped zinc oxide thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Er-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Er) thin films were formed by pulsed laser deposition, and characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to clarify the 1.54 ?m emission mechanism in the ZnO:Er films. Er ions were excited indirectly by the 325 nm line of a He-Cd laser, and the comparison of the ultraviolet to infrared PL data of ZnO and ZnO:Er films showed that the 1.54 ?m emission of Er 3+ in ZnO:Er film appears at the expense of the band edge emission and the defect emission of ZnO. The crystallinity of the films was varied with the substrate temperature and post-annealing, and it was found that the intensity of the 1.54 ?m emission is strongly related with the crystallinity of the films. There are three processes leading to the 1.54 ?m emission; absorption of excitation energy by the ZnO host, energy transfer from ZnO to Er ions, and radiative relaxation inside Er ions, and it is suggested that the crystallinity plays an important role in the first two processes.

Jang, Y. R.; Yoo, K. H.; Ahn, J. S.; Kim, C.; Park, S. M.

2011-01-01

365

Judd-Ofelt Analysis of the Er3+ Ions in Double-Doped CaF2:(Er3+,Yb3+) Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The double-doped CaF2:(0.14 mol% ErF3,1.31 mol% YbF3) and CaF2:0.12 mol% ErF3 crystals were grown in our crystal research laboratory using the vertical Bridgman method. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Omega2, Omega4, and Omega6 for f-f transitions of Er3+ ions were determined from the optical absorption spectra using various groups of transitions. Using the J-O parameters the radiative transition probability, oscillator strength,

Gabriel Buse; Eleonora Preda; Marius Stef; Andreea Pruna; Florentina Stef; Irina Nicoara

2009-01-01

366

QSAR of estrogen receptor modulators: exploring selectivity requirements for ER(alpha) versus ER(beta) binding of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives using E-state and physicochemical parameters.  

PubMed

Considering importance of developing selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), the present paper explores selectivity requirements of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives for binding with ER(alpha) versus ER(beta) receptors using E-state index and physicochemical parameters. The best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.512, R(a)(2)=0.613, R=0.819, F=11.6 (df 3,17)] for ER(alpha) binding data obtained from radioligand binding assay showed importance of C(1), C(15) and lipophilicity (logP) while the best model [n=21, Q(2)=0.768, R(a)(2)=0.796, R=0.904, F=40.1 (df 2,18)] for ER(beta) binding data showed importance of C(1) and molar refractivity (MR). While modeling ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity [n=21, Q(2)=0.695, R(a)(2)=0.739, R=0.882, F=19.8 (df 3,17)], C(1), C(15) and molar refractivity were found to be significant contributors. The data obtained from cellular transcription assay were also modeled. In case of ER(alpha), the best equation involving E-state values of C(1) and C(14) and logP explained 62.1% of the variance while the best equation for ER(beta) involving E-state values of C(1) and C(15) and MR explained 64.6% of the variance of the response variable. In case of ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity, the best equation involving E-state values of O(8), C(14) and N(27) showed 48.3% explained variance, which increased to 63.5% on deletion of single outlier. From the analysis it appears that the nitrogen atom of the aminoethoxyphenyl substituent and 6-hydroxy substituent of the tetrahydroisoquinoline nucleus play important roles for ER(alpha)/ER(beta) selectivity in addition to R(1) and R(2) substituents. PMID:15686893

Mukherjee, Subhendu; Saha, Achintya; Roy, Kunal

2005-02-15

367

[Direct upconversion sensitization luminescence comparison of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride fluoride pentaphosphate glass].  

PubMed

This paper investigates the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride glass (ErYb: FOG), fluoride glass (ErYb: ZBLAN) and pentaphosphate noncrystalline (ErYb: PP) excited by a 966 nm diode laser. The splendid upconversion luminescence phenomenon is found. It is resulted from that the Yb3+ concentration in rather high, the energy transfer among Er(3+)-Yb3+ and Yb(3+)-Yb3+ ions is rather strong. An important fact is found that the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of ErYb: FOG is about 100-100,000 times greater than that of ErYb: PP. And meanwhile it is interesting that the upconversion luminescence intensity of ErYb: FOG is near to that of ErYb: ZBLAN. It is significant to enhance the comprehensive level of up-conversion luminescence. PMID:12939953

Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Zhao, Chen-yi; Sawanobori, N; Ma, Hui; Song, Zeng-fu

2003-02-01

368

UPR pathways combine to prevent hepatic steatosis caused by ER stress-mediated suppression of transcriptional master regulators  

PubMed Central

Summary The unfolded protein response (UPR) is linked to metabolic dysfunction, yet it is not known how ER disruption might influence metabolic pathways. Using a multilayered genetic approach, we find that mice with genetic ablations of either ER stress sensing pathways (ATF6?, eIF2?, IRE1?), or of ER quality control (p58IPK), share a common dysregulated response to ER stress that includes the development of microvesicular steatosis. The rescue of ER protein processing capacity by the combined action of UPR pathways during stress prevents the suppression of a subset of metabolic transcription factors that regulate lipid homeostasis. This suppression occurs in part by unresolved ER stress perpetuating expression of the transcriptional repressor CHOP. As a consequence, metabolic gene expression networks are directly responsive to ER homeostasis. These results reveal an unanticipated direct link between ER homeostasis and the transcriptional regulation of metabolism and suggest mechanisms by which ER stress might underlie microvesicular steatosis.

Rutkowski, D. Thomas; Wu, Jun; Back, Sung-Hoon; Callaghan, Michael U.; Ferris, Sean P.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Clark, Robert; Miao, Hongzhi; Fornek, Jamie; Katze, Michael G.; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Song, Benbo; Swathirajan, Jayanth; Wang, Junying; Yau, Grace D.-Y.; Kaufman, Randal J.

