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1

ER-2 in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data above 95 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. At this altitude the aircraft provides a stable platform for Earth imagery, atmospheric research, and electronic sensor development. Because the ER-2 can fly so high, its sensors 'mimic' sensors carried aboard orbiting satellites. For most missions the ER-2 operates at altitudes between 65,000 feet and 70,000 feet. Depending on aircraft weight, the ER-2 reaches a cruise altitude of 65,000 feet within 20 minutes. Typical cruise speed is 410 knots. The range for a normal 6-hour mission is 2,200 nautical miles (4,070 kilometers), which yields 5 hours of data collection at high altitude. The aircraft is capable of longer missions of up to 8 hours and ranges of up to 3,000 nautical miles (5,500 kilometers). The ER-2 can carry a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds (1,179 kilograms) distributed in the equipment bay, nose area, and wing pods. In 1991, NASA launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as an environmental system, now called the Earth Science Enterprise. By using satellites and other tools like the ER-2 to intensively study the Earth, NASA hopes to expand human understanding of how natural processes affect people and how people might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, the ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA ER-2 aircraft have played an important role in Earth Science research, like studying ozone depletion over Antarctica and the Arctic. In August and September 1987 an ER-2 traveled to Punta Arenas, Chile, to conduct overflights of the Antarctic. Results from this study provided information suggesting that human-made chemical compounds, specifically chloro-fluorocarbons, caused enormous ozone depletion over the Antarctic region. Subsequent deployments have continued the study of the production and loss of ozone in the polar stratosphere. Atmospheric experiments were flown from Stavanger, Norway in January and February 1989 north of the Arcti

1996-01-01

2

Protein folding in the ER.  

SciTech Connect

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

1999-10-01

3

Human T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression reflect ER?/ER? ratios in rat and human breast tissue.  

PubMed

T47D-ER? breast cancer cells with tetracycline-dependent ER? expression and constant ER? expression can be used to investigate effects of varying ER?/ER? ratios on estrogen-induced cellular responses. This study defines conditions at which ER?/ER? ratios in T47D-ER? cells best mimic ER?/ER? ratios in breast and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in vivo in rat as well as in human. Protein and mRNA levels of ER? and ER? were analyzed in T47D-ER? cells exposed to a range of tetracycline concentrations and compared to ER? and ER? levels found in breast, prostate, and uterus from rat and human origin. The ER?/ER? ratio in T47D-ER? cells exposed to >150ng/ml tetracycline is comparable to the ratio found in rat mammary gland and in human breast tissue. The ER?/ER? ratio of other estrogen-sensitive rat and human tissues can also be mimicked in T47D-ER? cells. The ER?/ER? ratio found in MCF-7 and native T47D breast cancer cell lines did not reflect ratios in analyzed rat and human tissues, which further supports the use of T47D-ER? cells as model for estrogen-responsive tissues. Using 17?-estradiol and the T47D-ER? cells under the conditions defined to mimic various tissues it could be demonstrated how these different tissues vary in their proliferative response. PMID:23680332

Evers, N M; van de Klundert, T M C; van Aesch, Y M; Wang, S; de Roos, W K; Romano, A; de Haan, L H J; Murk, A J; Ederveen, A G H; Rietjens, I M C M; Groten, J P

2013-09-01

4

ER Stress Modulates Cellular Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Changes in metabolic processes play a critical role in the survival or death of cells subjected to various stresses. Here, we have investigated the effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on cellular metabolism. A major difficulty in studying metabolic responses to ER stress is that ER stress normally leads to apoptosis and metabolic changes observed in dying cells may be misleading. Therefore, we have used IL-3-dependent Bak?/? Bax?/? hematopoietic cells which do not die in the presence of the ER stress-inducing drug, tunicamycin. Tunicamycin-treated Bak?/?Bax?/? cells remain viable but cease growth, arresting in G1 and undergoing autophagy in the absence of apoptosis. In these cells we used NMR-based stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) to determine the metabolic effects of tunicamycin. Glucose was found to be the major carbon source for energy production and anabolic metabolism. Following tunicamycin exposure, glucose uptake and lactate production are greatly reduced. Decreased 13C labeling in several cellular metabolites suggests that mitochondrial function in cells undergoing ER stress is compromised. Consistent with this, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and cellular ATP level are much lower compared with untreated cells. Importantly, the effects of tunicamycin on cellular metabolic processes may be related to a reduction of cell surface Glut-1 levels which, in turn, may reflect decreased Akt signaling. These results suggest that ER stress exerts profound effects on several central metabolic processes which may help explain cell death arising from ER stress in normal cells. PMID:21241252

Wang, Xiaoli; Eno, Colins O.; Altman, Brian J.; Zhu, Yanglong; Zhao, Guoping; Olberding, Kristen E.; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Li, Chi

2011-01-01

5

Estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ER-36) and other novel spliced ERs are widely expressed in ER-66-negative breast tumors  

E-print Network

to treat with ER-negative breast cancer. Figure 6. The mRNAs of ER in triple-negative breast tumors (5 expressed in ER-negative/triple-negative breast tumors. 4. Targeting spliced ER may provide a novel strategy-tail primer (P1). 6. Novel spliced ERs are detected by qPCR in mRNA level in triple-negative breast tumor

6

Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er2O3, or Er3+ substituting for Al3+, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K-300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er2O3 and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er3+ substituting for Al3+ in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er3+ vs. Al3+explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

Narang, V.; Korakakis, D.; Seehra, M. S.

2014-12-01

7

ERS-1 SAR data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

1986-01-01

8

ER-shaping proteins facilitate lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria in S. cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of sheets and tubules that extends throughout the cell. Proteins required to maintain this complex structure include the reticulons, reticulon-like proteins, and dynamin-like GTPases called atlastins in mammals and Sey1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells missing these proteins have abnormal ER structure, particularly defects in the formation of ER tubules, but grow about as well as wild-type cells. We screened for mutations that cause cells that have defects in maintaining ER tubules to grow poorly. Among the genes we found were members of the ER mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complex that tethers the ER and mitochondria. Close contacts between the ER and mitochondria are thought to be sites where lipids are moved from the ER to mitochondria, a process that is required for mitochondrial membrane biogenesis. We show that ER to mitochondria phospholipid transfer slows significantly in cells missing both ER-shaping proteins and the ERMES complex. These cells also have altered steady-state levels of phospholipids. We found that the defect in ER to mitochondria phospholipid transfer in a strain missing ER-shaping proteins and a component of the ERMES complex was corrected by expression of a protein that artificially tethers the ER and mitochondria. Our findings indicate that ER-shaping proteins play a role in maintaining functional contacts between the ER and mitochondria and suggest that the shape of the ER at ER-mitochondria contact sites affects lipid exchange between these organelles. PMID:22797914

Voss, Christiane; Lahiri, Sujoy; Young, Barry P; Loewen, Christopher J; Prinz, William A

2012-10-15

9

Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

Katherine Esau

2004-03-09

10

ER stress and hepatic lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important player in regulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Perturbation of ER homeostasis, referred as “ER stress,” has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. The liver plays a central role in regulating nutrient and lipid metabolism. Accumulating evidence implicates that ER stress disrupts lipid metabolism and induces hepatic lipotoxicity. Here, we review the major ER stress signaling pathways, how ER stress contributes to the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and the potential causative mechanisms of ER stress in hepatic lipotoxicity. Understanding the role of ER stress in hepatic metabolism may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases. PMID:24847353

Zhou, Huiping; Liu, Runping

2014-01-01

11

BIOENERGI ER BLEVET MODERNE 4DECEMBER 2003  

E-print Network

at bruge biomasse til energi. Opfyring med brænde og opvarmning med halmfyr eller biogas er kendte, biogas og bioethanol. Bioenergi er den eneste vedvarende energikilde, der findes i fast, flydende og

12

ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use  

E-print Network

1 ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use Problem Set #1 Total Points: 100 for ER110/PPC184; 120 for ER200/PPC284 Energy Units The purpose of these problems is to begin to get comfortable with the wide array of energy units used, and to gain experience in both doing

Kammen, Daniel M.

13

NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

14

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

2013-01-01

15

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, the grid, nuclear, fracking Due Nov. 7 [ER100/PP184], 120 [ER200/PP284] Personal Energy Audit [40 POINTS TOTAL] How much energy do you

Kammen, Daniel M.

16

ER stress protects from retinal degeneration.  

PubMed

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a specific cellular process that allows the cell to cope with the overload of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress is commonly associated with degenerative pathologies, but its role in disease progression is still a matter for debate. Here, we found that mutations in the ER-resident chaperone, neither inactivation nor afterpotential A (NinaA), lead to mild ER stress, protecting photoreceptor neurons from various death stimuli in adult Drosophila. In addition, Drosophila S2 cultured cells, when pre-exposed to mild ER stress, are protected from H(2)O(2), cycloheximide- or ultraviolet-induced cell death. We show that a specific ER-mediated signal promotes antioxidant defences and inhibits caspase-dependent cell death. We propose that an immediate consequence of the UPR not only limits the accumulation of misfolded proteins but also protects tissues from harmful exogenous stresses. PMID:19339992

Mendes, César S; Levet, Clémence; Chatelain, Gilles; Dourlen, Pierre; Fouillet, Antoine; Dichtel-Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Gambis, Alexis; Ryoo, Hyung Don; Steller, Hermann; Mollereau, Bertrand

2009-05-01

17

The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-? but retain the ER-? expression  

PubMed Central

The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-? and ER-?). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-? and ER-? in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-? mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-? is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-? in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-? could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-? was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-?. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-? was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-? expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-? but maintain the ER-? actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-? in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-? in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-? in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

2013-01-01

18

Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitization of Er emission by Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) is investigated with pulsed and continuous optical pumping, in and off resonance with excited states of Er3+ ion. We show that under high-power pulsed pumping, the excitation process is limited by the finite energy transfer time from Si-nc to Er3+ ions. By comparison between pulsed and steady-state excitation, the concentration of sensitizers

M. B. Wojdak; M. A. J. Klik; M. Forcales Fernandez; O. B. Gusev; T. Gregorkiewicz; D. Pacifici; G. Franzò; F. Priolo; F. Iacona

2004-01-01

19

JMJD6 Regulates ER? Methylation on Arginine  

PubMed Central

ER? functions are tightly controlled by numerous post-translational modifications including arginine methylation, which is required to mediate the extranuclear functions of the receptor. We report that upon oestrogenic stimulation, JMJD6, the only arginine demethylase described so far, interacts with and regulates methylated ER? (metER?) function. Moreover, by combining the silencing of JMJD6 with demethylation assays, we show that metER? is a new substrate for JMJD6. We propose that the demethylase activity of JMJD6 is a decisive regulator of the rapid physiological responses to oestrogen. PMID:24498420

Poulard, Coralie; Rambaud, Juliette; Hussein, Nader; Corbo, Laura; Le Romancer, Muriel

2014-01-01

20

Coexpression of ER with ER and Progestin Receptor Proteins in the Female Rat Forebrain: Effects of  

E-print Network

demonstrated that progesterone can alter the expression of ER mRNA in human breast tumors (12) and monkey). Substantial quantities of ER mRNA exist in hypothalamic and limbic regions of the brain, which are known

Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

21

Energy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014  

E-print Network

physics problem and it affects a very large population 3) Small-scale technologies can empower communities1 Energy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Problem Set #2 Total Points: 100 for ER path: Technology and policy choices that aim to increase energy supply through centralized, complex

Kammen, Daniel M.

22

Energy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014  

E-print Network

Energy and Society ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Problem Set #2 Total Points: 100 for ER100" and "soft" are relative terms, and the same energy technology can be applied in ways that are consistent in a sentence or two how the issue might be affected by a "softer" approach (if you identified it as a hard

Kammen, Daniel M.

23

Processing effects on microstructure in Er and ErD2 thin-films.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium metal thin-films have been deposited on molybdenum-on-silicon substrates and then converted to erbium dideuteride (ErD{sub 2}). Here, we study the effects of deposition temperature ({approx}300 or 723 K) and deposition rate (1 or 20 nm/s) upon the initial Er metal microstructure and subsequent ErD{sub 2} microstructure. We find that low deposition temperature and low deposition rate lead to small Er metal grain sizes, and high deposition temperature and deposition rate led to larger Er metal grain sizes, consistent with published models of metal thin-film growth. ErD{sub 2} grain sizes are strongly influenced by the prior-metal grain size, with small metal grains leading to large ErD{sub 2} grains. A novel sample preparation technique for electron backscatter diffraction of air-sensitive ErD{sub 2} was developed, and allowed the quantitative measurement of ErD{sub 2} grain size and crystallographic texture. Finer-grained ErD{sub 2} showed a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture, whereas larger grained ErD{sub 2} had only weak texture. We hypothesize that this inverse correlation may arise from improved hydrogen diffusion kinetics in the more defective fine-grained metal structure or due to improved nucleation in the textured large-grain Er.

Kammler, Daniel R.; Parish, Chad (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brewer, Luke N.

2010-04-01

24

Genistein affects ER beta- but not ER alpha-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Isoflavone phytoestrogens are growing increasingly popular because of their reported cardiovascular and anticarcinogenic properties, but the effects of these compounds in the brain are largely unknown. In a previous study, we found that an isoflavone supplement, containing a mixture of soy phytoestrogens, inhibited estrogen-dependent female sexual behavior and was antiestrogenic for both ER alpha- and ER beta-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. Here we examined the impact of the soy isoflavone genistein, a major component of the supplement, on estrogen-dependent female sexual behavior and ER alpha- and ER beta-dependent gene expression in the rat brain. Genistein, at a dietary concentration of 100 or 500 ppm had no effect on lordosis behavior in rats. However, at 500 ppm genistein had differential activity through ER alpha and ER beta in the hypothalamus. Genistein had no effect, in either the presence or absence of 17 beta-E2, on oxytocin receptor density in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, an estrogen-dependent action thought to be regulated via ER alpha. However, genistein increased ER beta mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus by 24%, whereas 17 beta-E2 decreased ER beta mRNA expression by 26%, a process likely mediated by ER beta itself. These results suggest that at this dose, genistein has antiestrogenic action through ER beta in the paraventricular nucleus but negligible activity through ER alpha in the brain. PMID:12021182

Patisaul, Heather B; Melby, Melissa; Whitten, Patricia L; Young, Larry J

2002-06-01

25

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25

26

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

27

A screening cascade to identify ER? ligands  

PubMed Central

The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor ? (ER?) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ER?, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ER? and ER?, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ER?. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ER? binders that were examined for their selectivity for ER? versus ER?, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing. PMID:25422593

Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

28

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA  

E-print Network

Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Topics: Personal energy audit, nuclear, fracking, LCA Due Nov. 6100/PP184], 105 [ER200/PP284] Personal Energy Audit [40 POINTS TOTAL] How much energy do you consume

Kammen, Daniel M.

29

Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi 9In 2 (YNi 9In 2-type), Er 1-1.22Ni 4In 1-0.78 (MgCu 4Sn-type), Er 10Ni 9.07In 20 (Ho 10Ni 9In 20-type), ErNi 1-0.60In 1-1.40 (ZrNiAl-type), Er 2Ni 2In (Mn 2AlB 2-type), Er 2Ni 1.78In (Mo 2FeB 2-type), Er 5Ni 2In 4 (Lu 5Ni 2In 4-type), Er 5Ni 2In (Mo 5SiB 2-type), and Er 13.53Ni 3.14In 3.33 (Lu 14Co 2In 3-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi 1-0.60In 1-1.40 and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi 2 and ErNi 4In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er 0-0.12NiIn 1-0.89. Basic magnetic properties of the Er 0.04NiIn 0.97, ErNi 2, Er 0.9Ni 2In 0.1, and ErNi 4In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi 0.9In 1.1, and ErNi 4In phases.

Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

2011-10-01

30

DHA inhibits ER Ca2+ release and ER stress in astrocytes following in vitro ischemia  

PubMed Central

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DHA on astrocyte Ca2+ signaling under in vitro ischemic conditions (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX). OGD (2 hour) triggered a Ca2+ER store overload (~ 1.9 fold). Ca2+ uptake by the Ca2+ER stores was further augmented during REOX and Ca2+ER was elevated by ~ 4.7-fold at 90 min REOX. Interestingly, Ca2+ER stores abruptly released Ca2+ at ~ 120 min REOX and emptied at 160 min REOX. Depletion of Ca2+ER stores led to delayed elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+cyt) and cell death. Activation of the purinergic receptor P2Y1 was responsible for the release of Ca2+ER. Most importantly, DHA blocked the initial Ca2+ER store overload, the delayed depletion of Ca2+ER, and rise in Ca2+cyt, which was in part via inhibiting IP3 receptors. The DHA metabolite DiHDoHE exhibited similar effects. DHA also attenuated expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and activating transcription factor-4, two ER stress markers, following in vitro ischemia. Taken together, these findings suggest that DHA has protective effects in astrocytes following in vitro ischemia, in part, by inhibiting Ca2+ dysregulation and ER stress. PMID:22129278

Begum, Gulnaz; Kintner, Douglas; Liu, Yan; Cramer, Samuel W.; Sun, Dandan

2011-01-01

31

DHA inhibits ER Ca2+ release and ER stress in astrocytes following in vitro ischemia.  

PubMed

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DHA on astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling under in vitro ischemic conditions (oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, OGD/REOX). OGD (2h) triggered a Ca(2+) (ER) store overload (?1.9-fold). Ca(2+) uptake by the Ca(2+) (ER) stores was further augmented during REOX and Ca(2+) (ER) was elevated by ?4.7-fold at 90min REOX. Interestingly, Ca(2+) (ER) stores abruptly released Ca(2+) at ?120min REOX and emptied at 160min REOX. Depletion of Ca(2+) (ER) stores led to delayed elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+) (cyt) ) and cell death. Activation of the purinergic receptor P2Y1 was responsible for the release of Ca(2+) (ER) . Most importantly, DHA blocked the initial Ca(2+) (ER) store overload, the delayed depletion of Ca(2+) (ER) , and rise in Ca(2+) (cyt) , which was in part via inhibiting d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors. The DHA metabolite DiHDoHE exhibited similar effects. DHA also attenuated expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2? and activating transcription factor-4, two ER stress markers, following in vitro ischemia. Taken together, these findings suggest that DHA has protective effects in astrocytes following in vitro ischemia, in part, by inhibiting Ca(2+) dysregulation and ER stress. PMID:22129278

Begum, Gulnaz; Kintner, Douglas; Liu, Yan; Cramer, Samuel W; Sun, Dandan

2012-02-01

32

The chlamydial organism Simkania negevensis forms ER vacuole contact sites and inhibits ER-stress.  

PubMed

Most intracellular bacterial pathogens reside within membrane-surrounded host-derived vacuoles. Few of these bacteria exploit membranes from the host's endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form a replicative vacuole. Here, we describe the formation of ER-vacuole contact sites as part of the replicative niche of the chlamydial organism Simkania negevensis. Formation of ER-vacuole contact sites is evolutionary conserved in the distantly related protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Simkania growth is accompanied by mitochondria associating with the Simkania-containing vacuole (SCV). Super-resolution microscopy as well as 3D reconstruction from electron micrographs of serial ultra-thin sections revealed a single vacuolar system forming extensive ER-SCV contact sites on the Simkania vacuolar surface. Simkania infection induced an ER-stress response, which was later downregulated. Induction of ER-stress with Thapsigargin or Tunicamycin was strongly inhibited in cells infected with Simkania. Inhibition of ER-stress was required for inclusion formation and efficient growth, demonstrating a role of ER-stress in the control of Simkania infection. Thus, Simkania forms extensive ER-SCV contact sites in host species evolutionary as diverse as human and amoeba. Moreover, Simkania is the first bacterial pathogen described to interfere with ER-stress induced signalling to promote infection. PMID:24528559

Mehlitz, Adrian; Karunakaran, Karthika; Herweg, Jo-Ana; Krohne, Georg; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rieck, Elke; Sauer, Markus; Rudel, Thomas

2014-08-01

33

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER?2 and both ER? isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen hormones interact with cellular ERs to exert their biological effects in vertebrate animals. Similar to other animals, fishes have two distinct ER subtypes, ER? (NR3A1) and ER? (NR3A2). The ER? subtype is found as two different isoforms in several fish species because of a gene duplication event. Although predicted, two different isoforms of ER? have not been demonstrated in

James J. Nagler; Tim Cavileer; Jack Sullivan; Daniel G. Cyr; Caird Rexroad III

2007-01-01

34

An ab initio-based Er-He interatomic potential in hcp Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from the ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.

Yang, L.; Ye, Y. T.; Fan, K. M.; Shen, H. H.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.

2014-09-01

35

Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

Gleckler, B.P.

1998-07-01

36

EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg  

E-print Network

EmpowEr your practicE mastEr of NursiNg #12;mastEr of NursiNg (mN) The UniversiTy of WashingTon BoThell MasTer of nUrsing prograM prepares nurses for advanced leadership roles in health care practice and elective credits support a wide range of nursing interests that allow a custom fit to your individual goals

Manchak, John

37

ER stress: how trypanosomes deal with it.  

PubMed

An efficient response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is essential for the viability of eukaryotic cells. The causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, responds to such stress by inducing spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS), resulting in shutdown of mRNA biogenesis. A new study elucidates the activation cascade and its molecular components, which are unique to the ER stress response in trypanosomes. PMID:25457395

Bindereif, Albrecht; Preußer, Christian

2014-12-01

38

Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKK?, LKB1, and AMPK?1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 ?mol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 ?mol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPK?1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 ?mol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 ?mol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 ?mol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 ? cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

2012-01-01

39

A phosphotyrosine switch determines the antitumor activity of ER?  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors ER? and ER? share considerable sequence homology yet exert opposite effects on breast cancer cell proliferation. While the proliferative role of ER? in breast tumors is well characterized, it is not clear whether the antitumor activity of ER? can be mobilized in breast cancer cells. Here, we have shown that phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue (Y36) present in ER?, but not in ER?, dictates ER?-specific activation of transcription and is required for ER?-dependent inhibition of cancer cell growth in culture and in murine xenografts. Additionally, the c-ABL tyrosine kinase and EYA2 phosphatase directly and diametrically controlled the phosphorylation status of Y36 and subsequent ER? function. A nonphosphorylatable, transcriptionally active ER? mutant retained antitumor activity but circumvented control by upstream regulators. Phosphorylation of Y36 was required for ER?-mediated coactivator recruitment to ER? target promoters. In human breast cancer samples, elevated phosphorylation of Y36 in ER? correlated with high levels of c-ABL but low EYA2 levels. Furthermore, compared with total ER?, the presence of phosphorylated Y36–specific ER? was strongly associated with both disease-free and overall survival in patients with stage II and III disease. Together, these data identify a signaling circuitry that regulates ER?-specific antitumor activity and has potential as both a prognostic tool and a molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:24960160

Yuan, Bin; Cheng, Long; Chiang, Huai-Chin; Xu, Xiaojie; Han, Yongjian; Su, Hang; Wang, Lingxue; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Jing; Li, Xiaobing; Xie, Xiangyang; Wang, Tao; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R.; Curiel, Tyler J.; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Elledge, Richard; Hu, Yanfen; Ye, Qinong; Li, Rong

2014-01-01

40

Local compositional environment of Er in ZnS:ErF3 thin film electroluminescent phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnS:Er thin film electroluminescent phosphors have been shown to exhibit a marked maximum in the near infrared emission (NIR) after a 425 °C post-deposition anneal with a very narrow temperature window of ±25 °C for optimal NIR emission. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been obtained from both the Zn and Er edges in order to examine the local structure of the host and dopant in this NIR phosphor material. Interestingly, the addition of only ˜0.5 mol. % of Er as ErF3 into the host is found to reduce the Zn-S bond length of one of the two nearest Zn-S shells by 0.6 Å relative to high-quality, atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) grown, pure ZnS. The coordination number of this shorter Zn-S bond increases after the optimal 425 °C anneal. Longer range fits indicate a highly disordered structure, overall, consistent with earlier TEM results. Erbium-L3 EXAFS data from the second and third shells show increasing crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature in the vicinity of the Er dopant. Data from the first shell cannot be fit with S atoms, but are fit equally well with either O or F. Comparison with earlier analyses indicates that the Er is most likely surrounded by F in the first shell. Based on these data and previous studies, we develop a model in which the Er dopant is present as an Er:Fx complex with associated S vacancies, which may include one sulfur atom remaining in the Er nearest shell. Upon annealing, there is a reduction in the F present and a rearrangement of the crystal structure in the vicinity of the Er atom. Optimum annealing conditions occur when optimal crystalline environment is achieved prior to the loss of too much F from the Er:Fx complex.

Davidson, Mark R.; Stoupin, Stanislav; DeVito, David; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Segre, Carlo; Holloway, Paul H.

2011-03-01

41

The effect of estrogen on bone requires ER? in nonhematopoietic cells but is enhanced by ER? in hematopoietic cells  

PubMed Central

The effects of estrogen on bone are mediated mainly via estrogen receptor (ER)?. ER? in osteoclasts (hematopoietic origin) is involved in the trabecular bone-sparing effects of estrogen, but conflicting data are reported on the role of ER? in osteoblast lineage cells (nonhematopoietic origin) for bone metabolism. Because Cre-mediated cell-specific gene inactivation used in previous studies might be confounded by nonspecific and/or incomplete cell-specific ER? deletion, we herein used an alternative approach to determine the relative importance of ER? in hematopoietic (HC) and nonhematopoietic cells (NHC) for bone mass. Chimeric mice with selective inactivation of ER? in HC or NHC were created by bone marrow transplantations of wild-type (WT) and ER?-knockout (ER??/?) mice. Estradiol treatment increased both trabecular and cortical bone mass in ovariectomized WT/WT (defined as recipient/donor) and WT/ER??/? mice but not in ER??/?/WT or ER??/?/ER??/? mice. However, estradiol effects on both bone compartments were reduced (?50%) in WT/ER??/? mice compared with WT/WT mice. The effects of estradiol on fat mass and B lymphopoiesis required ER? specifically in NHC and HC, respectively. In conclusion, ER? in NHC is required for the effects of estrogen on both trabecular and cortical bone, but these effects are enhanced by ER? in HC. PMID:25117411

Henning, Petra; Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Farman, Helen; Windahl, Sara H.; Carlsten, Hans

2014-01-01

42

Genistein Affects ER - But Not ER Dependent Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavone phytoestrogens are growing increasingly popular because of their reported cardiovascular and anticarcino- genic properties, but the effects of these compounds in the brain are largely unknown. In a previous study, we found that an isoflavone supplement, containing a mixture of soy phy- toestrogens, inhibited estrogen-dependent female sexual be- havior and was antiestrogenic for both ER- and ER-depen- dent gene

HEATHER B. PATISAUL; MELISSA MELBY; PATRICIA L. WHITTEN; LARRY J. YOUNG

2002-01-01

43

ER Re-expression and Re-sensitization to Endocrine Therapies in ER-negative Breast Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer amongst women in the westernized world. The presence or absence of ER? in breast\\u000a cancers is an important prognostic indicator. About 30–40% of breast cancers lack detectable ER? protein. ER?? breast cancers\\u000a are resistant to endocrine therapies and have a worse prognosis than ER?+ breast cancers. Since expression of ER? is necessary

Joeli A. Brinkman; Dorraya El-Ashry

2009-01-01

44

Characterization of Er in porous Si  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of porous Si-based Er-doped light-emitting devices is a very promising developing field for all-silicon light emitters. However, while luminescence of Er-doped porous silicon devices has been demonstrated, very little attention has been devoted to the doping process itself. We have undertaken a detailed study of this process, examining the porous silicon matrix from several points of view during and after the doping. In particular, we have found that the Er-doping process shows a threshold level which, as evidenced by the cross correlation of the various techniques used, does depend on the sample thickness and on the doping parameters. PMID:22776613

2012-01-01

45

ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP  

SciTech Connect

Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

Gerald Heymsfield

2010-12-20

46

Identification of Estrogen Receptor Dimer Selective Ligands Reveals Growth-Inhibitory Effects on Cells That Co-Express ER? and ER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens play essential roles in the progression of mammary and prostatic diseases. The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ER? is proliferative while ER? is anti-proliferative. Exogenous expression of ER? in ER?-positive cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation in response to estrogen and reduces xenografted tumor

Emily Powell; Erin Shanle; Ashley Brinkman; Jun Li; Sunduz Keles; Kari B. Wisinski; Wei Huang; Wei Xu

2012-01-01

47

ER and vacuoles: never been closer  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the gateway for intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins, soluble cargoes and lipids. In all eukaryotes, the best described mechanism of exiting the ER is via COPII-coated vesicles, which transport both membrane proteins and soluble cargoes to the cis-Golgi. The vacuole, together with the plasma membrane, is the most distal point of the secretory pathway, and many vacuolar proteins are transported from the ER through intermediate compartments. However, past results and recent findings demonstrate the presence of alternative transport routes from the ER towards the tonoplast, which are independent of Golgi- and post-Golgi trafficking. Moreover, the transport mechanism of the vacuolar proton pumps VHA-a3 and AVP1 challenges the current model of vacuole biogenesis, pointing to the endoplasmic reticulum for being the main membrane source for the biogenesis of the plant lytic compartment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on the transport routes towards the vacuole and discusses the possible mechanism of vacuole biogenesis in plants. PMID:24550928

Viotti, Corrado

2014-01-01

48

ER - the key to the highway.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the key organelle at the start of the secretory pathway and the list of its functions is continually growing. The ER organization as a tubular/cisternal network at the cortex of plant cells has recently been shown to be governed by the membrane tubulation proteins of the reticulon family working alongside plant atlastin homologues, members of the RHD3 group of proteins. Such a network has intimate connections with other organelles such as peroxisomes via peroxules, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies and at the cell cortex to the plasma membrane with cytoskeleton at so called 'anchor/contact sites'. The ER network is by no means static displaying a range of different movements and acting as a subcellular highway supports the motility of organelles such as peroxisomes, mitochondria and Golgi bodies plus the transport of macromolecules such as viral movement proteins, nucleocapsid proteins and RNA. Here we highlight recent and exciting discoveries on the maintenance of the ER structure and its role on movement and biology of other organelles. PMID:25259957

Stefano, Giovanni; Hawes, Chris; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-12-01

49

Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

2011-01-01

50

The QuEChERS revolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

51

Explorewww.trentu.ca/ers Environmental  

E-print Network

Explorewww.trentu.ca/ers Explore Your Passion Environmental and Resource Studies/Science. Trent. You. #12;LEARNING TO MAKE A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE.TM Career Conscious Skills in environmental studies of government, in business and industry, and for environmental organizations. Their work encompasses

Fox, Michael

52

n er a I Society Profile -ACI  

E-print Network

the American Coocrete Institute (ACl lrJtClnational) Aulumn, 1996 Volume 1'1, Issue 4 CllartiliOO as ate the (leflral j1UbliCby disseminatiil(l information 00 OOOCletB. IrnJeed, ACI Intematiorlal's motto desuitJes l produc- ers, and government and h i ~he! ooocation. ACl lnterrratiooai members may take part in !he

53

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

54

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

55

Wiki'er og Wikipedia Finn Arup Nielsen  

E-print Network

Wiki'er og Wikipedia Finn °Arup Nielsen DTU Compute Technical University of Denmark April 23, 2013 #12;Wiki'er og Wikipedia Resum´e Wiki'er er efterh°anden alle vegne. De nyeste udviklinger muliggør struk- turering af data, s°a man kan opbygge sin egne specialiserede wiki-baserede database eller trække

56

Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals  

SciTech Connect

The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

Malov, A V [N.P. Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk (Russian Federation); Popov, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

2010-08-03

57

An ER-associated miRNA signature predicts prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

BackgroundBreast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptor (ER) have a better prognosis. However, no prognostic miRNA signature was reported in the ER-positive breast cancer. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the prognostic significance of a miRNA signature in ER-positive breast cancer.MethodsTwo cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were used as training (n =596) and testing set (n =319). Differential expression profiling was identified in the training set. And the prognostic value of the miRNA signature was then assessed in the two cohorts.ResultsA total of 14 miRNAs were observed to be associated with the status of ER by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) in the training set. Patients were characterized as high score or low score group according to the calculated risk scores from each miRNA. And patients in high score group had worse overall survival compared with those in low score group both in the training and testing set.ConclusionsOur study revealed a miRNA signature including 14 miRNAs associated with ER status which could act as a prognostic marker in ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:25373603

Zhou, Xin; Wang, Xiaping; Huang, Zebo; Xu, Lei; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Ping

2014-11-01

58

ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the gastric muscle injury caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rats with diabetic gastroparesis. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a diabetic group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Gastric emptying was determined at the 4th and 12th week. The ultrastructural changes in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to assess apoptosis of SMCs. Expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and the ER-specific apoptosis mediator, caspase-12 protein, was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly lower in the diabetic rats than in the control rats at the 12th wk (40.71% ± 2.50%, control rats vs 54.65% ± 5.22%, diabetic rats; P < 0.05). Swollen and distended ER with an irregular shape was observed in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats. Apoptosis of gastric SMCs increased in the diabetic rats in addition to increased expression of GRP78 and caspase-12 proteins. CONCLUSION: ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis are activated in gastric SMCs in diabetic rats with gastroparesis. PMID:25009401

Chen, Xia; Fu, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhao, Hong-Xian

2014-01-01

59

ER-associated retrograde SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex mediate an alternative, Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion pathway  

PubMed Central

The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is dynamically maintained by homotypic (ER–ER) fusion. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p can mediate ER–ER fusion, but sey1? cells have no growth defect and only slightly perturbed ER structure. Recent work suggested that ER-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate a Sey1p-independent ER–ER fusion pathway. However, an alternative explanation—that the observed phenotypes arose from perturbed vesicle trafficking—could not be ruled out. In this study, we used candidate and synthetic genetic array (SGA) approaches to more fully characterize SNARE-mediated ER–ER fusion. We found that Dsl1 complex mutations in sey1? cells cause strong synthetic growth and ER structure defects and delayed ER–ER fusion in vivo, additionally implicating the Dsl1 complex in SNARE-mediated ER–ER fusion. In contrast, cytosolic coat protein I (COPI) vesicle coat mutations in sey1? cells caused no synthetic defects, excluding perturbed retrograde trafficking as a cause for the previously observed synthetic defects. Finally, deleting the reticulons that help maintain ER architecture in cells disrupted for both ER–ER fusion pathways caused almost complete inviability. We conclude that the ER SNAREs and the Dsl1 complex directly mediate Sey1p-independent ER–ER fusion and that, in the absence of both pathways, cell viability depends upon membrane curvature–promoting reticulons. PMID:25187651

Rogers, Jason V.; McMahon, Conor; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Hughson, Frederick M.; Rose, Mark D.

2014-01-01

60

5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER  

MedlinePLUS

... in Social Media ER 101 5 Things to Help Your Loved One in the ER H ere are five things you can do to help your loved one in the ER: 1. Write ... of the essence, getting this firsthand information can help in making an accurate diagnosis faster. 5. Don’ ...

61

Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier  

E-print Network

Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier via particle swarm optimization Francesco Prudenzano Design of fiber coupled Er3: chalcogenide microsphere amplifier via particle swarm/03/2014 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Design of fiber coupled Er3 :chalcogenide microsphere

Boyer, Edmond

62

Passively modelocked 50 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser  

E-print Network

Passively modelocked 50 GHz Er:Yb:glass laser S.C. Zeller, L. Krainer, G.J. Spu¨hler, R. Paschotta, M. Golling, D. Ebling, K.J. Weingarten and U. Keller A diode-pumped Er:Yb:glass miniature laser has on power budget and space requirements. We recently presented a passively modelocked Er:Yb:glass laser

Keller, Ursula

63

Estradiol rapidly regulates membrane ER? levels in hypothalamic neurons  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen binding proteins have been localized intracellularly and on the cell surface. The membrane associated proteins initiate signaling that activates a myriad of cellular responses including the modulation of ion channels and ultimately transcription. Although many of the downstream actions of membrane ERs, including ER? and ER?, have been characterized, the mechanisms regulating membrane ER levels have remained elusive in the nervous system. In the present study, we used surface biotinylation to identify and study the estradiol regulation of membrane ER? in mixed sex, cultured hypothalamic neurons from rat. Following surface biotinylation, western blot analysis revealed full length 66 kDa ER? and several ER? splice variants, most notably a biotinylated 52 kDa ER?-immunoreactive protein. Treatment of the neurons with estradiol caused a rapid and transient increase of the biotinylated 52 kDa and 66 kDa ER? proteins in the plasma membrane. Exposure of the neurons to estradiol also significantly increased internalization of 52 kDa and 66 kDa ER? membrane proteins, a measure of receptor activation. In the hypothalamus, membrane ER? signaling depends on transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a (mGluR1a). Estradiol treatment increased the internalization of mGluR1a in parallel with ER?, a finding consistent with the hypothesis of an ER?-mGluR1a signaling unit. These results demonstrate that estradiol regulates the amount of ER? in the membrane, suggesting estradiol can regulate its own membrane signaling. PMID:20861365

Dominguez, R.; Micevych, P.

