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1

ER stress and neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by disturbances in the structure and function of the ER with the accumulation of misfolded proteins and alterations in the calcium homeostasis. The ER response is characterized by changes in specific proteins, causing translational attenuation, induction of ER chaperones and degradation of misfolded proteins. In case of prolonged or aggravated ER stress, cellular signals

D Lindholm; H Wootz; L Korhonen

2006-01-01

2

Wat ging er mis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volgende week woensdag (28 januari) zal in Groot-Brittannië het beruchte Hutton rapport worden gepubliceerd. In dit rapport zal onder meer de politiek saillante vraag worden beantwoord of Blair aan de vooravond van de oorlog de rapporten van de inlichtingendiensten over de militaire dreiging van Saddam heeft aangedikt. Nu er nog steeds geen wapens in Irak gevonden zijn kijkt vriend en

A. J. Boekestijn

2004-01-01

3

ERS-ENVISAT Permanent Scatterers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase time series of a perfect point-wise Permanent Scatterer (PS) would show a phase jump passing from ERS to ENVISAT SAR images. A PS analysis has been carried out on a dataset including both ERS and ENVISAT images. For each PS, elevation, LOS velocity and phase jump have been jointly estimated and removed, allowing the identification of the atmospheric

Daniele Perissin; Claudio Prati; Fabio Rocca; Alessandro Ferretti

2004-01-01

4

Protein folding in the ER.  

SciTech Connect

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

1999-10-01

5

Structure comparison of the pheromones Er-1, Er-10, and Er-2 from Euplotes raikovi.  

PubMed Central

The NMR structures of the homologous pheromones Er-1, Er-10, and Er-2 from the ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi are compared. For all 3 proteins the molecular architecture is made up of an antiparallel 3-helix bundle. The preservation of the core part of the structure is directly manifested by similar patterns of slowed backbone amide proton exchange rates, hydrogen bond formation, and relative solvent accessibility. To align the 6 half-cystine residues in the individual sequences within the preserved 3-dimensional core structure, several deletions and insertions had to be introduced that differ from those previously proposed on the basis of the primary structures. Of special interest is a deletion in the second helix of Er-2, which is accommodated by a transition from an alpha-helix in Er-1 and Er-10 to a 3(10)-helix in Er-2. The most significant structural differences are located in the C-terminal part of the proteins, which may have an important role in specific receptor recognition.

Luginbuhl, P.; Ottiger, M.; Mronga, S.; Wuthrich, K.

1994-01-01

6

ER?1 Represses FOXM1 Expression through Targeting ER? to Control Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the effects of ectopic estrogen receptor (ER)?1 expression in breast cancer cell lines and nude mice xenografts and observed that ER?1 expression suppresses tumor growth and represses FOXM1 mRNA and protein expression in ER?-positive but not ER?-negative breast cancer cells. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation exists between ER?1 and FOXM1 expression at both protein and mRNA transcript levels in ER?-positive breast cancer patient samples. Ectopic ER?1 expression resulted in decreased FOXM1 protein and mRNA expression only in ER?-positive but not ER?-negative breast carcinoma cell lines, suggesting that ER?1 represses ER?-dependent FOXM1 transcription. Reporter gene assays showed that ER?1 represses FOXM1 transcription through an estrogen-response element located within the proximal promoter region that is also targeted by ER?. The direct binding of ER?1 to the FOXM1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, which also showed that ectopic expression of ER?1 displaces ER? from the endogenous FOXM1 promoter. Forced expression of ER?1 promoted growth suppression in MCF-7 cells, but the anti-proliferative effects of ER?1 could be overridden by overexpression of FOXM1, indicating that FOXM1 is an important downstream target of ER?1 signaling. Together, these findings define a key anti-proliferative role for ER?1 in breast cancer development through negatively regulating FOXM1 expression.

Horimoto, Yoshiya; Hartman, Johan; Millour, Julie; Pollock, Steven; Olmos, Yolanda; Ho, Ka-Kei; Coombes, R. Charles; Poutanen, Matti; Makela, Sari I.; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Speirs, Valerie; Lam, Eric W.-F.

2011-01-01

7

Involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Longitudinal and partial surface views of growing cell plates showing involvement of ER in formation of plasmodesmata. ER tubules may be included in openings in the cell plate. Phaseolus vulgaris root tip.

Esau, Katherine

2004-03-09

8

Transcription Activation by the Human Estrogen Receptor Subtype   (ER ) Studied with ER  and ER  Receptor Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERa and ERb, and chimeric constructs with ERa and ERb to examine the bioactivities of these receptors and their responses to estrogen and antiestrogen ligands. Transcriptional activity of ERb is highly de- pendent on cell\\/promoter context and on the nature of the ligand. ERb activated significant levels of transcription in response

EILEEN M. MCINERNEY; KAREN E. WEIS; JUN SUN; SIETSE MOSSELMAN; BENITA S. KATZENELLENBOGEN

1998-01-01

9

Central User Services System for ERS-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Central User Services (CUS) system is part of the Earthnet ERS-1 Central Facility (EECF), which is the central node of the ERS-1 ground segment. The CUS assembles a variety of functions dedicated to providing a friendly interface between the ERS-1 sys...

P. Widmer M. Fea S. Delia

1988-01-01

10

PES1 promotes breast cancer by differentially regulating ER? and ER?  

PubMed Central

The initiation of breast cancer is associated with increased expression of tumor-promoting estrogen receptor ? (ER?) protein and decreased expression of tumor-suppressive ER? protein. However, the mechanism underlying this process is unknown. Here we show that PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), an estrogen-inducible protein that is overexpressed in breast cancer, can regulate the balance between ER? and ER?. We found that PES1 modulated many estrogen-responsive genes by enhancing the transcriptional activity of ER? while inhibiting transcriptional activity of ER?. Consistent with this regulation of ER? and ER? transcriptional activity, PES1 increased the stability of the ER? protein and decreased that of ER? through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, mediated by the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP). Moreover, PES1 transformed normal human mammary epithelial cells and was required for estrogen-induced breast tumor growth in nude mice. Further analysis of clinical samples showed that expression of PES1 correlated positively with ER? expression and negatively with ER? expression and predicted good clinical outcome in breast cancer. Our data demonstrate that PES1 contributes to breast tumor growth through regulating the balance between ER? and ER? and may be a better target for the development of drugs that selectively regulate ER? and ER? activities.