2010-01-01

369

Pin1 Modulates ER? Levels in Breast Cancer through Inhibition of Phosphorylation-dependent Ubiquitination and Degradation  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) is an important biomarker used to classify and direct therapy decisions in breast cancer. Both ER? protein and its transcript, ESR1, are used to predict response to tamoxifen therapy, yet certain tumors have discordant levels of ER? protein and ESR1, which is currently unexplained. Cellular ER? protein levels can be controlled post-translationally by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) through a mechanism that depends on phosphorylation at residue S118. Phospho-S118 (pS118-ER?) is a substrate for the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, Pin1, which mediates cis-trans isomerization of the pS118-P119 bond to enhance ER? transcriptional function. Here, we demonstrate that Pin1 can increase ER? protein without affecting ESR1 transcript levels by inhibiting proteasome-dependent receptor degradation. Pin1 disrupts ER? ubiquitination by interfering with receptor interactions with the E3 ligase, E6AP, which also is shown to bind pS118-ER?. Quantitative in situ assessments of ER? protein, ESR1, and Pin1 in human tumors from a retrospective cohort show that Pin1 levels correlate with ER? protein but not to ESR1 levels. These data show that ER? protein is post-translationally regulated by Pin1 in a proportion of breast carcinomas. Since Pin1 impacts both ER? protein levels and transactivation function, these data implicate Pin1 as a potential surrogate marker for predicting outcome of ER?-positive breast cancer.

Rajbhandari, Prashant; Schalper, Kurt A.; Solodin, Natalia M.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Lu, Kun Ping; Rimm, David L.; Alarid, Elaine T.

2013-01-01

370

Influence of undoped YAG cap on diode-pumped composite YAG/Er:Yb:glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two samples of Er-Yb doped phosphate glass were tested as a gain medium of longitudinally diode pumped laser. One sample was a simple Er:Yb:glass rod (length 2.8 mm), second sample was composite rod consisting of 2.8mm long Er:Yb:glass and 6mm long YAG crystal. Diameter of both samples was 6 mm. Dopant concentration for Er:Yb:glass was 0.75 × 1020 cm-3 Er and 1.7 × 1021 cm-3 Yb. The goal of the experiment was to investigate an effect of the undoped YAG cap on the Er:Yb:glass laser operation. The active medium, fixed in cupreous heatsink, was placed inside the 150mm long resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.52-1.65 ?m, HT @ 0.97 ?m) and curved output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 97% @ 1.52-1.61 ?m). For Er:Yb:glass pumping a fiber coupled laser diode, operating in pulsed regime, was used. The pumping pulse width, energy, and wavelength were 1 ms, 10 mJ, and 975 nm, respectively. The decrease of Er:Yb:glass laser output pulse energy with increasing pumping repetition rate was observed for both samples. In case of simple Er:Yb:glass the energy dropped from 1.4mJ to 0.6mJ after pumping duty cycle increase from 0.5% to 6 %. In case of composite YAG/Er:Yb:glass active medium the relative output energy decrease was only 20% for pumping duty cycle increase from 0.5% to 10%. This result showed that the slope of the output energy decrease with increasing duty cycle was approximately four times slower for composite active media in comparison with simple Er:Yb:glass.

Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

2012-02-01

371

?-AR Blockers Suppresses ER Stress in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) blockade reduces mortality in patients with heart failure. Chronic sympathetic hyperactivity in heart failure causes sustained ?-AR activation, and this can deplete Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. We tested the effect of ?-AR blockers on ER stress pathway in experimental model of heart failure. Methods and discussions ER chaperones were markedly increased in failing hearts of patients with end-stage heart failure. In Sprague-Dawley rats, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure was induced by abdominal aortic constriction or isoproterenol subcutaneous injection. Oral ?-AR blockers treatment was performed in therapy groups. Cardiac remodeling and left ventricular function were analyzed in rats failing hearts. After 4 or 8 weeks of banding, rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Cardiac expression of ER chaperones was significantly increased. Similar to the findings above, sustained isoproterenol infusion for 2 weeks induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure with increased ER chaperones and apoptosis in hearts. ?-AR blockers treatment markedly attenuated these pathological changes and reduced ER stress and apoptosis in failing hearts. On the other hand, ?-AR agonist isoproterenol induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes. ?-AR blockers largely prevented ER stress and protected myocytes against apoptosis. And ?-AR blockade significantly suppressed the overactivation of CaMKII in isoproterenol-stimulated cardiomyocytes and failing hearts in rats. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that ER stress occurred in failing hearts and this could be reversed by ?-AR blockade. Alleviation of ER stress may be an important mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of ?-AR blockers on heart failure.

Ni, Li; Zhou, Changqing; Duan, Quanlu; Lv, Jiagao; Fu, Xiangning; Xia, Yong; Wang, Dao Wen

2011-01-01

372

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4 f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53- ?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53- ?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm-3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm-3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites.

Talbot, Etienne; Lardé, Rodrigue; Pareige, Philippe; Khomenkova, Larysa; Hijazi, Khalil; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

2013-01-01

373

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica  

PubMed Central

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm?3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm?3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites.

2013-01-01

374

Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Omoto, Y.; Humire, P. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)] [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, J.-A. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden) [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-08-10

375

Sorting Nexin 17 Regulates ApoER2 Recycling and Reelin Signaling  

PubMed Central

ApoER2 is a member of the low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. As a receptor for reelin, ApoER2 participates in neuronal migration during development as well as synaptic plasticity and survival in the adult brain. A previous yeast two-hybrid screen showed that ApoER2 is a binding partner of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) - a cytosolic adaptor protein that regulates the trafficking of several membrane proteins in the endosomal pathway, including LRP1, P-selectin and integrins. However, no further studies have been performed to investigate the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function. In this study, we present evidence based on GST pull-down and inmunoprecipitation assays that the cytoplasmic NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2 interacts with the FERM domain of SNX17. SNX17 stimulates ApoER2 recycling in different cell lines including neurons without affecting its endocytic rate and also facilitates the transport of ApoER2 from the early endosomes to the recycling endosomes. The reduction of SNX17 was associated with accumulation of an ApoER2 carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). In addition, in SNX17 knockdown cells, constitutive ApoER2 degradation was not modified, whereas reelin-induced ApoER2 degradation was increased, implying that SNX17 is a regulator of the receptor's half-life. Finally, in SNX17 silenced hippocampal and cortical neurons, we underscored a positive role of this endosomal protein in the development of the dendritic tree and reelin signaling. Overall, these results establish the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function and aid in identifying new links between endocytic trafficking and receptor signaling.