2011-01-01

64

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 and both ER isoforms  

E-print Network

The complete nuclear estrogen receptor family in the rainbow trout: Discovery of the novel ER2 another. This information provides what we expect to be the first complete nuclear ER gene family in the stomach or heart. The nuclear ERs have a significant and ubiquitous distribution in the rainbow trout

Sullivan, Jack

65

Differential Roles of ER? and ER? in Normal and Neoplastic Development in the Mouse Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

The present experiments were performed to determine the roles of estrogen receptors ? and ? (ER? and ER?) in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland. In wild-type mice, in vivo administration of estradiol (E) + progesterone (P) stimulated mammary ductal growth and alveolar differentiation. Mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated normal ductal growth and differentiation in response to E + P. By contrast, mammary glands from mice in which the ER? gene has been deleted (?ERKO mice) demonstrated only rudimentary ductal structures that did not differentiate in response to E + P. EGF demonstrates estrogen-like activity in the mammary glands of ?ERKO mice: treatment of ?ERKO mice with EGF + P (without E) supported normal mammary gland development, induced expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and increased levels of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR30) protein. Mammary gland development in ?ERKO mice treated with EGF + P was comparable to that of wild-type mice receiving EGF + P; EGF had no statistically significant effects on the induction of PR or expression of GPR30 in mammary glands harvested from either wild-type mice or ?ERKO mice. In vitro exposure of mammary glands to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced preneoplastic mammary alveolar lesions (MAL) in glands from wild-type mice and ?ERKO mice, but failed to induce MAL in mammary glands from ?ERKO mice. Microarray analysis of DMBA-treated mammary glands identified 28 functional pathways whose expression was significantly different in ?ERKO mice versus both ?ERKO and wild-type mice; key functions that were differentially expressed in ?ERKO mice included cell division, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The data demonstrate distinct roles for ER? and ER? in normal and neoplastic development in the mouse mammary gland, and suggest that EGF can mimic the ER?-mediated effects of E in this organ. PMID:25405629

Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hawthorne, Michael; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Torres, Karen E. O.; Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L.; Kopelovich, Levy

2014-01-01

66

MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:25372053

Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

2014-11-01

67

Boreal Forest Monitoring with ERS Coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-band repeat-pass InSAR coherence from ERS-1\\/-2 satellites has been shown to be a valuable parameter for retrieval of stem volume in boreal forests, being more accurate than microwave radar backscatter. In this work we have presented a procedure to estimate stem volume from coherence measurements, obtained with careful InSAR processing due to the low coherence of forested areas. At first

M. Santoro; J. Askne; G. Smith; J. E. S. Fransson

68

ER-12-1 completion report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

1996-12-01

69

Energy level structure of Er3+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic energy levels and E2 and M1 transition rates are reported for the [Xe]4f11 ground configuration in Er3+ from relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction calculations. The Breit transverse interaction and leading QED effects are included as perturbations. Different strategies for describing electron correlation effects are tested and evaluated. The calculated energy levels are compared with experiment and results from semi-empirical methods.

Radži?t?, L.; Gaigalas, G.; Kato, D.; Jönsson, P.; Rynkun, P.; Ku?as, S.; Jonauskas, V.; Matulianec, R.

2015-02-01

70

Calibration: Practical experience with ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs and discussion of calibration:practical experience with ERS-1 are presented. Topics covered include: radiometric calibration, geometric calibration, phase calibration, and polarimetric calibration. Basic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurement parameters are radar backscattering, target position, target speed, and polarization. SAR calibration facilitates quantitative measurements needed to derive geophysical parameters of the area under observation from basic SAR measurements (e.g. soil moisture, biomass, ocean wave energy, ocean currents, ice type, and ice flow).

Louet, Jacques

1993-01-01

71

Room-Temperature Photoluminescence from Er3+ in Si-Er-O and Si-Ge-Er-O Thin Films at High Erbium Concentrations  

E-print Network

Prior studies have shown that photoluminescence from Er3+ impurities in silicon is severely limited at room temperature by non-radiative relaxation and solid solubility; and room temperature emission from Er3+ in oxide-based hosts becomes diminished at high erbium concentrations. This work presents studies of thin films (0.2 micron thick) prepared by vacuum co-evaporation from elemental sources (Er, Si and Si/Ge) followed by vacuum annealing (600 degrees C); materials of this type, which are produced with high Er3+ concentrations, are shown to be capable of yielding strong room-temperature photoluminescence. Alloy films of Si-Er-O and Si-Ge-Er-O, containing (20 +/- 2) at. % Er and incorporating (16 +/- 2) at. % O (introduced via vacuum scavenging reactions), exhibit emission bands with dominant components at 1.51 and 1.54 micron (~0.04-micron overall spectral widths). Results are discussed in terms of Er-O complex formation and effects of local randomness on cooperative inter-Er3+ energy transfer among therma...

Abedrabbo, Sufian; 10.1680/emr.11.00002

2012-01-01

72

Spectral analysis of Er3+-, Er3+\\/Yb3+- and Er3+\\/Tm3+\\/Yb3+-doped TeO2 ZnO WO3 TiO2 Na2O glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-, Er3+\\/Yb3+- and Er3+\\/Tm3+\\/Yb3+-doped novel tellurite glasses. From the measured absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Omega2, Omega4 and Omega6) have been evaluated for the Er3+-doped glass. With 980 nm excitation three strong upconversion emission bands centered at 505, 520 and 630 nm were observed for both Er3+- and Er3+\\/Yb3+-codoped glasses

G. Lakshminarayana; Jianrong Qiu; M. G. Brik; G. A. Kumar; I. V. Kityk

2008-01-01

73

The ablation threshold of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation in dental enamel.  

PubMed

The scientific investigation of fundamental problems plays a decisive role in understanding the mode of action and the consequences of the use of lasers on biological material. One of these fundamental aspects is the investigation of the ablation threshold of various laser wavelengths in dental enamel. Knowledge of the relationships and influencing factors in the laser ablation of hard tooth tissue constitutes the basis for use in patients and the introduction of new indications. The present paper examines the ablation threshold of an Er:YAG laser (lambda=2.94 micro m) and an Er:YSGG laser (lambda=2.79 micro m) in human dental enamel. To this end, 130 enamel samples were taken from wisdom teeth and treated with increasing energy densities of 2-40 J/cm(2). The sample material was mounted and irradiated on an automated linear micropositioner. Treatment was performed with a pulse duration of tau(P(FWHM)) approximately 150 micro s and a pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz for both wavelengths. The repetition rate of the laser and the feed rate of the micropositioner resulted in overlapping of the single pulses. The surface changes were assessed by means of reflected light and scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the results, it was possible to identify an energy density range as the ablation threshold for both the Er:YAG and the Er:YSGG laser. With the Er:YAG laser, the transition was found in an energy density range of 9-11 J/cm(2). The range for the Er:YSGG laser was slightly higher at 10-14 J/cm(2). PMID:12417978

Apel, C; Meister, J; Ioana, R S; Franzen, R; Hering, P; Gutknecht, N

2002-01-01

74

The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS. PMID:24910594

Tadic, Vedrana; Prell, Tino; Lautenschlaeger, Janin; Grosskreutz, Julian

2014-01-01

75

Virus-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in ER stress that triggers cytoprotective signaling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), to restore and maintain homeostasis in the ER or to induce apoptosis if ER stress remains unmitigated. The UPR signaling network encompasses three core elements, i.e., PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1). Activation of these three branch pathways of the UPR leads to the translation arrest and degradation of misfolded proteins, the expression of ER molecular chaperones, and the expansion of the ER membrane to decrease the load of proteins and increase the protein-folding capacity in the ER. Recently, the essential roles of the UPR have been implicated in a number of mammalian diseases, particularly viral diseases. In virus-infected cells, the cellular translation machinery is hijacked by the infecting virus to produce large amounts of viral proteins, which inevitably perturbs ER homeostasis and causes ER stress. This review summarizes current knowledge about the UPR signaling pathways, highlights two identified UPR pathways in plants, and discuss progress in elucidating the UPR in virus-infected cells and its functional roles in viral infection. PMID:23293645

Zhang, Lingrui; Wang, Aiming

2012-01-01

76

BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

77

Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses  

PubMed Central

In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

2012-01-01

78

ER stress inhibits neuronal death by promoting autophagy  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases but its relationship and role in disease progression remain unclear. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that mild ER stress (“preconditioning”) is neuroprotective in Drosophila and mouse models of Parkinson disease. In addition, we found that the combination of mild ER stress and apoptotic signals triggers an autophagic response both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that when autophagy is impaired, ER-mediated protection is lost. We further demonstrated that autophagy inhibits caspase activation and apoptosis. Based on our findings, we conclude that autophagy is required for the neuroprotection mediated by mild ER stress, and therefore ER preconditioning has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22660271

Fouillet, Antoine; Levet, Clemence; Virgone, Angelique; Robin, Marion; Dourlen, Pierre; Rieusset, Jennifer; Belaidi, Elise; Ovize, Michel; Touret, Monique; Nataf, Serge; Mollereau, Bertrand

2012-01-01

79

Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor  

PubMed Central

We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

2014-01-01

80

Fluoride glass fiber for reliable Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser power delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other transparent infrared fiber materials, ZBLAN fluoride glasses promise to be best suited for laser power delivery in the 3mum wavelength region due to their high transmission and excellent mechanical flexibility. These claims were demonstrated in a series of power handling tests of both straight and coiled fibers using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser emitting a train of pulses of

François Séguin; Mohammed Saad; Patrick Orsini; Dieter Baierl

2008-01-01

81

RAC3 is a promigratory co-activator of ER?  

PubMed Central

ER? is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor that is important in breast cancer genesis, behavior and response to hormone-based therapies. A T7 phage display screen against full-length human ER?, coupled with genome-wide exon arrays, was used to identify RAC3 as a putative ER? co-regulator. RAC3 is a rho family small GTPase that is associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement. We demonstrate a novel role for nuclear RAC3 as an ER? transcriptional activator, with prognostic implications for metastatic disease. Through in vitro and cell-based studies, RAC3 was shown to exist in a GTP-bound state and act as a ligand specific ER? co-activator of E2-induced transcription. Over expression of RAC3 induced pro-growth and pro-migratory genes that resulted in increased migration of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. Chemical inhibition and genetic knockdown of RAC3 antagonized E2-induced cell proliferation, cell migration, and ER? mediated gene expression, indicating that RAC3 is necessary for full ER? transcriptional activity. In agreement with the molecular and cellular data, RAC3 over expression in ER?-positive breast cancers correlated with a significant decrease in recurrence free survival and a significant increase in the odds ratio of metastasis. In conclusion, RAC3 is novel ER? co-activator that promotes cell migration and has prognostic value for ER?-positive breast cancer metastasis. RAC3 may also be a useful therapeutic target for ER?-positive breast cancers. PMID:21217774

Walker, Matthew P; Zhang, Maomao; Le, Thien P; Wu, Patricia; Lainé, Muriel; Greene, Geoffrey L

2010-01-01

82

ER Import Sites and Their Relationship to ER Exit Sites: A New Model for Bidirectional ER-Golgi Transport in Higher Plants.  

PubMed

Per definition, ER exit sites are COPII vesiculation events at the surface of the ER and in higher plants are only visualizable in the electron microscope through cryofixation techniques. Fluorescent COPII labeling moves with Golgi stacks and locates to the interface between the ER and the Golgi. In contrast, the domain of the ER where retrograde COPI vesicles fuse, i.e., ER import sites (ERIS), has remained unclear. To identify ERIS we have employed ER-located SNAREs and tethering factors. We screened several SNAREs (SYP81, the SYP7 family, and USE1) to find a SNARE whose overexpression did not disrupt ER-Golgi traffic and which gave rise to discrete fluorescent punctae when expressed with an XFP tag. Only the Qc-SNARE SYP72 fulfilled these criteria. When coexpressed with SYP72-YFP, both the type I-membrane protein RFP-p24?5 and the luminal marker CFP-HDEL whose ER localization are due to an efficient COPI-mediated recycling, form nodules along the tubular ER network. SYP72-YFP colocalizes with these nodules which are not seen when RFP-p24?5 or CFP-HDEL is expressed alone or when SYP72-YFP is coexpressed with a mutant form of RFP-p24?5 that cannot exit the ER. SYP72-YFP does not colocalize with Golgi markers, except when the Golgi stacks are immobilized through actin depolymerization. Endogenous SYP7 SNAREs, also colocalize with immobilized COPII/Golgi. In contrast, XFP-tagged versions of plant homologs to TIP20 of the Dsl1 COPI-tethering factor complex, and the COPII-tethering factor p115 colocalize perfectly with Golgi stacks irrespective of the motile status. These data suggest that COPI vesicle fusion with the ER is restricted to periods when Golgi stacks are stationary, but that when moving both COPII and COPI vesicles are tethered and collect in the ER-Golgi interface. Thus, the Golgi stack and an associated domain of the ER thereby constitute a mobile secretory and recycling unit: a unique feature in eukaryotic cells. PMID:22876251

Lerich, Alexander; Hillmer, Stefan; Langhans, Markus; Scheuring, David; van Bentum, Paulien; Robinson, David G

2012-01-01

83

ER Import Sites and Their Relationship to ER Exit Sites: A New Model for Bidirectional ER-Golgi Transport in Higher Plants  

PubMed Central

Per definition, ER exit sites are COPII vesiculation events at the surface of the ER and in higher plants are only visualizable in the electron microscope through cryofixation techniques. Fluorescent COPII labeling moves with Golgi stacks and locates to the interface between the ER and the Golgi. In contrast, the domain of the ER where retrograde COPI vesicles fuse, i.e., ER import sites (ERIS), has remained unclear. To identify ERIS we have employed ER-located SNAREs and tethering factors. We screened several SNAREs (SYP81, the SYP7 family, and USE1) to find a SNARE whose overexpression did not disrupt ER-Golgi traffic and which gave rise to discrete fluorescent punctae when expressed with an XFP tag. Only the Qc-SNARE SYP72 fulfilled these criteria. When coexpressed with SYP72-YFP, both the type I-membrane protein RFP-p24?5 and the luminal marker CFP-HDEL whose ER localization are due to an efficient COPI-mediated recycling, form nodules along the tubular ER network. SYP72-YFP colocalizes with these nodules which are not seen when RFP-p24?5 or CFP-HDEL is expressed alone or when SYP72-YFP is coexpressed with a mutant form of RFP-p24?5 that cannot exit the ER. SYP72-YFP does not colocalize with Golgi markers, except when the Golgi stacks are immobilized through actin depolymerization. Endogenous SYP7 SNAREs, also colocalize with immobilized COPII/Golgi. In contrast, XFP-tagged versions of plant homologs to TIP20 of the Dsl1 COPI-tethering factor complex, and the COPII-tethering factor p115 colocalize perfectly with Golgi stacks irrespective of the motile status. These data suggest that COPI vesicle fusion with the ER is restricted to periods when Golgi stacks are stationary, but that when moving both COPII and COPI vesicles are tethered and collect in the ER-Golgi interface. Thus, the Golgi stack and an associated domain of the ER thereby constitute a mobile secretory and recycling unit: a unique feature in eukaryotic cells. PMID:22876251

Lerich, Alexander; Hillmer, Stefan; Langhans, Markus; Scheuring, David; van Bentum, Paulien; Robinson, David G.

2012-01-01

84

Radiation Hydrodynamics with FLOW-ER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of radiative transport are an important aspect of many astrophysical fluid problems, such as binary star accretion discs and common envelope evolution. Unfortunately, the full radiative transport problem is seven dimensional and outside the realm of current computational capabilities. The gray field flux limited diffusion (FLD) approximation has been shown to provide a feasible four dimensional approximation to the full radiative transport problems in many cases. The flux is approximated through an algebraic expression which interpolates between the two extremes of diffusive and free streaming radiation. FLD allows for the exchange of energy and momentum between the fluid and radiation field. We are implementing this into our current Newtonian astrophysical fluid simulation code named FLOW-ER. Unlike other FLD codes, FLOW-ER handles shocks without the use of artificial viscosity. At this point, the code runs in 1D and 2D on a single processor. The ultimate goal is a fully 3D parallel code running on an adaptive mesh. Presented are results for test cases in 1D and 2D, compared to analytic results where available, and to ZeusMP2 when not. This research has been supported, in part, by NSF grants AST-0407070 and AST-0708551.

Marcello, Dominic; Tohline, J. E.; Motl, P. M.

2008-03-01

85

Cyclopia extracts act as ER? antagonists and ER? agonists, in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Hormone replacement therapy associated risks, and the concomitant reluctance of usage, has instigated the search for new generations of estrogen analogues that would maintain estrogen benefits without associated risks. Furthermore, if these analogues display chemo-preventative properties in breast and endometrial tissues it would be of great value. Both the selective estrogen receptor modulators as well as the selective estrogen receptor subtype modulators have been proposed as estrogen analogues with improved risk profiles. Phytoestrogen containing extracts of Cyclopia, an indigenous South African fynbos plant used to prepare Honeybush tea may serve as a source of new estrogen analogues. In this study three extracts, P104, SM6Met, and cup-of-tea, from two species of Cyclopia, C. genistoides and C. subternata, were evaluated for ER subtype specific agonism and antagonism both in transactivation and transrepression. For transactivation, the Cyclopia extracts displayed ER? antagonism and ER? agonism when ER subtypes were expressed separately, however, when co-expressed only agonism was uniformly observed. In contrast, for transrepression, this uniform behavior was lost, with some extracts (P104) displaying uniform agonism, while others (SM6Met) displayed antagonism when subtypes were expressed separately and agonism when co-expressed. In addition, breast cancer cell proliferation assays indicate that extracts antagonize cell proliferation in the presence of estrogen at lower concentrations than that required for proliferation. Furthermore, lack of uterine growth and delayed vaginal opening in an immature rat uterotrophic model validates the ER? antagonism of extracts observed in vitro and supports the potential of the Cyclopia extracts as a source of estrogen analogues with a reduced risk profile. PMID:24223909

Visser, Koch; Mortimer, Morné; Louw, Ann

2013-01-01

86

Redox dependence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca²? signaling.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that accommodates a large array of functions. Recent publications have shown that many of these functions are influenced by the ongoing oxidative folding of secretory and membrane proteins. Conversely, successful ER protein folding critically depends on the cellular redox state, but also the availability of Ca²?. These findings suggest the existence of regulatory mechanisms that steer ER Ca²? homeostasis according to the cellular redox state. Indeed, accumulating evidence demonstrates that ER Ca²? uptake and release by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca²? transport ATPases (SERCAs), stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), Orai1, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) depends on redox modifications of these channels and pumps. In addition, ER chaperones and oxidoreductases moonlight as regulators of ER Ca²? channels and pumps. Discrete redox conditions of channels, pumps and oxidoreductases exist that allow for opening and closing. Through these functions, redox regulation of ER Ca²? influences signaling mechanisms governing cell growth and migration, apoptosis and mitochondrial energy production. Therefore, pharmacological intervention based on ER redox or on ER redox-sensitive chaperones and oxidoreductases is a promising strategy to influence all metabolic syndromes including cancer and neurodegeneration. PMID:24197491

Raturi, Arun; Ortiz-Sandoval, Carolina; Simmen, Thomas

2014-05-01

87

Evaluating the Potential Bioactivity of a Novel Compound ER1626  

PubMed Central

Background ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. Method MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. Results ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor ? protein and up-regulated ? protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. Conclusion In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis. PMID:24475135

Wang, Tianling; Liu, Hongyi; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

2014-01-01

88

Oestrogen receptor (ER)-a and ER-b isoforms in normal endometrial and endometriosis-derived stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have noted that hormone-dependent development of endometriosis implants lags behind that of simultaneously analysed eutopic endometrium. With the recent discovery of the oestrogen receptor-b (ER-b) isoform, the aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in the expression of ER-a and ER-b might explain this observation. mRNA transcripts from endometrial stromal cells isolated from normal endometrium (NE)

Alfred W. Brandenberger; Dan I. Lebovic; Meng Kian Tee; Isabelle P. Ryan; Jennifer F. Tseng; Robert B. Jaffe; Robert N. Taylor

1999-01-01

89

Progranulin is required for proper ER stress response and inhibits ER stress-mediated apoptosis through TNFR2.  

PubMed

Progranulin (PGRN) was reported to be a stress-response factor in response to hypoxia and acidosis. Here we present evidences demonstrating that PGRN is also an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responsive factor: PGRN expression was induced and its activation of Erk1/2 and Akt signaling enhanced in response to ER stress; Normal ER stress response was lost in PGRN deficient cells and PGRN deficient cells became hypersusceptible to ER stress-induced apoptosis; additionally, recombinant PGRN could rescue the defects in ER-stress responses seen in PGRN deficient cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that PGRN/TNFR2 was critical for PGRN mediated regulation of ER stress response: similar to PGRN, the expression of TNFR2, but not TNFR1, was also induced in the course of ER stress; in addition, the association between PGRN and TNFR2 was markedly enhanced following ER stress; More importantly, PGRN protection of ER stress induced apoptosis was abolished when TNFR2 signaling was blocked. In addition, the 2nd and 3rd cysteine-rich domains (CRD) in the extracellular portion of TNFR2 (CRD2CRD3), known to directly bind to PGRN, disturbed the interaction of PGRN with TNFR2, and in turn abolished PGRN-mediated activation of Erk1/2 and Akt signaling and protection against apoptosis in response to ER-stress. Collectively, PGRN plays an important role in ER stress and regulates ER stress response through interacting with TNFR2. This study provides new insight into PGRN regulation of stress response and may also present PGRN as a potential molecular target for treating stress-associated disorders. PMID:24703938

Li, Meiling; Liu, Yanna; Xia, Fei; Wu, Zhimeng; Deng, Li; Jiang, Rong; Guo, Feng-Jin

2014-07-01

90

Visible and infrared luminescence study of Er doped ?-Ga2O3 and Er3 Ga5O12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminescence properties of Er doped ?-Ga2O3 and of the erbium gallium garnet Er3Ga5O12 (ErGG) have been investigated both in the visible and in the infrared (IR) ranges by means of photoluminescence (PL). Doping of the ?-Ga2O3 was obtained in two different ways: erbium ion implantation into ?-Ga2O3 and high temperature annealing of a mixture of Er2O3 and Ga2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction shows that the latter samples present both ?-Ga2O3 and ErGG phases. The PL studies demonstrate that the ?-Ga2O3 in these samples is doped with erbium. The differences in the luminescence emission and excitation peaks of the Er3+ ions in these two hosts are studied through selective PL measurements. Strong near IR emission and weak green emission from Er3+ in the ?-Ga2O3 matrix is obtained. The opposite is obtained for Er3+ in ErGG when excited under the same conditions. Room temperature luminescence is observed from erbium in the two hosts.

Nogales, E.; García, J. A.; Méndez, B.; Piqueras, J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

2008-03-01

91

Untangling the web: mechanisms underlying ER network formation.  

PubMed

The ER is a continuous membrane system consisting of the nuclear envelope, flat sheets often studded with ribosomes, and a polygonal network of highly-curved tubules extending throughout the cell. Although protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, vesicular transport, Ca(2+)dynamics, and protein quality control have been investigated in great detail, mechanisms that generate the distinctive architecture of the ER have been uncovered only recently. Several protein families including the reticulons and REEPs/DP1/Yop1p harbor hydrophobic hairpin domains that shape high-curvature ER tubules and mediate intramembrane protein interactions. Members of the atlastin/RHD3/Sey1p family of dynamin-related GTPases interact with the ER-shaping proteins and mediate the formation of three-way junctions responsible for the polygonal structure of the tubular ER network, with Lunapark proteins acting antagonistically. Additional classes of tubular ER proteins including some REEPs and the M1 spastin ATPase interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Flat ER sheets possess a different complement of proteins such as p180, CLIMP-63 and kinectin implicated in shaping, cisternal stacking and cytoskeletal interactions. The ER is also in constant motion, and numerous signaling pathways as well as interactions among cytoskeletal elements, the plasma membrane, and organelles cooperate to position and shape the ER dynamically. Finally, many proteins involved in shaping the ER network are mutated in the most common forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, indicating a particular importance for proper ER morphology and distribution in large, highly-polarized cells such as neurons. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23602970

Goyal, Uma; Blackstone, Craig

2013-11-01

92

Untangling the web: Mechanisms underlying ER network formation  

PubMed Central

The ER is a continuous membrane system consisting of the nuclear envelope, flat sheets often studded with ribosomes, and a polygonal network of highly-curved tubules extending throughout the cell. Although protein and lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, vesicular transport, Ca2+dynamics, and protein quality control have been investigated in great detail, mechanisms that generate the distinctive architecture of the ER have been uncovered only recently. Several protein families including the reticulons and REEPs/DP1/Yop1p harbor hydrophobic hairpin domains that shape high-curvature ER tubules and mediate intramembrane protein interactions. Members of the atlastin/RHD3/Sey1p family of dynamin-related GTPases interact with the ER-shaping proteins and mediate the formation of three-way junctions responsible for the polygonal structure of the tubular ER network, with Lunapark proteins acting antagonistically. Additional classes of tubular ER proteins including some REEPs and the M1 spastin ATPase interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton. Flat ER sheets possess a different complement of proteins such as p180, CLIMP-63 and kinectin implicated in shaping, cisternal stacking and cytoskeletal interactions. The ER is also in constant motion, and numerous signaling pathways as well as interactions among cytoskeletal elements, the plasma membrane, and organelles cooperate to position and shape the ER dynamically. Finally, many proteins involved in shaping the ER network are mutated in the most common forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, indicating a particular importance for proper ER morphology and distribution in large, highly-polarized cells such as neurons. PMID:23602970

Goyal, Uma; Blackstone, Craig

2013-01-01

93

Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

Metcalf, William W. [University of Illinois

2014-10-08

94

Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry  

PubMed Central

We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

2006-01-01

95

Multitemporal ERS SAR analysis applied to forest mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the physical background underlying the ERS response of forest and analysis of time series of ERS data indicates that the greater temporal stability of forest compared with many other types of land cover presents a means of mapping forest area. The processing chain necessary to make such area estimations involves reconstruction of an optimal estimate of the backscattering

Shaun Quegan; Thuy Le Toan; Jiong Jiong Yu; Florence Ribbes; Nicolas Floury

2000-01-01

96

How to Avoid the ER If You Have Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma KidsHealth > Teens > Flu Center > When to Get Help > How to Avoid the ER if You Have Asthma Print ... sleep Your asthma action plan should tell you how to handle early signs of a flare-up. This ...

97

Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precision images (PRI) of the synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean. For calculation of the wind speed the C- band model (CMOD4) is used, which was originally developed by Stoffelen and Anderson [1993] for the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive

S. Lehner; J. Horstmann; W. Koch; W. Rosenthal

1998-01-01

98

Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus–host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling. PMID:24987391

Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

2014-01-01

99

The manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD2.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium dihydride Er(H,D,T){sub 2} is a fluorite structure rare-earth dihydride useful for the storage of hydrogen isotopes in the solid state. However, thermodynamic predictions indicate that erbium oxide formation will proceed readily during processing, which may detrimentally contaminate Er(H,D,T){sub 2} films. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered TEM, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution TEM are used to examine the manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD{sub 2} thin films. An oxide layer {approx}30-130 nm thick was found on top of the underlying ErD{sub 2} film, and showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation to the underlying ErD{sub 2}. Electron diffraction confirmed the oxide layer to be Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. While the majority of the film was observed to have the expected fluorite structure for ErD{sub 2}, secondary diffraction spots suggested the possibility of either nanoscale oxide inclusions or hydrogen ordering. In situ heating experiments combined with electron diffraction ruled out the possibility of hydrogen ordering, so epitaxial oxide nanoinclusions within the ErD{sub 2} matrix are hypothesized. TEM techniques were applied to examine this oxide nanoinclusion hypothesis.

Snow, Clark Sheldon; Parish, Chad Michael; Brewer, Luke N.

2008-10-01

100

ER 101: 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know  

MedlinePLUS

ER 101 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know The more you know about the care you receive in the ER, the happier — and ... up with physicians you’re instructed to see. Emergency physicians are specialists Emergency medicine is a medical ...

101

ERS scatterometer wind data impact on ECMWF's tropical cyclone forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the positive impact of ERS scatterometer data on tropical cyclone analyses and forecasts at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading, U.K. ERS scatterometer data is especially valuable because sparse genesis regions of tropical cyclones are available in the data, and they are available in cloudy and rainy conditions. In November 1997, ECMWF introduced a

Lars Isaksen; A. Stoffelen

2000-01-01

102

IOWA STAT-er CHATTER Winter 2009/2010  

E-print Network

building this fall, after "camping" in Wilson Hall for 1½ years. Along with a nice new building for this and have a blast from now on! STAT-ers is your organization. I hope that STAT- ers can help students

103

Effects of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence in silicon-rich silicon oxide/Er-doped silica multilayers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence is investigated by using multilayers of 2.5 nm thin SiO{sub x} (x<2) and 10 nm thin Er-doped silica (SiO{sub 2}:Er). By separating excess Si and Er atoms into separate, nanometer-thin layers, the effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on np-Si sensitized Er{sup 3+} luminescence could be investigated while keeping the microscopic Er{sup 3+} environment the same. The authors find that while the presence of np-Si is necessary for efficient sensitization, the overall quality of np-Si layer has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence. On the other hand, intrusion of np-Si into Er-doped silica layers leads to deactivation of np-Si/Er{sup 3+} interaction, suggesting that there is a limit to excess Si and Er contents that can be used.

Chang, Jee Soo; Jhe, Ji-Hong; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung H.; Kim, Kyung Joong; Moon, Dae Won [Department of Physics, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Industrial Metrology Group, KRISS, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-10-30

104

PKA-Mediated stabilization of FoxH1 negatively regulates ER? activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) mediates the mitogenic effects of estrogen. ER? signaling regulates the normal growth and differentiation\\u000a of mammary tissue, but uncontrolled ER? activation increases the risk to breast cancer. Estrogen binding induces ligand-dependent\\u000a ER? activation, thereby facilitating ER? dimerization, promoter binding and coactivator recruitment. ER? can also be activated\\u000a in a ligand-independent manner by many signaling pathways, including

Jinah Yum; Hyung Min Jeong; Seulki Kim; Jin Won Seo; Younho Han; Kwang-Youl Lee; Chang-Yeol Yeo

2009-01-01

105

ER Calcium and Alzheimer's Disease: In a State of Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive either to the lipid messenger inositol trisphosphate(IP3) or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an integral membrane protein in the ER; mutations in PS1 that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release and also enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.

Mark P. Mattson (Baltimore; National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program REV)

2010-03-23

106

Improved maturation of CFTR by an ER export signal.  

PubMed

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel in the plasma membrane of several epithelial cells. Maturation of CFTR is inefficient in most cells, with only a fraction of nascent chains being properly folded and transported to the cell surface. The most common mutation in CFTR, CFTR-deltaF508, leads to the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR-deltaF508 has a temperature-sensitive folding defect and is almost quantitatively degraded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we tested whether a strong ER export signal appended to CFTR improves its transport and surface expression. We show that a single valine ER export signal at the C terminus of the cytoplasmic tail of CFTR improves maturation of wild-type CFTR by 2-fold. This conservative mutation interfered with neither plasma membrane localization nor stability of mature CFTR. In contrast, the valine signal was unable to rescue CFTR-deltaF508 from ER-associated degradation. Our finding of improved maturation of CFTR mediated by a valine signal may be of potential use in gene therapy of cystic fibrosis. Moreover, failure of the valine signal to rescue CFTR-deltaF508 from ER degradation indicates that the inability of CFTR-deltaF508 to leave the ER is unlikely to be due to a malfunctioning ER export signal. PMID:17392477

Wendeler, Markus W; Nufer, Oliver; Hauri, Hans-Peter

2007-08-01

107

ER to synapse trafficking of NMDA receptors  

PubMed Central

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. There are three distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) that have been identified including 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptors (AMPARs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and kainate receptors. The most common GluRs in mature synapses are AMPARs that mediate the fast excitatory neurotransmission and NMDARs that mediate the slow excitatory neurotransmission. There have been large numbers of recent reports studying how a single neuron regulates synaptic numbers and types of AMPARs and NMDARs. Our current research is centered primarily on NMDARs and, therefore, we will focus in this review on recent knowledge of molecular mechanisms occurring (1) early in the biosynthetic pathway of NMDARs, (2) in the transport of NMDARs after their release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); and (3) at the plasma membrane including excitatory synapses. Because a growing body of evidence also indicates that abnormalities in NMDAR functioning are associated with a number of human psychiatric and neurological diseases, this review together with other chapters in this issue may help to enhance research and to gain further knowledge of normal synaptic physiology as well as of the etiology of many human brain diseases. PMID:25505872

Horak, Martin; Petralia, Ronald S.; Kaniakova, Martina; Sans, Nathalie

2014-01-01

108

ERS: Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service (ERS) is one of four agencies in the Research, Education, and Economics (REE) Mission Area of the US Department of Agriculture addressing issues of efficiency, efficacy and equity in agriculture and rural development. Recently, ERS has relaunched their site, emphasizing ease of accessibility to publications such as research reports, periodicals, maps, photos and fact sheets to view or download (.pdf format). ERS also provides email, fax, and phone numbers of subject specialists for direct research questions, and a "What's New" menu gives calendars of up-coming titles.

1998-01-01

109

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki S.

2014-01-01

110

Two Mammalian Sec16 Homologues Have Nonredundant Functions in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Export and Transitional ER Organization  

PubMed Central

Budding yeast Sec16 is a large peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that functions in generating COPII transport vesicles and in clustering COPII components at transitional ER (tER) sites. Sec16 interacts with multiple COPII components. Although the COPII assembly pathway is evolutionarily conserved, Sec16 homologues have not been described in higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that mammalian cells contain two distinct Sec16 homologues: a large protein that we term Sec16L and a smaller protein that we term Sec16S. These proteins localize to tER sites, and an N-terminal region of each protein is necessary and sufficient for tER localization. The Sec16L and Sec16S genes are both expressed in every tissue examined, and both proteins are required in HeLa cells for ER export and for normal tER organization. Sec16L resembles yeast Sec16 in having a C-terminal conserved domain that interacts with the COPII coat protein Sec23, but Sec16S lacks such a C-terminal conserved domain. Immunoprecipitation data indicate that Sec16L and Sec16S are each present at multiple copies in a heteromeric complex. We infer that mammalian cells have preserved and extended the function of Sec16. PMID:17192411

Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu

2007-01-01

111

Differential hormonal regulation of estrogen receptors ER? and ER? and androgen receptor expression in rat efferent ductules  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors, in addition to the androgen receptor (AR), are expressed at high levels in efferent ductules of the male reproductive tract and it is now well recognized that estrogen receptor (ER) ? is required for the maintenance of normal structure and function of the ductules. However, little is known regarding the hormonal regulation of the receptors themselves in the male. In the present study, efferent ductule ligation and castration, followed by replacement with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or estradiol was used to investigate the relative importance of circulating and luminal sources of steroid for the modulation of ER?, ER? and AR in rat efferent ductules. Uni- or bilateral castration and ligation did not affect the expression of ER? and ER?, but bilateral castration caused down-regulation of AR. Replacement with DHT and testosterone alone or in combination with estradiol caused the recovery of AR expression to control levels. A slight recovery of AR was also observed after estrogen replacement. ER? expression was decreased to nearly undetectable levels after estrogen replacement. On the other hand, ER? did not show evident effects following any of the treatments, suggesting a constitutive expression of this receptor. This differential modulation of the steroid hormone receptors highlights the importance of maintaining a physiological androgen-estrogen balance to regulate the structure and function of efferent ductules in the male. PMID:15232065

Oliveira, Cleida A; Mahecha, Germán A B; Carnes, Kay; Prins, Gail S; Saunders, Philippa T K; França, Luiz R; Hess, Rex A

2010-01-01

112

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens.  