Cheng, Long; Li, Jieping; Han, Yongjian; Lin, Jing; Niu, Chang; Zhou, Zhichao; Yuan, Bin; Huang, Ke; Li, Jiezhi; Jiang, Kai; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Lihua; Xu, Xiaojie; Ye, Qinong

2012-01-01

11

Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption measurements from relatively high concentrations of Er (>0.1 at. %) doped in GaN films show that Er occupies the Ga site with an unprecedentedly short Er–N bond length. Electroluminescence intensities from these GaN:Er films correlate with the concentration of Er atoms that replace Ga, not with the abundantly present O impurities in the host. Simple chemical concepts are

P. H. Citrin; P. A. Northrup; R. Birkhahn; A. J. Steckl

2000-01-01

12

UBV photometry of ER Vulpeculae  

Microsoft Academic Search

UBV photometry of the RS CVn-type eclipsing binary system ER Vulpeculae has been presented. The period comes out to be 0.698093d. The average depths of primary and secondary minima are, respectively, 0.21 and 0.12m. The colors at various phases have been given. A dip is seen around phase 0.73P as was seen in the observations of Arevalo et al. (1988).

R. K. Srivastava; T. D. Padalia; J. B. Srivastava

1991-01-01

13

Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

2011-11-02

14

Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+,Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed characterization of energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+,Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN bulk glasses. For several Er3+ (0.25–8.75 mol%) and Pr3+ (0.25–1.55 mol%) concentrations, we investigate energy transfer upconversion (ETU) and cross relaxation in Er3+ as well as energy transfer (ET) from Er3+ to the Pr3+ codopant. The measured parameters of ETU from the Er3+ 4I13\\/2 and 4I11\\/2

P. S. Golding; S. D. Jackson; T. A. King; M. Pollnau

2000-01-01

15

The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-? but retain the ER-? expression.  

PubMed

The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-? and ER-?). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-? and ER-? in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-? mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-? is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-? in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-? could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-? was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-?. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-? was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-? expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-? but maintain the ER-? actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-? in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-? in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-? in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

2013-07-15

16

ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes  

PubMed Central

The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, ?-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

Zha, Beth S.; Zhou, Huiping

2012-01-01

17

Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitization of Er emission by Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) is investigated with pulsed and continuous optical pumping, in and off resonance with excited states of Er3+ ion. We show that under high-power pulsed pumping, the excitation process is limited by the finite energy transfer time from Si-nc to Er3+ ions. By comparison between pulsed and steady-state excitation, the concentration of sensitizers

M. B. Wojdak; M. A. J. Klik; M. Forcales Fernandez; O. B. Gusev; T. Gregorkiewicz; D. Pacifici; G. Franzò; F. Priolo; F. Iacona

2004-01-01

18

The Morphology and Dynamics of the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a non-uniform compartment in plants as regards its morphology\\u000a and function. It extends as a highly anastomosing membranous network throughout the cytoplasm, is\\u000a the major compartment of membrane biogenesis, and has been verified to function as the starting site for\\u000a the secretory pathway. Early electron microscopy studies revealed three morphological ER sub-domains: the\\u000a smooth ER, the rough

Hartmut Quader; Michael Zachariadis

19

Taurine reduces ER stress in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Background ER stress is a strong indicator of whether or not a cell is undergoing physiological stress. C. elegans is a practical system of characterizing the effect of ER stress at the in vivo or organismal level. Methods This study characterized taurine’s anti-ER stress potential employing western blotting on ER stress markers and assays of motility, lifespan comparison, and fecundity measurement. Results When treated with tunicamycin, C. elegans showed the typical ER stress symptoms. It showed a higher expression of hsp-70 and skn-1 than the non-treated control. Survivorship significantly decreased under tunicamycin treatment, and the offspring number also decreased. During the synchronized culture under ER stress conditions, the C. elegans showed early signs of aging especially between L3 and L4 within their life span, along with lowered motility. The worms, however, showed a positive response to the taurine treatment under ER stress conditions. Conclusions When C. elegans were treated with taurine before or after the tunicamycin treatment, they showed a less severe level of ER stress, including an enhanced survivorship, increased motility, and augmented fecundity. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that taurine works positively to cope with ER stress from the organismal perspective.

2010-01-01

20

Spectroscopic properties of Er doped and Er, Nd codoped fluoride glasses under simulated sunlight illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the fluorescence characteristics of Er codoped Nd doped ZBLAN glasses proposed for solar pumped fiber laser (SPFL) under simulated sunlight. Er is used as a sensitizer because it absorbs a part of the ultraviolet and visible light where is no absorption of Nd. Under simulated sunlight illumination, Er singly doped fluoride glass displayed four emission bands with peaks

Shintaro Mizuno; Hiroshi Ito; Kazuo Hasegawa; Hiroyuki Kawai; Hiroyuki Nasu; Mark A. Hughes; Takenobu Suzuki; Yasutake Ohishi

2011-01-01

21

Processing effects on microstructure in Er and ErD2 thin-films.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium metal thin-films have been deposited on molybdenum-on-silicon substrates and then converted to erbium dideuteride (ErD{sub 2}). Here, we study the effects of deposition temperature ({approx}300 or 723 K) and deposition rate (1 or 20 nm/s) upon the initial Er metal microstructure and subsequent ErD{sub 2} microstructure. We find that low deposition temperature and low deposition rate lead to small Er metal grain sizes, and high deposition temperature and deposition rate led to larger Er metal grain sizes, consistent with published models of metal thin-film growth. ErD{sub 2} grain sizes are strongly influenced by the prior-metal grain size, with small metal grains leading to large ErD{sub 2} grains. A novel sample preparation technique for electron backscatter diffraction of air-sensitive ErD{sub 2} was developed, and allowed the quantitative measurement of ErD{sub 2} grain size and crystallographic texture. Finer-grained ErD{sub 2} showed a strong (1 1 1) fiber texture, whereas larger grained ErD{sub 2} had only weak texture. We hypothesize that this inverse correlation may arise from improved hydrogen diffusion kinetics in the more defective fine-grained metal structure or due to improved nucleation in the textured large-grain Er.