Sotelo, Pablo; Farfan, Pamela; Benitez, Maria Luisa; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, Maria-Paz

2014-01-01

376

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

1991-01-01

377

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er... COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a...

2009-04-01

378

Clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural aspects with the use of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

The Er:YAG laser has an active medium of Yttrium-Aluminium-Garnet doped with Erbium ions and emits free-running pulsed laser energy at a wavelength of 2940 nm. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser has an active medium of Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet doped with Erbium and Chromium ions and emits free-running pulsed laser energy at a wavelength of 2780 nm. These wavelengths have a high absorption in water, which makes their application appropriate for ablating oral soft tissue as well as dental hard tissue. This article examines the principles of use for the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in clinical restorative dentistry and reviews the literature regarding different aspects of the use of laser energy on hard tissues. PMID:19014022

Iaria, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

379

Roscovitine, a selective CDK inhibitor, reduces the basal and estrogen-induced phosphorylation of ER-? in human ER-positive breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, arrests human estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle and concomitantly induces apoptosis via a p53-dependent pathway. The effect of ROSC is markedly diminished in MCF-7 cells maintained in the presence of estrogen-mimicking compounds. Therefore, we decided to examine whether ROSC has any effect on the functional status of the ER-? transcription factor. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to ROSC abolished the activating phosphorylation of CDK2 and CDK7 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. This inhibition of site-specific modification of CDK7 at Ser164/170 prevented phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and reduced basal phosphorylation of ER-? at Ser118 in non-stimulated MCF-7 cells (resulting in its down-regulation). In MCF-7 cells, estrogen induced strong phosphorylation of ER-? at Ser118 but not at Ser104/Ser106. ROSC prevented this estrogen-promoted activating modification of ER-?. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether the activity of ROSC could be enhanced by combining it with an anti-estrogen. Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), affected breast cancer cell lines irrespective of their ER status. In combination with ROSC, however, it had a different impact, enhancing G(1) or G(2) arrest. Our results indicate that ROSC prevents the activating phosphorylation of ER-? and that its mode of action is strongly dependent on the cellular context. Furthermore, our data show that ROSC can be combined with anti-estrogen therapy. The inhibitory effect of TAM on ER-negative cancer cells indicates that SERMs crosstalk with other steroid hormone receptors. PMID:21328450

W?sierska-G?dek, Józefa; Gritsch, David; Zulehner, Nora; Komina, Oxana; Maurer, Margarita

2011-03-01

380

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

1990-01-01

381

Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfOâ-doped polycrystalline ErâOâ. [Hf175 and Er169  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970°C in pure and HfOâ-doped polycryatalline ErâOâ. Up to about 10 m\\/o HfOâ dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m\\/o HfOâ, deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation

Scheidecker

1979-01-01

382

Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retrograde Traffic in Yeast Requires Dsl1p, a Component of the ER Target Site that Interacts with a COPI Coat Subunit  

PubMed Central

DSL1 was identified through its genetic interaction with SLY1, which encodes a t-SNARE-interacting protein that functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic. Conditional dsl1 mutants exhibit a block in ER-to-Golgi traffic at the restrictive temperature. Here, we show that dsl1 mutants are defective for retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, even under conditions where no anterograde transport block is evident. These results suggest that the primary function of Dsl1p may be in retrograde traffic, and that retrograde defects can lead to secondary defects in anterograde traffic. Dsl1p is an ER-localized peripheral membrane protein that can be extracted from the membrane in a multiprotein complex. Immunoisolation of the complex yielded Dsl1p and proteins of ?80 and ?55 kDa. The ?80-kDa protein has been identified as Tip20p, a protein that others have shown to exist in a tight complex with Sec20p, which is ?50 kDa. Both Sec20p and Tip20p function in retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, are ER-localized, and bind to the ER t-SNARE Ufe1p. These findings suggest that an ER-localized complex of Dsl1p, Sec20p, and Tip20p functions in retrograde traffic, perhaps upstream of a Sly1p/Ufe1p complex. Last, we show that Dsl1p interacts with the ?-subunit of the retrograde COPI coat, Ret2p, and discuss possible roles for this interaction.

Reilly, Barbara A.; Kraynack, Bryan A.; VanRheenen, Susan M.; Waters, M. Gerard

2001-01-01

383

PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

Richardson, R.B.

1996-06-01

384

Er:YAG laser for endodontics: efficiency and safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been shown that bacterias can be sterilized by Er:YAG laser irradiation. By optical fiber transmission the bactericidal effect can also be used in endodontics. In order to explore potential laser parameters, we further investigated sterilization of caries and measured temperatures in models simulating endodontic treatment. It was found out that the bactericidal effect is cumulative, with single pulses being active. This offers to choose all laser parameters except pulse energy (radiant exposure) from technical, practical or safety considerations. For clinical studies the following parameter set is proposed for efficient and safe application (teeth with a root wall thickness > 1 mm, and prepared up to ISO 50): pulse energy: 50 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz, fiber withdrawal velocity: 2 mm/s. With these settings 4 passes must be performed to accumulate the total dose for sterilization.

Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Gall, Robert; Keller, Ulrich

1997-12-01

385

Detection of Change in Supercycles in ER Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined data from observations of ER UMa during a period of ˜20 years available in the AAVSO, VSNET, AFOEV, NSVS, and VSOLJ databases together with published light curves. The obtained O - C diagram revealed a systematic change of the supercycle (time interval between two successive superoutbursts) ranging from 43.6 to 59.2 d. The time-scale of this cycle variation is from 300 to ˜1900 d. The number of normal outbursts within the supercycles also varied between 4 and 6, although no strong correlation between this number and the supercycle length was found. We suggest that the appearance of negative superhumps is responsible for the observed variations in the number of normal outbursts. Our results generally confirm the expectations based on the thermal-tidal instability theory.

Zemko, Polina; Kato, Taichi; Shugarov, Sergei Yu.

2013-06-01

386

High upconversion optical gain of Er3+-doped tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upconversion technique of rare-earth-doped glasses or crystals is a potential route for achieving short-wavelength lasers (SWLs). The optical gain is an important parameter for evaluating lasing medium performance. Therefore, upconversion luminescence in glass with composition of 70TeO2-9PbF2-10AlF3-10BaF2-1Er2O3 was demonstrated, and the small-signal optical gain was measured via an amplified spontaneous emission technique when the sample was excited with a 980 nm laser. It was found that the optical gain was as large as 4.0 dB/cm, thus indicating that this glass may be a good medium for SWLs.

Fu, S. B.; Chen, B. J.; Zhang, J. S.; Li, X. P.; Zhong, H.; Tian, B. N.; Wang, Y. Z.; Sun, M.; Zhang, X. Q.; Cheng, L. H.; Zhong, H. Y.; Xia, H. P.

2014-06-01

387

Clinical evaluation of Er:YAG laser caries treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To prepare the enamel, the energy used was mainly 345 mJ and repetition rate 2 Hz, for dentine the optimal energy of Er:YAG drilling machine was 200 mJ and repetition rate from 1 to 2 Hz, depending on cavity depth. Subject of treatment were caries of enamel and dentine and it was possible to remove the old insufficient fillings. The average number of pulses was 111.22, ranging from 16 to 489. During preparation, vibrations of microexplosions were felt by 8 patients, however, neither pain or unpleasant sensations were experienced. The filling materials used were composite resins and glassionomer cements. Their clinical evaluation 6 months post insertion was similar to that of the classical drilling system.

Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

1997-05-01

388

a Comparison of the Performance of ER Fluids in Squeeze  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with an experimental and theoretical study of the characteristics of two ER fluids and their application to vibration control when used in squeeze flow. It is seen that when the fluids are sandwiched between two electrodes, the lower one oscillating and the upper one fixed, displacement control of the lower electrode can be achieved by control of the applied field. Of particular interest is the dependence of the force transmitted across the fluids on oscillation frequency and applied field. A time-dependent theoretical model is seen to satisfactorily predict the device performance when allowance is made for a non-linear dependence of the post-yield shear stress on shear rate.

Sproston, J. L.; Wahed, A. K. El; Williams, E. W.; Stanway, R.

389

Optical cooling in Er3+:KPb2Cl5.  

PubMed

For the first time, optical cooling has been observed in the (4)I(13/2) excited state of erbium(III), using the low phonon energy host materal, potassium lead chloride (KPb(2)Cl(2)). Cooling was observed when samples were pumped at wavelengths longer than 1557 nm, 17 nm longer than the mean fluorescence wavelength of 1540 nm, which implies a nonradiative heat load of 1.1% for the (4)I(13/2)-->(4)I(15/2) transition. When pumped at 1568 nm, the total cooling efficiency was 0.38% of the absorbed power. These results highlight the potential of Er(3+):KPb(2)Cl(5) as a material for lasers operating in an eye safe spectral region. PMID:19333313

Condon, Nicholas J; Bowman, Steven R; O'Connor, Shawn P; Quimby, Richard S; Mungan, Carl E

2009-03-30

390

Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T.

1995-04-01

391

Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-? and ER-?) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-? and ER-?) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-? expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-? expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-? expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (? and ?) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus. PMID:23279498

Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

2012-12-01

392

Structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics for a-IGZO thin-film transistors  

PubMed Central

In this letter, we investigated the structural and electrical characteristics of high-? Er2O3 and Er2TiO5 gate dielectrics on the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. Compared with the Er2O3 dielectric, the a-IGZO TFT device incorporating an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric exhibited a low threshold voltage of 0.39 V, a high field-effect mobility of 8.8 cm2/Vs, a small subthreshold swing of 143 mV/decade, and a high Ion/Ioff current ratio of 4.23 × 107, presumably because of the reduction in the oxygen vacancies and the formation of the smooth surface roughness as a result of the incorporation of Ti into the Er2TiO5 film. Furthermore, the reliability of voltage stress can be improved using an Er2TiO5 gate dielectric.

2013-01-01

393

Optically active centers in Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures containing Er{sup 3+} ions  

SciTech Connect

The basic types of optically active erbium centers that make the major contribution to the photo-luminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content from 10 to 30% are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the origin of the optically active centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions correlates with the molar composition of the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer and the content of oxygen impurity in the layer. The major contribution to the photoluminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content below 25% is made by the well-known centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions and oxygen. An increase in the Ge content in the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer (x {>=} 25%) yields the formation of a new type of centers, specifically, the Gecontaining optically active erbium centers unobserved in the Si-based structures previously.

Krasilnikova, L. V., E-mail: Luda@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Strepikhova, M. V.; Baidakova, N. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chalkov, V. Yu.; Shengurov, V. G. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Research Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

394

Visible upconversion emission and non-radiative direct Yb 3+ to Er 3+ energy transfer processes in nanocrystalline ZrO 2:Yb 3+,Er 3+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide band gap Yb 3+ and Er 3+ codoped ZrO 2 nanocrystals have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. Under 967 nm excitation strong green and red upconversion emission is observed for several Er 3+ to Yb 3+ ions concentration ratios. A simple microscopic rate equation model is used to study the effects of non-radiative direct Yb 3+ to Er 3+ energy transfer processes on the visible and near infrared fluorescence decay trends of both Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions. The microscopic rate equation model takes into account the crystalline phase as well as the size of nanocrystals. Nanocrystals phase and size were estimated from XRD patterns. The rate equation model succeeds to fit simultaneously all visible and near infrared fluorescence decay profiles. The dipole-dipole interaction parameters that drive the non-radiative energy transfer processes depend on doping concentration due to crystallite phase changes. In addition the non-radiative relaxation rate ( 4I11/2? 4I13/2) is found to be greater than that estimated by the Judd-Ofelt parameters due to the action of surface impurities. Results suggest that non-radiative direct Yb 3+ to Er 3+ energy transfer processes in ZrO 2:Yb,Er are extremely efficient.

Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Meza, O.; Solis, D.; Salas, P.; De la Rosa, E.

2011-06-01

395

Estimating Slip Distribution for the Izmit Mainshock from Coseismic GPS, ERS-1, RADARSAT, and SPOT Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use four geodetic satellite systems (Global Positioning System (GPS), European Remote Sensing (ERS), RADARSAT, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)) to measure the permanent deformation field pro- duced by the I úzmit earthquake of 17 August 1999. We emphasize measurements from interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by ERS and RADARSAT and their geodetic

Kurt L. Feigl; Francesco Sarti; Helene Vadon; Simon McClusky; Semih Ergintav; Philippe Durand; Roland Burgmann; Alexis Rigo; Didier Massonnet; Rob Reilinger

2002-01-01

396

Increased Temporal Cortex ER Stress Proteins in Depressed Subjects Who Died by Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of ER stress proteins, such as the 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (GRP78) by chronic treatment with mood stabilizing drugs suggests that this family of proteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Indeed, increased levels of GRP78, GRP94, and calreticulin, a third member of the ER stress protein family, were found in temporal cortex of subjects with

Christopher Bown; Jun-Feng Wang; Glenda MacQueen; L Trevor Young

2000-01-01

397

78 FR 4857 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petition for Amerasian, Widow(er), or Special Immigrant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...er), or Special Immigrant, Form I-360...additional information please read the Privacy...regulations.gov. Note: The address listed...information collection. Please do not submit requests...er), or Special Immigrant (3) Agency form...used by several prospective classes of...

2013-01-23

398

Dietary soy phytoestrogens and ER? signalling modulate interferon gamma production in response to bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Diets rich in soy phytoestrogens have many potential health benefits but isoflavones such as genistein may suppress cell mediated immune function. The effect of dietary phytoestrogens on the host response to infection has not been extensively examined. Mice were fed a diet containing soy phytoestrogens and infected with Mycobacterium avium to establish a chronic infection and inflammatory response. As phytoestrogens may act through classical oestrogen receptors (ER), mice deficient in ER? signalling and wild type mice were evaluated for a panel of Type 1-associated cytokines (IFN?, IL-12 and IL-18) in the spleen. IFN? production in the spleen was increased approximately 4-fold in ER?-deficient mice fed a casein-based diet over wild type mice fed a casein-based diet (P < 0·05), suggesting a role for ER? in suppressing IFN? production. IL-18 levels in spleens of wild type mice were decreased compared to ER?-deficient mice on a casein diet. Splenic IL-12 and IL-18 levels were not affected in wild type and ER?-deficient mice on the phytoestrogen containing diets, with the exception that whole soy increased IL-12 levels in the tissues of ER? deficient mice. We conclude that ER? and dietary phytoestrogens can influence production of key regulatory cytokines in response to chronic bacterial infection.

CURRAN, E M; JUDY, B M; NEWTON, L G; LUBAHN, D B; ROTTINGHAUS, G E; MACDONALD, R S; FRANKLIN, C; ESTES, D M

2004-01-01

399

Ocean wave groupiness from ERS-1\\/2 and ENVISAT imagettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a global data set of reprocessed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired by the European Remote Sensing satellite ERS-2 is used to study ocean wave grouping using wavelet based methods. For more than a decade the ERS-1\\/2 satellites have continuously recorded SAR images of the ocean surface. Operating in wave mode both instruments have acquired about 1400

Andreas Niedermeier; Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth; J. C. Nieto Borge; Susanne Lehner; Heiko Dankert

2002-01-01

400

Lifetime imaging of a fluorescent protein sensor reveals surprising stability of ER thiol redox  

PubMed Central

Interfering with disulfide bond formation impedes protein folding and promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Due to limitations in measurement techniques, the relationships of altered thiol redox and ER stress have been difficult to assess. We report that fluorescent lifetime measurements circumvented the crippling dimness of an ER-tuned fluorescent redox-responsive probe (roGFPiE), faithfully tracking the activity of the major ER-localized protein disulfide isomerase, PDI. In vivo lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) recorded subtle changes in ER redox poise induced by exposure of mammalian cells to a reducing environment but revealed an unanticipated stability of redox to fluctuations in unfolded protein load. By contrast, TCSPC of roGFPiE uncovered a hitherto unsuspected reductive shift in the mammalian ER upon loss of luminal calcium, whether induced by pharmacological inhibition of calcium reuptake into the ER or by physiological activation of release channels. These findings recommend fluorescent lifetime imaging as a sensitive method to track ER redox homeostasis in mammalian cells.

Cross, Benedict C.S.; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Winters, Mikael; Harding, Heather P.; Melo, Eduardo Pinho; Kaminski, Clemens F.