PubMed

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines. PMID:24973517

Iwanowicz, Luke R; Stafford, James L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W; Blazer, Vicki S

2014-09-01

113

Exploiting MEK Inhibitor-Mediated Activation of ER? for Therapeutic Intervention in ER-Positive Ovarian Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

While the clinical benefit of MEK inhibitor (MEKi)-based therapy is well established in Raf mutant malignancies, its utility as a suppressor of hyperactive MAPK signaling in the absence of mutated Raf or Ras, is an area of ongoing research. MAPK activation is associated with loss of ER? expression and hormonal resistance in numerous malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that MEKi induces a feedback response that results in ER? overexpression, phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of ER-regulated genes. Mechanistically, MEKi-mediated ER? overexpression is largely independent of erbB2 and AKT feedback activation, but is ERK-dependent. We subsequently exploit this phenomenon therapeutically by combining the ER-antagonist, fulvestrant with MEKi. This results in synergistic suppression of tumor growth, in vitro and potentiation of single agent activity in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts. Thus, we demonstrate that exploiting adaptive feedback after MEKi can be used to sensitize ER?-positive tumors to hormonal therapy, and propose that this strategy may have broader clinical utility in ER?-positive ovarian carcinoma. PMID:23390495

Hou, June Y.; Rodriguez-Gabin, Alicia; Samaweera, Leleesha; Hazan, Rachel; Goldberg, Gary L.; Horwitz, Susan Band; McDaid, Hayley M.

2013-01-01

114

Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers  

SciTech Connect

Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7?K?Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7?K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

Elmasry, F. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Okubo, S. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H., E-mail: hoht@kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-05-21

115

Estradiol and ER? agonists enhance recognition memory, and DPN, an ER? agonist, alters brain monoamines.  

PubMed

Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ER?-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER?-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2-4h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ER? contribute to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60-130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40-80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER? mediates sub chronic and acute effects of estrogens on recognition memory and that memory enhancements by DPN may occur, in part, through alterations in monoaminergic containing systems primarily in PFC and hippocampus. PMID:20828630

Jacome, Luis F; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S; Luine, Victoria

2010-11-01

116

Neuronal ER Stress in Axon Injury and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Injuries to CNS axons result not only in Wallerian degeneration of the axon distal to the injury, but also in death or atrophy of the axotomized neurons, depending on injury location and neuron type. No method of permanently avoiding these changes has been found, despite extensive knowledge concerning mechanisms of secondary neuronal injury. The autonomous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in neurons has recently been implicated in retrograde neuronal degeneration. In addition to the emerging role of ER morphology in axon maintenance, we propose that ER stress is a common neuronal response to disturbances in axon integrity and a general mechanism for neurodegeneration. Thus manipulation of the ER stress pathway could have important therapeutic implications for neuroprotection. PMID:23955583

Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

2014-01-01

117

Balanced Ero1 activation and inactivation establishes ER redox homeostasis  

E-print Network

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an environment optimized for oxidative protein folding through the action of Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds, and Pdi1p, which receives disulfide bonds from Ero1p and transfers ...

Kim, Sunghwan

118

ER Dysfunction and Protein Folding Stress in ALS  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent paralytic disease in adults. Most ALS cases are considered sporadic with no clear genetic component. The disruption of protein homeostasis due to chronic stress responses at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the accumulation of abnormal protein inclusions are extensively described in ALS mouse models and patient-derived tissue. Recent studies using pharmacological and genetic manipulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, have demonstrated a complex involvement of the pathway in experimental models of ALS. In addition, quantitative changes in ER stress-responsive chaperones in body fluids have been proposed as possible biomarkers to monitor the disease progression. Here we review most recent advances attributing a causal role of ER stress in ALS. PMID:24324498

Matus, Soledad; Valenzuela, Vicente; Medinas, Danilo B.; Hetz, Claudio

2013-01-01

119

Apicoectomy using Er:YAG laser—a clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical endodontics was performed using an Er:YAG laser on 23 patients (4 males, 19 females) exhibiting periapical pathosis. After mucoperiosteal flap reflection, osteotomy was performed over the lesion using a low-speed dental engine with a round bur (#6–8). Root-end resection was then performed using an Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 10 pps) with copious saline coolant. The root apex cavity for

Atsushi Takeda; Tomoo Anjo; Masaaki Takashina; Arata Ebihara; Hideaki Suda

2003-01-01

120

Decay studies of 215-217 Th using ER ?- ?- ? coincidences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decay of 215-217Th was investigated by ER-?-?-? coincidence measurements. The nuclei were produced by the reaction 170Er(50Ti, xn)220-xTh. Evaporation residues recoiling out of the target were separated in flight by the velocity filter SHIP and stopped in a position-sensitive 16-strip PIPS-detector in order to study their subsequent decays. Associated ?-rays were detected by a fourfold Ge-Clover detector. In the

P. Kuusiniemi; F. P. Heßberger; D. Ackermann; S. Hofmann; B. Sulignano; I. Kojouharov; R. Mann

2005-01-01

121

Genetically engineered ER?-positive breast cancer mouse models.  

PubMed

The majority of human breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), but this has proven challenging to model in genetically engineered mice. This review summarizes information on 21 mouse models that develop ER+ mammary cancer. Where available, information on cancer pathology and gene expression profiles is referenced to assist in understanding which histological subtype of ER+ human cancer each model might represent. ESR1, CCDN1, prolactin, TGF?, AIB1, ESPL1, and WNT1 overexpression, PIK3CA gain of function, as well as loss of P53 (Trp53) or STAT1 are associated with ER+ mammary cancer. Treatment with the PPAR? agonist efatutazone in a mouse with Brca1 and p53 deficiency and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene exposure in combination with an activated myristoylated form of AKT1 also induce ER+ mammary cancer. A spontaneous mutant in nude mice that develops metastatic ER+ mammary cancer is included. Age of cancer development ranges from 3 to 26 months and the percentage of cancers that are ER+ vary from 21 to 100%. Not all models are characterized as to their estrogen dependency and/or response to anti-hormonal therapy. Strain backgrounds include C57Bl/6, FVB, BALB/c, 129S6/SvEv, CB6F1, and NIH nude. Most models have only been studied on one strain background. In summary, while a range of models are available for studies of pathogenesis and therapy of ER+ breast cancers, many could benefit from further characterization, and opportunity for development of new models remains. PMID:24481326

Dabydeen, Sarah A; Furth, Priscilla A

2014-06-01

122

Hvad er det kommercielle potentiale i din forskning?  

E-print Network

: Technology Transfer Office 8942 6885. · Deadline 30. juni 2011 Prøv kræfter med Silicon Valley's innovative med base hos og hjælp fra det danske Innovationscenter i hjertet af Silicon Valley, kast dig ud på det. Silicon Valley er ikke bare et af de største innovative miljøer i verden, men også et af de mest dynamiske

123

DHEA - a precursor of ER? ligands.  

PubMed

What is DHEA and why is there so much public interest in this steroid which has been touted as the fountain of youth and is supposed to have all kinds of health benefits? Endocrinologists have been fascinated with DHEA for a long time because of its high production in the fetal adrenals and its continued high levels until the 7th decade of life. Yet there is still little agreement about its physiological functions. In its simplest terms endocrinology is the communication between at least three organs: one sends a message, one releases a hormone into the blood in response to the message and one responds to the hormone. DHEA is produced by a specific zone of the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis, whose sole function is to produce this steroid. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids which are C21 steroids are produced in two other zones of the adrenal cortex called the zona fasicularis and the zona glomerulosa, respectively. Being C21 steroids, they cannot be synthesized from DHEA which is a C19 steroid. To date there is no known hormone which specifically stimulates the zona reticularis and there is no known specific receptor for DHEA. Thus DHEA does not qualify as a hormone. DHEA could have autocrine or paracrine effects but, so far, there is no known effect of DHEA on either the cells of the zona glomerulosa or the zona fasicularis. Of course DHEA could have functions as a local precursor of androgens or estrogens and many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of transdermal or transvaginal administration of DHEA in postmenopausal women. This review will consider two of the potential functions of DHEA as a precursor of estrogen receptor beta (ER?) ligands. PMID:25125389

Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

2015-01-01

124

A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies.  

PubMed

The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms different morphologies composed of tubules and sheets. Proteins such as the reticulons shape the ER by stabilizing the high membrane curvature in cross-sections of tubules and sheet edges. Here, we show that membrane curvature along the edge lines is also critical for ER shaping. We describe a theoretical model that explains virtually all observed ER morphologies. The model is based on two types of curvature-stabilizing proteins that generate either straight or negatively curved edge lines (R- and S-type proteins). Dependent on the concentrations of R- and S-type proteins, membrane morphologies can be generated that consist of tubules, sheets, sheet fenestrations, and sheet stacks with helicoidal connections. We propose that reticulons 4a/b are representatives of R-type proteins that favor tubules and outer edges of sheets. Lunapark is an example of S-type proteins that promote junctions between tubules and sheets. In a tubular ER network, lunapark stabilizes three-way junctions, i.e., small triangular sheets with concave edges. The model agrees with experimental observations and explains how curvature-stabilizing proteins determine ER morphology. PMID:25404289

Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W; Romano, Fabian B; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M; Rapoport, Tom A

2014-12-01

125

Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1999-01-01

126

Hepatoprotective role of Sestrin2 against chronic ER stress  

PubMed Central

Upon prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cells attenuate protein translation to prevent accumulation of unfolded proteins. Here we show that Sestrin2 is critical for this process. Sestrin2 expression is induced by an ER stress-activated transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta (c/EBP?). Once induced, Sestrin2 halts protein synthesis by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As Sestrin2-deficient cells continue to translate a large amount of proteins during ER stress, they are highly susceptible to ER stress-associated cell death. Accordingly, dietary or genetically-induced obesity, which does not lead to any pathological indication other than simple fat accumulation in liver of WT mice, can provoke Sestrin2-deficient mice to develop severe ER stress-associated liver pathologies such as extensive liver damage, steatohepatitis and fibrosis. These pathologies are suppressed by liver-specific Sestrin2 reconstitution, mTORC1 inhibition or chemical chaperone administration. The Sestrin2-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) may be a general protective mechanism against ER stress-associated diseases. PMID:24947615

Park, Hwan-Woo; Park, Haeli; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Insook; Semple, Ian A.; Kim, David N.; Kim, Myungjin; Nam, Myeongjin; Zhang, Deqiang; Yin, Lei; Lee, Jun Hee

2014-01-01

127

An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show in S. cerevisiae that LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein, Ice2p, facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG-degradation and -synthesis, promoting the rapid re-localization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER, and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. PMID:24373967

Markgraf, Daniel F.; Klemm, Robin W.; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Rapoport, Tom A.

2014-01-01

128

An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. PMID:24373967

Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Rapoport, Tom A

2014-01-16

129

ER-phagy mediates selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum independently of the core autophagy machinery  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Selective autophagy of damaged or redundant organelles is an important mechanism for maintaining cell homeostasis. We found previously that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes massive ER expansion and triggers the formation of large ER whorls. Here, we show that stress-induced ER whorls are selectively taken up into the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, by a process termed ER-phagy. Import into the vacuole does not involve autophagosomes but occurs through invagination of the vacuolar membrane, indicating that ER-phagy is topologically equivalent to microautophagy. Even so, ER-phagy requires neither the core autophagy machinery nor several other proteins specifically implicated in microautophagy. Thus, autophagy of ER whorls represents a distinct type of organelle-selective autophagy. Finally, we provide evidence that ER-phagy degrades excess ER membrane, suggesting that it contributes to cell homeostasis by controlling organelle size. PMID:25052096

Schuck, Sebastian; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

2014-01-01

130

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow...SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled...

2012-04-01

131

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow...SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled...

2013-04-01

132

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow...SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled...

2010-04-01

133

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow...SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled...

2011-04-01

134

20 CFR 228.10 - Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow(er), remarried widow...  

...true Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled widow...SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.10 Computation of the tier I annuity component for a widow(er), disabled...

2014-04-01

135

Structural Analysis of the QCM Aboard the ER-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of recent supersonic transport (SST) studies on the effect they may have on the atmosphere, several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the stratosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000 - 70,000 feet. The ER-2 is primarily used by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before they are placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. Some of the experiments are designed to extract data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current flight experiment, the QCM is housed in a frame that is connected to an outer pod that is attached to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM is a frequency induced instrument. Therefore, a structural analysis of the instrument within the frame is imperative to determine if resonance and/or undesirable deformations occur.

Jones, Phyllis D.; Bainum, Peter M.; Xing, Guangqian

1997-01-01

136

ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of ?-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these ?-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID:24653729

Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Pawe?; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

2014-01-01

137

Cathode-luminescence property of Er 3+\\/Yb 3+-doped amorphous GeO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescence property of erbium (Er)-doped GeO2 has been studied with cathode-luminescence analysis. GeO2 material has exhibited strong luminescence at wavelength 1537nm compared to Er-doped SiOx. By co-doping with ytterbium (Yb), luminescence increased with Er concentration 0.2–0.4mol%. On the other hand, in higher Er concentration, energy could not be transferred between Er and Yb effectively. The fabrication of a single mode

Iku Endo; Nobuhiro Onouchi; Hideyuki Yamaguchi; Atsushi Shimbori; Satoru Matsumoto

2006-01-01

138

Influence of impurities (nitrogen, oxygen) on Er-related emission in gallium phosphide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium (Er) was co-implanted with nitrogen (N) or oxygen (O) into gallium phosphide (GaP). Compared with GaP:Er sample, the Er3+-related 1.54 ?m photoluminescence (PL) intensity from GaP:Er doped with N was enhanced approximately six times stronger, while no noticeable enhancement was observed for specimens with O. The PL spectral features of GaP:Er, N or O were shown to be different

S. Uekusa; Y. Yano; K. Fukaya; M. Kumagai

1997-01-01

139

Two-quasineutron states in 168Er populated by the 167Er(d, p) and 167Er(t, d) reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear structure of 168Er has been studied with the 167Er(d, p) 168Er and 167Er(t, d) 168Er reactions, using 12 MeV deuterons and 15 MeV tritons from the McMaster tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The reaction products were analyzed with an Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph and detected with photographic emulsions. Angular distributions were obtained for levels up to ˜2.5 MeV excitation, with typical resolutions of ˜9 keV and ˜11 keV (FHWM) for the (d, p) and (t, d) reactions, respectively. Since the I, K ? values for all levels up to ˜2 MeV were known from previous ( n, ?) studies, the main contribution of this study was to determine the admixtures of specific two-quasineutron configurations to the various bands. Earlier {7/2 +[633]±1/2 -[521]} assignments for the 1094.0, K ? = 4 - and 1541.5 keV, K ? = 3 - bands have been confirmed, although the full {7/2 +[633]+1/2 -[521]} strength is not observed in the 1094.0 keV band. The K ? = 1 - octupole band at 1358.8 keV has a dominant {7/2 +[633] - 5/2 -[512]} component, as predicted by the Soloviev model. The K ? = 6 -, {7/2 +[633] + 5/2 -[512]} configuration has been assigned in this work to the 1773.2 keV level. The K ? = 4 - band at 2059.9 keV is found to contain ˜35% of the {7/2 +[633] + 1/2 -[510]} strength, and a ˜25% admixture of the {7/2 +[633] - 1/2 -[510]} configuration is tentatively assigned in the K ? = 3 - band at 1828.0 keV. Relative cross sections for members of the 168Er ground state band suggest the presence of a mixed wave function for the 167Er target ground state. The K ? = 0 +, 1217.1 keV band exhausts the {7/2 +[633] - 7/2 +[633]} strength which does not go to the ground band, while the K ? = 0 +, 1422.0 keV band was not observed. The Soloviev model is the only one which has made quantitative predictions that can be compared with the present results. In general, it is quite successful in explaining the experimental data.

Burke, D. G.; Maddock, B. L. W.; Davidson, W. F.

1985-09-01

140

Transcriptomic analysis identifies gene networks regulated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER? that control distinct effects of different botanical estrogens  

PubMed Central

The estrogen receptors (ERs) ER? and ER? mediate the actions of endogenous estrogens as well as those of botanical estrogens (BEs) present in plants. BEs are ingested in the diet and also widely consumed by postmenopausal women as dietary supplements, often as a substitute for the loss of endogenous estrogens at menopause. However, their activities and efficacies, and similarities and differences in gene expression programs with respect to endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) are not fully understood. Because gene expression patterns underlie and control the broad physiological effects of estrogens, we have investigated and compared the gene networks that are regulated by different BEs and by E2. Our aim was to determine if the soy and licorice BEs control similar or different gene expression programs and to compare their gene regulations with that of E2. Gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells treated with control vehicle, BE or E2. These cells contained three different complements of ERs, ER? only, ER?+ER?, or ER? only, reflecting the different ratios of these two receptors in different human breast cancers and in different estrogen target cells. Using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and gene ontology and interactome analyses, we found that BEs regulated many of the same genes as did E2. The genes regulated by each BE, however, were somewhat different from one another, with some genes being regulated uniquely by each compound. The overlap with E2 in regulated genes was greatest for the soy isoflavones genistein and S-equol, while the greatest difference from E2 in gene expression pattern was observed for the licorice root BE liquiritigenin. The gene expression pattern of each ligand depended greatly on the cell background of ERs present. Despite similarities in gene expression pattern with E2, the BEs were generally less stimulatory of genes promoting proliferation and were more pro-apoptotic in their gene regulations than E2. The distinctive patterns of gene regulation by the individual BEs and E2 may underlie differences in the activities of these soy and licorice-derived BEs in estrogen target cells containing different levels of the two ERs. PMID:25363786

Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Helferich, William G.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

2014-01-01

141

Estrogen activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by ER-?36 in ER-positive breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

It is well known that there are two estrogen-signaling pathways, genomic estrogen signaling and non-genomic or rapid estrogen signaling. Although both ER-? and ER-? have been suggested to mediate both genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling, rapid estrogen signaling such as activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling in ER-positive breast cancer MCF7 cells has been controversial. Previously, our laboratory cloned a 36kDa variant of ER-?, ER-?36, that is mainly localized at the plasma membrane and is able to mediate rapid estrogen signaling. In this study, we investigated the function and the underlying mechanisms of ER-?36 in rapid estrogen signaling of ER-positive breast cancer cells. ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF7, T47D and H3396 as well as their variants with different levels of ER-? and ER-?36 expression were used to examine estrogen induction of the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling. The underlying mechanisms were also studied in these cells with the neutralizing antibodies and chemical inhibitors against different growth factors and their receptors. We found that ER-?36 mediated estrogen induction of the MAPK/ERK phosphorylation in ER-positive breast cancer cells while the full-length ER-? failed to do so. The rapid estrogen signaling mediated by ER-?36 involved a orchestrated action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2/Neu and Src. Our results thus indicated that ER-?36 is the estrogen receptor that mediates estrogen induction of the MAPK/ERK signaling in ER-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:24973581

Zhang, XinTian; Deng, Hao; Wang, Zhao-Yi

2014-09-01

142

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of estrogen receptor betas (ER?1 and ER?2) during gonad development in the Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ER) play a crucial role in mediation of estrogen activities. Here we report the isolation and expression analysis of ER?1 and ER?2 from ovary Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). were isolated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. The cDNA of this study, ER?1 (588 amino acids) and ER?2 (659 amino acids) were identified using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. Structural analysis showed both ER?s contain six typical nuclear receptor-characteristic domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Korean rockfish ER?s were highly conserved among teleost. RT-PCR confirmed that the ER?s were widely distributed in both gonads and extra gonadal tissues. Further, we analyzed the expression patterns of male and female S. schlegeli during the reproductive cycle using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the highest expression levels were observed in testis at immature sperm stage for both of KrER?1 and KrER?2. For female, the expressions of KrER?1 and KrER?2 were significantly higher in the ovary at the early-oocyte stage. Cloning these two ER? subtypes in the Korean rockfish, together with the information on expression levels in adult fish has given us the foundation to investigate their possible role in brain-pituitary-gonad neuroendocrine axis in future studies. PMID:23587909

Mu, W J; Wen, H S; Shi, D; Yang, Y P

2013-07-01

143

ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

144

Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development  

SciTech Connect

Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

Boston, Rebecca S.

2010-11-20

145

Morpholino-Mediated Knockdown of ER?, ER?a, and ER?b mRNAs in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Reveals Differential Regulation of Estrogen-Inducible Genes  

PubMed Central

Genetically distinct estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ER? and ER?) play a major role in mediating estrogen actions in vertebrates, but their unique and overlapping functions are not entirely clear. Although mammals have 1 gene of each subtype (ESR1 and ESR2), teleost fish have a single esr1 (ER?) and 2 esr2 (ER?a and ER?b) genes. To determine the in vivo role of different ER isoforms in regulating estrogen-inducible transcription targets, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were microinjected with esr-specific morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides to disrupt splicing of the exon III/intron III junction in the DNA-binding domain. Each MO knocked down its respective normal transcript and increased production of variants with a retained intron III (esr1 MO) or a deleted or mis-spliced exon III (esr2a and esr2b MOs). Both esr1 and esr2b MOs blocked estradiol induction of vitellogenin and ER? mRNAs, predominant hepatic genes, but esr2b was the only MO that blocked induction of cytochrome P450 aromatase B mRNA, a predominant brain gene. Knockdown of ER?a with the esr2a MO had no effect on estrogen induction of the 3 mRNAs but, when coinjected with esr1 MO, attenuated the effect of ER? knockdown. Results indicate that ER? and ER?b, acting separately or cooperatively on specific gene targets, are positive transcriptional regulators of estrogen action, but the role of ER?a, if any, is unclear. We conclude that MO technology in zebrafish embryos is an advantageous approach for investigating the interplay of ER subtypes in a true physiological context. PMID:23928376

Griffin, Lucinda B.; January, Kathleen E.; Ho, Karen W.; Cotter, Kellie A.

2013-01-01

146

Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER.  

PubMed

Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGF-VEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D; Zhou, Bin

2015-01-01

147

Doppler images of the eclipsing binary ER Vulpeculae  

E-print Network

We present Doppler images of both components of the eclipsing binary system ER Vul, based on the spectra obtained in 2004 November, 2006 September and 2008 November. The least-squares deconvolution technique is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratios of the observed profiles. The new surface images reveal that both stars of ER Vul show strong starspot activities and the starspots appear at various latitudes. The surface maps of 2006 and 2008 both show the presence of large high-latitude starspots on each component of ER Vul. We find no obvious phase shift of the active regions during our observations. The longitude distributions of starspots are non-uniform on both stars. At low-to-mid latitudes, the active regions are almost exclusively found in the hemisphere facing the other star. However, we find no pronounced concentration of spots at the sub-stellar points.

Xiang, Yue; Cameron, A Collier; Barnes, J R

2014-01-01

148

Genetic targeting of sprouting angiogenesis using Apln-CreER  

PubMed Central

Under pathophysiological conditions in adults, endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from pre-existing blood vessels to form new ones by a process termed angiogenesis. During embryonic development, Apelin (APLN) is robustly expressed in vascular ECs. In adult mice, however, APLN expression in the vasculature is significantly reduced. Here we show that APLN expression is reactivated in adult ECs after ischaemia insults. In models of both injury ischaemia and tumor angiogenesis, we find that Apln-CreER genetically labels sprouting but not quiescent vasculature. By leveraging this specific activity, we demonstrate that abolishment of the VEGF–VEGFR2 signalling pathway as well as ablation of sprouting ECs diminished tumour vascularization and growth without compromising vascular homeostasis in other organs. Collectively, we show that Apln-CreER distinguishes sprouting vessels from stabilized vessels in multiple pathological settings. The Apln-CreER line described here will greatly aid future mechanistic studies in both vascular developmental biology and adult vascular diseases. PMID:25597280

Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Tian, Xueying; Zhang, Hui; He, Liang; Pu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Libo; Sun, Heng; Fang, Jing; Yu, Ying; Duan, Shengzhong; Hu, Chaobo; Hui, Lijian; Zhang, Haibin; Quertermous, Thomas; Xu, Qingbo; Red-Horse, Kristy; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

2015-01-01

149

Doppler images of the eclipsing binary ER Vulpeculae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Doppler images of both components of the eclipsing binary system ER Vul, based on the spectra obtained in 2004 November, 2006 September and 2008 November. The least-squares deconvolution technique is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratios of the observed profiles. The new surface images reveal that both stars of ER Vul show strong starspot activities and the starspots appear at various latitudes. The surface maps of 2006 and 2008 both show the presence of large high-latitude starspots on each component of ER Vul. We find no obvious phase shift of the active regions during our observations. The longitude distributions of starspots are non-uniform on both stars. At low-to-mid latitudes, the active regions are almost exclusively found in the hemisphere facing the other star. However, we find no pronounced concentration of spots at the sub-stellar points.

Xiang, Yue; Gu, Shenghong; Cameron, A. Collier; Barnes, J. R.

2015-02-01

150

Atlastin GTPases are required for Golgi apparatus and ER morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG1-33) comprise a cluster of inherited neurological disorders characterized principally by lower extremity spasticity and weakness due to a length-dependent, retrograde axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the large oligomeric GTPase atlastin-1 are responsible for SPG3A, a common autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here we describe a family of human GTPases, atlastin-2 and -3 that are closely related to atlastin-1. Interestingly, while atlastin-1 is predominantly localized to vesicular tubular complexes and cis-Golgi cisternae, mostly in brain, atlastin-2 and -3 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are most enriched in other tissues. Knockdown of atlastin-2 and -3 levels in HeLa cells using siRNA (small interfering RNA) causes disruption of Golgi morphology, and these Golgi structures remain sensitive to brefeldin A treatment. Interestingly, expression of SPG3A mutant or dominant-negative atlastin proteins lacking GTPase activity causes prominent inhibition of ER reticularization, suggesting a role for atlastin GTPases in the formation of three-way junctions in the ER. However, secretory pathway trafficking as assessed using vesicular stomatitis virus G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP) as a reporter was essentially normal in both knockdown and dominant-negative overexpression conditions for all atlastins. Thus, the atlastin family of GTPases functions prominently in both ER and Golgi morphogenesis, but they do not appear to be required generally for anterograde ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Abnormal morphogenesis of the ER and Golgi resulting from mutations in atlastin-1 may ultimately underlie SPG3A by interfering with proper membrane distribution or polarity of the long corticospinal motor neurons. PMID:18270207

Rismanchi, Neggy; Soderblom, Cynthia; Stadler, Julia; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Blackstone, Craig

2008-01-01

151

ER-?36-mediated gastric cancer cell proliferation via the c-Src pathway.  

PubMed

Previously, a novel variant of estrogen receptor (ER)-?, ER-?36, was identified and cloned and reported to mainly mediate non-genomic estrogen signaling. More recently, we identified that ER-?36 is important for the invasion and lymph node metastasis of human gastric cancer. In the present study, the c-Src signaling pathway was demonstrated to be involved in the non-genomic estrogen signaling mediated by ER-?36 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 cells were subjected to the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ER-?36 (PLKO.1-PURO-SP6-ER-?36-L) or transfected with an ER-?36 upregulated expression plasmid (PLJM1-ER-?36-H) and treated with 17?-estradiol (E2?) and PP2, a c-Src protein inhibitor. The expression of ER-?36 and c-src/p-c-Src and cyclin D1 was examined by western blot analysis, and tumor cell growth was analyzed by cell proliferation and nude mouse xenograft assays. The ER variant, ER-?36, was shown to enhance gastric cancer cell proliferation through activation of the membrane-initiated c-Src signaling pathways, indicating that ER-?36 is important for the regulation of proliferation in gastric cancer. In addition, ER-?36 was shown to directly interact with c-Src by immunoprecipitation. The results of the present study indicate that the use of ER-?36 may be a targeted therapeutic approach in gastric cancer. PMID:24137325

Wang, Xuming; Deng, Hao; Zou, Feng; Fu, Zhenqi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Lijiang

2013-08-01

152

Large-Amplitude Modulations of the Cataclysmic Star ER UMa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our BR observations of the cataclysmic star ER UMa covering three consecutive light cycles at quiescence. Their light curves are asymmetric with steeper decreasing branch. While the large light amplitudes of the first two cycles may be expected for the quiescent state, the 0.9^{m} amplitude of the third cycle is unusual big. The period of the observed light modulations in 2008 is shorter than the orbital one. Thus our observations leaded to a discovery of large-amplitude negative superhumps at quiescent state of ER UMa.

Kjurkchieva, D.; Marchev, D.

2010-09-01

153

Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host for 1.5 micron laser operation, GSGG or YSAG as the best host for a 2.8 micron operation, and LuGG as the best host for an upconversion material.

Spangler, Lee H.

1994-01-01

154

Decay studies of 215-217Th using ER- ?- ?- ? coincidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay of 215-217Th was investigated by ER-?-?-? coincidence measurements. The nuclei were produced by the reaction 170Er(50Ti, xn)220-xTh. Evaporation residues recoiling out of the target were separated in flight by the velocity filter SHIP and stopped in a position-sensitive 16-strip PIPS-detector in order to study their subsequent decays. Associated ?-rays were detected by a fourfold Ge-Clover detector. In the present work we extracted new and improved data for 215-217Th including isomeric decays. The results are discussed and compared to previously published data.

Kuusiniemi, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Hofmann, S.; Sulignano, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Mann, R.

2005-09-01

155

Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

2011-03-01

156

Gyromagnetic ratios of collective states of 166 Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static hyperfine field ofBhf4.2k(ErHo) = 739(18)T of a ferromagnetic holmium single crystal polarized in an external magnetic field of ± 0.48T at ~4.2K was used for integral perturbed ?-? angular correlation (IPAQ measurements of the g-factors of collective states of166Er. The 1,200y166mHo activity was used which populates the ground state band and the ? vibrational band up to high

A. Alzner; E. Bodenstedt; B. Gemünden; J. van den Hoff; H. Reif

1985-01-01

157

Gyromagnetic ratios in sup 164 Dy and sup 168 Er  

SciTech Connect

Gyromagnetic ratios of levels up to 10{sup +} in the ground-state bands and of the 2{sup +} states in the {gamma} bands of {sup 164}Dy and {sup 168}Er were measured by the perturbed angular correlation technique utilizing the transient hyperfine field acting at the nuclei of these ions as they swiftly traversed thin polarized Fe foils. The experimental {ital g} factors, together with the results of earlier similar studies for {sup 166}Er, are discussed and compared with several theoretical predictions.

Doran, C.E. (School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052 (AU)); Stuchbery, A.E. (Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, Australia 2601 (AU)); Bolotin, H.H.; Byrne, A.P.; Lampard, G.J. (School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3052 (AU))

1989-11-01

158

Prospects of Volcano Geodesy with ERS Radar Interferometry  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Since the detection of surface deformation at Mt. Etna it was believed that space-borne radar interferometry may provide a tool to monitor most of the Earth's active volcanoes. We have studied a large number of volcanoes from different environments and show that ERS C-band radar interferometry can be used only to observe certain volcanoes with particular conditions. The best targets for ERS C-band interferometry are shield volcanoes and large calderas. Stratovolcanoes are less suited for radar interferometric observations due to geometric distortions and severe environmental conditions. Interferometric coherence is often lost because of snow coverage and ash deposits.

Falk Amelung; Sigurjon Jonsson; Howard Zebker; Paul Segall

159

ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

2011-12-01

160

Estrogen receptor (ER) expression and function in the pregnant human myometrium: estradiol via ER? activates ERK1/2 signaling in term myometrium.  

PubMed

Estrogens are thought to promote labor by increasing the expression of pro-contraction genes in myometrial cells. The specific estrogen receptors ((ERs: ER? and ER? (also known as ESR1 and ESR2)) and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30; also known as G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1)) and signaling pathways that mediate these actions are not clearly understood. In this study, we identified the ERs expressed in the pregnant human myometrium and determined a key extranuclear signaling pathway through which estradiol (E(2)) modulates expression of the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), a major pro-contraction protein. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ER? and GPR30 mRNAs were expressed in the human pregnant myometrium while ER? mRNA was virtually undetectable. While mRNA encoding ER? was the predominant ER transcript in the pregnant myometrium, ER? protein was largely undetectable in myometrial tissue by immunoblotting. Pharmacological inhibition of 26S proteasome activity increased ER? protein abundance to detectable levels in term myometrial explants, however, indicating rapid turnover of ER? protein by proteasomal processing in the pregnant myometrium. E(2) stimulated rapid extranuclear signaling in myometrial explants, as evidenced by increased extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation within 10?min. This effect was inhibited by pre-treatment with an ER antagonist, ICI 182?780, indicating the involvement of ER?. Inhibition of ERK signaling abrogated the ability of E(2) to stimulate OXTR gene expression in myometrial explants. We conclude that estrogenic actions in the human myometrium during pregnancy, including the stimulation of contraction-associated gene expression, can be mediated by extranuclear signaling through ER? via activation of the ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. PMID:22068927

Welsh, Toni; Johnson, Matrika; Yi, Lijuan; Tan, Huiqing; Rahman, Roksana; Merlino, Amy; Zakar, Tamas; Mesiano, Sam

2012-02-01

161

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

Greg Ruskauff

2011-12-01

162

Change detection techniques for ERS-1 SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques for detecting temporal changes in satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are compared, using both theoretical predictions and spaceborne SAR data collected by the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. In a first set of techniques, changes are detected based on differences in the magnitude of the signal intensity between two dates. Ratioing of the multidate radar intensities is

Eric J. M. Rignot; Jakob J. van Zyl

1993-01-01

163

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

164

ccsd00001676, Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu er layers  

E-print Network

ccsd­00001676, version 1 ­ 16 Jun 2004 Epitaxy and growth of titanium bu#11;er layers on Al 2 O 3 de Lourmel, 75015 Paris, France Abstract The structure and growth of thin #12;lms of titanium on #11 [2110] and Ti[1010] k Al 2 O 3 [1100] epitaxy of the #11; phase of titanium reported before for thick

165

ER designer toolkit: a graphical event definition authoring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there exist several tools for Complex Event Recognition, varying from design platforms for business process modeling (BPM) to advanced Complex Event Processing (CEP) engines. Several efforts have been reported in literature aiming to support domain experts in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition of such rules,

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Giannis Mouchakis; George Paliouras; Vangelis Karkaletsis

2011-01-01

166

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos  

E-print Network

Vision and action* Cornelia Fermiill er and Yiannis Aloimonos Our work on active vision has by the idea of approaching vision for behavioural systems in the form of modules that are directly related, we present our views about the architecture of vision systems, about how to tackle the design

Fermüller, Cornelia

167

Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative  

E-print Network

Legend Advanced Breast Cancer ER+ HER2+ Triple Negative Brain Metastases / Leptomeningeal dz Non in HER2 Positive Breast Cancer 127511 - Neratinib for HER2 positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases 117526 - Immunotherapy with Globo H-KLH (OPT-822) for Metastatic Breast Cancer No Interventional Clinical

Walter, Peter

168

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

NONE

1998-02-01

169

Gene expression during ER stress–induced apoptosis in neurons  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein glycosylation, rapidly induced the expression of target genes of the unfolded protein response. However, prolonged treatment also triggered a delayed, caspase-dependent cell death. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes during tunicamycin-induced apoptosis revealed that the Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only family member, Bcl-2 binding component 3/p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Bbc3/PUMA), was the most strongly induced pro-apoptotic gene. Expression of Bbc3/PUMA correlated with a Bcl-xL–sensitive release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Increased expression of Bbc3/PUMA was also observed in p53-deficient human cells, in response to the ER stressor thapsigargin, and in rat hippocampal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia. Overexpression of Bbc3/PUMA was sufficient to trigger apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and human cells deficient in Bbc3/PUMA showed dramatically reduced apoptosis in response to ER stress. Our data suggest that the transcriptional induction of Bbc3/PUMA may be sufficient and necessary for ER stress–induced apoptosis. PMID:12913114

Reimertz, Claus; Kögel, Donat; Rami, Abdelhaq; Chittenden, Thomas; Prehn, Jochen H.M.