Kammler, Daniel R.; Parish, Chad (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brewer, Luke N.

2010-04-01

22

Genistein affects ER beta- but not ER alpha-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Isoflavone phytoestrogens are growing increasingly popular because of their reported cardiovascular and anticarcinogenic properties, but the effects of these compounds in the brain are largely unknown. In a previous study, we found that an isoflavone supplement, containing a mixture of soy phytoestrogens, inhibited estrogen-dependent female sexual behavior and was antiestrogenic for both ER alpha- and ER beta-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. Here we examined the impact of the soy isoflavone genistein, a major component of the supplement, on estrogen-dependent female sexual behavior and ER alpha- and ER beta-dependent gene expression in the rat brain. Genistein, at a dietary concentration of 100 or 500 ppm had no effect on lordosis behavior in rats. However, at 500 ppm genistein had differential activity through ER alpha and ER beta in the hypothalamus. Genistein had no effect, in either the presence or absence of 17 beta-E2, on oxytocin receptor density in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, an estrogen-dependent action thought to be regulated via ER alpha. However, genistein increased ER beta mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus by 24%, whereas 17 beta-E2 decreased ER beta mRNA expression by 26%, a process likely mediated by ER beta itself. These results suggest that at this dose, genistein has antiestrogenic action through ER beta in the paraventricular nucleus but negligible activity through ER alpha in the brain. PMID:12021182

Patisaul, Heather B; Melby, Melissa; Whitten, Patricia L; Young, Larry J

2002-06-01

23

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25

24

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOEpatents

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25

25

Compiling ER Specifications into Declarative Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an environment to support high-level database programming in a declarative programming language. In order to ensure safe database updates, all access and update operations related to the database are generated from high-level descriptions in the entity- relationship (ER) model. We propose a representation of ER diagrams in the declarative language Curry so that they can be constructed

Bernd Braßel; Michael Hanus; Marion Muller

2007-01-01

26

Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P?=?0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR?=?2.20, P?=?0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that between 15.1% and 21.8% patients of IHC-based negative ER status would be classified with ER positive breast cancer. Conclusion/Significance Expression-based ER status classification may complement IHC to minimise false negative ER status classification and optimise patient stratification for endocrine therapies.

Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

2010-01-01

27

Ethylene insensitivity conferred by Arabidopsis ERS gene  

SciTech Connect

ERS (ethylene response sensor), a gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene hormone-response pathway, was uncovered by cross-hybridization with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. The deduced ERS protein has sequence similarity with the amino-terminal domain and putative histidine protein kinase domain of ETR1, but it does not have a receiver domain as found in ETR1. A missense mutation identical to the dominant etr1-4 mutation was introduced into the ERS gene. The altered ERS gene conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity to wild-type Arabidopsis. Double-mutant analysis indicates that ERS acts upstream of the CTR1 protein kinase gene in the ethylene-response pathway. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hua, J.; Chang, C.; Sun, Q. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-22

28

Stress management at the ER: regulators of ER stress-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an elaborate cellular organelle essential for cell function and survival. Conditions that interfere with ER function lead to the accumulation and aggregation of unfolded proteins which are detected by ER transmembrane receptors that initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal ER function. If the ER stress is prolonged, or the adaptive response fails, apoptotic cell death ensues. Many studies have focused on how this failure initiates apoptosis, particularly because ER stress-induced apoptosis is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In this review we aim to shed light on the proteins that are not core components of the UPR signaling pathway but which can influence the course of the ER stress response by regulating the switch from the adaptive phase to apoptosis. PMID:22387231

Gorman, Adrienne M; Healy, Sandra J M; Jäger, Richard; Samali, Afshin

2012-02-17

29

Polishing Using ER Slurry on One-Sided Patterned Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ER slurry, which is composed of an ER fluid and abrasive grains, is available for efficient polishing or finishing. In this study, we propose a final process with the ER slurry and one-sided patterned electrodes. Characteristics of the ER slurry were investigated. And, ER polishing, which is a polishing using the ER slurry, was carried out. Results showed that the impression of the electric field can accelerate the polishing.

Kikuchi, Takehito; Fujiwara, Junsuke; Furusho, Junji; Inoue, Akio

30

Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+\\/Eu3++ and Er3+\\/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification properties have been compared in Er3+, Er3+\\/Eu3+ and Er3+\\/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers using a 980 nm pumping scheme. The pump efficiency has been compared in the 3 types of fibers. Er3+ ion upconversion in bulk glasses and fibers in visible range has been measured and the Er3+ ion IR fluorescence intensity and lifetimes have been recorded to understand

Shaoxiong Shen; Billy Richards; Animesh Jha

2006-01-01

31

High Performance Calcium Titanate Nanoparticle ER Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of calcium titanate (CTO) nanoparticles was synthesized by means of wet chemical method [1] without coating on the particles. The CTO/silicone oil ER fluid exhibits excellent electrorheological properties: high shear stress (~50-100 kPa) under dc electric field, a low current density (less than 2?A/cm2 at 5kV/mm), and long term stability against sedimentation. Although there are not special additives in the ER fluids, it is found from the chemical analysis that a trace of alkyl group, hydroxyl group, carbonyl group and some ions is remained in the particles which may dominate the ER response.