2013-01-01

401

A Method for Estimating Soil Moisture from ERS Scatterometer and Soil Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of using ERS Scatterometer data for soil moisture monitoring over the Ukraine is investigated. The ERS Scatterometer is a C-band radar with a spatial resolution of 50 km and a high temporal sampling rate. An algorithm for estimating the surface soil moisture content is applied to 6 years of data. A qualitative comparison with meteorological observations and auxiliary

Wolfgang Wagner; Guido Lemoine; Helmut Rott

1999-01-01

402

PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II  

EPA Science Inventory

The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

403

Interaction between quality control systems for ER protein folding and RNA biogenesis  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the intracellular organelle responsible for the synthesis, folding and assembly of proteins destined for secretion and the endomembrane system of the cell. ER quality control (ERQC) is an intensively studied surveillance mechanism that selectively degrades misfolded proteins to ensure that only properly folded proteins exit the ER en route to the Golgi compartment. Proper protein folding is indispensable for the differentiation and function of cells that secrete high levels of protein and defects in protein folding are implicated in many pathologies, including metabolic, genetic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER activates an adaptive set of signaling pathways, collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), to resolve protein misfolding and restore ER homeostasis. Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an RNA surveillance system that selectively degrades nascent mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). Recently, we used a genetic screen to identify genes that interact with UPR signaling in C. elegans. These studies identified NMD-associated genes that are required for ER protein folding homeostasis. These findings link the quality control systems required for ER protein folding and RNA biogenesis, provide new insights into mechanisms of ERQC and have implications on diseases of ER dysfunction and therapeutic approaches based on NMD inhibition. Here, we discuss the biological significance of these findings and future directions for study.

Sakaki, Kenjiro; Kaufman, Randal J.

2013-01-01

404

Abrogating endocrine resistance by targeting ER? and PI3K in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Antiestrogen therapies targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER) signaling are a mainstay for patients with ER+ breast cancer. While many cancers exhibit resistance to antiestrogen therapies, a large body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway promotes antiestrogen resistance. In addition, continued ligand-independent ER signaling in the setting of estrogen deprivation may contribute to resistance to endocrine therapy. PI3K activates several proteins which promote cell cycle progression and survival. In ER+ breast cancer cells, PI3K promotes ligand-dependent and -independent ER transcriptional activity. Models of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer often remain sensitive to estrogen stimulation and PI3K inhibition, suggesting that clinical trials with combinations of drugs targeting both the PI3K and ER pathways are warranted. Herein, we review recent findings on the roles of PI3K and ER in antiestrogen resistance, and clinical trials testing drug combinations which target both pathways. We also discuss the need for clinical investigation of ER downregulators in combination with PI3K inhibitors.

Fox, Emily M.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Miller, Todd W.

2012-01-01

405

A C-terminal signal prevents secretion of luminal ER proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Proteins that permanently reside in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) must somehow be distin- guished from newly synthesized secretory proteins, which pass through this compartment on their way out of the cell. Three luminal ER proteins whose se- quence is known, grp78 CBiP\\

Sean Munro; Hugh R. B. Pelham

1987-01-01

406

40 CFR 721.4100 - Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle. 721.4100 Section 721.4100 Protection...Substances § 721.4100 Tris(disubstituted alkyl) het-er-o-cy-cle. (a) Chemical substance and significant...

2013-07-01

407

Precise orbit determination and gravity field improvement for the ERS satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial orbit error has long been the major error source in ERS-1 altimetry, crippled by having only satellite laser ranging for precise tracking and relying on insufficiently accurate general-purpose gravity field models. Altimeter crossovers are used very effectively as additional tracking data to laser ranging. The ERS Tandem Mission even provides the unique possibility to simultaneously determine orbits of

Remko Scharroo; Pieter Visser

1998-01-01

408

Issues in environmental control data used in DD&ER worker dose exposures  

SciTech Connect

Sites for decontamination and decommissioning (DD) or environmental remediation (ER) are often from US DOE operations that began during and shortly after World War II. This paper discusses selected problems in the use of environmental data for DD and ER worker dose exposure calculations.

White, M.G.

1995-06-01

409

Significance of PELP1 in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer metastasis is a major clinical problem. The molecular basis of breast cancer progression to metastasis remains poorly understood. PELP1 is an estrogen receptor (ER) coregulator that has been implicated as a proto-oncogene whose expression is deregulated in metastatic breast tumors and whose expression is retained in ER-negative tumors. We examined the mechanism and significance of PELP1-mediated signaling in ER-negative breast cancer progression using two ER-negative model cells (MDA-MB231 and 4T1 cells) that stably express PELP1-shRNA. These model cells had reduced PELP1 expression (75% of endogenous levels) and exhibited less propensity to proliferate in growth assays in vitro. PELP1 down regulation substantially affected migration of ER-negative cells in Boyden chamber and invasion assays. Using mechanistic studies, we found that PELP1 modulated expression of several genes involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition EMT including MMPs, Snail1, Twist, and ZEB. In addition, PELP1 knockdown reduced the in vivo metastatic potential of ER-negative breast cancer cells and significantly reduced lung metastatic nodules in a xenograft assay. These results implicate PELP1 as having a role in ER-negative breast cancer metastasis, reveal novel mechanism of coregulator regulation of metastasis via promoting cell motility / EMT by modulating expression of genes, and suggest PELP1 may be a potential therapeutic target for metastatic ER-negative breast cancer.

Roy, Sudipa Saha; Chakravarty, Dimple; Cortez, Valerie; De Mukhopadhyay, Keya; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V.; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Sun, LuZhe; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

2011-01-01

410

The Clinical Significance of PR, ER, NF-?B, and TNF-? in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the expression of estrogen (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in human breast cancer (BC), and the correlation of these four parameters with clinicopathological features of BC. Methods and Results. We performed an immunohistochemical SABC method for the identification of ER, PR, NF-?B, and TNF-? expression in 112 patients with primary BC. The total positive expression rate of ER, PR, NF-?B, and TNF-? was 67%, 76%, 84%, and 94%, respectively. The expressions of ER and PR were correlated with tumor grade, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01, resp.), but not with age, tumor size, histological subtype, age at menarche, menopause status, number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and family history of cancer. Expressions of ER and PR were both correlated with NF-?B and TNF-? expression (P < 0.05, resp.). Moreover, there was significant correlation between ER and PR (P < 0.0001) as well as between NF-?B and TNF-? expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PR and ER are highly expressed, with significant correlation with NF-?B and TNF-? expression in breast cancer. The important roles of ER and PR in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer are probably associated with NF-?B and TNF-? expression.