2003-01-01

170

Video Entity Resolution: Applying ER Techniques for Smart Video Surveillance  

E-print Network

Video Entity Resolution: Applying ER Techniques for Smart Video Surveillance Liyan Zhang Ronen, Irvine Abstract--Smart Video Surveillance (SVS) applications en- hance situational awareness by allowing by trying to extract and interpret higher "semantic" level events that occur in video. On of the key

Kalashnikov, Dmitri V.

171

Ice sheet margin detection using ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portion of the Greenland ice sheet margin near the Jakobshavn area is mapped using an automatic, hierarchical approach applied to ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Image tone and texture variability between the bare ice facies near the ice sheet margin and recently deglaciated rocks are used to map the ice sheet margin. This process involves integration of an anisotropic

Hong-Gyoo Sohn; Kenneth C. Jezek

1996-01-01

172

Vesicle-mediated ER export of proteins and lipids  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major site of synthesis of both lipids and proteins, many of which must be transported to other organelles. The COPII coat – comprised of Sar1, Sec23/24, Sec13/31 - generates transport vesicles that mediate the bulk of protein/lipid export from the ER. The coat exhibits remarkable flexibility in its ability to specifically select and accommodate a large number of cargoes with diverse properties. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of COPII vesicle production and describe recent advances that further our understanding of just how flexible COPII cargo recruitment and vesicle formation may be. Large or bulky cargo molecules (eg. collagen rods and lipoprotein particles) exceed the canonical size for COPII vesicles and seem to rely on the additional action of recently identified accessory molecules. Although the bulk of research has focused on the fate of protein cargo, the mechanisms and regulation of lipid transport is equally critical to cellular survival. From their site of synthesis in the ER, phospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols exit the ER, either accompanying cargo in vesicles or directly across the cytoplasm shielded by lipid transfer proteins. Finally, we highlight the current challenges to the field in addressing the physiological regulation of COPII vesicle production and the molecular details of how diverse cargoes, both proteins and lipids, are accommodated. PMID:22265716

Gillon, Amanda D.; Latham, Catherine F.; Miller, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

173

Activation of PERK signaling attenuates Abeta-mediated ER stress.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity still remain unknown. Here, we show that treatment of Abeta triggers the UPR in the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Abeta mediated UPR pathway accompanies the activation of protective pathways such as Grp78/Bip and PERK-eIF2alpha pathway, as well as the apoptotic pathways of the UPR such as CHOP and caspase-4. Knockdown of PERK enhances Abeta neurotoxicity through reducing the activation of eIF2alpha and Grp8/Bip in neurons. Salubrinal, an activator of the eIF2alpha pathway, significantly increased the Grp78/Bip ER chaperone resulted in attenuating caspase-4 dependent apoptosis in Abeta treated neurons. These results indicate that PERK-eIF2alpha pathway is a potential target for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. PMID:20463975

Lee, Do Yeon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Do Hee; Noh, Yoo Hun; Yu, Kweon; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Jun Young; Youn, Young Chul; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Kim, Dae Kyong; Lee, Won Bok; Kim, Sung Su

2010-01-01

174

Progress in Polar Oceans Research Using ERS-1 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from ERS-1, especially from the AMI Image Mode, or SAR, have been particularly useful in providing data on ice type and motion and oceanic mesoscale features. These data have been used in studies of ocean and ice circulation, climate processes, convection, and have also proved useful in support of operations in ice covered seas.

Carsey, F.

1994-01-01

175

Progress in polar oceans research using ERS-1 data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from ERS-1, especially from the AMI Image Mode, or SAR, have been particularly useful in providing data on ice type and motion and oceanic mesoscale features. These data have been used in studies of ocean and ice circulation, climate processes, mesoscale processes near the ice edge, freshwater fluxes, and convection, and have also proved useful in support of operations

Frank Carsey

1994-01-01

176

[Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped germanium bismuthate glass].  

PubMed

Er(3+)-Doped Germanium Bismuthate Glass was fabricated and characterized. The absorption spectrum and up-conversion spectrum of glass were studied. The Judd-Oflet intensity parameters omega(t) (t = 2, 4, 6), determined based on Judd-Ofelt theory, were found to be omega2 = 3.35 x 10(-20) cm2, omega4 = 1.34 x 10(-20) cm2, omega6 = 0.67 x 10(-20) cm2. Frequency up-conversion of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glass has been investigated. The up-conversion mechanisms are discussed under 808 nm and 980 nm excitation. Stimulated emission cross-section of 4I(13/2) --> 4I(15/2) transition was calculated by McCumber theory. Compared to other host glasses, the emission property of Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuthate glasses has advantage over those of silicate, phosphate and germinate glasses. Er(3+)-doped germanium bismuth glasses are promising upconversion optical and optic-communication materials. PMID:18720787

Zhang, Yong; Ren, Guo-Zhong; Yang, Qi-Bin; Xu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Yun-Xin; Shang, Zhen-Gang

2008-05-01

177

Matemtica Aplicada y Computacional lgebra computacional aplicada. (1er  

E-print Network

Matemática Aplicada y Computacional · Álgebra computacional aplicada. (1er Cuatrimestre computacional y criptografía. · Aplicaciones en dinámica de poblaciones. · Bioinformática. · Computación del Software, la Informática Industrial y la Matemática Aplicada y Computacional. Orientación

Giménez, Domingo

178

Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

Leanos-Castaneda, Olga [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: olgalidia09@yahoo.com; Kraak, Glen van der [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2007-10-15

179

Formation of an hER?–COUP-TFI complex enhances hER? AF-1 through Ser118 phosphorylation by MAPK  

PubMed Central

The enhancement of the human estrogen receptor ? (hER?, NR3A1) activity by the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFI is found to depend on the establishment of a tight hER?–COUP-TFI complex. Formation of this complex seems to involve dynamic mechanisms different from those allowing hER? homodimerization. Although the hER?–COUP-TFI complex is present in all cells tested, the transcriptional cooperation between the two nuclear receptors is restricted to cell lines permissive to hER? activation function 1 (AF-1). In these cells, the physical interaction between COUP-TFI and hER? increases the affinity of hER? for ERK2/p42MAPK, resulting in an enhanced phosphorylation state of the hER? Ser118. hER? thus acquires a strengthened AF-1 activity due to its hyperphosphorylation. These data indicate an alternative interaction process between nuclear receptors and demonstrate a novel protein intercommunication pathway that modulates hER? AF-1. PMID:12093745

Métivier, Raphaël; Gay, Frédérique A.; Hübner, Michael R.; Flouriot, Gilles; Salbert, Gilles; Gannon, Frank; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

2002-01-01

180

ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

2011-02-18

181

Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.  

PubMed

Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways. PMID:18287538

Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

2008-05-01

182

Bap31 Is an Itinerant Protein That Moves between the Peripheral Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and a Juxtanuclear Compartment Related to ER-associated Degradation  

PubMed Central

Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER–Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein–dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways. PMID:18287538

Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J.; Hauri, Hans-Peter

2008-01-01

183

Annular Poiseuille flow of ER and MR materials Henri P. Gavin  

E-print Network

of electrorheological (er) or magnetorheological (mr) materials. er and mr materials are fluid suspensions of Rheology. Electro- and magneto-rheological materials exhibit substantial in- creases in yield stress when

Gavin, Henri

184

Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males  

MedlinePLUS

... People in the ER, Especially Young Males Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, ... on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)—often called “Spice” or “K2”—has become ...

185

Mitofusin 2 in POMC Neurons Connects ER Stress with Leptin Resistance and Energy Imbalance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establishes Mfn2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for Mfn2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastián, David; Imbernón, Mónica; Castaño, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodríguez, Ignacio Castrillón; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

2013-01-01

186

NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation shows views of the ER-2, NASA's Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing. The presentation briefly reviews the successes of the ER-2, and what the facility provides.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

187

ER QUALITY CONTROL CAN LEAD TO RETROGRADE TRANSPORT FROM THE ER LUMEN TO THE CYTOSOL AND THE NUCLEOPLASM IN  

E-print Network

, Leeds Institute for Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture, School of Biology, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT. Complete signal peptide processing even after long term expression in virus infected leaves rules out inhibitors. The use of GFP imaging in the detection of retrograde transport from the ER and screening

188

First-Principles Study of Er Location in Er-Si Systems with Oxygen Co-Dopants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Hartree-Fock cluster procedure, we are investigating possible models for the Er^3+ ion in silicon with oxygen co-dopants[1]. We are examining first the Hi (hexagonal interstitial) site with six O atoms in the intrabond regions of the six Si-Si bonds for this center[2], allowing for relaxation in positions of the O and Si atoms. The aim of this study is to see if the presence of the O atoms is indeed able to change the situation of a maximum in the potential surface for Er^3+ found from our recent investigations of the Er-Si system without co-dopants to a minimum in the co-doped Oxygen system. Results for the Er^3+ potential curve for the Hi center and the geometries of the Si and O atoms will be presented. [1] F. d'Acapito, S. Mobilio, S. Scalese, A. Terrasi, G. Franz'o and F. Priolo, Phys. Rev. B 69, 153310 (2004) and references therein. [2] J.D. Carey, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 8537 (2002)

Pink, R. H.; Jeong, Junho; Mahato, Dip N.; Huang, M. B.; Das, T. P.; Scheicher, R. H.; Byahut, Sitaram

2007-03-01

189

Optical properties of Er 3+ in fullerenes and in ?-PbF 2 single-crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of providing a thorough description of the optical properties of Er 3+-doped endohedral fullerenes, we studied their characteristics in the light of those of well-known Er 3+-doped ?-PbF 2 single-crystals. Various Er 3+-doped endohedral fullerenes were considered: Er 2C 2@C 82, where the Er 2C 2 group is encapsulated inside a cage of 82 carbon atoms and the Er 3-xSc xN@C 80 ( x = 0, 1 and 2) family, where the Er 3N, Er 2ScN and ErSc 2N clusters are trapped in a 80 carbon atom cage. In this article, we discuss the absorption and photoluminescence of trivalent erbium ions in fullerenes and in ?-PbF 2 crystals. The extinction coefficient of Er 3N@C 80 was found to be 4.8 (±0.5) × 10 3 mol/l -1 cm -1 at 540 nm, due to the C 80 cage absorbance. Even in a saturated fullerene solution, the absorption of Er 3+ encapsulated inside a C 80 cage cannot be observed at room temperature. We suggest that this is due to an insufficient number of Er 3+ ions in the solution and their low absorption cross-section. Low temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the line width of Er 3+ in a carbon cage, dissolved in a polycrystalline solvent, is similar to the one of Er 3+ in ?-PbF 2 single-crystals. The quantum efficiency of Er 3+ at 1.5 ?m in fullerenes is four orders of magnitude lower than that for Er 3+ in crystals, due to very efficient non-radiative decay processes. Molecular vibrations of the cage might be responsible for those rapid non-radiative de-excitations.

Dantelle, Géraldine; Tiwari, Archana; Rahman, Rizvi; Plant, Simon R.; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Mortier, Michel; Taylor, Robert A.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.

2009-11-01

190

Polybasic Trafficking Signal Mediates Golgi Export, ER Retention or ER Export and Retrieval Based on Membrane-Proximity  

PubMed Central

Trafficking of integral membrane proteins between the ER and Golgi complex, and protein sorting and trafficking between the TGN and endosomal/lysosomal compartments or plasma membranes, are dependent on cis-acting, linear amino acid sorting signals. Numerous sorting signals of this type have been identified in the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins, several of which rely on basic residues. A novel Golgi export signal that relies on a membrane-proximal polybasic motif (PBM) was recently identified in the reptilian reovirus p14 protein, a representative of an unusual group of bitopic fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins encoded by fusogenic orthoreoviruses and responsible for cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, cell surface immunofluorescence, and endoglycosidase H assays, we now show the p14 PBM can mediate several distinct trafficking functions depending on its proximity to the transmembrane domain (TMD). When present within 4-residues of the TMD it serves as a Golgi export signal, but when located at the C-terminus of the 68-residue p14 cytoplasmic endodomain it functions as an ER retention signal. The PBM has no effect on protein trafficking when located at an internal position in the cytoplasmic domain. When present in both membrane-proximal and -distal locations, the PBMs promote export to, and efficient retrieval from, the Golgi complex. Interestingly, the conflicting trafficking signals provided by two PBMs induces extensive ER tubulation and segregation of ER components. These studies highlight how a single trafficking signal in a simple transmembrane protein can have remarkably diverse, position-dependent effects on protein trafficking and ER morphogenesis. PMID:24714640

Duncan, Roy

2014-01-01

191

Small regulators, major consequences - Ca²? and cholesterol at the endosome-ER interface.  

PubMed

The ER is the largest cellular compartment and a major storage site for lipids and ions. In recent years, much attention has focused on contacts between the ER and other organelles, and one particularly intimate relationship is that between the ER and the endosomal system. ER-endosome contacts intensify when endosomes mature, and the ER participates in endosomal processes, such as the termination of surface receptor signaling, multi-vesicular body formation, and transport and fusion events. Cholesterol and Ca(2+) are transferred between the ER and endosomes, possibly acting as messengers for ER-endosome crosstalk. Here, we summarize different types of ER-endosomal communication and discuss membrane contact sites that might facilitate this crosstalk. We review the protein pairs that interact at the ER-endosome interface and find that many of these have a role in cholesterol exchange. We also summarize Ca(2+) exchange between the ER and endosomes, and hypothesize that ER-endosome contacts integrate several cellular functions to guide endosomal maturation. We post the hypothesis that failure in ER-endosome contacts is an unrecognized but important contributor to diseases, such as Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24554437

van der Kant, Rik; Neefjes, Jacques

2014-03-01

192

The EDOP Radar System on the High-Altitude NASA ER2 Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA ER-2 high-altitude ( 20 km) aircraft that emulates a satellite view of precipitation systems carries a variety of passive and active ( lidar ) remote sensing instruments. A new Doppler weather radar system at X band ( 9.6 GHz ) called the ER-2 Doppler radar ( EDOP ) has been developed and flown on the ER-2 aircraft. EDOP

Gerald M. Heymsfield; Steven W. Bidwell; I. Jeff Caylor; Syed Ameen; Shaun Nicholson; Wayne Boncyk; Lee Miller; Doug Vandemark; Paul E. Racette; Louis R. Dod

1996-01-01

193

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.61 Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). (a) A...

2010-04-01

194

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

...2012-04-01 true Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.61 Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). (a) A...

2014-04-01

195

20 CFR 216.61 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). 216.61...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.61 Who is eligible for an annuity as a widow(er). (a) A...

2012-04-01

196

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma  

MedlinePLUS

When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Asthma > When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma ... list specific symptoms that are your cue to go to the ER. If old enough, your child ...

197

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases  

E-print Network

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

Hebert, Daniel N.

198

Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining  

E-print Network

Technical Report No. 480 CE: The Classi er Estimator Framework for Data mining Mehmet M. Dalkilic a coherent framework for data mining in the relational model. Observing that data mining depends on two. The classi er indicates the target of the data mining investigation. The classi er may be di cult to express

Dalkilic, Mehmet

199

Increasing output energy from a passively Q-switched Er:glass laser  

E-print Network

Increasing output energy from a passively Q-switched Er:glass laser Ronen Rabinovici, Amiel A-switched Er:glass eyesafe lasers is presented. The increase of energy is achieved by incorporating binary passively Q- switched Er:glass lasers, which have several attractive features. They emit light of an eyesafe

Friesem, Asher A.

200

Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the energy transfer from amorphous silicon nitride to Er ions R. Li,1 S; published online 29 July 2009 The 1.54 m photoluminescence and decay time of Er-doped amorphous silicon amorphous silicon nitride and Er ions are investigated at different temperatures using two independent

201

ER-?36: a novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor-alpha36 (ER-?36) is a 36-kDa variant of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?) firstly identified and cloned by Wang et al in 2005. It lacks both transactivation domains (activation function 1 and activation function 2) and has different biological characteristics compared to traditional ER-? (ER-?66). ER-?36 primarily locates on plasma membrane and cytoplasm and functions as a mediator in the rapid membrane-initiated non-genomic signaling pathway. Additionally, it inhibits the traditional genomic signaling pathway mediated by ER-?66 in a dominant-negative pattern. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that ER-?36 regulates the physiological function of various tissues. Thus, dysregulation of ER-?36 is closely associated with plenty of diseases including cancers. ER-?36 is recognized as a molecular abnormality which solidly correlates to carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and therapeutic response of breast cancer. Additionally, special attention has been paid to the role of ER-?36 in endocrine therapy resistance. Therefore, ER-?36 provides a novel biomarker of great value for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of breast cancer. It may also be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer patients, especially for those who are resistant to endocrine therapy. In this review, we will overview and update the biological characteristics, underlying mechanism, and function of ER-?36, focusing on its biological function in breast cancer and endocrine therapy resistance. We will evaluate its application value in clinical practice. PMID:25210466

Su, Xingyun; Xu, Xin; Li, Guangliang; Lin, Bingyi; Cao, Jiang; Teng, Lisong

2014-01-01

202

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med-spiller nr hjteknologisk forskning skal  

E-print Network

CAT er en kompetent og risikovillig med- spiller når højteknologisk forskning skal omsættes til holdbar forretning. CAT er en forskerpark der drives i samarbej- de mellem Danmarks Tekniske Universitet forskning og udvikling i samar- bejde med de tre institutioners forskere. �n af virksomhederne i CAT er

203

Preparation and up-conversion fluorescence of rare earth (Er 3+ or Yb 3+/Er 3+)-doped TiO 2 nanobelts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase TiO 2 nanobelts doped with rare earth ( RE) ions Yb 3+, Er 3+ or Yb 3+/Er 3+ have been prepared using layered titanate nanobelts (LTO NBs) with RE ions as the precursor obtained by ion-exchange between LTO NBs and RE ions under hydrothermal process. Various measurement results demonstrate that the RE ions have doped into the lattice of TiO 2, and the Er 3+ or Yb 3+/Er 3+ doped nanobelts show strong visible up-conversion (UC) fluorescence under 980 nm excitation. The UC emission intensity of LTO NBs embedded with Er 3+ or Yb 3+/Er 3+ is slightly higher than that of the corresponding TiO 2 nanobelts doped with RE ions, whereas higher RE doping content leads to the decrease of UC emission intensity due to the concentration-quenching effect.

Ji, Tianhao; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Hui; Du, Haiyan; Sun, Jiayue; Ge, Guanglu

2010-03-01

204

Er and Yb isotope fractionation in planetary materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements relative to solar abundances. Little is known, however, about volatility at the high temperatures relevant to asteroidal collisions and to the giant lunar impact. Although refractory rare-earth elements have overall similar crystallochemical properties, some differ in their temperatures of condensation from the nebular gas. This is the case for Yb, which condenses at ˜1490K and in the vapor is mostly in elemental form. By contrast, Er, largely present as ErO, condenses at ˜1660K. We analyzed the Er and Yb isotopic compositions in 33 terrestrial basalts, garnets, different classes of chondrites and achondrites, and lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The range of mass-dependent isotope fractionation is larger for Yb (0.43‰ per amu) than Er (0.23‰) isotopes. For terrestrial rocks, a positive correlation between ?Yb and La/Yb suggests that the isotopic differences between Er and Yb can be accounted for by the presence of small fractions of Yb2+. Yb is isotopically heavy in kimberlite and light in garnets. Ytterbium behaves similarly to Fe, with Yb3+ being more incompatible than the much less abundant Yb2+. In addition, the coexistence of divalent and trivalent sites in the garnet structure and the preference of heavy isotopes for stable bonds makes Yb in garnet isotopically light. The deficit of heavy Yb isotopes in lunar basaltic samples relative to the Earth, chondrites, and eucrites provides new evidence that the Moon formed by the condensation of silicate vapor in the aftermath of the giant lunar impact. Separation of vapor from melt and of heavy from light isotopes is first expected during the adiabatic expansion of the initial vapor plume. Subsequently, friction between melt and gas tends to further enrich the Moon feeding zone in silicate vapor to compensate the inward migration of melt out of the pre-lunar disk. A major consequence of interpreting the present lunar data by vapor/melt segregation is that the relative abundances of refractory elements in the Moon are unlikely to be chondrite-like or even Earth-like. Erbium isotope ratios in lunar samples reflect the capture of neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays. The first resonance of 167Er for neutron capture will help cover an energy range poorly covered by other nuclides.

Albalat, Emmanuelle; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

2012-11-01

205

Role of incoherent pumping and Er3+ ion concentration on subluminal and superluminal light propagation in Er3+-doped YAG crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the absorption-dispersion process and group index of weak probe field in a four-level Er3+:YAG crystal. We find that the Er3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field can influence the absorption-dispersion process and group index of weak probe field. Moreover, our results show that Er3+ ion concentration plays a major role in lasing without inversion and absorption with inversion.

Seyyed, Hossein Asadpour; H. Rahimpour, Soleimani

2015-01-01

206

Controlling Er-Tm interaction in Er and Tm codoped silicon-rich silicon oxide using nanometer-scale spatial separation for efficient, broadband infrared luminescence  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nanometer-scale spatial separation between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions in Er and Tm codoped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) films is investigated. Er and Tm codoped SRSO films, which consist of nanocluster Si (nc-Si) embedded inside SiO{sub 2} matrix, were fabricated with electron cyclotron resonance-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} with concurrent sputtering of Er and Tm metal targets. Spatial separation between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions was achieved by depositing alternating layers of Er- and Tm-doped layers of varying thickness while keeping the total film thickness the same. The films display broadband infrared photoluminescence (PL) from 1.5 to 2.0 {mu}m under a single source excitation due to simultaneous excitation of Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions by nc-Si. Increasing the layer thickness from 0 to 72 nm increases the Er{sup 3+} PL intensity nearly 50-fold while the Tm{sup 3+} PL intensity is unaffected. The data are well-explained by a model assuming a dipole-dipole interaction between excited Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions, and suggest that by nanoscale engineering, efficient, ultrabroadband infrared luminescence can be obtained in an optically homogeneous material using a single light source.

Seo, Se-Young; Shin, Jung H. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

2004-11-01

207

Effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) thin film is investigated. Er-doped SRSO, which consists of silicon nanoclusters (nc-Si) in a SiO{sub 2} matrix, was fabricated using electron-cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} with concurrent sputtering of Er followed by a high temperature annealing. Defects were introduced into the film via irradiation with 3 MeV Si ions and subsequently removed by high temperature annealings. The authors find that ion irradiation reduces Er{sup 3+} luminescence from SRSO films, even when the excitation cross section and luminescence efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions are completely restored. On the other hand, ion irradiation increases the intrinsic nc-Si luminescence and has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence from a similarly prepared, Er-doped SiO{sub 2} film, indicating that the presence of irradiation induced defects in the initial amorphous film can reduce the number of Er{sup 3+} ions available for nc-Si mediated luminescence by as much as a factor of 3.

Seo, Se-Young; Jeong, Hoon; Shin, Jung H.; Choi, Han Woo; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ion Beam Application Group, Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-09

208

Comparative analysis of ER stress response into HIV protease inhibitors: lopinavir but not darunavir induces potent ER stress response via ROS/JNK pathway.  

PubMed

HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-induced ER stress has been associated with adverse effects. Although it is a serious clinical problem for HIV/AIDS patients, comparative analyses of ER stress induction by clinically used PIs have rarely been done. Especially, there is no report on the differential ER stress response between lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV), although these PIs are the most clinically used PIs. We show here that LPV induces the most potent CHOP expression, ER stress marker, among the 9 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PIs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, several human epithelial cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. LPV induced the most potent ROS production and JNK activation in 9 PIs. A comparison among the most clinically used PIs, ritonavir (RTV), LPV, and DRV, revealed that LPV potently and RTV moderately but not DRV induced ER stress via ROS-dependent JNK activation rather than proteasome inhibition. Finally, we analyzed ER stress induction in tissues of mice intraperitoneally injected with RTV, LPV, and DRV. RTV and LPV but not DRV showed ER stress induction in several mice tissues. In conclusion, we first identify LPV as the most potent ER stress inducing PI among 9 FDA-approved PIs in human cells, and although clinical verification is necessary, we show here that DRV has the advantage of less ROS and ER stress induction potential compared with LPV in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23973637

Taura, Manabu; Kariya, Ryusho; Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Iwawaki, Takao; Amano, Masayuki; Suico, Mary Ann; Kai, Hirofumi; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okada, Seiji

2013-12-01

209

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview  

PubMed Central

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

210

Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

N?mec, M.; Šulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínková, H.

2015-01-01

211

Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

1998-01-01

212

Preliminary analysis of ERS-1 SAR for forest ecosystem studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An image obtained by the C-band VV-polarized ERS-1 SAR is examined with respect to potential land applications. A scene obtained near noon on August 15, 1991, along the U.S.-Canadian border near Sault Ste. Marie is calibrated relative to an array of trihedral corner reflectors and active radar calibrators distributed across the swath. Extensive contemporaneous ground observations of forest stands are used to predict the radar backscattering coefficient sigma at the time of the SAR overpass using a first-order vector radiative transfer model. These predictions generally agree with the calibrated ERS-1 data to within 1 dB. It is demonstrated that the dynamic range of sigma is sufficient to perform limited discrimination of various forest and grassland communities even for a single-date observation. Furthermore, retrieval of near-surface soil moisture is feasible for grass-covered soils when plant biomass is less than 1 tonne/ha.

Dobson, M. G.; Pierce, Leland; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Sharik, Terry

1992-01-01

213

Tooth pulp reaction following Er:YAG laser application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YAG laser irradiation was performed on dental hard substances of beagle dogs. Two, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after laser exposure at various intensities and repetition rates the teeth and especially the pulps were analyzed histologically. No reaction of the pulp was found after enamel or pulpfar dentine exposure to the laser beam even at a radiant exposure of 30 J/cm2 per pulse. Fluorescent marking sections of the teeth showed neoformation of calcified dentin after 6 and 8 weeks following laser light impact to the pulpnear dentin or artificial opening of the pulp cavity. These results correspond to the observations of pulp microcirculation during Er:YAG laser irradiation.

Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

1991-05-01

214

Alaska SAR processor implementation of E-ERS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing algorithm used by the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for the European Space Agency's first Remote-Sensing Satellite (E-ERS-1) SAR data are examined. Preprocessing highlights two features: signal measurement, which includes signal-to-noise ratio, replica measurement, and noise measurement; and Doppler measurement, which includes clutter lock and autofocus. The custom pipeline architecture performs the main processing with controls at the input interface, range correlator, corner-turn memory, azimuth correlator, and multi-look memory. The control software employs a flexible control scheme. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) format encapsulates the ASF products. System performance for SAR image processing of E-ERS-1 data is reviewed.

Cuddy, David; Chen, Ming-Je; Bicknell, Tom

1992-01-01

215

Completion report for well ER-30-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

216

COPII and COPI Traffic at the ER-Golgi Interface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein traffic is necessary to maintain homeostasis in all eukaryotic organisms. All newly synthesized secretory proteins destined to the secretory and endolysosmal systems are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi before delivery to their final destinations. Here, we describe the COPII and COPI coating machineries that generate carrier vesicles and the tethers and SNAREs that mediate COPII and COPI vesicle fusion at the ER-Golgi interface.

Tomasz Szul (University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Cell Biology); Elizabeth Sztul (University of Alabama at Birmingham Department of Cell Biology)

2011-10-01

217

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

218

IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.

2013-02-01

219

Plant Ecology VolumE 7, NumbEr 1,  

E-print Network

Journal of Plant Ecology VolumE 7, NumbEr 1, PagEs 86­96 FEbruary 2014 doi:10.1093/jpe/rtt016, Beijing 100049, China 3 Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, Burlington VT 05405 of the Fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PlFas)/ bacterial PlFas ratio. Fungal PlFa values were greater

Neher, Deborah A.

220

Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays a key role in the synthesis of a wide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

221

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west

M. J. Townsend

2002-01-01

222

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just

2000-01-01

223

Solar-pumped Er,Tm,Ho:YAG laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct solar illumination was used to pump a 5-mm-diameter 62-mm exposed-length rod of Er,Tm,Ho:YAG to achieve a quasi-cw lasing of the Ho ion at an average power of 12 W. The solar radiation was chopped at a 20% duty cycle to avoid overloading of the cooling system. The peak power output was more than 65 W during the chopper's open

R. M. J. Benmair; J. Kagan; Y. Kalisky; Y. Noter; Moshe Oron; Y. Shimony; A. Yogev

1990-01-01

224

Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416  

SciTech Connect

The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

Seymour, Joseph D.

2014-02-01

225

A Systematic In Silico Mining of the Mechanistic Implications and Therapeutic Potentials of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-? in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-? has long been a potential target in ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. In this study, we integrated ER-?-related bioinformatic data at different levels to systematically explore the mechanistic and therapeutic implications of ER-?. Firstly, we identified ER-?-interacting proteins and target genes of ER-?-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and analyzed their functional gene ontology (GO) annotations of those ER-?-associated proteins. In addition, we predicted ten consensus miRNAs that could target ER-?, and screened candidate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that might hit diverse conformations of ER-? ligand binding domain (LBD). These findings may help to uncover the mechanistic implications of ER-? in breast cancer at a systematic level, and provide clues of miRNAs- and small molecule modulators- based strategies for future ER-?-positive breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:24614816

Lu, Bangmin; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zijie; Bao, Jinku

2014-01-01

226

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

227

Emerging features of ER resident J-proteins in plants  

PubMed Central

J-proteins are co-chaperone components of the HSP70 system. J-proteins stimulate Hsp70ATPase activity, which is responsible for stabilizing the interaction of Hsp70 with client proteins. J-proteins are localized in various intracellular compartments including the cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Five types of ER resident J-proteins (ERdjs) have been found in plants (P58, ERdj2, ERdj2A, ERdj3B and ERdj7). Rice OsERdj3A is located in the vacuole and protein storage vacuoles (PSV, PB-II) under conditions of ER stress. J-proteins that are localized to the vacuole or lysosome are not found in mammals and yeast, suggesting that the presence of OsERdj3A in the vacuole is plant-specific and one of the features unique to plant ERdjs. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and recent research advancements regarding plant ERdjs, and compare mammalian and yeast ERdjs with plant ERdjs. PMID:24614601

Ohta, Masaru; Takaiwa, Fumio

2014-01-01

228

Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser  

DOEpatents

A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

1997-04-22

229

Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: This study was performed in order to establish that the pulpal and dentinal tissue are safe when exposed to the 2.94 micron pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation for the procedures of caries removal, cavity preparation, and etching prior to acid etching. This presentation discusses the histological results of a double-blind study comparing a pulsed Er:YAG with a standard dental drill. Methods: A double-blind histological evaluation of the pulpal and dentinal tissue changes induced by the Erbium laser and the dental drill was conducted on teeth extracted immediately following the dental procedure and at various intervals up to 1 year post-treatment. A statistical analysis was used to determine if any statistically significant clinical differences in dental tissue response could be observed between the Er:YAG laser and the standard dental drill. Conclusions: Analysis of the results indicated there were no significant differences observed between the laser and control groups in this study.

Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

1998-04-01

230

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

NONE

1997-03-01

231

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2005-02-01

232

17?-Estradiol-induced cell proliferation requires estrogen receptor (ER) ? monoubiquitination.  

PubMed

Protein monoubiquitination (monoUbq) (i.e., the attachment of one single ubiquitin to the substrate) is a non-proteolytic reversible modification that controls protein functions. Among other proteins, the estrogen receptor ? (ER?), which mediates the pleiotropic effects of the cognate hormone 17?-estradiol (E2), is a monoubiquitinated protein. Although it has been demonstrated that E2 rapidly reduces ER? monoUbq in breast cancer cells, the impact of monoUbq in the regulation of the ER? activities is poorly appreciated. Here, we show that mutation of the ER? monoUbq sites prevents the E2-induced ER? phosphorylation in the serine residue 118 (S118), reduces ER? transcriptional activity, and precludes the ER?-mediated extranuclear activation of signaling pathways (i.e., AKT activation) thus impeding the E2-induced cyclin D1 promoter activation and consequently cell proliferation. In addition, the interference with ER? monoUbq deregulates E2-induced association of ER? to the insulin like growth factor receptor (IGF-1-R). Altogether these data demonstrate an inherent role for monoUbq in ER? signaling and point to the physiological function of ER? monoUbq in the regulation of E2-induced cell proliferation. PMID:21356307

La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Pesiri, Valeria; Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo

2011-07-01

233

Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER? Inhibition  

PubMed Central

The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER?) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER? and increased ER? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER? dissociation and ER? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi

2013-01-01

234

Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER  

PubMed Central

Summary Intestinal dietary triacylglycerol absorption is a multi-step process. Triacylglycerol exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the rate-limiting step in the progress of the lipid from its apical absorption to its basolateral membrane export. Triacylglycerol is transported from the ER to the cis Golgi in a specialized vesicle, the pre-chylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV). The vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) was found to be more concentrated on PCTVs compared with ER membranes. VAMP7 has been previously identified associated with post-Golgi sites in eukaryotes. To examine the potential role of VAMP7 in PCTV trafficking, antibodies were generated that identified a 25 kDa band consistent with VAMP7 but did not crossreact with VAMP1,2. VAMP7 was concentrated on intestinal ER by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the ER proteins Sar1 and rBet1 were present on PCTVs and colocalized with VAMP7. Iodixanol gradient centrifugation showed VAMP7 to be isodense with ER and endosomes. Although VAMP7 localized to intestinal ER, it was not present in the ER of liver and kidney. Anti-VAMP7 antibodies reduced the transfer of triacylglycerol, but not newly synthesized proteins, from the ER to the Golgi by 85%. We conclude that VAMP7 is enriched in intestinal ER and that it plays a functional role in the delivery of triacylglycerol from the ER to the Golgi. PMID:16495485

Siddiqi, Shadab A.; Mahan, James; Siddiqi, Shahzad; Gorelick, Fred S.; Mansbach, Charles M.

2010-01-01

235

ER stress response mechanisms in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata and their roles in virulence  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is critical for numerous aspects of cell physiology. Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular signaling pathway that adjusts the folding capacity of the ER. Recent studies of several pathogenic fungi have revealed that the UPR is important for antifungal resistance and virulence; therefore, the pathway has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic target. While the UPR is highly conserved among eukaryotes, our group recently discovered that the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata lacks the typical fungal UPR, but possesses alternative mechanisms to cope with ER stress. This review summarizes how C. glabrata responds to ER stress and discusses the impacts of ER quality control systems on antifungal resistance and virulence. PMID:24335436

Miyazaki, Taiga; Kohno, Shigeru

2014-01-01

236

Unusual hafnium-pyridylamido/ER(n) heterobimetallic adducts (ER(n) = ZnR2 or AlR3).  