Wang, Xuezhao; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia; Lu, Kunquan

32

Shear mode ER transfer function for robotic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electro-rheological (ER) fluids are becoming popular in modern industrial applications. The advantage of employing ER devices is due to the ease of energizing the ER fluids at fast speeds of response. One innovation in ER applications could be in the positioning control of the robotic arm using an ER clutch. In order to actuate the manipulator, the ER output torque response is required. However, the behaviour of this ER torque response at different input conditions is not clearly understood. Therefore, in this paper, a sample study of the ER output torque is conducted. The ER output torque responses at different input parameters are studied carefully for the establishment of an appropriate ER transfer function in shear mode. This transfer function will serve as an important feature in future ER-actuated robot arm's control process.

Tan, K. P.; Stanway, R.; Bullough, W. A.

2005-06-01

33

Characteristics of Er and Er-Yb-Cr doped phosphate microsphere fibre lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper both Er and Er-Yb-Cr doped phosphate microspheres have been successfully created through precise melting of the ends of fibre tapers, drawn, respectively, from Er and Er-Yb-Cr doped phosphate glasses. When coupled with a fibre taper, a microsphere fibre laser cavity can thus be configured creating a system pumped by a 980 nm laser diode and using an optical spectrum analyzer to monitor the spectral characteristics of the laser output. The performance and characteristics of the Er and Er-Yb-Cr microsphere lasers thus created are discussed in detail and cross-compared in this paper. Both lasers have shown low-threshold in terms of the pump power and the laser output wavelengths and a close investigation of the system has shown that the output power and laser stability are closely related to the size of the microsphere, the pump power and the microsphere material composition.

Chen, S. Y.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Annapurna, K.; Sen, R.

2009-09-01

34

Local structure of Er IN GaN:Er films exhibiting visible luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed 1540-nm luminescence in Er-doped semiconductors, corresponding to the minimum in absorption of silica-based optical fibers, has generated much interest due to its potential utility in optoelectronics. The intensity of such near-IR luminescence in Er-doped Si, for example, has been shown to depend sensitively on the amount of O present for reasons traceable to the local structure of Er.

Paul Citrin; Paul Northrup; Ron Birkhahn; Andrew Steckl

2000-01-01

35

Magnetocaloric effect of ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effect was examined for ErCo2, which shows a first-order ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic transition at 32 K. The application of a magnetic field of 8 T causes a temperature change of 13 K under adiabatic conditions. The results strongly suggest that ErCo2 has a high potential for a working substance of magnetic refrigeration at 30-50 K.

Wada, H.; Tomekawa, S.; Shiga, M.

1999-05-01

36

Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi.  

PubMed

Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate. PMID:22733737

Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A; Garcia, Jennifer F; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J; Madhani, Hiten D

2012-06-25

37

Ers1 links HP1 to RNAi  

PubMed Central

Pericentromeric heterochromatin formation is mediated by repressive histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9Me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins. Intriguingly, in many organisms, RNAi is coupled to this process through poorly understood mechanisms. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the H3-K9 methyltransferase Clr4 and the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ortholog Swi6 are critical for RNAi, whereas RNAi stimulates H3K9Me. In addition to the endoribonuclease Dcr1, RNAi in S. pombe requires two interacting protein complexes, the RITS complex, which contains an Argonaute subunit, and the RDRC complex, which contains an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit. We previously identified Ers1 (essential for RNAi-dependent silencing) as an orphan protein that genetically acts in the RNAi pathway. Using recombinant proteins, we show here that Ers1 directly and specifically interacts with HP1/Swi6. Two-hybrid assays indicate that Ers1 also directly interacts with several RNAi factors. Consistent with these interactions, Ers1 associates in vivo with the RITS complex, the RDRC complex, and Dcr1, and it promotes interactions between these factors. Ers1, like Swi6, is also required for RNAi complexes to associate with pericentromeric noncoding RNAs. Overexpression of Ers1 results in a dominant-negative phenotype that can be specifically suppressed by increasing levels of the RDRC subunit Hrr1 or of Dcr1, further supporting a functional role for Ers1 in promoting the assembly of the RNAi machinery. Through the interactions described here, Ers1 may promote RNAi by tethering the corresponding enzyme complexes to HP1-coated chromatin, thereby placing them in proximity to the nascent noncoding RNA substrate.

Rougemaille, Mathieu; Braun, Sigurd; Coyle, Scott; Dumesic, Phillip A.; Garcia, Jennifer F.; Isaac, Richard Stefan; Libri, Domenico; Narlikar, Geeta J.; Madhani, Hiten D.

2012-01-01

38

Durability of Phosphorated Starch Based ER Fluid under Damper  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this work, durability characteristics of electrorheological (ER) fluid for damper application are experimentally investigated.\\u000a ER fluid is prepared by using phosphorated starch particles and silicone oil. The field-dependent Bingham characteristics\\u000a and response time for the proposed ER fluids are experimentally obtained. Experimental apparatus of durability test for ER\\u000a fluid is established with cylindrical ER cylinder for mid-sized passenger vehicle.

C. H. Lee; J. W. Sohn; Y. M. Han; S. B. Choi

39

Spectroscopic properties of Er doped and Er, Nd codoped fluoride glasses under simulated sunlight illumination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the fluorescence characteristics of Er codoped Nd doped ZBLAN glasses proposed for solar pumped fiber laser (SPFL) under simulated sunlight. Er is used as a sensitizer because it absorbs a part of the ultraviolet and visible light where is no absorption of Nd. Under simulated sunlight illumination, Er singly doped fluoride glass displayed four emission bands with peaks at 550, 848, 977 and 1533 nm attributed to the 4S3/2-4I15/2, 4S3/2-4I13/2, 4I11/2-4I15/2 and 4I13/2-4I15/2 electronic transitions of Er, respectively. The quantum efficiency measurement was carried out using an integrating sphere and under the simulated sunlight excitation showed a maximum of 73% for 0.5 mol.% of ErF3 in ZBLAN glass. In Nd, Er codoped fluoride glass, the 1.05 ?m emission of Nd was observed under 380 nm excitation what supposes the energy transfer from Er to Nd in ZBLAN glasses as Nd has no absorption at the wavelength. Er, Nd codoped fluoride glasses are promising as a sensitized laser media for solar pumped fiber lasers.

Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Hiroyuki; Hughes, Mark A.; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

2011-10-01

40

Genistein Affects ER - But Not ER Dependent Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavone phytoestrogens are growing increasingly popular because of their reported cardiovascular and anticarcino- genic properties, but the effects of these compounds in the brain are largely unknown. In a previous study, we found that an isoflavone supplement, containing a mixture of soy phy- toestrogens, inhibited estrogen-dependent female sexual be- havior and was antiestrogenic for both ER- and ER-depen- dent gene

HEATHER B. PATISAUL; MELISSA MELBY; PATRICIA L. WHITTEN; LARRY J. YOUNG

2002-01-01

41

Comparison of a new microplate oestrogen receptor (ER) enzyme immunoassay with other ER detection methods.  

PubMed Central

In a study involving 50 breast cancer tumours, we compared two oestrogen receptor (ER) detection methods developed by us--a microplate immunoenzymometric assay (EIA96) and an immunohistochemistry kit (HistoCIS-ER)--with the radioligand assay (RLA), the Abbott immunoenzymometric assay ER-EIA and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique (RT-PCR). Among the three ER protein cytosolic assays (EIA96, ER-EIA and RLA), the two EIAs showed the best agreement (y = 1.086x - 7.840; r2 = 0.876). At the calculated optimal cut-off values (8 and 14 fmol mg(-1) protein for EIA96 and RLA respectively), EIA96 was more sensitive than RLA (0.94 for EIA96, 0.88 for RLA), but slightly less specific (0.82 for EIA96, 0.94 for RLA). The Cox logistical regression model applied to EIA96, RLA and RT-PCR showed that EIA96 discriminated the best between ER-EIA+ and ER-EIA- samples. The RT-PCR technique and HistoCIS-ER both had a positivity-negativity concordance of 86% with EIA96.

Delage, V.; Deytieux, S.; Le Doussal, V.; Degorce, F.; Bellanger, L.; Hacene, K.; Seguin, P.; Descotes, F.; Saez, S.; Spyratos, F.

1997-01-01

42

Association of oestrogen receptor beta 2 (ER?2\\/ER?cx) with outcome of adjuvant endocrine treatment for primary breast cancer – a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptor beta (ER?) modulates ER? activity; wild type ER? (ER?1) and its splice variants may therefore impact on hormone responsiveness of breast cancer. ER?2\\/ER?cx acts as a dominant negative inhibitor of ER? and expression of ER?2 mRNA has been proposed as a candidate marker for outcome in primary breast cancer following adjuvant endocrine therapy. We therefore now assess

Raman Vinayagam; D Ross Sibson; Christopher Holcombe; Vijay Aachi; Michael PA Davies

2007-01-01

43

ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP  

SciTech Connect

Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

Gerald Heymsfield

2010-12-20

44

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the isotopes 164Er and 170Er.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stellar neutron capture cross sections of the isotopes 164Er and 170Er were determined via the activation technique. Neutron irradiations at the Karlsruhe van de Graaff accelerator resulted in stellar cross sections of >?(170Er)<30keV = 170.2±7 mb and >?(164Er)<30keV = 1084±51 mb with uncertainties that are smaller by factors 4 and 2, respectively, compared to previous data. The neutron cross section for 164Er was found to be significantly larger than reported in earlier measurements. The impact of this difference on the s-process branching at 163Dy was investigated with two s-process models. With the classical approach the isotopic abundance of 164Er can only be reproduced by assuming an electron density at the s-process site of ne = (1 - 5)·1026cm-3, significantly smaller than expected from current s-process scenarios. In contrast, the dynamical LMS (low mass star) model that postulates electron densities of about 1027cm-3 allows a satisfactory reproduction of the solar abundance of 164Er.

Best, J.

1996-10-01

45

New improved orbit solutions for the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved orbit solutions of the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 have been computed in the ITRF2005 terrestrial reference frame using the recent models based mainly on IERS Conventions 2003. These solutions cover the periods 3 August 1991 to 8 July 1996 for ERS-1, and 3 May 1995 to 4 July 2003 for ERS-2. For each satellite, the final orbit solution is based on a combination of three separate orbit solutions independently computed at the Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS) of the Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands), the Navigation Support Office of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, Germany) and the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (Germany) using three different software packages for precise orbit determination, but using the same models in the same terrestrial reference frame within the European Space Agency (ESA) project 'Reprocessing of Altimeter Products for ERS (REAPER)'. Validation using radar altimeter data indicates that the new combined orbits of ERS-1 and ERS-2 computed by us are significantly more accurate, approaching the 2-3 cm level in radial direction, than previously available orbit solutions.

Rudenko, Sergei; Otten, Michiel; Visser, Pieter; Scharroo, Remko; Schöne, Tilo; Esselborn, Saskia

2012-04-01

46

Transmembrane Protein 208: A Novel ER-Localized Protein That Regulates Autophagy and ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are both tightly regulated cellular processes that play central roles in various physiological and pathological conditions. Recent reports have indicated that ER stress is a potent inducer of autophagy. However, little is known about the underlying molecular link between the two processes. Here we report a novel human protein, transmembrane protein 208 (TMEM208) that can regulate both autophagy and ER stress. When overexpressed, TMEM208 impaired autophagy as characterized by the decrease of the accumulation of LC3-II, decreased degradation of autophagic substrates, and reduced expression of critical effectors and vital molecules of the ER stress and autophagy processes. In contrast, knockdown of the TMEM208 gene promoted autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II, increased degradation of autophagic substrates, and enhanced expression levels for genes key in the ER stress and autophagic processes. Taken together, our results reveal that this novel ER-located protein regulates both ER stress and autophagy, and represents a possible link between the two different cellular processes.