Zhou, Xian-Long; Fan, Wei; Yang, Gui; Yu, Ming-Xia

2014-01-01

411

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or...ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child,...

2010-04-01

412

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or...ACT COMPUTATION OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child,...

2009-04-01

413

Tank 241ER311 Interconnected Piping and Equipment Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained from piping, equipment, or facilities connected to tank 241-ER-311. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the effects of the argon purge gas added to tank 241-ER-311. Vapor samples will be taken in

1999-01-01

414

ApoER2 Function in the Establishment and Maintenance of Retinal Synaptic Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of inner retinal circuitry are poorly understood. Reelin and apolipoprotein E (apoE), ligands of apoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), are involved in retinal development and degeneration, respectively. Here we describe the function of ApoER2 in the developing and adult retina. ApoER2 expression was highest during postnatal inner retinal synaptic development and was considerably lower in the mature retina. Both during development and in the adult ApoER2 was expressed by A-II amacrine cells. ApoER2 knockout (KO) mice had rod bipolar morphogenic defects, altered A-II amacrine dendritic development, and impaired rod-driven retinal responses. The presence of an intact ApoER2 NPxY motif, necessary for binding disabled-1 (Dab1) and transducing the Reelin signal, was also necessary for development of the rod bipolar pathway while the alternatively-spliced exon19 was not. Mice deficient in another Reelin receptor, very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), had normal rod bipolar morphology but altered A-II amacrine dendritic development. VLDLR KO mice also had reductions in oscillatory potentials and delayed synaptic response intervals. Interestingly, age-related reductions in rod and cone function were observed in both ApoER2 and VLDLR KOs. These results support a pivotal role for ApoER2 in the establishment and maintenance of normal retinal synaptic connectivity.

Trotter, Justin H.; Klein, Martin; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Dickey, Chad A.; Tharkur, Jeremy; Masiulis, Irene; Ding, Jindong; Locke, Kirstin G.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Birch, David G.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Herz, Joachim

2011-01-01

415

Neutron study of crystal-field transitions in ErPO(sub 4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The crystal-field splitting of the Er(sup 3+) ground multiplet, (sup 4)I(sub 15/2), in ErPO(sub 4) is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering. Four excitations from the (Gamma)(sub 7) ground state to the excited states and several transitions between...

C. K. Loong L. Soderholm J. P. Hammonds M. M. Abraham L. A. Boatner

1992-01-01

416

Upconversion properties of Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses.  

PubMed

Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses emitting blue, green and red upconversion luminescence at 970 nm laser diode excitation were studied. It was shown that Tm3+ behaves as the sensitizer to Er3+ for the green upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3H4+Er3+:4I 15/2-->Er3+:4I 9/2+Tm3+:3H6, and for the red upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3F4+Er3+:4I 11/2-->Tm3+:3H6+Er3+:4F 9/2. Moreover, Er3+ acts as quenching center for the blue upconversion luminescence of Tm3+. The sensitization of Tm3+ to Er3+ depends on the concentration of Yb3+. The intensity of blue, green and red emissions can be changed by adjusting the concentrations of the three kinds of rare earth ions. This research may provide useful information for the development of high color and spatial resolution devices and white light simulation. PMID:17329153

Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili; Fang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Junjie; Sun, Hongtao; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Liyan

2007-11-01

417

El Niño southern oscillation influences represented in ERS scatterometer-derived soil moisture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, soil moisture products derived from microwave remote sensing data have gained increasing attention for the monitoring of agricultural, hydrological and climate processes. ERS-1 and ERS-2 scatterometer-derived time series of data available since 1992 enable the user to analyze the change of soil moisture patterns over time and to monitor events deviating from the normal. In this

C. Kuenzer; D. Zhao; K. Scipal; D. Sabel; V. Naeimi; Z. Bartalis; S. Hasenauer; H. Mehl; S. Dech; W. Wagner

2009-01-01

418

High-efficiency diode-pumped Er:YLF laser with multi-wavelength generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YLF diode pumped solid-state laser with high optical efficiency and brightness was designed, built and tested. Pulsed multi-frequency generation at a number of wavelengths in 2.66-2.85 ?m range was theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated. An effective computational model used for Er:YLF laser optimization that accounts for the generating spectrum was developed.

Inochkin, Mikhail; Khloponin, Leonid; Khramov, Valery; Altshuler, Gregory; Erofeev, Andrey; Wilson, Stewart; Feldchein, Felix

2012-02-01

419

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

Townsend, M.J.

2000-12-01

420

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

421

Palmer-Chalker correlations in the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Sn2O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er2Sn2O7 is considered, together with Er2Ti2O7, as a realization of the XY antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice. We present magnetization measurements confirming that Er2Sn2O7 does not order down to 100 mK but exhibits a freezing below 200 mK. Our neutron scattering experiments evidence the strong XY character of the Er3+moment and point out the existence of short-range correlations in which the magnetic moments are in peculiar configurations, the Palmer-Chalker states, predicted theoretically for an XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet with dipolar interactions. Our estimation of the Er2Sn2O7 parameters confirm the role of the latter interactions on top of relatively weak and isotropic exchange couplings.

Guitteny, Solene; Petit, Sylvain; Lhotel, Elsa; Robert, Julien; Bonville, Pierre; Forget, Anne; Mirebeau, Isabelle

2013-10-01

422

ER-PM connections: sites of information transfer and inter-organelle communication  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells are divided into distinct membrane-bound organelles with unique identities and specialized metabolic functions. Communication between organelles must take place to regulate the size, shape, and composition of individual organelles, as well as to coordinate transport between organelles. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms an expansive membrane network that contacts and participates in crosstalk with several other organelles in the cell, most notably the plasma membrane (PM). ER–PM junctions have well-established functions in the movement of small molecules, such as lipids and ions, between the ER and PM. Recent discoveries have revealed additional exciting roles for ER–PM junctions in the regulation of cell signaling, ER shape and architecture, and PM domain organization.