PubMed

NMR spectroscopy and DFT studies indicate that the Symyx/Dow Hf(IV)-pyridylamido catalytic system for olefin polymerization, [{N(-),N,CNph(-)}HfMe][B(C6F5)4] (1, Nph = naphthyl), interacts with ER(n) (E = Al or Zn, R = alkyl group) to afford unusual heterobimetallic adducts [{N(-),N}HfMe(?-CNph)(?-R)ER(n-1)][B(C6F5)4 in which the cyclometalated Nph acts as a bridge between Hf and E. (1)H VT (variable-temperature) EXSY NMR spectroscopy provides direct evidence of reversible alkyl exchanges in heterobimetallic adducts, with ZnR2 showing a higher tendency to participate in this exchange than AlR3. 1-Hexene/ERn competitive reactions with 1 at 240?K reveal that the formation of adducts is strongly favored over 1-hexene polymerization. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the temperature (to >265?K) initiates 1-hexene polymerization. PMID:24458366

Rocchigiani, Luca; Busico, Vincenzo; Pastore, Antonello; Talarico, Giovanni; Macchioni, Alceo

2014-02-17

237

Scandium effect on the luminescence of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films  

PubMed Central

Polycrystalline Er-Sc silicates (Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 and Er x Sc2-x SiO5) were fabricated using multilayer nanostructured films of Er2O3/SiO2/Sc2O3 deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering and thermal annealing at high temperature. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence measurements. The Er-Sc silicate phase Er x Sc2-x Si2O7 is the dominant film, and Er and Sc are homogeneously distributed after thermal treatment because of the excess of oxygen from SiO2 interlayers. The Er concentration of 6.7?×?1021 atoms/cm3 was achieved due to the presence of Sc that dilutes the Er concentration and generates concentration quenching. During silicate formation, the erbium diffusion coefficient in the silicate phase is estimated to be 1?×?10-15 cm2/s at 1,250°C. The dominant Er x Sc2 - x Si2O7 layer shows a room-temperature photoluminescence peak at 1,537 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 1.6 nm. The peak emission shift compared to that of the Y-Er silicate (where Y and Er have almost the same ionic radii) and the narrow FWHM are due to the small ionic radii of Sc3+ which enhance the crystal field strength affecting the optical properties of Er3+ ions located at the well-defined lattice sites of the Sc silicate. The Er-Sc silicate with narrow FWHM opens a promising way to prepare photonic crystal light-emitting devices. PMID:25114648

2014-01-01

238

COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

BECHTEL NEVADA

2005-12-01

239

Oestrogen receptor beta (ER?) is abundantly expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but declines in colon adenocarcinoma paralleling the tumour's dedifferentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oestrogen Receptor ? (ER?) may protect against prostate and mammary cell proliferation and malignant transformation. Epidemiological studies indicate that oestrogens may reduce colon cancer risk. Since ER? is minimally expressed in normal and malignant colon, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of ER? in both normal colonic wall and colon cancer. ER? expression was evaluated by

P. A Konstantinopoulos; A Kominea; G Vandoros; G. P Sykiotis; P Andricopoulos; I Varakis; G Sotiropoulou-Bonikou; A. G Papavassiliou

2003-01-01

240

Neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage in mouse hippocampal cells depends on ER? but not ER? or GPR30 signalling.  

PubMed

Raloxifene is the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) currently used in clinical practice to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in bone tissue and to antagonise ERs in breast and uterine cancers. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of action of raloxifene on hypoxia-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage of mouse hippocampal cells in primary cultures, with a particular focus on raloxifene interactions with the classical nuclear ERs (ER?, ER?) and the recently identified membrane ER G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In this study, 18 h of hypoxia increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1?) mRNA expression and induced apoptotic processes, such as loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-3 and fragmentation of cell nuclei based on Hoechst 33342 staining. These effects were accompanied by reduced ATPase and intracellular esterase activities as well as substantial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells exposed to hypoxia. Our study demonstrated strong neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic caspase-3-independent actions of raloxifene in hippocampal cells exposed to hypoxia. Raloxifene also inhibited the hypoxia-induced decrease in Er? mRNA expression and attenuated the hypoxia-induced rise in Er? and Gpr30 mRNA expression levels. Impact of raloxifene on hypoxia-affected Er? mRNA was mirrored by fluctuations in the protein level of the receptor as demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescent labelling. Raloxifene-induced changes in Er? mRNA expression level were in parallel with ER? immunofluorescent labeling. However, changes in Gpr30 mRNA level were not reflected by changes in the protein levels measured either by ELISA, Western blot or immunofluorescent staining at 24h post-treatment. Using specific siRNAs, we provided evidence for a key involvement of ER?, but not ER? or GPR30 in neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced cell damage. This study may have implications for the treatment or prevention of hypoxic brain injury and the administration of current or new generations of SERMs specific to ER?. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Sex steroids and brain disorders". PMID:24846829

Rzemieniec, J; Litwa, E; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Go?as, A; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

2015-02-01

241

ER sheet persistence is coupled to myosin 1c–regulated dynamic actin filament arrays  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) network with diverse structural and functional domains. Proper ER operation requires an intricate balance within and between dynamics, morphology, and functions, but how these processes are coupled in cells has been unclear. Using live-cell imaging and 3D electron microscopy, we identify a specific subset of actin filaments localizing to polygons defined by ER sheets and tubules and describe a role for these actin arrays in ER sheet persistence and, thereby, in maintenance of the characteristic network architecture by showing that actin depolymerization leads to increased sheet fluctuation and transformations and results in small and less abundant sheet remnants and a defective ER network distribution. Furthermore, we identify myosin 1c localizing to the ER-associated actin filament arrays and reveal a novel role for myosin 1c in regulating these actin structures, as myosin 1c manipulations lead to loss of the actin filaments and to similar ER phenotype as observed after actin depolymerization. We propose that ER-associated actin filaments have a role in ER sheet persistence regulation and thus support the maintenance of sheets as a stationary subdomain of the dynamic ER network. PMID:24523293

Joensuu, Merja; Belevich, Ilya; Rämö, Olli; Nevzorov, Ilya; Vihinen, Helena; Puhka, Maija; Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Jokitalo, Eija

2014-01-01

242

Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10?12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10?8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10?8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10?8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D

2013-01-01

243

A Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Complex (EMC) Facilitates Phospholipid Transfer from the ER to Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC) has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER–mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER–mitochondria encounter structure) are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER–mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth. PMID:25313861

Tavassoli, Shabnam; Wong, Andrew K. O.; Choudhary, Vineet; Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J. R.; Prinz, William A.

2014-01-01

244

When supply does not meet demand-ER stress and plant programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central organelle in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. The ER functions in protein synthesis and maturation and is crucial for proper maintenance of cellular homeostasis and adaptation to adverse environments. Acting as a cellular sentinel, the ER is exquisitely sensitive to changing environments principally via the ER quality control machinery. When perturbed, ER-stress triggers a tightly regulated and highly conserved, signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that prevents the dangerous accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins. In situations where excessive UPR activity surpasses threshold levels, cells deteriorate and eventually trigger programmed cell death (PCD) as a way for the organism to cope with dysfunctional or toxic signals. The programmed cell death that results from excessive ER stress in mammalian systems contributes to several important diseases including hypoxia, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Importantly, hallmark features and markers of cell death that are associated with ER stress in mammals are also found in plants. In particular, there is a common, conserved set of chaperones that modulate ER cell death signaling. Here we review the elements of plant cell death responses to ER stress and note that an increasing number of plant-pathogen interactions are being identified in which the host ER is targeted by plant pathogens to establish compatibility. PMID:24926295

Williams, Brett; Verchot, Jeanmarie; Dickman, Martin B.

2014-01-01

245

Coronavirus-induced ER stress response and its involvement in regulation of coronavirus-host interactions.  

PubMed

Coronavirus replication is structurally and functionally associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a major site of protein synthesis, folding, modification and sorting in the eukaryotic cells. Disturbance of ER homeostasis may occur under various physiological or pathological conditions. In response to the ER stress, signaling pathways of the unfolded protein response (UPR) are activated. UPR is mediated by three ER transmembrane sensors, namely the PKR-like ER protein kinase (PERK), the inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1) and the activating transcriptional factor 6 (ATF6). UPR facilitates adaptation to ER stress by reversible translation attenuation, enhancement of ER protein folding capacity and activation of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In cells under prolonged and irremediable ER stress, UPR can also trigger apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence has shown that coronavirus infection causes ER stress and induces UPR in the infected cells. UPR is closely associated with a number of major signaling pathways, including autophagy, apoptosis, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways, innate immunity and pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, studies on the UPR are pivotal in elucidating the complicated issue of coronavirus-host interaction. In this paper, we present the up-to-date knowledge on coronavirus-induced UPR and discuss its potential involvement in regulation of innate immunity and apoptosis. PMID:25304691

Fung, To Sing; Huang, Mei; Liu, Ding Xiang

2014-12-19

246

A novel variant of ER-alpha, ER-alpha36 mediates testosterone-stimulated ERK and Akt activation in endometrial cancer Hec1A cells  

PubMed Central

Background Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and its incidence has recently increased. Experimental and epidemiological data support that testosterone plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Recently, we identified and cloned a variant of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ER-alpha36. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ER-alpha36 in testosterone carcinogenesis. Methods The cellular localization of ER-alpha36 was determined by immunofluorescence. Hec1A endometrial cancer cells (Hec1A/V) and Hec1A cells with siRNA knockdown of ER-alpha36 (Hec1A/RNAi) were treated with testosterone, ERK and Akt phosphorylation was assessed by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitors U0126 and LY294002 and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole were used to elucidate the pathway underlying testosterone-induced activities. Results Immunofluorescence shows that ER-alpha36 was localized on the plasma membrane of the both ER-alpha- and androgen receptor-negative endometrial cancer Hec1A cells. Testosterone induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which could be abrogated by ER-alpha 36 shRNA knockdown or the kinase inhibitors, U0126 and LY294002, and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Conclusion Testosterone induces ERK and Akt phosphorylation via the membrane-initiated signaling pathways mediated by ER-alpha36, suggesting a possible involvement of ER-alpha 36 in testosterone carcinogenesis. PMID:19775474

Lin, Sheng-Li; Yan, Li-Ying; Liang, Xing-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Qiao, Jie; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2009-01-01

247

Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: II. Collinear components and ferrimagnetic compensation.  

PubMed

Magnetization measurements on an Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) glass and polarized-beam neutron scattering measurements on Fe(78)Er(5)B(17) and Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) were described in part I. The finite spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using a sperimagnetic structure based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The temperature variation of the cross sections of Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) suggested that a compensated sperimagnetic phase existed at T(comp).The analysis of the non-spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections is described here in part II. Two spin-dependent total structure factors S(±±)(Q) were defined from these cross sections and, despite the limited range of the data 0.5 Å(-1) < Q < 6.5 Å(-1), their Fourier transform gave reliable spin-dependent radial distribution functions RDF(±±)(r). These were interpreted in terms of the atomic pair correlation functions ?(±±)(AB)(r) and their weighting factors ?(±±)(AB). The data on Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 1.5 K showed, for example, how the directions of the magnetic sublattices can be defined uniquely. The analysis of the RDF(±±)(r) for Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 112 K confirmed that the mean collinear components of the magnetic moments , are zero on both sublattices in the compensated sperimagnetic structure at T(comp). The pre-peak in the spin-dependent total structure factors at 112 K showed that it originated in the atomic structure and it may involve Fe-Er-Fe 'collineations' at a radial distance of ?6.0 Å. Finally, the RDF(±±)(r) of Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 180 K and of Fe(78)Er(5)B(17) at 2 K show that both glasses have the (?(Fe) UP:?(Er) DOWN) structure like the (Fe,Tb)(83)B(17) collinear ferrimagnets. PMID:22121203

Cowlam, N; Wildes, A R

2011-12-14

248

Study of negative and positive superhumps in ER Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out photometric observations of the SU UMa-type dwarf nova ER UMa during 2011 and 2012, which showed the existence of persistent negative superhumps even during the superoutburst. We performed a two-dimensional period analysis of its light curves by using a method called "least absolute shrinkage and selection operator" (Lasso) and the "phase dispersion minimization" (PDM) analysis, and found that the period of negative superhumps systematically changed between a superoutburst and the next superoutburst. The trend of the period change can be interpreted as a reflection of the change of the disk radius. This change is in agreement with the one predicted by the thermal tidal instability model. The normal outburst during a supercycle showed a general trend that the rising rate to its maximum becomes slower as the next superoutburst is approaching. The change can be interpreted as the consequence of the increased gas-stream flow into the inner region of the disk as a result of the tilted disk. Some of superoutbursts were found to be triggered by a precursor normal outburst when the positive superhump appeared to develop. The positive and negative superhumps coexisted during the superoutburst. Positive superhumps were prominent only for four or five days after the supermaximum, while the signal of negative superhumps became stronger after the middle phase of the superoutburst plateau. A simple combination of the positive and negative superhumps was found to be insufficient for reproduction of the complex profile variation. We were able to detect the developing phase of positive superhumps (stage A superhumps) for the first time in ER UMa-type dwarf novae. Using the period of stage A superhumps, we obtained a mass ratio of 0.100(15), which indicates that ER UMa is on the ordinary evolutional track of cataclysmic variable stars.

Ohshima, Tomohito; Kato, Taichi; Pavlenko, Elena; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Tanabe, Kenji; de Miguel, Enrique; Stein, William; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Krajci, Thomas; Baklanov, Alex; Samsonov, Denis; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Andreev, Maksim V.; Noguchi, Ryo; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Nomoto, Takashi; Ono, Rikako; Nakagawa, Shin'ichi; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Aoki, Tomoya; Kawabata, Miho; Kimura, Hitoshi; Masumoto, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Voloshina, Irina; Zemko, Polina; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Ruiz, Javier; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Virnina, Natalia; Virtanen, Jani; Miller, Ian; Boitnott, Boyd; Littlefield, Colin; James, Nick; Tordai, Tamas; Robert, Fidrich; Padovan, Stefano; Miyashita, Atsushi

2014-07-01

249

The kinetics of ER fusion protein activation in vivo  

E-print Network

by heating to 55 °C for 10min, diluted in autoclaved sunflower oil to give a final concentration of 10 mg/ml and stored at ? 20 °C until use. Before i.p. injection, tamoxifen in oil was warmed to 55 ° C for 10min. Dietary tamoxifen was delivered in Tam400/Cre... ER tamoxifen pellets (400 mg tamoxifen citrate per kg supplemented standard diet Global 2016 pellets), supplied by Harlan Teklad Europe, Boxmeer, The Netherlands. All procedures with animals were carried out in accordance with Home Office UK guidelines...

Wilson, Catherine H.; Gamper, Ivonne; Perfetto, Alessandra; Auw, Jeremy; Littlewood, Trevor D.; Evan, Gerard I.

2014-03-24

250

Er/Tm:fiber laser system for coherent Raman microscopy.  

PubMed

We present a novel architecture for a fiber-based hybrid laser system for coherent Raman microscopy, combining an amplified Er:fiber femtosecond oscillator with a Tm:fiber amplifier boosting the power of the 2-?m portion of a supercontinuum up to 300 mW. This is enough to obtain, by means of nonlinear spectral compression, sub-20-cm(-1) wide pump and Stokes pulses with 2500-3300??cm(-1) frequency detuning and average power at the 100-mW level. Application of this system to stimulated Raman scattering microscopy is discussed. PMID:24875984

Coluccelli, Nicola; Kumar, Vikas; Cassinerio, Marco; Galzerano, Gianluca; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio

2014-06-01

251

Interpretation of ERS-SAR images over urban surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary analysis of ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images collected over the Los Angeles basin (CA) are reported. The observations were performed in order to explore the applicability of microwave remote sensing to the study of the energy balance at the urban surface. Large variations of backscatter intensities were observed in the SAR images. The imaging anisotropies observed mask the variations of backscatter due to other processes, illustrating the difficulties of extracting quantitative information from SAR images of urban surfaces.

Dousset, Benedicte

1997-01-01

252

Completion report for well ER-3-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-3-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) at the Nevada Test Site. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling Program and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The well will become part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

253

Electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For giant pulse generation in the mid-infrared region LiNbO3 crystal with Brewster angle cut faces was inserted inside the Er:YAG laser oscillator and a specially designed driver ensured the precise time of Pockels cell switching. The optimization of the oscillator and Pockels cell driver parameters was performed to obtain the shortest (60 ns) and stable output pulse with maximum energy (60 mJ). It gives 1 MW output peak power. Laser output dependences on the resonator parameters (resonator length and output mirror reflexivity) were also performed and the output laser characteristics well corresponded to the theoretical calculation results.

Koranda, Petr; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Cech, Miroslav

2005-04-01

254

Acuminated fluorescence of Er3+ centres in endohedral fullerenes through the incarceration of a carbide cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements have allowed the acquisition of high resolution spectra at low temperature for the endohedral metallofullerenes, Er2 @C82 (isomer I) and Er2C2 @C82 (isomer I). The characteristic emission in the 1.5-1.6 ?m region corresponds to the 4I13/2 (m) ?4I15/2 (n) transitions of the Er3+ ion for both molecules. The emission arising from Er2C2 @C82 (I) appears acuminated (narrow lines that taper to a point) when compared with that of Er2 @C82 (I) . The Er2C2 @C82 (I) emission linewidths are comparable to those found in crystals, making this molecule of interest for applications where accessible, well-defined quantum states are required.

Plant, Simon R.; Dantelle, Géraldine; Ito, Yasuhiro; Ng, Tsz Cheong; Ardavan, Arzhang; Shinohara, Hisanori; Taylor, Robert A.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

2009-07-01

255

Synthesis of LiYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanoparticles and its fluorescence properties.  

PubMed

LiYbF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of multiple trifluoroacetic acid salts. The SEM and TEM results show the size of the LiYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles is about 100 nm in diagonal line, and the morphology of the LiYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles is highly uniform with octahedral structure. Under the excitation of 980 nm, the LiYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles have higher upconversion luminescence efficiency compared with that of NaYF4:Yb, Er. The results indicate that the as-prepared LiYbF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles may have potential applications in bio-probes and displays. PMID:24738451

Zhang, Liming; Wang, Zhixin; Lu, Zhuoxuan; Xia, Kai; Deng, Yan; Li, Song; Zhang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Yuanfu; He, Nongyue

2014-06-01

256

Photoablation on bovine cornea with a Q-switch Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoablation of ocular tissues can be performed with free running Er:lasers, but their application leads to significantly more thermal tissue damage than photoablation with ArF excimer lasers. This means a serious drawback to clinical investigations on treatments with Er:lasers. However, an essential reduction of the thermal damage zone is achieved by photoablation with a Q-switched Er:YAG laser (TEMoo, tp equals 100 nsec). Detailed results of our work on bovine cornea are presented.

Lasser, Theo; Ludwig, Karl; Lukashev, Alexei V.; Heymann, M.

1992-08-01

257

Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide  

E-print Network

Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide R. Lo containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869751] Er-doped Si nanoclusters embedded in a SiO2 matrix is a widely

258

Interaction of Frustrated Magnetic Sublattices in ErMnO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spontaneous or field induced ``hidden'' phase transition with antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic reordering is disclosed in multiply frustrated hexagonal ErMnO3. It is revealed by Faraday rotation and second harmonic generation as sublattice-sensitive probes to the Er and Mn systems. The acquired phase diagram in the magnetic-field-temperature plane is shown to be a consequence of a broken geometric frustration between the Er and

M. Fiebig; C. Degenhardt; R. V. Pisarev

2002-01-01

259

Intra-ER sorting of the peroxisomal membrane protein Pex3 relies on its luminal domain  

PubMed Central

Summary Pex3 is an evolutionarily conserved type III peroxisomal membrane protein required for peroxisome formation. It is inserted into the ER membrane and sorted via an ER subdomain (the peroxisomal ER, or pER) to peroxisomes. By constructing chimeras between Pex3 and the type III ER membrane protein Sec66, we have been able to separate the signals that mediate insertion of Pex3 into the ER from those that mediate sorting within the ER to the pER subdomain. The N-terminal 17-amino acid segment of Pex3 contains two signals that are each sufficient for sorting to the pER: a chimeric protein containing the N-terminal domain of Pex3 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of Sec66 sorts to the pER in wild type cells, and does not colocalise with peroxisomes. Subsequent transport to existing peroxisomes requires the Pex3 transmembrane segment. When expressed in Drosophila S2R+ cells, ScPex3 targeting to peroxisomes is dependent on the intra-ER sorting signals in the N-terminal segment. The N-terminal segments of both human and Drosophila Pex3 contain intra-ER sorting information and can replace that of ScPex3. Our analysis has uncovered the signals within Pex3 required for the various steps of its transport to peroxisomes. Our generation of versions of Pex3 that are blocked at each stage along its transport pathway provides a tool to dissect the mechanism, as well as the molecular machinery required at each step of the pathway. PMID:23951409

Fakieh, Mohammad H.; Drake, Peter J. M.; Lacey, Joanne; Munck, Joanne M.; Motley, Alison M.; Hettema, Ewald H.

2013-01-01

260

Gingival tissue healing following Er:YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats.  

PubMed

The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is currently used for periodontal soft tissue management with favorable outcomes. However, the process of wound healing after Er:YAG laser (ErL) treatment has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingival tissue healing after ErL ablation in comparison with that after electrosurgery (ElS). Gingival defects were created in 28 rats by ablation with ErL irradiation or ElS. The chronological changes in wound healing were evaluated using histological, histometrical, and immunohistochemical analyses. The ErL-ablated gingival tissue revealed much less thermal damage, compared to the ElS. In the ElS sites, the postoperative tissue destruction continued due to thermal damage, while in the ErL sites, tissue degradation was limited and the defects were re-epithelialized early. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72/73 expression was detected abundantly remote from the wound in the ElS, whereas it was slightly observed in close proximity to the wound in the ErL sites. Hsp47 expression was observed in the entire connective tissue early in the wound healing and was found limited in the wound area later. This phenomenon proceeded faster in the ErL sites than in the ElS sites. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) persisted in the epithelial tissue for a longer period in the ElS than that in the ErL. The ErL results in faster and more favorable gingival wound healing compared to the ElS, suggesting that the ErL is a safe and suitable tool for periodontal soft tissue management. PMID:24241972

Sawabe, Masanori; Aoki, Akira; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ogita, Mayumi; Izumi, Yuichi

2015-02-01

261

Light-emitting Si: Er structures prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy: Structural defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural defects in silicon layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and doped with erbium up to concentrations [Er] =\\u000a 4 1019 cm?3 are studied using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. It is established that the main\\u000a types of extended structural defects at erbium concentrations [Er] ? 2 1019 cm?3 are 4-to 25-nm Er spherical precipitates located at the

V. I. Vdovin; P. Verner; N. D. Zakharov; D. V. Denisov; N. A. Sobolev; V. M. Ustinov

2005-01-01

262

Luminescence enhancement by Au nanoparticles in Er(3+)-doped germano-silicate optical fiber.  

PubMed

We report on the fabrication of the Au nanoparticles/Er(3+) codoped germano-silicate fibers by modified chemical vapor deposition and solution doping processes. Absorption and luminescence characteristics of the Er(3+)-doped germano-silicate fibers incorporated with Au nanoparticles in the core of the fibers were investigated. The Au nanoparticles were found to be effective absorbents for hydroxyl groups to enhance the luminescence of Er(3+) ions upon pumping with the 980nm laser diode. PMID:19547194

Lin, Aoxiang; Boo, Seongjae; Moon, Dae S; Jeong, Hye J; Chung, Youngjoo; Han, Won-Taek

2007-07-01

263

LE CONSEIL D'ADMINISTRATION -ANNEXES Conseil d'administration au 1er  

E-print Network

DSFDME DRV DSS DEV SAJ SAS #12;58 LES UNIT�S DE RECHERCHE ET LES UNIT�S DE SERVICE au 1er juillet 200556 LE CONSEIL D'ADMINISTRATION - ANNEXES Conseil d'administration au 1er juillet 2005 Président;ORGANIGRAMME DES SERVICES CENTRAUXAU 1ER JUILLET 2005 CENTRES R�GIONAUX EN FRANCE REPR�SENTATIONS � L

264

Xenoestrogen action in breast cancer: impact on ER-dependent transcriptionand mitogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) inappropriately activate the estrogen receptor (ER) in the absence of endogenous ligand.\\u000a Given the importance of the ER in breast cancer growth and regulation, delineating the impact of these agents under conditions\\u000a related to tumor treatment is of significant importance. We examined the effect of two prevalent xenoestrogens (bisphenol\\u000a A and coumestrol) on ER activation and

J. K. Hess-Wilson; J. Boldison; K. E. Weaver; K. E. Knudsen

2006-01-01

265

Verification and Improvement of ERS-1/2 Altimeter Geophysical Data Records for Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Technical Report summarizes the research work conducted under NASA's Physical Oceanography Program entitled, Verification And Improvement Of ERS-112 Altimeter Geophysical Data Recorders For Global Change Studies, for the time period from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2000. This report also provides a summary of the investigation from July 1, 1997 - June 30, 2000. The primary objectives of this investigation include verification and improvement of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 radar altimeter geophysical data records for distribution of the data to the ESA-approved U.S. ERS-1/-2 investigators for global climate change studies. Specifically, the investigation is to verify and improve the ERS geophysical data record products by calibrating the instrument and assessing accuracy for the ERS-1/-2 orbital, geophysical, media, and instrument corrections. The purpose is to ensure that the consistency of constants, standards and algorithms with TOPEX/POSEIDON radar altimeter for global climate change studies such as the monitoring and interpretation of long-term sea level change. This investigation has provided the current best precise orbits, with the radial orbit accuracy for ERS-1 (Phases C-G) and ERS-2 estimated at the 3-5 cm rms level, an 30-fold improvement compared to the 1993 accuracy. We have finalized the production and verification of the value-added ERS-1 mission (Phases A, B, C, D, E, F, and G), in collaboration with JPL PODAAC and the University of Texas. Orbit and data verification and improvement of algorithms led to the best data product available to-date. ERS-2 altimeter data have been improved and we have been active on Envisat (2001 launch) GDR algorithm review and improvement. The data improvement of ERS-1 and ERS-2 led to improvement in the global mean sea surface, marine gravity anomaly and bathymetry models, and a study of Antarctica mass balance, which was published in Science in 1998.

Shum, C. K.

2000-01-01

266

Energy transfer between Sm 3+ and Er 3+ in orthophosphate YPO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy transfer between Sm3+ and Er3+ ions in yttrium orthophosphate is studied. This choice of ions is based on the possibility of quantum cutting processes and the host material is selected according to the position of the 5d bands of the Sm3+ ion. The Sm3+ and Er3+ doped and Sm3+, Er3+ co-doped YPO4 have been synthesized. Spectroscopic studies were

B. Moine; S. Hachani; M. Férid

2011-01-01

267

The Application of Survey in ER Wang Temple Restituting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

Shuai, W.; Rong, Z.

2013-07-01

268

Completion Report for Well ER-8-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

269

Completion Report for Well ER-2-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

270

Fractional Er:YAG laser and its application in dermatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional laser resurfacing technology is one of those medical advanced technologies. It has bridged the gap between ablative lasers and non-ablative lasers. Fractional laser resurfacing is a new laser skin treatment modality that creates numerous microscopic thermal injury zones with controlled width, depth and density. Those injury zones are surrounded by a reservoir of spared epidermal and dermal tissue that allow for rapid repair of laser-induced thermal injury. In this paper the ideal laser parameters, the damage depth and width, the relationship between the energy and the damage about fractional resurfacing and so on are analyzed. The results show: the Q-switch Er:YAG laser is an ideal lasers for fractional laser resurfacing, the dynamical equilibrium time of fractional resurfacing treating is depended on the energy, the damage area is only the evaporation zone with minimal residual heat, and the damage width and depth of the injury zone in fractional treating can be controlled precisely by the appropriate adjustment of the diameter, energy, pulse width and frequency of Er:YAG laser beam.

Fan, XiaoHong; Li, Zhengjia; Zhou, Hai; He, YanYan; Xia, HongXing

2008-12-01

271

Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the energy-transfer processes in Er3+: flouride glasses with doping concentrations of 0.2-18 mol % is presented. Fluorescence wave forms for 11 erbium transitions were measured under 802-nm, 1.5-?m, 975-nm, 520-nm, and 403-nm excitation from a high-energy short-pulse source. The analysis of these data provided a physical understanding of the processes responsible for the temporal behavior of the populations of a large number of energy levels. A comprehensive nine-level rate-equation model of the Er3+ population dynamics in these fluoride glasses is developed. The model performs well in predicting the observed fluorescence behavior of the main fluorescing lines under all pumping conditions. The modeling process allowed 14 ion-ion energy-transfer processes that are important for the population dynamics in these fluoride glasses to be identified and their rate constants obtained. Noticeably, the inclusion of seven three-ion processes was found necessary in order to obtain good fits to the experimental fluorescence wave forms. It was also found that some three-ion processes have a significant effect on the population dynamics of the levels even in lower doping concentrations.

Bogdanov, V. K.; Booth, D. J.; Gibbs, W. E.; Javorniczky, J. S.; Newman, P. J.; Macfarlane, D. R.

2001-05-01

272

Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 ?m diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

2004-06-01

273

Sar1 assembly regulates membrane constriction and ER export  

PubMed Central

The guanosine triphosphatase Sar1 controls the assembly and fission of COPII vesicles. Sar1 utilizes an amphipathic N-terminal helix as a wedge that inserts into outer membrane leaflets to induce vesicle neck constriction and control fission. We hypothesize that Sar1 organizes on membranes to control constriction as observed with fission proteins like dynamin. Sar1 activation led to membrane-dependent oligomerization that transformed giant unilamellar vesicles into small vesicles connected through highly constricted necks. In contrast, membrane tension provided through membrane attachment led to organization of Sar1 in ordered scaffolds that formed rigid, uniformly nonconstricted lipid tubules to suggest that Sar1 organization regulates membrane constriction. Sar1 organization required conserved residues located on a unique C-terminal loop. Mutations in this loop did not affect Sar1 activation or COPII recruitment and enhanced membrane constriction, yet inhibited Sar1 organization and procollagen transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sar1 activity was directed to liquid-disordered lipid phases. Thus, lipid-directed and tether-assisted Sar1 organization controls membrane constriction to regulate ER export. PMID:20624903

Long, Kimberly R.; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Baker, Adam L.; Watkins, Simon C.; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Conway, James F.

2010-01-01

274

The meteorological measurement system on the NASA ER-2 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was designed for the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft (NASA 706). Through dedicated instrumentation installed on the aircraft and repeated calibrations, the MMS provides accurate in situ measurements of free-stream pressure, temperature, and the wind vector. The MMS has participated in two major high-altitude scientific expeditions, the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) based in northern Australia and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) based in southern Chile. Key MMS subsystems are described. The MMS consists of a dedicated inertial navigation system (INS), a randome differential pressure system, a data acquisition system, and air data instrumentation. The MMS incorporates a high-resolution INS (Litton LIN-72RH model), which is specially configured and is updated at 25 Hz. The differential pressure system, consisting of two sets of pressure ports and transducers, is installed in the ER-2 radome to provide sensitive measurements of the airflow angles (angle of attack and angle of sideslip). The data acquisition system was designed to meet aircraft requirements of compactness and light weight (2 cu ft 50 lb) and for MMS requirements to sample, control, process, and store 45 parameters (some redundant) at a sampling rate up to 10 Hz. The MMS data are stored both in a tape recorder (20 MB) and a hermatically-sealed winchester hard disc (10 MB). Special and redundant instrumentation for temperature and pressure measurements were also installed on the aircraft.

Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Chan, K. Roland; Bowen, Stuart W.

1988-01-01

275

Regulation of ER-phagy by a Ypt/Rab GTPase module  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of misfolded proteins on intracellular membranes has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. One cellular pathway that clears such aggregates is endoplasmic reticulum autophagy (ER-phagy), a selective autophagy pathway that delivers excess ER to the lysosome for degradation. Not much is known about the regulation of ER-phagy. The conserved Ypt/Rab GTPases regulate all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. We recently showed that a Ypt module, consisting of Ypt1 and autophagy-specific upstream activator and downstream effector, regulates the onset of selective autophagy in yeast. Here we show that this module acts at the ER. Autophagy-specific mutations in its components cause accumulation of excess membrane proteins on aberrant ER structures and induction of ER stress. This accumulation is due to a block in transport of these membranes to the lysosome, where they are normally cleared. These findings establish a role for an autophagy-specific Ypt1 module in the regulation of ER-phagy. Moreover, because Ypt1 is a known key regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport, these findings establish a second role for Ypt1 at the ER. We therefore propose that individual Ypt/Rabs, in the context of distinct modules, can coordinate alternative trafficking steps from one cellular compartment to different destinations. PMID:23924895

Lipatova, Zhanna; Shah, Ankur H.; Kim, Jane J.; Mulholland, Jonathan W.; Segev, Nava

2013-01-01

276

Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO4 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous single phase ErCrO4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO4 undergoes a paramagneticantiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

Sundarayya, Y.; Kumar, K. Ashwini; Sondge, Rajesh; Srinath, S.; Kaul, S. N.

2014-04-01

277

ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension.  

PubMed

Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II-dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II-induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II-dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:23064361

Young, Colin N; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Pierce, Joseph P; Morgan, Donald A; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L; Davisson, Robin L

2012-11-01

278

Spin reorientation and the magnetocaloric effect in HoyEr(1-y)N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the magnetic and magnetocaloric effect calculations in rare earth mononitrides HoyEr(1-y)N (y = 0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1). The magnetic Hamiltonian includes the crystalline electrical field in both magnetic sublattices; disorder in exchange interactions among Ho-Ho, Er-Er, and Ho-Er magnetic ions and the Zeeman effect. The theoretical results for the magnetic entropy change and adiabatic temperature change are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Besides, ferrimagnetic arrangement, inverse magnetocaloric effect, and spin reorientation transition (spin flop process) were predicted and quantitatively described.

von Ranke, P. J.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Alho, B. P.; Nóbrega, E. P.; Ribeiro, P. O.; Carvalho, A. Magnus G.; de Sousa, V. S. R.; Caldas, A.; de Oliveira, N. A.

2012-06-01

279

Specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in epitaxial Si structures  

SciTech Connect

The specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy (SMBE) are studied. In Si:Er/Si diode structures containing precipitation-type emitting centers, a resonance photoresponse at the wavelength ? ? 1.5 ?m is observed, which is indicative of the nonradiative relaxation of Er3+ ions via the energy back-transfer mechanism. Saturation of the erbium-related photocurrent is for the first time observed at high temperatures. This allows estimation of the concentration of Er centers that undergo relaxation via the above-mentioned back-transfer mechanism (N{sub 0} ? 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3}). In terms of order of magnitude, the estimated concentration N{sub 0} corresponds to the concentration of optically active Er ions upon excitation of the Si:Er layers by means of the recombination mechanism. The features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er/Si structures with different types of emitting centers are analyzed.

Kudryavtsev, K. E., E-mail: konstantin@ipmras.ru; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15

280

ApoER2 processing by presenilin-1 modulates reelin expression.  

PubMed

The reelin signaling protein and its downstream components have been associated with synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. The reelin signaling pathway begins with the binding of reelin to the transmembrane lipoprotein receptor apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2), which in turns induces the sequential cleavage of ApoER2 by the sequential action of ?- and ?-secretases. Using conditional-knockout mice of the catalytic component of the ?-secretase complex, presenilin 1 (PS1), we demonstrated increased brain ApoER2 and reelin protein and transcript levels, with no changes in the number of reelin-positive cells. Using the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, we showed that ApoER2 processing occurs in the presence of PS1, producing an intracellular ApoER2 C-terminal fragment. In addition, the pharmacologic inhibition of ?-secretase in SH-SY5Y cells led to increased reelin levels. Overexpression of ApoER2 decreased reelin mRNA levels in these cells. A luciferase reporter gene assay and nuclear fractionation confirmed that increased amounts of intracellular fragment of ApoER2 suppressed reelin expression at a transcriptional level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated that the intracellular fragment of ApoER2 bound to the RELN promoter region. Our study suggests that PS1/?-secretase-dependent processing of the reelin receptor ApoER2 inhibits reelin expression and may regulate its signaling. PMID:24344333

Balmaceda, Valeria; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Pujadas, Lluis; García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Saura, Carlos A; Nimpf, Johannes; Soriano, Eduardo; Sáez-Valero, Javier

2014-04-01

281

Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

Sundarayya, Y., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Kumar, K. Ashwini, E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Sondge, Rajesh, E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Srinath, S., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com; Kaul, S. N., E-mail: srinaths10@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad - 500046 (India)

2014-04-24

282

Preparation and upconversion emission properties of TiO 2 :Yb, Er inverse opals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inverse opal photonic crystals of Y b 3+, Er 3+ co-doped TiO 2 (TiO 2:Yb, Er) were prepared by a self-assembly technique in combination with a sol-gel method. Upconversion (UC) luminescence properties of the inverse opals were investigated. The results show that photonic bandgap has significant influence on the upconversion emission of the TiO 2:Yb, Er inverse opal photonic crystals. Significant suppression of the upconversion emission was detected if the photonic bandgap overlapped with the Er 3+ ions emission band.

Yang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Kan; Song, Zhiguo; Zhou, Dacheng; Yin, Zhaoyi; Qiu, Jianbei

2011-03-01

283

Sex differences in spatiotemporal expression of AR, ER?, and ER? mRNA in the perinatal mouse brain.  