Zhao, Yuanbo; Hu, Jia; Miao, Guangyan; Qu, Liujing; Wang, Zhenda; Li, Ge; Lv, Ping; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

2013-01-01

47

Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

2004-09-30

48

Rab10 GTPase regulates ER dynamics and morphology  

PubMed Central

We have identified Rab10 as an ER specific Rab GTPase that regulates ER structure and dynamics. We show that Rab10 localizes to the ER and to dynamic ER-associated structures that track along microtubules and mark the position of new ER tubule growth. Rab10 depletion or expression of a Rab10 GDP-locked mutant alters ER morphology, resulting in decreased ER tubules. We demonstrate that this defect is due to a reduced ability of dynamic ER tubules to grow out and successfully fuse with adjacent ER. Consistent with this function, Rab10 partitions to dynamic ER-associated domains found at the leading edge of almost half of all ER tubule dynamics. Interestingly, this Rab10 domain is highly enriched with at least two ER enzymes that regulate phospholipid synthesis, PI Synthase and CEPT1. Both the formation and function of this Rab10/PIS/CEPT1 dynamic domain is inhibited by expression of a GDP-locked Rab10 mutant. Together, these data demonstrate that Rab10 regulates ER dynamics and further suggests that these dynamics could be coupled to phospholipid synthesis.

English, Amber R.; Voeltz, Gia K.

2013-01-01

49

ER81 Expression in Breast Cancers and Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

ER81 is a transcription factor that may contribute to breast cancer; however, little known about the role of ER81 in breast carcinogenesis. To investigate the role of ER81 in breast carcinogenesis, we examined ER81 expression in IDC, DCIS, ADH, HUT, and normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical staining. We found that ER81 overexpression was detected in 25.7% (9/35) of HUT, 41.2% (7/17) of ADH, 54.5% (12/22) of DCIS, and 63.0% (51/81) of IDC. In 20 of breast cancer tissues combined with DCIS, ADH, and HUT, ER81 expression was found in 14/20 (70%) IDC. In these 14 cases all cases were ER81 positive expression in DCIS, 13 of 14 cases were positively expressed of ER81 in ADH and 8 of 14 were positive for ER81 in HUT components. A statistical significance was found between NBT and HUT (P < .05) and HUT and ADH (P < .05). Clinical-pathological features analysis of breast cancer revealed that ER81 expression was significantly associated with Her2 amplification and was negatively associated with ER and PR expression. Our results demonstrated that ER81 overexpression was present in the early stage of breast development that suggested that ER81 overexpression may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis.

Wang, YuanYuan; Wang, Li; Chen, Yue; Li, Lin; Yang, XuanTao; Li, BaoLin; Song, ShuLing; Yang, LiLin; Hao, Yan; Yang, JuLun

2011-01-01

50

The Naturally Occurring Variant of Estrogen Receptor (ER) ER E7 Suppresses Estrogen-Dependent Transcriptional Activation by Both Wild-Type ER  and ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and functionally characterized the exon 7-skipped variant (ERE7) of estrogen receptor (ER), which has emerged as the predominant variant expressed in multi- ple normal and tumoral tissues. However, to date no function has been established for this variant in mammalian cells. ERE7 exhibits a negligible ability to bind ligands, insensi- tivity to allosteric modulation by estrogen and

JUANA M. GARCÍA PEDRERO; PEDRO ZUAZUA; CARLOS MARTÍNEZ-CAMPA; PEDRO S. LAZO; SOFIA RAMOS

2003-01-01

51

Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

2011-01-01

52

Historisches Rätsel Er hatte den Durchblick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seine Jugend ist voller Schicksalsschläge: Mit zwölf Jahren wird er als elftes und jüngstes Kind eines Glasermeisters Vollwaise, mit vierzehn stürzt das Haus seines Pflegevaters und Lehrherren über ihm zusammen. Auch ist ihm kein langes Leben vergönnt: Mit gerade 39 Jahren ereilt ihn die Lungen- und Nervenschwindsucht.

Loos, Andreas

2002-03-01

53

ER-Mitochondria Crosstalk during Cerebral Ischemia: Molecular Chaperones and ER-Mitochondrial Calcium Transfer  

PubMed Central

It is commonly believed that sustained elevations in the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration are a major feature of the intracellular cascade of lethal events during cerebral ischemia. The physical association between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, known as the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), enables highly efficient transmission of Ca2+ from the ER to mitochondria under both physiological and pathological conditions. Molecular chaperones are well known for their protective effects during cerebral ischemia. It has been demonstrated recently that many molecular chaperones coexist with MAM and regulate the MAM and thus Ca2+ concentration inside mitochondria. Here, we review recent research on cerebral ischemia and MAM, with a focus on molecular chaperones and ER-mitochondrial calcium transfer.

Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Giffard, Rona G.

2012-01-01

54

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

55

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

56

166Er Mössbauer spectroscopy on ErCo12B6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a study of the intermetallic compound ErCo12B6 with 166Er Mössbauer spectroscopy it appeared that the ground state is - 15/2> with a first excited state of + 15/2>. The lowest crystal field order term B20 was found to be (- 0.39+/-0.07) K. The magnetic interaction term turned out to be rather small.