Stefan, Christopher J; Manford, Andrew G; Emr, Scott D

2014-01-01

423

Unique and conserved features of the plant ER-shaping GTPase RHD3  

PubMed Central

The architectural integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network depends on the function of membrane-associated dynamin-like GTPases that include metazoan atlastins, plant RHD3 and yeast Sey1p. The evidence that these proteins are sufficient to drive membrane fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes, and that loss-of-function mutations lead to conspicuous ER shape defects indicates that atlastins, RHD3 and Sey1p promote ER membrane fusion. However, complementation experiments in reciprocal loss-of-function backgrounds have also suggested that RHD3 and Sey1p may be not functionally equivalent, supporting that ER fusion mechanisms may be not entirely conserved in eukaryotes. In this Letter, we provide a brief overview of the field as well as evidence that may explain the functional differences of the plant and yeast ER-shaping dynamin-like GTPases.

Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-01-01

424

Luminescence and Local Structure Correlation of Er-doped Glasses and Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er-doped (0.05% to 3%) Ga2O3 containing silicate glasses and composites have been prepared by rapid coolong from the melt (glasses), followed by annealing at various temperatures from 800C to 1100C (composites). The Er luminescence has been measures and will be correlated to the llcal structural properties of the Er atoms as measured by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the MRCAT (Sector 10) beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. Preliminary analysis of the XAS data indicates that the Er is in an octahedral environment in both the glasses and composites. The glasses show no clustering of Er atoms which would lead to quenched lumineacence.

Otten, Matthew; Segre, Carlo; Cecil, Jeff; Chavara, Mychalo; Lipinska, Kris; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kalita, Patricia

2013-03-01

425

Infrared to visible upconversion of Er(3+) doped in a chloride matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of a new kind Er(3+)-doped infrared excitable phosphor (IEP), obtained with the chloride powder phosphor system YCl3-ErCl3-PbCl2-KCl, is reported, and the fluorescence characteristics of the new IEP are described. The IR-to-visible conversion efficiency of the Er(+)-doped chloride IEP was found to be higher by more than one order of magnitude than that of commercially available fluoride IEPs. A strong upconversion fluorescence at 496 nm due to the 4F7/2-4I15/2 transition was observed in the chloride phosphor under 0.972 micron laser diode excitation. Under 1.52 micron laser diode excitation, a specimen containing 20 mol pct Er(3+) dopant emitted bright green luminescence; the fluorescence lines at 410 nm, 550 nm, and 660 nm reached their respective intensities of 48, 20, and 9 times those of conventional Er(3+)-doped fluoride.

Ohwaki, Junichi; Wang, Yuhu

1992-10-01

426

Si nanoparticle-Er3+ coupling through contact in as-deposited nanostructured films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficient excitation of Er3+ ions through contact with Si nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated. A nanostructured doping process has been developed that leads to contact between Si NPs formed in situ and optically-active Er3+ ions embedded in Al2O3. This is achieved by independent and consecutive deposition of the dopants and matrix. The Si NP-Er3+ contact regime enhances the probability of efficient interaction due to the local spatial overlap of the electronic states of the Er3+ and of the Si NP exciton, enabling energy transfer by interband exciton recombination. This leads to up to 53% of the Er3+ ions being excited in as-deposited films.

Núñez-Sánchez, S.; Roque, P. M.; Serna, R.; Petford-Long, A. K.

2011-04-01

427

Si nanoparticle - Er{sup 3+} coupling through contact in as-deposited nanostructured films.  

SciTech Connect

The efficient excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions through contact with Si nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated. A nanostructured doping process has been developed that leads to contact between Si NPs formed in situ and optically-active Er{sup 3+} ions embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This is achieved by independent and consecutive deposition of the dopants and matrix. The Si NP-Er{sup 3+} contact regime enhances the probability of efficient interaction due to the local spatial overlap of the electronic states of the Er{sup 3+} and of the Si NP exciton, enabling energy transfer by interband exciton recombination. This leads to up to 53% of the Er{sup 3+} ions being excited in as-deposited films.

Nunez-Sanchez, S.; Roque, P. M.; Serna, R.; Petford-Long, A. K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Insti. de Optica, CSIC)

2011-04-11

428

Novel estrogen receptor (ER) modulators containing various hydrophobic bent-core structures.  

PubMed

We previously discovered m-carborane-containing estrogen receptor (ER) modulator 4, which exhibits weak ER-agonistic and antagonistic activities in transactivation assays. With the aim of developing novel ER partial agonists, we designed and synthesized various analogues of 4 with a bent-core structure, that is, pseudo cyclic structure (5), tetrahydropyrimidinone (6), m-benzene (7), adamantane (8), and 9,10-dimethyl-m-carborane (9), in place of the m-carborane moiety. Compound 9 showed greater binding affinity than 4 in ER-binding assay using [6,7-(3)H]-17?-estradiol and was a more effective partial agonist than 4 in MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. It appears to be a promising candidate as a selective ER modulator (SERM). PMID:24837157

Ohta, Kiminori; Ogawa, Takumi; Kaise, Asako; Endo, Yasuyuki

2014-07-01

429

Upconversion luminescence in Er-doped ?-AlON ceramic phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-AlON:Er3+ phosphors with different Er3+ concentration for upconversion luminescence were prepared by a combination of carbothermal reduction and nitridation and solid-state synthesis methods. The effect of Er3+ content on emission spectra was investigated. Under the excitation of 980 nm diode laser, green emission centered at 548 nm and red emission centered at 666 nm were observed, which are ascribed to the transition of 4S3/2/2H11/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2 of Er3+ ions, respectively. The pump power dependence indicates a two-photon process involved in the upconversion luminescence. The ratio of red emission relative to green emission was enhanced with the increase in Er3+ concentration. The possible mechanisms were discussed.

Zhang, F.; Wang, S. W.; Liu, X. J.; An, L. Q.; Yuan, X. Y.