PubMed

It has been shown that every masculinized function might be organized by a particular contribution of androgens vs. estrogens in a critical time window. Here, we aimed to investigate the sex differences in brain testosterone levels and in the spatiotemporal dynamics of steroid receptor mRNA expression in perinatal mice, by using enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR, respectively. We found that testosterone levels in the forebrain transiently increased around birth in male mice. During the perinatal period, levels of androgen receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus (hypo) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were higher in male mice than in female mice. Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) mRNA levels in the hypo and hippocampus were higher in male mice than in female mice before birth. In contrast, ER? mRNA expression in the PFC was higher in female mice immediately after birth. These spatiotemporal sex differences in steroid receptor expression might contribute to organizing sex differences of not only reproductive function, but also anxiety, stress responses, and cognition in mice. PMID:25459284

Mogi, Kazutaka; Takanashi, Haruka; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

2015-01-01

284

ER? decreases breast cancer cell survival by regulating the IRE1/XBP-1 pathway.  

PubMed

Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive reaction that allows cancer cells to survive endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress that is often induced in the tumor microenvironment because of inadequate vascularization. Previous studies report an association between activation of the UPR and reduced sensitivity to antiestrogens and chemotherapeutics in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive and triple-negative breast cancers, respectively. ER? has been shown to regulate the expression of a key mediator of the EnR stress response, the X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1). Although network prediction models have associated ER? with the EnR stress response, its role as regulator of the UPR has not been experimentally tested. Here, upregulation of wild-type ER? (ER?1) or treatment with ER? agonists enhanced apoptosis in breast cancer cells in the presence of pharmacological inducers of EnR stress. Targeting the BCL-2 to the EnR of the ER?1-expressing cells prevented the apoptosis induced by EnR stress but not by non-EnR stress apoptotic stimuli indicating that ER?1 promotes EnR stress-regulated apoptosis. Downregulation of inositol-requiring kinase 1? (IRE1?) and decreased splicing of XBP-1 were associated with the decreased survival of the EnR-stressed ER?1-expressing cells. ER?1 was found to repress the IRE1 pathway of the UPR by inducing degradation of IRE1?. These results suggest that the ability of ER?1 to target the UPR may offer alternative treatment strategies for breast cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 October 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.343. PMID:25347741

Rajapaksa, G; Nikolos, F; Bado, I; Clarke, R; Gustafsson, J-Å; Thomas, C

2014-10-27

285

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica  

PubMed Central

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm?3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm?3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites. PMID:23336324

2013-01-01

286

Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Omoto, Y.; Humire, P. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)] [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, J.-A. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden) [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-08-10

287

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

1991-01-01

288

Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: II. Collinear components and ferrimagnetic compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements on an Fe64Er19B17 glass and polarized-beam neutron scattering measurements on Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 were described in part I. The finite spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using a sperimagnetic structure based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The temperature variation of the cross sections of Fe64Er19B17 suggested that a compensated sperimagnetic phase existed at Tcomp. The analysis of the non-spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections is described here in part II. Two spin-dependent total structure factors S±±(Q) were defined from these cross sections and, despite the limited range of the data 0.5 Å-1 < Q < 6.5 Å-1, their Fourier transform gave reliable spin-dependent radial distribution functions RDF±±(r). These were interpreted in terms of the atomic pair correlation functions {\\rho }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }(r) and their weighting factors {\\omega }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }. The data on Fe64Er19B17 at 1.5 K showed, for example, how the directions of the magnetic sublattices can be defined uniquely. The analysis of the RDF±±(r) for Fe64Er19B17 at 112 K confirmed that the mean collinear components of the magnetic moments \\langle {\\mu }_{{Er}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle , \\langle {\\mu }_{{Fe}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle are zero on both sublattices in the compensated sperimagnetic structure at Tcomp. The pre-peak in the spin-dependent total structure factors at 112 K showed that it originated in the atomic structure and it may involve Fe-Er-Fe ‘collineations’ at a radial distance of ?6.0 Å. Finally, the RDF±±(r) of Fe64Er19B17 at 180 K and of Fe78Er5B17 at 2 K show that both glasses have the (?Fe UP:?Er DOWN) structure like the (Fe,Tb)83B17 collinear ferrimagnets.

Cowlam, N.; Wildes, A. R.

2011-12-01

289

Golgi-to-Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Retrograde Traffic in Yeast Requires Dsl1p, a Component of the ER Target Site that Interacts with a COPI Coat Subunit  

PubMed Central

DSL1 was identified through its genetic interaction with SLY1, which encodes a t-SNARE-interacting protein that functions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi traffic. Conditional dsl1 mutants exhibit a block in ER-to-Golgi traffic at the restrictive temperature. Here, we show that dsl1 mutants are defective for retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, even under conditions where no anterograde transport block is evident. These results suggest that the primary function of Dsl1p may be in retrograde traffic, and that retrograde defects can lead to secondary defects in anterograde traffic. Dsl1p is an ER-localized peripheral membrane protein that can be extracted from the membrane in a multiprotein complex. Immunoisolation of the complex yielded Dsl1p and proteins of ?80 and ?55 kDa. The ?80-kDa protein has been identified as Tip20p, a protein that others have shown to exist in a tight complex with Sec20p, which is ?50 kDa. Both Sec20p and Tip20p function in retrograde Golgi-to-ER traffic, are ER-localized, and bind to the ER t-SNARE Ufe1p. These findings suggest that an ER-localized complex of Dsl1p, Sec20p, and Tip20p functions in retrograde traffic, perhaps upstream of a Sly1p/Ufe1p complex. Last, we show that Dsl1p interacts with the ?-subunit of the retrograde COPI coat, Ret2p, and discuss possible roles for this interaction. PMID:11739780

Reilly, Barbara A.; Kraynack, Bryan A.; VanRheenen, Susan M.; Waters, M. Gerard

2001-01-01

290

Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

1990-01-01

291

Apical Extrusion of Root Canal Irrigants When Using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Lasers with Optical Fibers: An In Vitro Dye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the potential for irritant reactions in the periapical region, irrigant solutions must be constrained within the root canal. We examined fluid extrusion beyond the apical constriction by pressure waves generated by pulsed middle infrared lasers using needles and Max-I-Probes (Dentsply) as controls. Both free-running pulsed Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) and Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG)

Roy George; Laurence J. Walsh

2008-01-01

292

Crystal and molecular structure of the coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coordination compounds of Er3+ with 1-(methoxydiphenylphosphoryl)-2-diphenylphosphorylbenzene [Er L {2/1}(NO3)2]2[Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]0.333(NO3)2.333 · 2.833H2O ( I) and its ethyl substituted derivative [Er L {2/2}(NO3)2][Er(NO3)5]0.5 · 0.5H2O ( II) are synthesized and their crystal structures are studied. I and II contain [Er L 2(NO3)2]+ complex cations of identical composition and close structure. The eight-vertex polyhedron of the Er atom in the shape of a distorted octahedron with two split trans vertices is formed by the O atoms of the phosphoryl groups of L ligands and nitrate anions. L ligands close nine-membered metallocycles. The structures contain spacious channels which are populated differently, namely, by disordered [Er(NO3)2(H2O)5]+ complex cations, NO{3/-} anions, and crystallization water molecules in I and disordered [Er(NO3)5]2- complex anions and crystallization water molecules in II. The IR spectra of I and II are studied.

Polyakova, I. N.; Baulin, V. E.; Ivanova, I. S.; Pyatova, E. N.; Sergienko, V. S.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

2015-01-01

293

ASF Design Considerations for Radarsat/ERS-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the requirements and the design considerations of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ground data system for the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska in Fairbanks (UAF) for the new era of Radarsat/ERS-2 missions. These include a new data acquisition planning capability to manage more satellites with global planning and to manage more than one instrument mode; a new archive strategy that is cheaper, faster, and better; a product generation system to produce data on demand and to produce data for the varied instruments and modes; and a product verification ability for the new and old products. In response to these new functional requirements, JPL is using a design approach that emphasizes an open systems, client/server architecture based on industry standards and commercial off-the-shelf technology.

Cuddy, D.; Bicknell, T.; Tankenson, M.

1994-01-01

294

An updated period analysis for ER Orionis: A definitive solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated period analysis for the overcontact eclipsing binary ER Orionis is presented. Featured is an improved derivation of parameters for the light time effect (LTE) due to the third star (in actuality, a pair of stars) utilising the latest set of eclipse timings. The very good fit between the eclipse timing differences (ETD) plot (otherwise known as an O-C diagram) and the theoretical ETD curve makes possible an improved determination of the rate of mass interchange between the binary pair, dm1/dt = +1.83(6) × 10-7 M?/year. In addition, the mass of the companion system (in actuality, m3 sin i) and the elements of its orbit were computed. A suggestion is made for a method of future determination of the inclination of the orbit of the companion system.

Nelson, Robert H.

2015-01-01

295

Development status of the ERS-1 SAR antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10 m x 1 m planar array antenna for the ERS-1 satellite is described. It features metallized CFRP waveguides as radiating elements and feeding network components, CFRP sandwich reinforcements of the mechanical panels, a deployable truss structure, and mechanism for launch fixation, release, and deployment. Mechanical design of the antenna structure towards satisfactory dynamic properties in launch configuration within the narrow constraints of mass, volume, and mechanical loads; structural analysis of the stowed and deployment antenna, to determine dynamic properties, internal loads, and deformations; and design of the hold down and release mechanism arrangement of six hinged clamps for launch fixation, to be released via a system of springs and cables by a pyrotechnic device, are reviewed.

Wagner, R.; Luhmann, H. J.; Sippel, R.; Westphal, M.

1986-08-01

296

The Meteorological Measurement System on the NASA ER-2 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was designed and installed on one of the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft (NASA 706). The MMS provides in situ measurements of free-stream pressure (+ or - 0.3 mb), temperature (+ or - 0.3 C), and wind vector (+ or - 1 m/s). It incorporates a high-resolution inertial navigation system specially configured for scientific applications, a radome differential pressure system for measurements of the airflow angles, and a compact, computer-controlled data acquisition system to sample, process and store 45 variables on tape and on disk. The MMS hardware and software development is described, and resolution and accuracy of the instrumentation discussed. Custom software facilitates preflight system checkout, inflight data acquisition, and fast postflight data download. It accommodates various modes of MMS data: analog and digital, serial and parallel, and synchronous and asynchronous. Flight results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the system.

Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Chan, K. Roland; Bowen, Stuart W.

1990-01-01

297

FINAL REPORT DOE/ER/63705-1  

SciTech Connect

Our DOE project is one of the efforts that comprised the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program [VTMX] of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy and was supported originally by DOE grant ER 62847. The Advanced Regional Prediction System [ARPS] computer code was used to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. This continuation grant was designed to allow us to complete our work on VTMX. The primary outcome of this grant was the completion of the dissertation of Dr. Ying Chen. In that work, several turbulence models were tested, a new surface vegetation model was developed, and Weather Research and Forecast code simulations were compared with ARPS runs.

R.L. Street; F.L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

2005-10-31

298

Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-? and ER-?) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-? and ER-?) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-? expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-? expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-? expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (? and ?) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus. PMID:23279498

Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

2012-12-01

299

Growth, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Er3+-Doped and Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 Crystals  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er3+-doped and Er3+/Yb3+-codoped Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystals. The Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 56 mm×28 mm×9 mm and Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal with dimensions of 52 mm×24 mm×8 mm were obtained by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. Thermal expansion coefficients and thermal conductivity of both crystals were measured. The spectroscopic characterizations of both crystals were investigated. The spectroscopic analysis reveals that the Er3+/Yb3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal has much better optical properties than the Er3+: Li3Ba2La3(WO4)8 crystal, thus it may become a potential candidate for solid-state laser gain medium material. PMID:22808214

Xiao, Bin; Lin, Zhoubin; Zhang, Lizhen; Huang, Yisheng; Wang, Guofu

2012-01-01

300

Optically active centers in Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures containing Er{sup 3+} ions  

SciTech Connect

The basic types of optically active erbium centers that make the major contribution to the photo-luminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content from 10 to 30% are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the origin of the optically active centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions correlates with the molar composition of the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer and the content of oxygen impurity in the layer. The major contribution to the photoluminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content below 25% is made by the well-known centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions and oxygen. An increase in the Ge content in the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer (x {>=} 25%) yields the formation of a new type of centers, specifically, the Gecontaining optically active erbium centers unobserved in the Si-based structures previously.

Krasilnikova, L. V., E-mail: Luda@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Strepikhova, M. V.; Baidakova, N. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chalkov, V. Yu.; Shengurov, V. G. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Research Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

301

ERdj4 Protein Is a Soluble Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) DnaJ Family Protein That Interacts with ER-associated Degradation Machinery*  

PubMed Central

Protein localization within cells regulates accessibility for interactions with co-factors and substrates. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) BiP co-factor ERdj4 is up-regulated by ER stress and has been implicated in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of multiple unfolded secretory proteins. Several other ERdj family members tend to interact selectively with nascent proteins, presumably because those ERdj proteins associate with the Sec61 translocon that facilitates entry of nascent proteins into the ER. How ERdj4 selects and targets terminally misfolded proteins for destruction remains poorly understood. In this study, we determined properties of ERdj4 that might aid in this function. ERdj4 was reported to retain its signal sequence and to be resistant to mild detergent extraction, suggesting that it was an integral membrane protein. However, live cell photobleaching analyses of GFP-tagged ERdj4 revealed that the protein exhibits diffusion coefficients uncommonly high for an ER integral membrane protein and more similar to the mobility of a soluble luminal protein. Biochemical characterization established that the ERdj4 signal sequence is cleaved to yield a soluble protein. Importantly, we found that both endogenous and overexpressed ERdj4 associate with the integral membrane protein, Derlin-1. Our findings now directly link ERdj4 to the ERAD machinery and suggest a model in which ERjd4 could help recruit clients from throughout the ER to ERAD sites. PMID:22267725

Lai, Chunwei Walter; Otero, Joel H.; Hendershot, Linda M.; Snapp, Erik

2012-01-01

302

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

Townsend, M.J.

2000-12-01

303

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

304

Performance analysis of nanocluster-Si sensitized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using  

E-print Network

Performance analysis of nanocluster-Si sensitized Er-doped waveguide amplifier using top-pumped 470, "Optical gain at 1.54um in erbium-doped silicon nanocluster sensitized waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-um emission

Park, Namkyoo

305

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218.40 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age....

2011-04-01

306

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218.44 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age....

2010-04-01

307

20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. 218.44 Section 218.44 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.44 When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age....

2011-04-01

308

20 CFR 218.40 - When a widow(er) annuity ends.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false When a widow(er) annuity ends. 218.40 Section 218.40 Employees...BEGINNING AND ENDING DATES When an Annuity Ends § 218.40 When a widow(er) annuity ends. (a) Entitlement based on age....

2010-04-01

309

Characterization and effectiveness of ER fluids: an attempt to unify methods and criteria  

E-print Network

. & (1) 11th Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions IOP PublishingCharacterization and effectiveness of ER fluids: an attempt to unify methods and criteria Q Guegan concerns a proposal to define a way to evaluate the effectiveness of ER fluids. After recalling the basic

Boyer, Edmond

310

Effects of ER?-specific antagonist on mouse preimplantation embryo development and zygotic genome activation.  

PubMed

Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is essential for normal development of mammalian preimplantation embryos. Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) has been implicated in early embryogenesis, and controls the expression of genes associated with proliferation, differentiation and development of cell and target organs via a genomic effect. The objective of this study was to determine whether ER? plays a role in early embryo development and affects ZGA gene expression. Toward this objective, 1-cell embryos from B6C3F1 mouse were cultured with the antiestrogen ICI182780, ER?-specific antagonist MPP, ER?-specific antibody and ER?-specific antagonist PHTPP. Development of 2-cell to 4-cell in vitro was significantly blocked by ICI182780, MPP and ER?-antibody treatment in a dose-dependent manner but not affected by PHTPP exposure. MPP decreased nuclear ER? protein levels and reduced mRNA expression levels of MuERV-L, one of the ZGA related genes. The results indicate that ER? has a functional role in early embryo development by regulation of ZGA-related genes. PMID:25263659

Zhang, Yanqin; Jiang, Yufei; Lian, Xiuli; Xu, Songhua; Wei, Jianen; Chu, Chenfeng; Wang, Shie

2015-01-01

311

Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ER? in the adult female rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182

Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

2013-02-01

312

Distribution and Posttranslational Modification of Synaptic ER? in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182

Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza

2013-01-01

313

ApoER2 Function in the Establishment and Maintenance of Retinal Synaptic Connectivity  

PubMed Central

The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of inner retinal circuitry are poorly understood. Reelin and apolipoprotein E (apoE), ligands of apoE receptor 2 (ApoER2), are involved in retinal development and degeneration, respectively. Here we describe the function of ApoER2 in the developing and adult retina. ApoER2 expression was highest during postnatal inner retinal synaptic development and was considerably lower in the mature retina. Both during development and in the adult ApoER2 was expressed by A-II amacrine cells. ApoER2 knockout (KO) mice had rod bipolar morphogenic defects, altered A-II amacrine dendritic development, and impaired rod-driven retinal responses. The presence of an intact ApoER2 NPxY motif, necessary for binding disabled-1 (Dab1) and transducing the Reelin signal, was also necessary for development of the rod bipolar pathway while the alternatively-spliced exon19 was not. Mice deficient in another Reelin receptor, very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), had normal rod bipolar morphology but altered A-II amacrine dendritic development. VLDLR KO mice also had reductions in oscillatory potentials and delayed synaptic response intervals. Interestingly, age-related reductions in rod and cone function were observed in both ApoER2 and VLDLR KOs. These results support a pivotal role for ApoER2 in the establishment and maintenance of normal retinal synaptic connectivity. PMID:21976526

Trotter, Justin H.; Klein, Martin; Jinwal, Umesh K.; Abisambra, Jose F.; Dickey, Chad A.; Tharkur, Jeremy; Masiulis, Irene; Ding, Jindong; Locke, Kirstin G.; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Birch, David G.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Herz, Joachim

2011-01-01

314

Survival of Er(a+) red cells in a patient with allo-anti-Era  

SciTech Connect

/sup 51/Chromium-labeled Er(a+) red cells survived nearly normally (T1/2 of 21 days) in a patient with allo-anti-Era. Transfusion of Er(a+) blood was without significant reaction and did not affect the anti-Era titer.

Thompson, H.W.; Skradski, K.J.; Thoreson, J.R.; Polesky, H.F.

1985-03-01

315

Enhanced killing of chemo-resistant breast cancer cells via controlled aggravation of ER stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response system exerts anti-apoptotic function and supports tumor cell survival and chemoresistance, whereas its more severe aggravation may exceed the protective capacity of this system and turn on its pro-apoptotic module. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of two pharmacologic agents with known ability to trigger ER stress via different

Hee-Yeon Cho; Simmy Thomas; Encouse B. Golden; Kevin J. Gaffney; Florence M. Hofman; Thomas C. Chen; Stan G. Louie; Nicos A. Petasis; Axel H. Schönthal

2009-01-01

316

A Hands-On Approach to Teaching Protein Translation & Translocation into the ER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of protein translation and translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can often be challenging for introductory college biology students to visualize. To help them understand how proteins become oriented in the ER membrane, I developed a hands-on activity in which students use Play-Doh to simulate the process of protein…

LaBonte, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

317

Enhanced luminescence in Er3+ -doped chalcogenide glass-ceramics based on selenium  

E-print Network

Enhanced luminescence in Er3+ -doped chalcogenide glass-ceramics based on selenium Mathieu Huberta doped glass-ceramics transparent in the infrared region up to 16 µm have been prepared and studied in a selenium- based glass-ceramic having a composition of 80GeSe2-20Ga2Se3+1000 ppm Er. The optical

Boyer, Edmond

318

Mice expressing GFP and CreER in osteochondro progenitor cells in the periosteum  

E-print Network

GFP CreER Tamoxifen Osteochondro progenitor Fracture healing a b s t r a c t We generated Prx1CreER-GFP transgenic mice that express tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and GFP under the control of a 2.4 kb Prx1

319

SURFACE FEATURES OF THE CIRCULATION IN FJORDS OF SOUTHERN CHILE OBSERVED IN ERS AND LANDSAT IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface features of the hydrodynamics at the mouth of Aysen Fjord, in the Chilean Inland Sea, were described using Landsat and ERS-SAR images in combination with field data. A set of seventeen radar images from ERS, along with one Landsat (ETM) were analyzed to study the surface features observed in this region, where fresh water input is an important contributor

Mario Cáceres

2004-01-01

320

Preparation, Structure, and Electrical Properties of Ca1- x Er x MnO3 Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the electrical properties of modified CaMnO3 powders, we synthesized Ca1- x Er x MnO3 (CEM) (0 ? x ? 0.3) powders by sol-gel autocombustion technology. The effects of the Er-doping concentration on the structure and electrical properties of the powders were studied. The results show that Er-doping can decrease the resistivity of the CEM powders effectively and the variation of the resistivity presents a typical V-type with increasing Er-doping concentration. The resistivity reaches the lowest point of 0.5258 ? m at x = 0.25. Meanwhile, the Ca0.75Er0.25MnO3 powder showed good frequency stability and higher conductivity at high temperatures. x-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and valence analysis illustrate that the grain size and average valence of the Mn ions, which relate to the resistivity of the CEM powders, are affected by the Er-doping concentration. When x = 0.25, the average valence of the Mn ions reaches the lowest point of 3.576. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrates that higher Er-doping concentration leads to smaller grain size in the CEM powders. Er-doping restrains the growth of the powder particles while decreasing the porosity and increasing the unit cell volume, resulting in improvement of the electrical properties of the modified powders.

Li, Yunjiao; Hao, Sue; Xia, Xue; Xu, Jialin; Du, Xin; Fang, Siyu; Meng, Xianwei

2013-04-01

321

Are entangled particles connected by wormholes? Evidence for the ER =EPR conjecture from entropy inequalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If spacetime is built out of quantum bits, does the shape of space depend on how the bits are entangled? The ER =EPR conjecture relates the entanglement entropy of a collection of black holes to the cross sectional area of Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges (or wormholes) connecting them. We show that the geometrical entropy of classical ER bridges satisfies the subadditivity, triangle, strong subadditivity, and Cadney-Linden-Winter inequalities. These are nontrivial properties of entanglement entropy, so this is evidence for ER =EPR. We further show that the entanglement entropy associated with classical ER bridges has nonpositive tripartite information. This is not a property of entanglement entropy, in general. For example, the entangled four qubit pure state |GHZ4?=(|0000?+|1111?)/?2 has positive tripartite information, so this state cannot be described by a classical ER bridge. Large black holes with massive amounts of entanglement between them can fail to have a classical ER bridge if they are built out of |GHZ4? states. States with nonpositive tripartite information are called monogamous. We conclude that classical ER bridges require monogamous EPR correlations.

Gharibyan, Hrant; Penna, Robert F.

2014-03-01

322

Towards epitaxial growth of ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films on Si substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films were obtained by the self-organization process at above 1200 °C so far. We are studying on the epitaxial growth of ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films on Si substrates with views to reducing the process temperature and controlling the superstructures with layer by layer. In this paper, metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) growth of ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films on 15° off Si(1 0 0) substrates at 900 °C are demonstrated. Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) and 2,2,6,6-tetra methyl-3,5-octane dionat erbium (Er(TMOD) 3) were used as Si-O and Er-O precursors, respectively. The X-ray diffraction result indicates the crystallization under lower temperature than the self-organization. The PL fine structure of Er-related emissions originated from the crystalline nature was observed in the as-grown ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films at room temperature. Also we discuss the possibility of hetero epitaxial growth of ErSiO nanostructured crystalline films on off-oriented Si(1 0 0) substrates from the results.

Isshiki, H.; Masaki, K.; Ueda, K.; Tateishi, K.; Kimura, T.

2006-05-01

323

A System for Measuring Function Points from an ER-DFD Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tool for measuring the Function Point software metric from the specification of a software system expressed in the form of an Entity Relationship diagram plus a Data Flow Diagram (ER-DFD). First, the informal and general Function Point counting rules are translated into rigorous rules expressing properties of the ER-DFD. Then, the rigorous rules are

Evelina Lamma; Paola Mello; Fabrizio Riguzzi

2004-01-01

324

Tank 241ER311 Interconnected Piping and Equipment Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained from piping, equipment, or facilities connected to tank 241-ER-311. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the effects of the argon purge gas added to tank 241-ER-311. Vapor samples will be taken in

1999-01-01

325

The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation.  

PubMed

How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER. PMID:25287301

Schwarz, Dianne S; Blower, Michael D

2014-10-13

326

Monodisperse upconversion GdF3:Yb, Er rhombi by microwave-assisted synthesis  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a variety of monodisperse colloidal GdF3:Yb, Er upconversion nanocrystals with different shape, size, and dopants by microwave-assisted synthesis. Typical upconversion emission from Er3+ was observed. In addition to highly monodisperse spherical particles, we were able to prepare monodispersed rhombic-shaped slices that showed a tendency for self-assembly into stacks. PMID:21711769

2011-01-01

327

Mutant SOD1 inhibits ER-Golgi transport in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase is misfolded in familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but it is not clear how this triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or other pathogenic processes. Here, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) is predominantly found in the cytoplasm in neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show that mSOD1 inhibits secretory protein transport from the ER to Golgi apparatus. ER-Golgi transport is linked to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation and axonal transport and we also show that inhibition of ER-Golgi trafficking preceded ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, protein aggregation and apoptosis in cells expressing mSOD1. Restoration of ER-Golgi transport by over-expression of coatomer coat protein II subunit Sar1 protected against inclusion formation and apoptosis, thus linking dysfunction in ER-Golgi transport to cellular pathology. These findings thus link several cellular events in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis into a single mechanism occurring early in mSOD1 expressing cells. PMID:24134191

Atkin, Julie D; Farg, Manal A; Soo, Kai Ying; Walker, Adam K; Halloran, Mark; Turner, Bradley J; Nagley, Phillip; Horne, Malcolm K

2014-04-01

328

Growth factor stimulation induces a distinct ER(alpha) cistrome underlying breast cancer endocrine resistance.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression in breast cancer is predictive of response to endocrine therapy; however, resistance is common in ER?-positive tumors that overexpress the growth factor receptor ERBB2. Even in the absence of estrogen, ER? can be activated by growth factors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF induces a transcriptional program distinct from estrogen; however, the mechanism of the stimulus-specific response is unknown. Here we show that the EGF-induced ER? genomic targets, its cistromes, are distinct from those induced by estrogen in a process dependent on the transcription factor AP-1. The EGF-induced ER? cistrome specifically regulates genes found overexpressed in ERBB2-positive human breast cancers. This provides a potential molecular explanation for the endocrine therapy resistance seen in ER?-positive breast cancers that overexpress ERBB2. These results suggest a central role for ER? in hormone-refractory breast tumors dependent on growth factor pathway activation and favors the development of therapeutic strategies completely antagonizing ER?, as opposed to blocking its estrogen responsiveness alone. PMID:20889718

Lupien, Mathieu; Meyer, Clifford A; Bailey, Shannon T; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Cook, Jennifer; Westerling, Thomas; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Carroll, Jason S; Rhodes, Daniel R; Liu, X Shirley; Brown, Myles

2010-10-01

329

Ice Discrimination using ERS scatterometer Siebren de Haan and Ad Stoffelen  

E-print Network

Ice Discrimination using ERS scatterometer Siebren de Haan and Ad Stoffelen 18 September 2001 Results 13 4 Ice Discrimination 16 4.1 Ice Discrimination Algorithm in ERS scatterometer measurements. The objective is to find an improved discrimination of water and ice

Stoffelen, Ad

330

Novel intronic promoter in the rat ER alpha gene responsible for the transient transcription of a variant receptor.  

PubMed

To analyze the molecular origin of an ER variant, the truncated ER product-1, transiently expressed at the proestrus in lactotrope cells, we generated a 2.5-kb sequence of a genomic region upstream and downstream the specific sequence truncated ER product-1. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that truncated ER product-1 is spliced from a noncoding leader exon localized within the intron 4 of the ER alpha gene. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of a major transcriptional start site, a canonical TATA box and putative cis regulatory elements for pituitary specific expression as well as an E-responsive element. In transient transfection, the truncated ER product-1 promoter was transcriptionally the most active in the lactotrope cell lines (MMQ). Analysis of truncated ER product-1 functionality showed that: 1) the protein inhibited ER alpha binding to the E-responsive element in electromobility shift assays, 2) inhibited the E2 binding to ER alpha in binding assays, 3) the truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex antagonized the transcriptional activity elicited by E2, 4) nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein-ER alpha was altered in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing truncated ER product-1. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the protein exerts full dominant negative activity against ER alpha. Moreover, truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex also repressed the activity of all promoters tested to date, suggesting a general inhibitory effect toward transcription. In conclusion, the data suggest that truncated ER product-1 could regulate estrogen signaling via a specific promoter in lactotrope cells. PMID:11517190

Tiffoche, C; Vaillant, C; Schausi, D; Thieulant, M L

2001-09-01

331

Optical activation of Si nanowires using Er-doped, sol-gel derived silica  

SciTech Connect

Optical activation of Si nanowires (Si-NWs) using sol-gel derived Er-doped silica is investigated. Si-NWs of about 100 nm diameter were grown on Si substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid method using Au catalysts and H{sub 2} diluted SiCl{sub 4}. Afterwards, Er-doped silica sol-gel solution was spin-coated, and annealed at 950 deg. C in flowing N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} environment. Such Er-doped silica/Si-NWs nanocomposite is found to combine the advantages of crystalline Si and silica to simultaneously achieve both high carrier-mediated excitation efficiency and high Er{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency while at the same time providing high areal density of Er{sup 3+} and easy current injection, indicating the possibility of developing sol-gel activated Si-NWs as a material platform for Si-based photonics.

Suh, Kiseok; Shin, Jung H.; Park, Oun-Ho; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Jung-Chul; Choi, Heon-Jin [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Materials Science and Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Yonsei, 120-74 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-01-31

332

Reversal of ER-? silencing by chromatin modifying agents overrides acquired tamoxifen resistance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying tamoxifen resistance. We show here that ER-? is epigenetically silenced in a cell line with acquired tamoxifen resistance (MCF-7/TAM-R) and this could be reversed by 5-AZA-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) and trichostatin-A (TSA) pre-treatment. Subsequent treatment with 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT) induced ER-? nuclear translocation, upregulated pS2 and p21 levels and reduced cell viability. Transfection with an ER-? expression vector sensitized MCF-7/TAM-R cells to the growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of 4-OHT, indicating that ER-? re-expression alone is sufficient to restore sensitivity to tamoxifen. This novel finding reveals that ER-? is fundamental in overcoming acquired tamoxifen resistance and provides insights for new therapeutic protocols against breast cancer. PMID:23752064

Pitta, Chara A; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I

2013-09-01

333

Unique and conserved features of the plant ER-shaping GTPase RHD3  

PubMed Central

The architectural integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network depends on the function of membrane-associated dynamin-like GTPases that include metazoan atlastins, plant RHD3 and yeast Sey1p. The evidence that these proteins are sufficient to drive membrane fusion of reconstituted proteoliposomes, and that loss-of-function mutations lead to conspicuous ER shape defects indicates that atlastins, RHD3 and Sey1p promote ER membrane fusion. However, complementation experiments in reciprocal loss-of-function backgrounds have also suggested that RHD3 and Sey1p may be not functionally equivalent, supporting that ER fusion mechanisms may be not entirely conserved in eukaryotes. In this Letter, we provide a brief overview of the field as well as evidence that may explain the functional differences of the plant and yeast ER-shaping dynamin-like GTPases. PMID:24812592

Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

2014-01-01

334

Si nanoparticle - Er{sup 3+} coupling through contact in as-deposited nanostructured films.  

SciTech Connect

The efficient excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions through contact with Si nanoparticles (NPs) is demonstrated. A nanostructured doping process has been developed that leads to contact between Si NPs formed in situ and optically-active Er{sup 3+} ions embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This is achieved by independent and consecutive deposition of the dopants and matrix. The Si NP-Er{sup 3+} contact regime enhances the probability of efficient interaction due to the local spatial overlap of the electronic states of the Er{sup 3+} and of the Si NP exciton, enabling energy transfer by interband exciton recombination. This leads to up to 53% of the Er{sup 3+} ions being excited in as-deposited films.

Nunez-Sanchez, S.; Roque, P. M.; Serna, R.; Petford-Long, A. K. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Insti. de Optica, CSIC)

2011-04-11

335

ER contact sites define the position and timing of endosome fission.  

PubMed

Endocytic cargo and Rab GTPases are segregated to distinct domains of an endosome. These domains maintain their identity until they undergo fission to traffic cargo. It is not fully understood how segregation of cargo or Rab proteins is maintained along the continuous endosomal membrane or what machinery is required for fission. Endosomes form contact sites with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are maintained during trafficking. Here, we show that stable contacts form between the ER and endosome at constricted sorting domains, and free diffusion of cargo is limited at these positions. We demonstrate that the site of constriction and fission for early and late endosomes is spatially and temporally linked to contact sites with the ER. Lastly, we show that altering ER structure and dynamics reduces the efficiency of endosome fission. Together, these data reveal a surprising role for ER contact in defining the timing and position of endosome fission. PMID:25416943

Rowland, Ashley A; Chitwood, Patrick J; Phillips, Melissa J; Voeltz, Gia K

2014-11-20

336

Time response model of ER fluids for precision control of motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For improvement of control performance or new control demands of mechatronics devices using particle type ER fluids, it will be needed to further investigate a response time of the fluids. It is commonly said around 5-mili seconds, however, the formula structure of that delay has not been clear. This study aims to develop a functional damper (attenuators), that can control its viscous characteristics in real time using ER fluids as its working fluid. ER dampers are useful to accomplish high precision positioning not to prevent high speed movement of the motor. To realize the functional damper that can be manipulated according to situations or tasks, the modeling and control of ER fluids are necessary. This paper investigates time delay affects of ER fluids and makes an in-depth dynamic model of the fluid by utilizing simulation and experiment. The mathematical model has a dead-time and first ordered delays of the fluid and the high voltage amplifier for the fluid.

Koyanagi, Ken'ichi

2009-02-01

337

ER? upregulates Phd3 to ameliorate HIF-1 induced fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissue  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) promotes fibrosis and inflammation in adipose tissues, while estrogens and Estrogen Receptor ? (ER?) have the opposite effect. Here we identify an Estrogen Response Element (ERE) in the promoter of Phd3, which is a negative regulatory enzyme of HIF-1, and we demonstrate HIF-1? is ubiquitinated following 17-? estradiol (E2)/ER? mediated Phd3 transcription. Manipulating ER? in vivo increases Phd3 transcription and reduces HIF-1 activity, while addition of PHD3 ameliorates adipose tissue fibrosis and inflammation. Our findings outline a novel regulatory relationship between E2/ER?, PHD3 and HIF-1 in adipose tissues, providing a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of E2/ER? in adipose tissue. PMID:25161887

Kim, Min; Neinast, Michael D.; Frank, Aaron P.; Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Zehr, Jordan A.; Vishvanath, Lavanya; Morselli, Eugenia; Amelotte, Mason; Palmer, Biff F.; Gupta, Rana K.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Clegg, Deborah J.

2014-01-01

338

CCD Observations of ERS with the 60 cm Telescope at ASV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observations of extragalactic radio sources (ERS) which are possible in the optical domain and can be used to establish the link between the ICRF2 and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF). Our telescope of small aperture size (< 1 m) is located in the south of Serbia, near the town of Prokuplje, at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV) which belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB). It is a Cassegrain-type optical system (D=60 cm, F=600 cm) of equatorial mount. About 40 ERS, from ICRF2 list, were observed at ASV during 2011 and 2012. These observations are of importance to compare the ERS optical and radio positions (VLBI ones), and to investigate the relation between optical and radio reference frames. Also, they are useful to check the possibilities of the instrument. We observed ERS with the CCD Apogeee Alta U42. The observations, reduction and preliminary results of some ERS are presented here.

Damljanovic, G.; Milic, I. S.

2013-05-01

339

Comparison of crystal lattice changes caused by APE treatment of Er:LiNbO 3 and by localised Er doping into LiNbO 3 obtained by RBS-channeling and XRD analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium niobate containing erbium (Er:LiNbO 3), which is often used as non-linear optical material, was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)-channeling analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Er 3+ doping was done by both bulk doping and by localised doping. The studied samples were virgin Er:LiNbO 3 wafers, and annealed proton exchange (APE) treated wafers in order to increase the refractive index in the surface layer and to create the planar optical waveguides. Moreover, erbium ions were introduced into the surface of pure LiNbO 3 wafers by Er-moderate temperature localised doping. The APE:Er:LiNbO 3 samples showed modifications of the crystal lattice compared to the virgin Er:LiNbO 3; the Er localised doping samples even exhibited the tendency to form an amorphous surface layer in which the Er ions were incorporated.

Macková, Anna; Špirková, Jarmila; Nekvindová, Pavla; Salavcová, L.; Groetzschel, R.; Eichhorn, F.

2005-10-01

340

ER?-regulated Lipocalin 2 Expression in Adipose Tissue Links Obesity with Breast Cancer Progression.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with increased breast cancer (BrCA) incidence. Considering that inactivation of the estrogen receptor (ER)? promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in women and female mice, understanding the mechanisms and tissue-specific sites of ER? action to combat metabolic-related disease, including BrCA, is of clinical importance. To study the role of ER? in adipose tissue we generated fat-specific ER? knockout (FERKO) mice. Herein we show that ER? deletion increased adipocyte size, fat pad weight, and tissue expression and circulating levels of the secreted glycoprotein, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an adipokine previously associated with BrCA development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter studies showed that ER? binds the Lcn2 promoter to repress its expression. Since adipocytes constitute an important cell type of the breast microenvironment, we examined the impact of adipocyte ER? deletion on cancer cell behavior. Conditioned media (CM) from ER?-null adipocytes and media containing pure Lcn2 increased proliferation and migration of a sub-set of BrCA cells in culture. The proliferative and pro-migratory effects of ER?-deficient adipocyte CM on BrCA cells was reversed by Lcn2 deletion. BrCA cell responsiveness to exogenous Lcn2 was heightened in cell types where endogenous Lcn2 expression was minimal, but components of the Lcn2 signaling pathway were enriched, i.e. Lcn2-R (slc22a17) and 3-hydroxy butyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2). In breast tumor biopsies from women diagnosed with BrCA we found that BDH2 expression was positively associated with adiposity and circulating Lcn2 levels. Collectively these data suggest that reduction of ER? expression in adipose tissue promotes adiposity and is linked with the progression and severity of BrCA via increased adipocyte-specific Lcn2 production and enhanced tumor cell Lcn2 sensitivity. PMID:25468909

Drew, Brian G; Hamidi, Habib; Zhou, Zhenqi; Villanueva, Claudio J; Krum, Susan A; Calkin, Anna C; Parks, Brian W; Ribas, Vicent; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Phun, Jennifer; Daraei, Pedram; Christofk, Heather R; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Slamon, Dennis J; Hurvitz, Sara A; Hevener, Andrea L

2014-12-01

341

PUMA mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis in portal hypertensive gastropathy  

PubMed Central

Mucosal apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an essential pathological feature in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was identified as a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein that has an essential role in apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, whether PUMA is involved in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear, and whether PUMA induces PHG by mediating ER stress remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress apoptotic signaling. To identify whether PUMA is involved in PHG by mediating ER stress, gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in both PHG patients and PHG animal models using PUMA knockout (PUMA-KO) and PUMA wild-type (PUMA-WT) mice. The induction of PUMA expression and ER stress signaling were investigated, and the mechanisms of PUMA-mediated apoptosis were analyzed. GES-1 and SGC7901 cell lines were used to further identify whether PUMA-mediated apoptosis was induced by ER stress in vitro. Epithelial apoptosis and PUMA were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse PHG models. ER stress had a potent role in the induction of PUMA and apoptosis in PHG models, and the apoptosis was obviously attenuated in PUMA-KO mice. Although the targeted deletion of PUMA did not affect ER stress, mitochondrial apoptotic signaling was downregulated in mice. Meanwhile, PUMA knockdown significantly ameliorated ER stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in vitro. These results indicate that PUMA mediates ER stress-induced mucosal epithelial apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in PHG, and that PUMA is a potentially therapeutic target for PHG. PMID:24625987

Tan, S; Wei, X; Song, M; Tao, J; Yang, Y; Khatoon, S; Liu, H; Jiang, J; Wu, B

2014-01-01

342

Guanabenz Interferes with ER Stress and Exerts Protective Effects in Cardiac Myocytes  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. During ER stress, disruption of the complex of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A and catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 by the small molecule guanabenz (antihypertensive, ?2-adrenoceptor agonist) and subsequent inhibition of stress-induced dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) results in prolonged eIF2? phosphorylation, inhibition of protein synthesis and protection from ER stress. In this study we assessed whether guanabenz protects against ER stress in cardiac myocytes and affects the function of 3 dimensional engineered heart tissue (EHT). We utilized neonatal rat cardiac myocytes for the assessment of cell viability and activation of ER stress-signalling pathways and EHT for functional analysis. (i) Tunicamycin induced ER stress as measured by increased mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa, P-eIF2?, activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP homologous protein, and cell death. (ii) Guanabenz had no measurable effect alone, but antagonized the effects of tunicamycin on ER stress markers. (iii) Tunicamycin and other known inducers of ER stress (hydrogen peroxide, doxorubicin, thapsigargin) induced cardiac myocyte death, and this was antagonized by guanabenz in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. (iv) ER stressors also induced acute or delayed contractile dysfunction in spontaneously beating EHTs and this was, with the notable exception of relaxation deficits under thapsigargin, not significantly affected by guanabenz. The data confirm that guanabenz interferes with ER stress-signalling and has protective effects on cell survival. Data show for the first time that this concept extends to cardiac myocytes. The modest protection in EHTs points to more complex mechanisms of force regulation in intact functional heart muscle. PMID:24892553

Neuber, Christiane; Uebeler, June; Schulze, Thomas; Sotoud, Hannieh; El-Armouche, Ali; Eschenhagen, Thomas

2014-01-01

343

Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the spectroscopic properties of and energy transfer processes in Er-Tm co-doped bismuth silicate glass. The Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ and Tm3+ are calculated, and the similar values indicate that the local environments of these two kinds of rare earth ions are almost the same. When the samples are pumped at 980 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Tm:3F4 ? 3H6 to Er:4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 increases with increased Er3+ and Tm3+ contents, indicating energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4. When the samples are pumped at 800 nm, the emission intensity ratio of Er:4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 to Tm:3H4 ? 3F4 increases with increased Tm2O3 concentration, indicating energy transfer from Tm:3H4 to Er:4I13/2. The rate equations are given to explain the variations. The microscopic and macroscopic energy transfer parameters are calculated, and the values of energy transfer from Er:4I13/2 to Tm:3F4 are found to be higher than those of the other processes. For the Tm singly-doped glass pumped at 800 nm and Er-Tm co-doped glass pumped at 980 nm, the pumping rate needed to realize population reversion is calculated. The result shows that when the Er2O3 doping level is high, pumping the co-doped glass by a 980 nm laser is an effective way of obtaining a low-threshold ˜2 ?m gain.

Wang, Xin; Li, Zhilan; Li, Kefeng; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Jimeng; Hu, Lili

2013-10-01

344

Modulation of ER stress and apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum calcium leak via translocon during unfolded protein response: involvement of GRP78.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in many cellular functions, including protein folding and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The ability of cells to respond to the ER stress is critical for cell survival, and disruption in such regulation can lead to apoptosis. ER stress is accompanied by alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, and the ER Ca(2+) store depletion by itself can induce ER stress and apoptosis. Despite that, the ER Ca(2+) leak channels activated in response to the ER stress remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that ER Ca(2+) depletion during the ER stress occurs via translocon, the ER protein complex involved in translation. Numerous ER stress inducers stimulate the ER Ca(2+) leak that can be prevented by translocon inhibitor, anisomycin. Expression of GRP78, an ER stress marker, increased following treatment with puromycin (a translocon opener) and was suppressed by anisomycin, confirming a primary role of translocon in ER stress induction. Inhibition of ER store depletion by anisomycin significantly reduces apoptosis stimulated by the ER stress inducers. We suggest that translocon opening is physiologically modulated by GRP78, particularly during the ER stress. The ability to modulate the ER Ca(2+) permeability and subsequent ER stress can lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:23322163

Hammadi, Mehdi; Oulidi, Agathe; Gackière, Florian; Katsogiannou, Maria; Slomianny, Christian; Roudbaraki, Morad; Dewailly, Etienne; Delcourt, Philippe; Lepage, Gilbert; Lotteau, Sabine; Ducreux, Sylvie; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Van Coppenolle, Fabien

2013-04-01

345

Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser the thin line between gain and loss  

E-print Network

and lasers that can be pumped with low-power broadband light sources. Er excitation via Si nanocrystals must1 Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser ­ the thin line between gain

Polman, Albert

346

A robust classifier of high predictive value to identify good prognosis patients in ER negative breast cancer.  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction Patients with primary operable oestrogen receptor (ER) negative (-) breast cancer account for about 30% of all cases and generally have a worse prognosis than ER-positive (+) patients. Nevertheless, a significant proportion...

Teschendorff, Andrew E; Caldas, Carlos

2008-08-28

347

ER stress and unfolded protein response in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—a controversial role of protein disulphide isomerase  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of proteins in aberrant conformation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, dysfunctions in protein handling in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the following ER stress have been implicated in a vast number of diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). During excessive ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated to return ER to its normal physiological balance. The exact mechanisms of protein misfolding, accumulation and the following ER stress, which could lead to neurodegeneration, and the question whether UPR is a beneficial compensatory mechanism slowing down the neurodegenerative processes, are of interest. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is a disulphide bond-modulating ER chaperone, which can also facilitate the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins. In this review we discuss the recent findings of ER stress, UPR and especially the role of PDI in ALS. PMID:25520620

Jaronen, Merja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari

2014-01-01

348

ER?1 represses basal-like breast cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition by destabilizing EGFR  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with the basal-like breast cancer phenotypes. Sixty percent of basal-like cancers have been shown to express wild-type estrogen receptor beta (ER?1). However, it is still unclear whether the ER? expression is related to EMT, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. In the present study, we examined whether ER?1 through regulating EMT can influence invasion and metastasis in basal-like cancers. Methods Basal-like breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T), in which ER?1 was either overexpressed or down-regulated were analyzed for their ability to migrate and invade (wound-healing assay, matrigel-coated Transwell assay) as well as for the expression of EMT markers and components of the EGFR pathway (immunoblotting, RT-PCR). Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitylation assays were employed to examine whether ER?1 alters epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein degradation and the interaction between EGFR and the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. The metastatic potential of the ER?1-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells was evaluated in vivo in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model and the correlation between ER?1 and E-cadherin expression was examined in 208 clinical breast cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Results Here we show that ER?1 inhibits EMT and invasion in basal-like breast cancer cells when they grow either in vitro or in vivo in zebrafish. The inhibition of EMT correlates with an ER?1-mediated up-regulation of miR-200a/b/429 and the subsequent repression of ZEB1 and SIP1, which results in increased expression of E-cadherin. The positive correlation of ER?1 and E-cadherin expression was additionally observed in breast tumor samples. Down-regulation of the basal marker EGFR through stabilization of the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl complexes and subsequent ubiquitylation and degradation of the activated receptor is involved in the ER?1-mediated repression of EMT and induction of EGFR signaling abolished the ability of ER?1 to sustain the epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Taken together, the results of our study strengthen the association of ER?1 with the regulation of EMT and propose the receptor as a potential crucial marker in predicting metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:23158001

2012-01-01

349

Expression profiling on soybean leaves reveals integration of ER- and osmotic-stress pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the potential of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response to accommodate adaptive pathways, its integration with other environmental-induced responses is poorly understood in plants. We have previously demonstrated that the ER-stress sensor binding protein (BiP) from soybean exhibits an unusual response to drought. The members of the soybean BiP gene family are differentially regulated by osmotic stress and soybean BiP confers tolerance to drought. While these results may reflect crosstalk between the osmotic and ER-stress signaling pathways, the lack of mutants, transcriptional response profiles to stresses and genome sequence information of this relevant crop has limited our attempts to identify integrated networks between osmotic and ER stress-induced adaptive responses. As a fundamental step towards this goal, we performed global expression profiling on soybean leaves exposed to polyethylene glycol treatment (osmotic stress) or to ER stress inducers. Results The up-regulated stress-specific changes unmasked the major branches of the ER-stress response, which include enhancing protein folding and degradation in the ER, as well as specific osmotically regulated changes linked to cellular responses induced by dehydration. However, a small proportion (5.5%) of total up-regulated genes represented a shared response that seemed to integrate the two signaling pathways. These co-regulated genes were considered downstream targets based on similar induction kinetics and a synergistic response to the combination of osmotic- and ER-stress-inducing treatments. Genes in this integrated pathway with the strongest synergistic induction encoded proteins with diverse roles, such as plant-specific development and cell death (DCD) domain-containing proteins, an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) protein homolog and NAC domain-containing proteins. This integrated pathway diverged further from characterized specific branches of ER-stress as downstream targets were inversely regulated by osmotic stress. Conclusion The present ER-stress- and osmotic-stress-induced transcriptional studies demonstrate a clear predominance of stimulus-specific positive changes over shared responses on soybean leaves. This scenario indicates that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced cellular dehydration and ER stress elicited very different up-regulated responses within a 10-h stress treatment regime. In addition to identifying ER-stress and osmotic-stress-specific responses in soybean (Glycine max), our global expression-profiling analyses provided a list of candidate regulatory components, which may integrate the osmotic-stress and ER-stress signaling pathways in plants. PMID:18036212

Irsigler, André ST; Costa, Maximiller DL; Zhang, Ping; Reis, Pedro AB; Dewey, Ralph E; Boston, Rebecca S; Fontes, Elizabeth PB

2007-01-01

350

ER-? agonist induces conversion of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, while ER-? agonist increases ECM production and wound tensile strength of healing skin wounds in ovariectomised rats.  

PubMed

Oestrogen deprivation is one of the major factors responsible for many age-related processes, including poor wound healing in women. Previously, it has been shown that oestrogens have a modulatory effect in different wound-healing models. Therefore, in this study, the effect of selective oestrogen receptor (ER) agonists (PPT - ER-? agonist, DPN - ER-? agonist) on excisional and incisional wound-healing models was compared in ovariectomised rats in vivo as well as on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. In the in vivo study, 4 months after either ovariectomy or sham ovariectomy, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to two incisional and excisional wounds: (i) control - sham operated, vehicle-treated; (ii) ovariectomised, vehicle-treated; (iii) ovariectomised, PPT treated; (iv) ovariectomised, DPN treated. In the in vitro study, HDFs and HUVECs were used. After treatment with ER agonists, cells were processed for immunocytochemistry and gelatin zymography. Our study shows that stimulation of ER-? leads to the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, the formation of extracellular matrix was more prominent, and wound tensile strength (TS) was increased when ER-? was stimulated. In contrast, stimulation of ER-? led to a more prominent increase in the expression of MMP-2 and decrease in wound TS. New information is presented in this investigation concerning oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in different wound-healing models. This study demonstrates that the ERT should be both wound and receptor-type specific. PMID:21507066

Novotný, Martin; Vasilenko, Tomáš; Varinská, Lenka; Smetana, Karel; Szabo, Pavol; Sarišský, Marek; Dvo?ánková, Barbora; Mojžiš, Ján; Bobrov, Nikita; Toporcerová, Silvia; Sabol, Franitšek; Matthews, Bryan J O; Gál, Peter

2011-09-01

351

Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf2+ and Hf4+. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO2, HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 °C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power.

Zhang, H. Y.; He, H. J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhuge, L. J.; Ye, C.; Wu, X. M.

2015-01-01

352

The physiology functions of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in reproduction cycle of ovoviviparous black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revealed the expression pattern of ER? in the ovoviviparous teleost, Sebastes schlegeli. In this paper, we isolated the cDNA encoding for estrogen receptor alpha of black rockfish (S. schlegeli) from its ovary, named as black rockfish ER? (brfER?). The cDNA sequence of brfER? consists of 2972bp with an open reading frame encoding a 624 amino acid putative protein

Dan Shi; Hai S. Wen; Feng He; Ji F. Li; Yan P. Yang; Cai F. Chen; Jia R. Zhang; Xiao Y. Chen; Guo X. Jin; Bao Shi; Bao X. Qi; Na Li

353

20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).  

...2012-04-01 true Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er). ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.63 Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er)....

2014-04-01

354

20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er). ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.63 Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er)....

2011-04-01

355

20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er). ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.63 Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er)....

2010-04-01

356

20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-04-01 true Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er). ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.63 Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er)....

2013-04-01

357

20 CFR 216.63 - Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er). ...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ELIGIBILITY FOR AN ANNUITY Widow(er), Surviving Divorced...Annuities § 216.63 Who is eligible for an annuity as a remarried widow(er)....

2012-04-01

358

IX Draconis - a curious ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of an extensive worldwide observing campaign devoted to a very active dwarf nova star - IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic outburst properties and understand peculiarities of IX Draconis as well as other active cataclysmic variables, in particular dwarf novae of the ER UMa type. In order to measure fundamental parameters of the system, we carried out analyses of the light curve, O - C diagram, and power spectra. During over two months of observations, we detected two superoutbursts and several normal outbursts. The V magnitude of the star varied in the range 14.6-18.2 mag. Superoutbursts occur regularly with the supercycle length (Psc) of 58.5 ± 0.5 d. When analysing data over the past 20 years, we found that Psc is increasing at a rate of dot{P} = 1.8 × 10^{-3}. Normal outbursts appear to be irregular, with typical occurrence times in the range 3.1-4.1 d. We detected a double-peaked structure of superhumps during superoutburst, with the secondary maximum becoming dominant near the end of the superoutburst. The mean superhump period observed during superoutbursts is Psh = 0.066982(36) d (96.45 ± 0.05 min), which is constant over the last two decades of observations. Based on the power spectrum analysis, the evaluation of the orbital period was problematic. We found two possible values: the first one, 0.066 41(3) d (95.63 ± 0.04 min), which is in agreement with previous studies and our O - C analysis [0.06646(2) d, 95.70 ± 0.03 min], and the second one, 0.06482(3) d (93.34 ± 0.04 min), which is less likely. The evolutionary status of the object depends dramatically on the choice between these two values. A spectroscopic determination of the orbital period is needed. We updated available information on ER UMa-type stars and present a new set of their basic statistics. Thereby, we provide evidence that this class of stars is not uniform.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; B?kowska, K.

2013-02-01

359

Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15  

PubMed Central

SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1) Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl)-aminate (PMS) forming Er(PMS)x-SBA-15 and (2) Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 × 10?21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of “effective bandwidth” have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the Judd–Ofelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMS)x-SBA-15. PMID:21170408

2010-01-01

360

Live cell assays to identify regulators of ER to Golgi trafficking  

PubMed Central

We applied fluorescence microscopy based quantitative assays to living cells to identify regulators of ER to Golgi trafficking and/or Golgi complex maintenance. We first validated an automated procedure to identify factors, which influence Golgi to ER re-localization of GalT-CFP after brefeldin A (BFA) addition and/or wash-out. We then tested 14 proteins that localize to the ER and/or Golgi complex when over-expressed for a role in ER to Golgi trafficking. Nine of them interfered with the rate of BFA induced redistribution of GalT-CFP from the Golgi complex to the ER, 6 of them interfered with GalT-CFP redistribution from the ER to a juxtanuclear region (i.e., Golgi complex) after BFA wash-out, and 6 of them were positive effectors in both assays. Notably, our live cell approach captures regulator function in ER to Golgi trafficking, that were missed in previous fixed cell assays; as well as assigns putative roles for other less characterized proteins. Moreover, we show that our assays can be extended to RNAi and chemical screens. PMID:22132776

Lisauskas, Tautvydas; Matula, Petr; Claas, Christoph; Reusing, Susanne; Wiemann, Stefan; Erfle, Holger; Lehmann, Lars; Fischer, Peter; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl; Storrie, Brian; Starkuviene, Vytaute

2013-01-01

361

Unfolded protein response-induced ERdj3 secretion links ER stress to extracellular proteostasis.  

PubMed

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) indirectly regulates extracellular proteostasis through transcriptional remodeling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis pathways. This remodeling attenuates secretion of misfolded, aggregation-prone proteins during ER stress. Through these activities, the UPR has a critical role in preventing the extracellular protein aggregation associated with numerous human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that UPR activation also directly influences extracellular proteostasis through the upregulation and secretion of the ER HSP40 ERdj3/DNAJB11. Secreted ERdj3 binds misfolded proteins in the extracellular space, substoichiometrically inhibits protein aggregation, and attenuates proteotoxicity of disease-associated toxic prion protein. Moreover, ERdj3 can co-secrete with destabilized, aggregation-prone proteins in a stable complex under conditions where ER chaperoning capacity is overwhelmed, preemptively providing extracellular chaperoning of proteotoxic misfolded proteins that evade ER quality control. This regulated co-secretion of ERdj3 with misfolded clients directly links ER and extracellular proteostasis during conditions of ER stress. ERdj3 is, to our knowledge, the first metazoan chaperone whose secretion into the extracellular space is regulated by the UPR, revealing a new mechanism by which UPR activation regulates extracellular proteostasis. PMID:25361606

Genereux, Joseph C; Qu, Song; Zhou, Minghai; Ryno, Lisa M; Wang, Shiyu; Shoulders, Matthew D; Kaufman, Randal J; Lasmézas, Corinne I; Kelly, Jeffery W; Wiseman, R Luke

2015-01-01

362

PEX16 contributes to peroxisome maintenance by constantly trafficking PEX3 via the ER  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is required for the de novo biogenesis of peroxisomes in mammalian cells. However, its role in peroxisome maintenance is unclear. To explore ER involvement in the maintenance of peroxisomes, we redirect a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP), PEX3, to directly target to the ER using the N-terminal ER signal sequence from preprolactin. Using biochemical techniques and fluorescent imaging, we find that ER-targeting PEX3 (ssPEX3) is continuously imported into pre-existing peroxisomes. This suggests that the ER constitutively provides membrane proteins and associated lipids to pre-existing peroxisomes. Using quantitative time-lapse live-cell fluorescence microscopy applied to cells that were either depleted of or exogenously expressing PEX16, we find that PEX16 mediates the peroxisomal trafficking of two distinct peroxisomal membrane proteins, PEX3 and PMP34, via the ER. These results not only provide insight into peroxisome maintenance and PMP trafficking in mammalian cells but also highlight important similarities and differences in the mechanisms of PMP import between the mammalian and yeast systems. PMID:25002403

Aranovich, Alexander; Hua, Rong; Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Kim, Peter K.

2014-01-01

363

Sec16 influences transitional ER sites by regulating rather than organizing COPII  

PubMed Central

During the budding of coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles from transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER) sites, Sec16 has been proposed to play two distinct roles: negatively regulating COPII turnover and organizing COPII assembly at tER sites. We tested these ideas using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Redistribution of Sec16 to the cytosol accelerates tER dynamics, supporting a negative regulatory role for Sec16. To evaluate a possible COPII organization role, we dissected the functional regions of Sec16. The central conserved domain, which had been implicated in coordinating COPII assembly, is actually dispensable for normal tER structure. An upstream conserved region (UCR) localizes Sec16 to tER sites. The UCR binds COPII components, and removal of COPII from tER sites also removes Sec16, indicating that COPII recruits Sec16 rather than the other way around. We propose that Sec16 does not in fact organize COPII. Instead, regulation of COPII turnover can account for the influence of Sec16 on tER sites. PMID:24006484

Bharucha, Nike; Liu, Yang; Papanikou, Effrosyni; McMahon, Conor; Esaki, Masatoshi; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Glick, Benjamin S.

2013-01-01

364

p53 and Translation Attenuation Regulate Distinct Cell Cycle Checkpoints during Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress*  

PubMed Central

Cell cycle checkpoints ensure that proliferation occurs only under permissive conditions, but their role in linking nutrient availability to cell division is incompletely understood. Protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exquisitely sensitive to energy supply and amino acid sources because deficiencies impair luminal protein folding and consequently trigger ER stress signaling. Following ER stress, many cell types arrest within the G1 phase, although recent studies have identified a novel ER stress G2 checkpoint. Here, we report that ER stress affects cell cycle progression via two classes of signal: an early inhibition of protein synthesis leading to G2 delay involving CHK1 and a later induction of G1 arrest associated both with the induction of p53 target genes and loss of cyclin D1. We show that substitution of p53/47 for p53 impairs the ER stress G1 checkpoint, attenuates the recovery of protein translation, and impairs induction of NOXA, a mediator of cell death. We propose that cell cycle regulation in response to ER stress comprises redundant pathways invoked sequentially first to impair G2 progression prior to ultimate G1 arrest. PMID:23341460

Thomas, Sally E.; Malzer, Elke; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dalton, Lucy E.; van ?t Wout, Emily F. A.; Liniker, Elizabeth; Crowther, Damian C.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

2013-01-01

365

Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1) Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl)-aminate (PMS) forming Er(PMS)x-SBA-15 and (2) Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 × 10-21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of "effective bandwidth" have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the Judd-Ofelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMS)x-SBA-15.

Xue, Y. L.; Wu, P.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Lin, L.; Jiang, Q.

2010-12-01

366

ER? regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ER? and ER?, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ER? stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ER? inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ER? in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ER?. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ER? treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ER? group.

Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

2012-03-01

367

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits ER stress and renal fibrosis.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling. Therefore, modulation of ER stress may serve as one of the possible therapeutic approaches to renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed ER stress induced by chemical ER stress inducers [tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG)] and also nonchemical inducers in tubular HK-2 cells. We further investigated the in vivo effects of AMPK on ER stress and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, small interfering (si)RNA experiments, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed TM- or TG-induced ER stress, as shown by the inhibition of TM- or TG-induced upregulation of glucose-related protein (GRP)78 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2? through induction of heme oxygenase-1. Metformin inhibited TM- or TG-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions as well. Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) blocked the effect of metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1? riboside (another AMPK activator) exerted the same effects as metformin. Transfection with siRNA targeting AMPK blocked the effect of metformin. Consistent with the results of cell culture experiments, metformin reduced renal cortical GRP78 expression and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in a mouse model of ER stress-induced acute kidney injury by TM. Activation of AMPK also suppressed ER stress by transforming growth factor-?, ANG II, aldosterone, and high glucose. Furthermore, metformin reduced GRP78 expression and renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, AMPK may serve as a promising therapeutic target through reducing ER stress and renal fibrosis. PMID:25428127

Kim, Hyosang; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Joon-Seok; Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Miyeon; Min, Ji Yeon; Lee, Sang Koo

2015-02-01

368

PBX1 genomic pioneer function drives ER? signaling underlying progression in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ER?-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ER? in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ER? recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ER?-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ER?-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ER?-positive breast tumors, as it guides ER? genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu

2011-11-01

369

Maintenance of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Homeostasis in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Cells through the Association of a Viral Glycoprotein with PERK, a Cellular ER Stress Sensor?  

PubMed Central

In the efforts of viruses to dominate and control critical cellular pathways, viruses generate considerable intracellular stress within their hosts. In particular, the capacity of resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones to properly process the acute increase in client protein load is significantly challenged. Such alterations typically induce the unfolded protein response, one component of which acts through IRE1 to restore ER homeostasis by expanding the folding capabilities, whereas the other arm activates the eIF-2? (? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2) kinase PERK to transiently arrest production of new polypeptide clientele. Viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), however, go to great lengths to prevent the inhibition of translation resulting from eIF-2? phosphorylation. Here, we establish that PERK, but not IRE1, resists activation by acute ER stress in HSV-1-infected cells. This requires the ER luminal domain of PERK, which associates with the viral glycoprotein gB. Strikingly, gB regulates viral protein accumulation in a PERK-dependent manner. This is the first description of a virus-encoded PERK-specific effector and defines a new strategy by which viruses are able to maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:17229688

Mulvey, Matthew; Arias, Carolina; Mohr, Ian

2007-01-01

370

Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) and Negative (ER-) Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining) and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples. PMID:22773931

Semaan, Suzan M.; Wang, Xu; Marshall, Alan G.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

2012-01-01

371

Completion Report for Well ER-7-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

372

Crystal field and magnetic properties of ErH3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) times 10 to the minus 6 Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is of the order of 160 to 180 K.

Flood, D. J.

1977-01-01

373

An update on increasing ER violence and what's being done about it.  

PubMed

Violent incidents in the hospital emergency room are increasing in intensity throughout the country, endangering the lives of the medical staff, security officers, patients, and visitors. Much of the violence is attributed to the spread of gang and drug activity, along with overcrowded, understaffed ERs due to a depressed economy. This report covers recent incidents of ER violence and the public demands of ER physicians and nurses for increased security. We will also detail security measures--from training in the psychology of violence to installing state-of-the-art metal detectors--that hospitals are now utilizing as deterrents. PMID:10121340

1992-07-01

374

Fowler-Nordheim hole tunneling in metal-Er2O3-silicon structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling of holes in metal-Er2O3-Si structures is confirmed. The effective mass of holes in Er2O3 films is estimated ranging from 0.068m to 0.092m, where m is the free electron mass. The film shows a high breakdown electric field of about 70MV/cm for an Er2O3 film thickness of 8.5nm, implying that the film which is epitaxially grown on Si substrate has smooth interface and surface.

Zhu, Y. Y.; Fang, Z. B.; Chen, S.; Liao, C.; Wu, Y. Q.; Fan, Y. L.; Jiang, Z. M.

2007-09-01

375

Power scaling of resonantly pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though Yb-doped fiber lasers are known to be the most powerful and most efficient among all fiber lasers, recent successes in the eye-safe ~1.5?m Yb-Er-doped fiber lasers (where Er is excited through Yb-Er energy transfer) are quite impressive. Output power of Yb-Er fiber lasers reached ~300 W level and their optical-to-optical efficiency, for somewhat lower power levels, is exceeding 40% [2]. Nevertheless, as far as real eye safety is concerned, multi-hundred Watt Yb-Er fiber lasers typically carry in their output a significant fraction of competing 1-?m Yb emission, which totally compromises an eye-safe side of the application. Ultimate efficiency and thermal management of Yb-Er approach are also suffering due to: (i), inefficiency of Yb-Er energy transfer and, (ii), gigantic ~40% quantum defect of Er-doped fiber pumped at 9XX-nm. Presented here are very recent and successful results on power scaling of resonantly pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers. We are reporting an Ybfree Er-doped cladding-pumped fiber power scaling to ~50 W with ~57% optical-tooptical efficiency [6] in a few first experimental steps. This is clear manifestation of scaling potential of this most efficient approach to high power eye-safe fiber laser. The only competing approach to scalable eye-safe fiber laser implements Tm3+-doped fibers pumped at ~790 nm while relying on well known "2-for-1" process leading to quite efficient excitation of the ~2?m Tm3+ laser operation [4]. This approach has operational optical-to-optical efficiency quantum limit of ~75% [4], while resonantly pumped Ybfree Er-doped fiber laser's optical-to-optical efficiency quantum limit exceeds 95% due to its low-quantum-defect (QD) pump-lase scheme. Significant scaling potential of resonantly-pumped Yb-free Er-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers sets a path to an eye-safe fiber laser concept with drastically relaxed thermal management and nearly diffraction limited beam quality at ~kW-=-class power levels as well as high electrical to optical efficiency.

Dubinskii, M.; Zhang, J.; Ter-Mikirtychev, V.

2009-05-01

376

Selective emission and luminescence of Er2O3 under intense laser excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of Er2O3 polycrystals synthesised by laser heating is studied. The synthesis of erbium silicate (Er2SiO5) layers was observed upon interaction of Er2O3 and SiO2 melts. The dependences of the selective emission (SE) and luminescence spectra of Er2O3 polycrystals in the range 200 - 1700 nm on the intensity of laser-thermal (at the wavelength ? = 10.6 ?m) and resonant laser (? ? 975 nm) excitation are investigated. The emission of heated Er2O3 polycrystals arises as a result of multiphonon relaxation of absorbed energy and is a superposition of the SE at the electronic-vibrational transitions of Er3+ ions and the thermal radiation of the crystal lattice. The shape of the SE spectra of Er2O3 polycrystals in the range 400 - 1700 nm almost does not change upon laser-thermal heating from 300 to 1500 K and subsequent cooling and corresponds to the absorption spectra of Er3+ ions. With increasing temperature, the thermal radiation intensity increases faster than the SE intensity, and the shape of the Er2O3 spectrum becomes closer to the calculated spectrum of a blackbody. The anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of Er3+ ions formed under intense laser excitation of the 4I11/2 level are explained by additional SE caused by heating of the crystal matrix due to the Stokes losses. A difference between the SE and luminescence spectra is observed at low intensities of resonant laser excitation and low temperatures, when only the Stokes luminescence occurs. The temperature dependences of the SE and luminescence spectra of Er2O3 upon laser excitation testify to the fundamental role played by the interaction of the electronic f-shell of Er3+ ions with crystal lattice vibrations in the processes of multiphonon radiative and nonradiative relaxation. The laser-thermal synthesis is promising for inprocess variation of the chemical composition of rare-earth samples.

Marchenko, V. M.; Iskhakova, L. D.; Studenikin, M. I.

2013-09-01

377

Effect of ultrasmall Au-Ag aggregates formed by ion implantation in Er-implanted silica on the 1.54 ?m Er3+ luminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple implantations of Au and Ag ions in pure silica and Er-doped silica matrices have been performed to promote the formation of small Au-Ag alloy clusters. Upon annealing in N2 atmosphere at 600 °C the structural investigation based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Au L3-edge detected for both cases the formation of Au-Ag alloy clusters, whose size is likely below 1 nm. The alloy composition is rich in Au; a minor part of Au atoms remains dispersed into the matrix and oxidized. In the Er-doped silica, the presence of these small alloy aggregates promotes a strong enhancement of the Er3+ luminescence at 1.54 ?m, that is more marked with respect to similarly produced layers where only pure Au sub-nanometer clusters were present.

Maurizio, C.; Cesca, T.; Trapananti, A.; Kalinic, B.; Scian, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Battaglin, G.; Mattei, G.

2014-05-01

378

Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: I. Moment values and non-collinear components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements have been made on a Fe64Er19B17 glass, which exhibits ferrimagnetic compensation at Tcomp = 112 K, and polarized beam neutron scattering measurements have been made on Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 glasses to supplement the measurements made earlier on Fe64Er19B17. The magnetization data were analysed with a phenomenological model, to find the magnetic moments and their components needed to interpret the neutron data. Four spin-dependent scattering cross-sections were obtained in absolute units from each neutron experiment, to determine the atomic-scale magnetic structures of the two glasses. The finite spin-flip cross-sections confirmed that these (Fe,Er)83B17 glasses are non-collinear ferrimagnets. The cross-sections were calculated using a model based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The moment values and the random cone angles were refined in the calculations, which produced good agreement between the calculated curves and the experimental data. The forward limit of the spin-flip cross-sections |??±?/??|Q=0 of the Fe64Er19B17 glass which peaked at Tcomp and the temperature variation of the total scattering amplitudes (b?p?(Q)) suggested that the random cone angles open fully so that the collinear components p?(Q) tend to zero at Tcomp. The ferrimagnetic compensation is therefore characterized by an equality of the magnetic sublattices; the reversal of the magnetic structure and a compensated sperimagnetic phase which appears at Tcomp.

Wildes, A. R.; Cowlam, N.

2011-12-01

379

Flavonoids from Herba epimedii selectively activate estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and stimulate ER-dependent osteoblastic functions in UMR-106 cells.  

PubMed

Total flavonoids in Herba epimedii (HEP) have been demonstrated to protect against bone loss and bone deterioration associated with estrogen deficiency without exerting any uterotrophic effects. However, it is unclear how flavonoids in HEP exert their protective effects on bone and if different flavonoids exert estrogenic actions in bone cells via similar mechanism of actions. The present study aims to investigate the bone anabolic effects of four major flavonoids isolated from HEP, namely icariin, baohuoside-I, epimedin B and sagittatoside A as well as the mechanism involved in mediating their estrogenic actions in rat osteoblastic-like UMR-106 cells. All tested compounds significantly stimulated the cell proliferation rate, alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression in UMR-106 cells and their effects could be abolished by co-incubation with 10(-6)M ICI 182,780. None of the flavonoids exhibited binding affinities toward ER? and ER?. However, sagittatoside A selectively activated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity via ER?. In addition, icariin and sagittatoside A induced ER? phosphorylation at serine 118 residue. Taken together, our results indicated that all four flavonoids from HEP stimulated ER-dependent osteoblastic functions in UMR-106 cells, but only two of them appeared to exert their actions by ligand-independent activation of ER?. Our study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the estrogen-like protective effects on bone by flavonoids are mediated via mechanisms that are distinct from the classical actions of estrogen. PMID:24607839

Xiao, Hui-Hui; Fung, Chung-Yan; Mok, Sao-King; Wong, Ka-Chun; Ho, Ming-Xian; Wang, Xin-Luan; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

2014-09-01

380

Reduction of the 1.55 µm Er3+ emission band half-width in Er doped and Er/Yb co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier papers the authors have shown by XRD measurements and HRTEM imaging/SAED (selected area electron diffraction)/STEM imaging/EDS X-ray spectra that erbium or erbium/ytterbium-enriched nano-crystals are formed in erbium doped and erbium/ytterbium co-doped oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics fibers by their controlled heat-treatment. By the analysis of XRD, HRTEM and SAED patterns three crystalline compounds have been identified (Pb5Al3F19, Er4F2O11Si3, Er3FO10Si3). Additionally, STEM imaging combined with EDS X-ray analysis revealed higher erbium/ytterbium content in nano-crystals than in glassy host. According to several reports on homogeneous/inhomogeneous broadening of emission lines we can expect in glass-ceramics material the distinct reduction of the 1.55 ?m Er3+ linewidth (FWHM) as a consequence of structurally ordered (crystalline) vicinity of erbium ions in glass-ceramics fibers. Additionally the Stark splitting of Er3+ ions sub-levels should be observed due to the crystalline electric field surrounding the erbium ion, which lifts the atomic state degeneracy, however identified crystals possess rather low symmetry (monoclinic or triclinic unit cell).

Augustyn, E.; ?elechower, M.; Czerska, E.; ?widerska, M.; Soza?ska, M.

2014-05-01

381

Histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 reactivates silenced estrogen receptor alpha (ER) gene expression without loss of DNA hypermethylation.  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by trichostatin A reactivates estrogen receptor alpha (ER) gene expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Here, we use the clinically relevant HDAC inhibitor, LBH589 (LBH) to explore the roles of HDAC in ER gene silencing. In the ER-negative human breast cancer lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, treatment with LBH for 24 hours restored ER mRNA and protein expression without a concomitant demethylation of the CpG island at the ER promoter. The expression of ER mRNA was sustained at least 96 hours after withdrawal of LBH treatment. Restoration of ER expression by LBH enhanced 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The molecular mechanisms by which LBH reactivated silenced ER gene in MDA-MB-231 cells were examined with emphasis on chromatin structure reorganization. By chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, LBH treatment released DNMT1, HDAC1, and the H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9) methyltransferase SUV39H 1 from the ER promoter. Such changes were associated with an active chromatin formation manifested as accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4, a decrease in methylated H3-K9, and an impaired binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 alpha) at the promoter. Our findings suggest that HDAC inhibitors could restore expression of the silenced ER gene by reorganizing the heterochromatin-associated proteins without alteration in promoter DNA hypermethylation. PMID:17172825

Zhou, Qun; Atadja, Peter; Davidson, Nancy E

2007-01-01

382

Robust wavelength-locked narrow-linewidth Er-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally show and report on a high-slope-efficiency, wavelength-locked, narrow-linewidth operation in a resonantly diode-pumped Er-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:Y3Al5O12, Er:YAG) laser by using a volume Bragg grating (VBG) as a wavelength selector and an input mirror simultaneously. In this wavelength-locked operation, a maximum output power of 6.5 W at 1645 nm was achieved, which corresponds to a maximum slope efficiency of 105% with respect to the incident power. The small fluctuation of the lasing spectrum demonstrates good stability, with a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.06 nm at the center wavelength. This result shows potential applications of the VBG for high-efficiency, wavelength-locked, narrow-linewidth, and highly stable Er:YAG lasers.

Tang, Pinghua; Liu, Jun; Xu, Changwen; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

2015-01-01

383

Teens, Young Adults Most Likely to Go to ER After Car Accidents  

MedlinePLUS

... MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Health Disparities Motor Vehicle Safety FRIDAY, Jan. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- In ... hospital ER with injuries suffered in a motor vehicle accident. Race was another factor that raised the ...

384

Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay detects ER? recruitment to gene specific promoters in uterus  

PubMed Central

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique allows detection of proteins that bind to chromatin. While this technique has been applied extensively in cell-based studies, its tissue-based application remains poorly explored. We are specifically interested in examining estrogen-dependent transcriptional mechanism in respect of recruitment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?), a ligand-activated transcription factor, to uterine gene promoters in mice. Recent gene-array studies, utilizing ER? knock-out vs. wild-type mice, have revealed that estrogen regulates numerous uterine genes temporally and most importantly via ER? during the phase-II response, including three well characterized genes viz., lactoferrin (Ltf), progesterone receptor (Pgr) and cyclinD1 (Ccnd1). Here, utilizing systematic ChIP studies, we demonstrate endogenous recruitment of ER? to above uterine gene promoters following estradiol-17? (E2) injection in mice. PMID:17033697

Ray, Sanhita

2006-01-01

385

Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped Er2O3 nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er2-xCoxO3 (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.10, 0.30, 0.4) solutions were synthesized by the sol-gel technique using erbium 2,4 pentadionate and cobalt acetylacetonate dissolved in methanol and acetyl acetone. The various obtained Co-doped Er2O3 nanoparticles were annealed at 900 °C to find a doping effect on the structural and magnetic properties. The crystal structures and morphology of the Co-doped Er2O3 nanoparticles were characterized using 2?-? X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). ESR spectra of Er2-xCoxO3 nanoparticles were collected at room temperature with a Bruker EMX model X-band spectrometer at a frequency of 9.5 GHz.

Arda, L.; Acikgoz, M.; Aktas, Y.; Cakiroglu, O.; Dogan, N.

2015-01-01

386

Similarities and differences in structure, expression, and functions of VLDLR and ApoER2  

PubMed Central

Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR) and Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 (ApoER2) are important receptors in the brain for mediating the signaling effects of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin, affecting neuronal function in development and in the adult brain. VLDLR and ApoER2 are members of the low density lipoprotein family, which also mediates the effects of numerous other extracellular ligands, including apolipoprotein E. Although VLDLR and ApoER2 are highly homologous, they differ in a number of ways, including structural differences, expression patterns, alternative splicing, and binding of extracellular and intracellular proteins. This review aims to summarize important aspects of VLDLR and ApoER2 that may account for interesting recent findings that highlight the unique functions of each receptor. PMID:21554715

2011-01-01

387

ER stress cooperates with hypernutrition to trigger TNF-dependent spontaneous HCC development.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), disorders that increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To determine whether and how ER stress contributes to obesity-driven hepatic tumorigenesis we fed wild-type (WT) and MUP-uPA mice, in which hepatocyte ER stress is induced by plasminogen activator expression, with high-fat diet. Although both strains were equally insulin resistant, the MUP-uPA mice exhibited more liver damage, more immune infiltration, and increased lipogenesis and, as a result, displayed classical NASH signs and developed typical steatohepatitic HCC. Both NASH and HCC development were dependent on TNF produced by inflammatory macrophages that accumulate in the MUP-uPA liver in response to hepatocyte ER stress. PMID:25132496

Nakagawa, Hayato; Umemura, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Koji; Font-Burgada, Joan; Dhar, Debanjan; Ogata, Hisanobu; Zhong, Zhenyu; Valasek, Mark A; Seki, Ekihiro; Hidalgo, Juan; Koike, Kazuhiko; Kaufman, Randal J; Karin, Michael

2014-09-01

388

Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space.

NGUYEN, D.M.

1999-11-05

389

Sampling and Analysis Plan for Catch Tank 241ER311 Vapor  

SciTech Connect

This tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) identifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) objectives for the characterization of catch tank 241-ER-311 vapor space.

NGUYEN, D.M.

1999-11-09

390

Investigation of upconversion and near infrared emission properties in CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals.  

PubMed

The upconversion emission of rare earth ions can be modified in photonic crystals, however, the influence of upconversion emission modification of rare earths on near infrared emission has not been investigated yet in the photonic crystals. In the paper, CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals with the photonic band gaps at 545, 680 and 450 nm were prepared by polystyrene colloidal crystal templates. The upconversion and the near infrared emission properties of Er³? ions were systematically investigated in the CeO?: Er³?, Yb³? inverse opals. Comparing with the reference sample, significant suppression of both the green and red upconversion luminescence of Er³? ions were observed in the inverse opals. It is interesting that the infrared emission located at 1,560 nm was enhanced due to inhibition of upconversion emission in the inverse opals. Additionally, mechanism of upconversion emission of the inverse opal was discussed. The photon avalanche upconversion process is observed. PMID:24104110

Wu, Hangjun; Yang, Zhengwen; Liao, Jiayan; Lai, Shenfeng; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Dacheng; Yin, Zhaoyi

2013-09-23

391

Membrane Permeability Transition and Dysfunction of Rice Mitochondria Effected by Er(III).  

PubMed

Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT. PMID:25249020

Gao, Jia-Ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

2015-02-01

392

Arctic geodynamics: Continental shelf and deep ocean geophysics. ERS-1 satellite altimetry: A first look  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall review of the Arctic Geodynamics project is presented. A composite gravity field model of the region based upon altimetry data from ERS-1, Geosat, and Seasat is made. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 deg. Both areas contain large continental shelf areas, passive margins, as well as recently formed deep ocean areas. Until ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents sea, portions of the Arctic ocean, and the Norwegian sea north of Iceland are shown. The gravity anomalies around Svalbard (Spitsbergen) and Bear island are particularly large, indicating large isostatic anomalies which remain from the recent breakup of Greenland from Scandinavian. Recently released gravity data from the Armed Forces Topographic Service of Russia cover a portion of the Barents and Kara seas. A comparison of this data with the ERS-1 produced gravity field is shown.

Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.; Marquart, Gabriele; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

1993-01-01

393

D M E The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and  

E-print Network

D M E S S The Effect of Shock Waves Movement on Flu er and SelfOscilla ons of an Elas c purpose of this project is the inves ga on of the effect of changes in the loca on of a shock wave on flu. The crea on of the methodology for researching flu er boundaries of an airplane and parameters limit cycle

Barthelat, Francois

394

Dynamic properties of an ER fluid under shear and flow modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the field-dependent Bingham and response characteristics of an electro-rheological(ER) fluid under shear and flow modes. Two different types of electroviscometers are designed and manufactured for the shear mode and the flow mode, respectively. An ER fluid consisting of soluble chemical starches (particles) and silicone oil is made and its field-dependent yield stress is experimentally distilled at two

Ho-Guen Lee; Seung-Bok Choi

2002-01-01

395

ERS\\/SAR data application for Russian boreal forests mapping and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed at assessing ERS\\/SAR data application for Russian forests mapping and monitoring. Implementation of this task includes assessment of ERS\\/SAR data benefits for discrimination of forest-covered areas, territory classification by land and forest types. The choice of the SAR sensor is substantiated by its well-known advantages, such as independence of cloud cover and sensitivity to humidity, volume

Viktoria V. Dontchenko; Ola M. Johannessen; Leonid P. Bobylev; Sergey A. Bartalev

1999-01-01

396

The Signal Sequence Influences Post-Translational ER Translocation at Distinct Stages  

PubMed Central

The metazoan Sec61 translocon transports polypeptides into and across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum via two major routes, a well-established co-translational pathway and a post-translational alternative. We have used two model substrates to explore the elements of a secretory protein precursor that preferentially direct it towards a co- or post-translational pathway for ER translocation. Having first determined the capacity of precursors to enter ER derived microsomes post-translationally, we then exploited semi-permeabilized mammalian cells specifically depleted of key membrane components using siRNA to address their contribution to the membrane translocation process. These studies suggest precursor chain length is a key factor in the post-translational translocation at the mammalian ER, and identify Sec62 and Sec63 as important components acting on this route. This role for Sec62 and Sec63 is independent of the signal sequence that delivers the precursor to the ER. However, the signal sequence can influence the subsequent membrane translocation process, conferring sensitivity to a small molecule inhibitor and dictating reliance on the molecular chaperone BiP. Our data support a model where secretory protein precursors that fail to engage the signal recognition particle, for example because they are short, are delivered to the ER membrane via a distinct route that is dependent upon both Sec62 and Sec63. Although this requirement for Sec62 and Sec63 is unaffected by the specific signal sequence that delivers a precursor to the ER, this region can influence subsequent events, including both Sec61 mediated transport and the importance of BiP for membrane translocation. Taken together, our data suggest that an ER signal sequence can regulate specific aspects of Sec61 mediated membrane translocation at a stage following Sec62/Sec63 dependent ER delivery. PMID:24130708

Theis, Melanie; Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C.; Zimmermann, Richard; High, Stephen

2013-01-01

397

Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films  

SciTech Connect

The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54??m has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000?°C in two atmospheres, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, have been investigated. It was found that only in O{sub 2} the Bi{sup 3+} valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi{sup 0} metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O{sub 2}. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi{sup 3+} absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488?nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54??m has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54??m.

Scarangella, Adriana [MATIS-IMM CNR, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Miritello, Maria, E-mail: maria.miritello@ct.infn.it [MATIS-IMM CNR, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Priolo, Francesco [MATIS-IMM CNR, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Scuola Superiore di Catania, Università di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 9, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2014-09-28

398

Nitrogen-ion-implanted planar optical waveguides in Er-doped tellurite glass: fabrication and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabrication of channel waveguides in Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glasses was recently demonstrated. In order to get a deeper understanding of the process and to optimize the characteristics of the waveguides, we fabricated a set of planar waveguides, each of 7 mm × 7 mm lateral dimensions, in an Er-doped tellurite glass sample by implantation of 1.5 MeV nitrogen ions. Doses of

I. Bányász; S. Berneschi; I. Cacciari; M. Fried; T. Lohner; G. Nunzi-Conti; F. Pászti; S. Pelli; P. Petrik; G. C. Righini; A. Watterich; Z. Zolnai

2008-01-01

399

ER -Allergy Page 1 of 14 7/18/2008 Revised version Allergy  

E-print Network

ER - Allergy Page 1 of 14 7/18/2008 Revised version ­ Allergy Total serum IgE levels are associated correlated with total IgE levels. inserm-00323945,version1-23Sep2008 Author manuscript, published in "Allergy 2009;64(1):40-6" DOI : 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01800.x #12;ER - Allergy Page 2 of 14 7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Decay studies of 215-217Th using ER gamma- alpha- gamma coincidences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decay of 215-217Th was investigated by ER-gamma-alpha-gamma coincidence measurements. The nuclei were produced by the reaction 170Er(50Ti, xn)220-xTh. Evaporation residues recoiling out of the target were separated in flight by the velocity filter SHIP and stopped in a position-sensitive 16-strip PIPS-detector in order to study their subsequent decays. Associated gamma-rays were detected by a fourfold Ge-Clover detector. In the

P. Kuusiniemi; F. P. Heßberger; D. Ackermann; S. Hofmann; B. Sulignano; I. Kojouharov; R. Mann

2005-01-01

401

TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have found that TLR9 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Because there is no precedent for immune receptor signaling in the ER, we investigated how TLR9 is activated. We show that CpG DNA binds directly to TLR9 in ligand-binding studies.

Eicke Latz; Annett Schoenemeyer; Alberto Visintin; Katherine A Fitzgerald; Brian G Monks; Cathrine F Knetter; Egil Lien; Nadra J Nilsen; Terje Espevik; Douglas T Golenbock

2004-01-01

402

ER stress response induced by the production of human IL-7 in rice endosperm cells.  

PubMed

Rice seed has been used as a production platform for high value recombinant proteins. When mature human interleukin 7 (hIL-7) was expressed as a secretory protein in rice endosperm by ligating the N terminal glutelin signal peptide and the C terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal to the hIL-7 cytokine to improve production yield, this protein accumulated at levels visible by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. However, the production of this protein led not only to a severe reduction of endogenous seed storage proteins but also to a deterioration in grain quality. The appearance of aberrant grain phenotypes (such as floury and shrunken) was attributed to ER stress induced by the retention of highly aggregated unfolded hIL-7 in the ER lumen, and the expression levels of chaperones such as BiPs and PDIs were enhanced in parallel with the increase in hIL-7 levels. The activation of this ER stress response was shown to be mainly mediated by the OsIRE1-OsbZIP50 signal cascade, based on the appearance of unconventional splicing of OsbZIP50 mRNA and the induction of OsBiP4&5. Interestingly, the ER stress response could be induced by lower concentrations of hIL-7 versus other types of cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-18. Furthermore, several ubiquitin 26S proteasome-related genes implicated in ER-associated degradation were upregulated by hIL-7 production. These results suggest that severe detrimental effects on grain properties were caused by proteo-toxicity induced by unfolded hIL-7 aggregates in the ER, resulting in the triggering of ER stress. PMID:23371559

Kudo, Kyoko; Ohta, Masaru; Yang, Lijun; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takahashi, Sakiko; Takaiwa, Fumio

2013-03-01

403

NIR to VIS frequency upconversion luminescence properties of Er 3+-doped YPO 4 phosphors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different concentrations of Er3+-doped YPO4:Er powder phosphors have been synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method and are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM), and upconversion emission measurements. An intense red emission band and a weak green emission band are observed under NIR excitation at 975nm in case of samples with high dopant concentration

R. Balakrishnaiah; Dong Woo Kim; Soung Soo Yi; Sung Hoon Kim; Kiwan Jang; Ho Sueb Lee; Byung Kee Moon; Jung Hyun Jeong

2010-01-01

404

Results of clinical application of YAG:Er lasers in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first results of clinical application of YAG:Er laser ('Lasma-1', Laser Center IFMO, Russia) in practical dental procedures performed in Russian clinics. YAG:Er laser operating in free-running mode has been used for in-vivo restorative dentistry. Caries cavities of various types has been treated in contact mode with applied water pulse irrigation of a treatment zone. The paper

Gregory Altshuler; Andrei V. Belikov; Victor N. Balin; Alexey S. Gook; Sergey P. Kropotov; Viacheslav L. Selivanov; Alexei V. Skripnik; Constantin V. Prikhodko

1999-01-01

405

Androgen receptor is frequently expressed in HER2-positive, ER\\/PR-negative breast cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogen receptor (ER)\\/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast carcinomas (BCs) encompass three molecular subtypes:\\u000a one with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER) overexpression, one normal like, and the triple negative. The androgen\\u000a receptor (AR) is expressed in 70–90% of invasive BCs. The aim of our study is to detect the expression of AR in a series of\\u000a ER\\/PR-negative BCs to

Donata Micello; Alessandro Marando; Nora Sahnane; Cristina Riva; Carlo Capella; Fausto Sessa

2010-01-01

406

Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 ?m has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O2 and N2, have been investigated. It was found that only in O2 the Bi3+ valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi0 metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O2. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi3+ absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 ?m.

Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

2014-09-01

407

Resurfacing of Pitted Facial Acne Scars Using Er:YAG Laser with Ablation and Coagulation Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the conventional, short-pulsed erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser provides substantial clinical improvement for pitted, facial acne scars, it shows less effective hemostasis and limited residual thermal effect in the dermis. Recently, dual-mode Er:YAG laser systems with both ablation and coagulation modes have been developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of resurfacing pitted,

Jeung-Tae Jeong; Jae-Hong Park; Young-Chul Kye

2003-01-01

408

Endoplasmic reticulum calcium release potentiates the ER stress and cell death caused by an oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Increase in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+](c)), release of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ([Ca2+](er)) and ER stress have been proposed to be involved in oxidative toxicity. Nevertheless, their relative involvements in the processes leading to cell death are not well defined. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress generated during ascorbate-driven menadione redox cycling (Asc/Men) could trigger these three events, and, if so, whether they contributed to Asc/Men cytoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Using microspectrofluorimetry, we demonstrated that Asc/Men-generated oxidative stress was associated with a slow and moderate increase in [Ca2+](c), largely preceding permeation of propidium iodide, and thus cell death. Asc/Men treatment was shown to partially deplete ER calcium stores after 90 min (decrease by 45% compared to control). This event was associated with ER stress activation, as shown by analysis of eIF2 phosphorylation and expression of the molecular chaperone GRP94. Thapsigargin (TG) was then used to study the effect of complete [Ca2+](er) emptying during the oxidative stress generated by Asc/Men. Surprisingly, the combination of TG and Asc/Men increased ER stress to a level considerably higher than that observed for either treatment alone, suggesting that [Ca2+](er) release alone is not sufficient to explain ER stress activation during oxidative stress. Finally, TG-mediated [Ca2+](er) release largely potentiated ER stress, DNA fragmentation and cell death caused by Asc/Men, supporting a role of ER stress in the process of Asc/Men cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of ER stress and [Ca2+](er) decrease in the process of oxidative stress-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. PMID:20006589

Dejeans, Nicolas; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Beck, Raphaël; Verrax, Julien; Taper, Henryk; Gailly, Philippe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

2010-05-01

409

Research on laser diode end-pumped Er:YSGG/YSGG composited crystal at 2.79 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers at 2.79 ?m emitted by Er:YSGG crystal have attracted considerable interest in biological and medical applications. However, due to the thermal effect of laser crystal, the output power has been limited. In this paper, the advantages of Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal in reducing thermal effects and achieving high output power are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The numerical results show that the temperature rising and total thermal deformation of Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal are evidently reduced because the undoped YSGG absorbs the heat generated from the Er:YSGG. The maximum temperature rising reduces with increasing of the length of undoped YSGG crystal, and its location moves from the pump face to the inside of the Er:YSGG. The optical path difference of the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal is obviously reduced comparing with that of Er:YSGG crystal, which indicates the thermal focal length of the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal is increased, and the thermal effects are reduced. In experiments, the maximum continuous wave output power of 900 mW with slope efficiency of 12.1% at wavelength of 2.79 ?m is obtained in laser diode end pumped Er:YSGG/YSGG crystal. To our knowledge, the output power of Er:YSGG/YSGG crystal is the highest value for the laser diode end pumped Er:YSGG crystal. The thermal focal length of the Er:YSGG/YSGG measured in experiment is increased comparing with that of Er:YSGG. Investigations have demonstrated that the Er:YSGG/YSGG composite crystal has a great advantage in reducing the influence of thermal effects and achieving high output power.

Shen, Benjian; Kang, Hongxiang; Jie, Liang; Peng, Chen; Fu, Huaixiu

2014-12-01

410

Completion report for Well ER-EC-6  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

M. J. Townsend

2000-05-01

411

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-8  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-8 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 129.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 609.6 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 98.4 meters, 24 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on evaluation of composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 20 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 157.9 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Drilling began in Tertiary-age tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, and penetrated tuffs of the Beatty Wash Formation, tuff of Buttonhook Wash, and the upper portion of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from this well helps define the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Geologic and hydrologic data from the well will aid in development of models to predict groundwater flow and contaminant migration within and near the Nevada Test Site.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

412

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

413

Completion Report for Well ER-12-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

414

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

415

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

M. J. Townsend

2002-03-01

416

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-4  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-4 was drilled for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 263.7 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,062.8 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 228.3 meters, two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 35 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 286.5 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well was collared in basalt and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon, and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from this well helps pinpoint the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southern Nevada volcanic field.

M. J. Townsend

2000-09-01

417

Rab18 and a Rab18 GEF complex are required for normal ER structure.  

PubMed

The ancestral Rab GTPase Rab18 and both subunits of the Rab3GAP complex are mutated in the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that the Rab3GAP complex is a specific Rab18 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The Rab3GAP complex localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is necessary for ER targeting of Rab18. It is also sufficient to promote membrane recruitment of Rab18. Disease-associated point mutations of conserved residues in either the Rab3GAP1 (T18P and E24V) or Rab3GAP2 (R426C) subunits result in loss of the Rab18 GEF and membrane-targeting activities. Supporting the view that Rab18 activity is important for ER structure, in the absence of either Rab3GAP subunit or Rab18 function, ER tubular networks marked by reticulon 4 were disrupted, and ER sheets defined by CLIMP-63 spread out into the cell periphery. Micro syndrome is therefore a disease characterized by direct loss of Rab18 function or loss of Rab18 activation at the ER by its GEF Rab3GAP. PMID:24891604

Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Yoshimura, Shin-Ichiro; Anderson, Rachel; Carpanini, Sarah; Aligianis, Irene; Handley, Mark T; Barr, Francis A

2014-06-01

418

Rab18 and a Rab18 GEF complex are required for normal ER structure  

PubMed Central

The ancestral Rab GTPase Rab18 and both subunits of the Rab3GAP complex are mutated in the human neurological and developmental disorder Warburg Micro syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that the Rab3GAP complex is a specific Rab18 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). The Rab3GAP complex localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is necessary for ER targeting of Rab18. It is also sufficient to promote membrane recruitment of Rab18. Disease-associated point mutations of conserved residues in either the Rab3GAP1 (T18P and E24V) or Rab3GAP2 (R426C) subunits result in loss of the Rab18 GEF and membrane-targeting activities. Supporting the view that Rab18 activity is important for ER structure, in the absence of either Rab3GAP subunit or Rab18 function, ER tubular networks marked by reticulon 4 were disrupted, and ER sheets defined by CLIMP-63 spread out into the cell periphery. Micro syndrome is therefore a disease characterized by direct loss of Rab18 function or loss of Rab18 activation at the ER by its GEF Rab3GAP. PMID:24891604

Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Anderson, Rachel; Carpanini, Sarah; Aligianis, Irene

2014-01-01

419

New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Induced ER Stress and Liver Diseases  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced liver disease increasingly contributes to human mortality worldwide. Alcohol-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disruption of cellular protein homeostasis have recently been established as a significant mechanism contributing to liver diseases. The alcohol-induced ER stress occurs not only in cultured hepatocytes but also? in vivo??in the livers of several species including mouse, rat, minipigs, zebrafish, and humans. Identified causes for the ER stress include acetaldehyde, oxidative stress, impaired one carbon metabolism, toxic lipid species, insulin resistance, disrupted calcium homeostasis, and aberrant epigenetic modifications. Importance of each of the causes in alcohol-induced liver injury depends on doses, duration and patterns of alcohol exposure, genetic disposition, environmental factors, cross-talks with other pathogenic pathways, and stages of liver disease. The ER stress may occur more or less all the time during alcohol consumption, which interferes with hepatic protein homeostasis, proliferation, and cell cycle progression promoting development of advanced liver diseases. Emerging evidence indicates that long-term alcohol consumption and ER stress may directly be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). Dissecting ER stress signaling pathways leading to tumorigenesis will uncover potential therapeutic targets for intervention and treatment of human alcoholics with liver cancer. PMID:24868470

2014-01-01

420

SIRT7 Represses Myc Activity to Suppress ER Stress and Prevent Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disorder in developed countries. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited. Here we show that SIRT7, an NAD+-dependent H3K18Ac deacetylase, functions at chromatin to suppress ER stress and prevents the development of fatty liver disease. SIRT7 is induced upon ER stress and is stabilized at the promoters of ribosomal proteins through its interaction with the transcription factor Myc to silence gene expression and to relieve ER stress. SIRT7 deficient mice develop chronic hepatosteatosis resembling human fatty liver disease. Myc inactivation or pharmacological suppression of ER stress alleviates fatty liver caused by SIRT7 deficiency. Importantly, SIRT7 suppresses ER stress and reverts the fatty liver disease in diet-induced obese mice. Our study identifies SIRT7 as a cofactor of Myc for transcriptional repression and delineates a druggable regulatory branch of the ER stress response that prevents and reverts fatty liver disease. PMID:24210820

Villanova, Lidia; Brown, Katharine; Qiu, Xiaolei; Nabavi, Noushin; Mohrin, Mary; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Li, Patrick; Cheng, Hwei-Ling; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Luo, Hanzhi; Kapahi, Pankaj; Krauss, Ronald; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Yancopoulos, George D.; Alt, Frederick W.; Chua, Katrin F.; Chen, Danica

2014-01-01

421

Triptolide activates unfolded protein response leading to chronic ER stress in pancreatic cancer cells.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with a survival rate of <5%. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of prosurvival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression. One of the mechanisms that enables tumor cells to evade cellular stress and promote unhindered proliferation is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Disturbances in the normal functions of the ER lead to an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response, the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR initially compensates for damage, but it eventually triggers cell death if ER dysfunction is severe or prolonged. Triptolide, a diterpene triepoxide, has been shown to be an effective compound against pancreatic cancer. Our results show that triptolide induces the UPR by activating the PKR-like ER kinase-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? axis and the inositol-requiring enzyme 1?-X-box-binding protein 1 axis of the UPR and leads to chronic ER stress in pancreatic cancer. Our results further show that glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), one of the major regulators of ER stress, is downregulated by triptolide, leading to cell death by apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells and autophagy in S2-VP10 cells. PMID:24699326

Mujumdar, Nameeta; Banerjee, Sulagna; Chen, Zhiyu; Sangwan, Veena; Chugh, Rohit; Dudeja, Vikas; Yamamoto, Masato; Vickers, Selwyn M; Saluja, Ashok K

2014-06-01

422

Multifactorial ER? and NOTCH1 control of squamous differentiation and cancer.  

PubMed

Downmodulation or loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding NOTCH1 are associated with dysfunctional squamous cell differentiation and development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in skin and internal organs. While NOTCH1 receptor activation has been well characterized, little is known about how NOTCH1 gene transcription is regulated. Using bioinformatics and functional screening approaches, we identified several regulators of the NOTCH1 gene in keratinocytes, with the transcription factors DLX5 and EGR3 and estrogen receptor ? (ER?) directly controlling its expression in differentiation. DLX5 and ERG3 are required for RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment to the NOTCH1 locus, while ER? controls NOTCH1 transcription through RNA PolII pause release. Expression of several identified NOTCH1 regulators, including ER?, is frequently compromised in skin, head and neck, and lung SCCs and SCC-derived cell lines. Furthermore, a keratinocyte ER?-dependent program of gene expression is subverted in SCCs from various body sites, and there are consistent differences in mutation and gene-expression signatures of head and neck and lung SCCs in female versus male patients. Experimentally increased ER? expression or treatment with ER? agonists inhibited proliferation of SCC cells and promoted NOTCH1 expression and squamous differentiation both in vitro and in mouse xenotransplants. Our data identify a link between transcriptional control of NOTCH1 expression and the estrogen response in keratinocytes, with implications for differentiation therapy of squamous cancer. PMID:24743148

Brooks, Yang Sui; Ostano, Paola; Jo, Seung-Hee; Dai, Jun; Getsios, Spiro; Dziunycz, Piotr; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Cerveny, Kara; Chiorino, Giovanna; Lefort, Karine; Dotto, G Paolo

2014-05-01

423

IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

2009-05-25

424

The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

425

Transfer and back transfer processes in Yb3+-Er3+ codoped fluoroindate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of forward and backward energy transfer processes in fluoroindate glasses double doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ has been studied. It was possible to excite selectively Yb3+ ions and detect emission due only to these ions or combined with the emission coming from the Er3+ ions. At low concentration of Yb3+ (0.1 mol %) the emission decay of these ions is nonexponential when there is back transfer from Er3+ ions; the dynamics is well described using the fluorescence "transfer function" model. Moreover, the evolution of the emission from the 4I11/2 (Er3+) level is in good agreement with the behavior predicted by the model. The critical radii obtained from the fitting for forward and backward energy transfer are compared with those calculated with the Dexter formula. When the Yb3+ concentration is increased, the migration among these ions is very important and the emission decay of the Yb3+ ions is nearly exponential with the lifetime of these ions. This behavior is explained considering that, at high Yb3+ concentration and due to the migration, the transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions is restricted to very closed couples of ions with high back transfer probability. The limitations of the fluorescence "transfer function" model associated with the correlation effect in the excitation of Er3+ ions by energy transfer are discussed.

Martín, I. R.; Rodríguez, V. D.; Lavín, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

1999-07-01

426

ER?-Negative and Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Molecular Features and Potential Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a type of aggressive breast cancer lacking the expression of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). TNBC patients account for approximately 15% of total breast cancer patients and are more prevalent among young African, African-American and Latino women patients. The currently available ER-targeted and Her-2-based therapies are not effective for treating TNBC. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel features of TNBC. In the present work, we comprehensively addressed these features and discussed potential therapeutic approaches based on these features for TNBC, with particular focus on: 1) the pathological features of TNBC/basal-like breast cancer; 2) E2/ER? – mediated signaling pathways; 3) G-protein coupling receptor-30/epithelial growth factor receptor (GPCR-30/EGFR) signaling pathway; 4) interactions of ER? with breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2); 5) chemokine CXCL8 and related chemokines; 6) altered microRNA signatures and suppression of ER? expression/ER?-signaling by micro-RNAs; 7) altered expression of several pro-oncongenic and tumor suppressor proteins; and 8) genotoxic effects caused by oxidative estrogen metabolites. Gaining better insights into these molecular pathways in TNBC may lead to identification of novel biomarkers and targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of TNBC. PMID:19527773

Chen, Jin-Qiang; Russo, Jose

2010-01-01

427

Control of Cholesterol Synthesis through Regulated ER-Associated Degradation of HMG CoA Reductase  

PubMed Central

Multiple mechanisms for feedback control of cholesterol synthesis converge on the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. This complex feedback regulatory system is mediated by sterol and nonsterol metabolites of mevalonate, the immediate product of reductase activity. One mechanism for feedback control of reductase involves rapid degradation of the enzyme from membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This degradation results from the accumulation of sterols in ER membranes, which triggers binding of reductase to ER membrane proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2. Insig binding leads to the recruitment of a membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase called gp78 that initiates ubiquitination of reductase. Ubiquitinated reductase then becomes extracted from ER membranes and is delivered to cytosolic 26S proteasomes through an unknown mechanism that is mediated by the gp78-associated ATPase Valosin-containing protein/p97 and appears to be augmented by nonsterol isoprenoids. Here, we will highlight several advances that have led to the current view of mechanisms for sterol-accelerated, ER-associated degradation of reductase. In addition, we will discuss potential mechanisms for other aspects of the pathway such as selection of reductase for gp78-mediated ubiquitination, extraction of the ubiquitinated enzyme from ER membranes, and the contribution of Insig-mediated degradation to overall regulation of reductase in whole animals. PMID:20482385

Jo, Youngah; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

2010-01-01

428

Rer1p regulates the ER retention of immature rhodopsin and modulates its intracellular trafficking  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin is a pigment in photoreceptor cells. Some rhodopsin mutations cause the protein to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to photoreceptor degeneration. Although several mutations have been reported, how mutant rhodopsin is retained in the ER remains unclear. In this study, we identified Rer1p as a modulator of ER retention and rhodopsin trafficking. Loss of Rer1p increased the transport of wild-type rhodopsin to post-Golgi compartments. Overexpression of Rer1p caused immature wild-type rhodopsin to accumulate in the ER. Interestingly, the G51R rhodopsin mutant, which has a mutation in the first transmembrane domain and accumulates in the ER, was released to the plasma membrane or lysosomes in Rer1-knockdown cells. Consistent with these results, Rer1p interacted with both wild-type and mutant rhodopsin. These results suggest that Rer1p regulates the ER retention of immature or misfolded rhodopsin and modulates its intracellular trafficking through the early secretory pathway. PMID:25096327

Yamasaki, Akinori; Hara, Taichi; Maejima, Ikuko; Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Katsuya; Sato, Ken

2014-01-01

429

Neutron diffraction structure study of Er and Yb doped YAl3(BO3)4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction structure study has been performed on YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB), on doped Y0.88Er0.12Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Er0.5Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Yb0.5Al3(BO3)4 and on co-doped Y0.84Er0.01Yb0.15Al3(BO3)4 compositions. It was established that the doped compounds are isostructural to YAB. The neutron diffraction pattern have been be fitted in space group R32 using the triple hexagonal Wyckoff notation. Both Er3+ and Yb3+ ions occupy the Y3+ (3a) sites and not the Al3+ (9d) sites, as it was suggested previously. The lattice parameters are decreasing with increasing amount of the dopant elements. Slight changes are revealed in the positional parameters and interatom