Gubbens, P. C. M.; van der Kraan, A. M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

1990-07-01

57

Green emission from Er-doped GaN powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green light emission has been directly obtained from Er-doped GaN powder. Er is incorporated into GaN powder through the reaction between molten (Ga+Er) and NH3 at 950-1050 °C using Bi as a wetting agent. Photoexcitation with an Ar laser results in strong green emissions from two narrow lines at 537 and 558 nm, which are identified as Er transitions from

Huaqiang Wu; Carl B. Poitras; Michal Lipson; Michael G. Spencer; Janet Hunting; Francis J. Disalvo

2005-01-01

58

Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals  

SciTech Connect

The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

Malov, A V [N.P. Ogarev Mordovian State University, Saransk (Russian Federation); Popov, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

2010-08-03

59

Neutron diffraction study of magnetic ordering in ErMn2Si2, ErMn2Ge2 and ErFe2Si2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction study of polycrystalline compounds ErMn2Si2, ErMn2Ge2 and ErFe2Si2 was performed in the temperature range between 1.8 and 293 K. All compounds have tetragonal, ThCr2Si2-type crystal structure. The antiferromagnetic collinear structure of ErMn2Si2 and ErMn2Ge2 at both RT and LNT, consists of a sequence + - + - of ferromagnetic layers of Mn atoms. The magnetic moment of an Mn atom (~2?B) is parallel to the c-axist. At low temperatures (LHT and lower), the ferromagnetic ordering within the Er sublattice is observed. The magnetic moment (?Er ~ 9?B) is perpendicular to the c-axis. From the temperature dependence of the intensities of the magnetic peaks, the following values for the Curie temperatures were obtained: (10+/-5) K for ErMn2Si2 and (8.5+/-3) K for ErMn2Ge2. For ErFe2Si2 a collinear antiferromagnetic structure of the + - - + type was found, the magnetic unit cell consisting of the chemical one, doubled along the c-axis.

Leciejewicz, J.; Siek, S.; Szytulla, A.

1984-01-01

60

ER71 directs mesodermal fate decisions during embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Er71 mutant embryos are nonviable and lack hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. To further define the functional role for ER71 in cell lineage decisions, we generated genetically modified mouse models. We engineered an Er71-EYFP transgenic mouse model by fusing the 3.9 kb Er71 promoter to the EYFP reporter gene. Using FACS and transcriptional profiling, we examined the EYFP(+) population of cells in Er71 mutant and wild-type littermates. In the absence of ER71, we observed an increase in the number of EYFP-expressing cells, increased expression of the cardiac molecular program and decreased expression of the hemato-endothelial program, as compared with wild-type littermate controls. We also generated a novel Er71-Cre transgenic mouse model using the same 3.9 kb Er71 promoter. Genetic fate-mapping studies revealed that the ER71-expressing cells give rise to the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the wild-type background. In the absence of ER71, these cell populations contributed to alternative mesodermal lineages, including the cardiac lineage. To extend these analyses, we used an inducible embryonic stem/embryoid body system and observed that ER71 overexpression repressed cardiogenesis. Together, these studies identify ER71 as a critical regulator of mesodermal fate decisions that acts to specify the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages at the expense of cardiac lineages. This enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern mesodermal fate decisions early during embryogenesis. PMID:21989919

Rasmussen, Tara L; Kweon, Junghun; Diekmann, Mackenzie A; Belema-Bedada, Fikru; Song, Qingfeng; Bowlin, Kathy; Shi, Xiaozhong; Ferdous, Anwarul; Li, Tongbin; Kyba, Michael; Metzger, Joseph M; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Garry, Daniel J

2011-11-01

61

Test of Axel-Brink predictions in the /sup 167/Er(n,. gamma. )/sup 168/Er reaction  

SciTech Connect

The average radiation widths of primary ..gamma.. rays in the reaction /sup 167/Er(n,..gamma..)/sup 168/Er are in reasonable agreement with the Axel-Brink predictions based on a giant dipole resonance model.

Kahane, S.; Slaughter, G.G.; Raman, S.

1981-01-01

62

Identification of Estrogen Receptor Dimer Selective Ligands Reveals Growth-Inhibitory Effects on Cells That Co-Express ER? and ER?  

PubMed Central

Estrogens play essential roles in the progression of mammary and prostatic diseases. The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ER? is proliferative while ER? is anti-proliferative. Exogenous expression of ER? in ER?-positive cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation in response to estrogen and reduces xenografted tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that ER? might oppose ER?'s proliferative effects via formation of ER?/? heterodimers. Despite biochemical and cellular evidence of ER?/? heterodimer formation in cells co-expressing both receptors, the biological roles of the ER?/? heterodimer remain to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of two phytoestrogens that selectively activate ER?/? heterodimers at specific concentrations using a cell-based, two-step high throughput small molecule screen for ER transcriptional activity and ER dimer selectivity. Using ER?/? heterodimer-selective ligands at defined concentrations, we demonstrate that ER?/? heterodimers are growth inhibitory in breast and prostate cells which co-express the two ER isoforms. Furthermore, using Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA) to examine nuclear expression of ER? and ER? in human breast tissue microarrays, we demonstrate that ER? and ER? are co-expressed in the same cells in breast tumors. The co-expression of ER? and ER? in the same cells supports the possibility of ER?/? heterodimer formation at physio- and pathological conditions, further suggesting that targeting ER?/? heterodimers might be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers which co-express ER? and ER?.

Powell, Emily; Shanle, Erin; Brinkman, Ashley; Li, Jun; Keles, Sunduz; Wisinski, Kari B.; Huang, Wei; Xu, Wei

2012-01-01

63

Protein Folding and Quality Control in the ER  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) uses an elaborate surveillance system called the ER quality control (ERQC) system. The ERQC facilitates folding and modification of secretory and membrane proteins and eliminates terminally misfolded polypeptides through ER-associated degradation (ERAD) or autophagic degradation. This mechanism of ER protein surveillance is closely linked to redox and calcium homeostasis in the ER, whose balance is presumed to be regulated by a specific cellular compartment. The potential to modulate proteostasis and metabolism with chemical compounds or targeted siRNAs may offer an ideal option for the treatment of disease.

Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro

2011-01-01

64

Rotational band properties in {sup 165}Er  

SciTech Connect

High-spin states in {sup 165}Er have been studied experimentally using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 9}Be, 4n) reaction at beam energies of 42 and 45 MeV. The previously known bands based on the 5/2{sup +}[642], 5/2{sup -}[523], and 11/2{sup -}[505] configurations are extended to (49/2{sup +}), (45/2{sup -}), and (31/2{sup -}) states, respectively. The rotational bands in {sup 165}Er generally show gradual alignment processes, indicating strong band interactions associated with the i{sub 13/2} neutron alignments. The band properties are compared with those in the neighboring nuclei and discussed within the framework of the cranked shell model.

Wang, S. T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M. L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, N. T.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Li, G. S.; Ding, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shi, Y.; Xu, F. R. [School of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-07-15

65

Multiple Coulomb Excitation of 167Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground-state rotational band in 167Er has been investigated through multiple Coulomb excitation with a 160-MeV 35Cl beam, Excited states up to 25/2+ were established by measuring ?-? coincidences and ?-ray angular distributions. Nuclear lifetimes for levels up to spin 23/2 have been determined by analysis of Doppler broadened ?-ray lineshapes. Considerable signature dependence was observed in level energies and M1 transition probabilities.

Ohshima, Masumi; Minehara, Eisuke; Ishii, Mitsuhiko; Inamura, Takashi; Hashizume, Akira

1983-09-01

66

Multiple Coulomb Excitation of 167Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground-state rotational band in 167Er has been investigated through multiple Coulomb excitation with a 160-MeV 35Cl beam, Excited states up to 25\\/2+ were established by measuring gamma-gamma coincidences and gamma-ray angular distributions. Nuclear lifetimes for levels up to spin 23\\/2 have been determined by analysis of Doppler broadened gamma-ray lineshapes. Considerable signature dependence was observed in level energies and

Masumi Ohshima; Eisuke Minehara; Mitsuhiko Ishii; Takashi Inamura; Akira Hashizume

1983-01-01

67

Apigenin Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth through ER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two flavonoids, genistein and apigenin, have been implicated as chemopreventive agents against prostate and breast cancers. However, the mechanisms behind their respective cancer-protective effects may vary significantly. The goal of this study was to determine whether the antiproliferative action of these flavonoids on prostate (DU-145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells expressing only estrogen receptor (ER) B is mediated by this

Paul Mak; Yuet-Kin Leung; Wan-Yee Tang; Charlotte Harwood; Shuk-Mei Ho

2006-01-01

68

ER-12-1 completion report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L. [and others

1996-12-01

69

Photoluminescence quenching in Er-doped compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-induced quenching in the photoluminescence intensity (IPL) of Er3+ ions in different semiconductor hosts is discussed in this letter. Based on a compilation of several IPL(T) experimental curves, corresponding to either crystalline or amorphous Er-doped samples, and after a critical data analysis, it was possible to determine a temperature of quenching Tq such that IPL(Tq)=0.95 IPL (lowest T). These experimental Tq values have been analyzed in terms of certain host characteristics such as optical band gap and phonon frequency. As a result of this study it was possible to state that: (i) Tq strongly depends on the optical band gap and atomic structure of all studied semiconductor hosts; (ii) the host phonon frequency plays a minor role in the quenching of IPL; and (iii) based on the partial ionic character of each semiconductor host, both the energy and the localization of the photon-generated electron-hole pairs determine the IPL quenching. Moreover, the present phenomenological model is consistent with the influence that codoping and thermal anneals have on the IPL enhancement of Er-doped compounds.

Zanatta, A. R.

2003-03-01

70

ER chaperones in mammalian development and human diseases  

PubMed Central

The field of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells has expanded rapidly during the past decade, contributing to understanding of the molecular pathways that allow cells to adapt to perturbations in ER homeostasis. One major mechanism is mediated by molecular ER chaperones which are critical not only for quality control of proteins processed in the ER, but also for regulation of ER signaling in response to ER stress. Here we summarized the properties and functions of GRP78/BiP, GRP94/gp96, GRP170/ORP150, GRP58/ERp57, PDI, ERp72, calnexin, calreticulin, EDEM, Herp and co-chaperones SIL1 and P58IPK and their role in development and diseases. Many of the new insights are derived from recently constructed mouse models where the genes encoding the chaperones are genetically altered, providing invaluable tools for examining the physiological involvement of the ER chaperones in vivo.

Ni, Min; Lee, Amy S.

2007-01-01

71

Estrogen mediates neuroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects during EAE through ER? signaling on astrocytes but not through ER? signaling on astrocytes or neurons.  

PubMed

Estrogens can signal through either estrogen receptor ? (ER?) or ? (ER?) to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Cellular targets of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection are still being elucidated. Previously, we demonstrated that ER? on astrocytes, but not neurons, was critical for ER? ligand-mediated neuroprotection in EAE, including decreased T-cell and macrophage inflammation and decreased axonal loss. Here, we determined whether ER? on astrocytes or neurons could mediate neuroprotection in EAE, by selectively removing ER? from either of these cell types using Cre-loxP gene deletion. Our results demonstrated that, even though ER? ligand treatment was neuroprotective in EAE, this neuroprotection was not mediated through ER? on either astrocytes or neurons and did not involve a reduction in levels of CNS inflammation. Given the differential neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects mediated via ER? versus ER? on astrocytes, we looked for molecules within astrocytes that were affected by signaling through ER?, but not ER?. We found that ER? ligand treatment, but not ER? ligand treatment, decreased expression of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 by astrocytes in EAE. Together, our data show that neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling does not require ER? on either astrocytes or neurons, whereas neuroprotection in EAE mediated via ER? signaling requires ER? on astrocytes and reduces astrocyte expression of proinflammatory chemokines. These findings reveal important cellular differences in the neuroprotective mechanisms of estrogen signaling through ER? and ER? in EAE. PMID:23804112

Spence, Rory D; Wisdom, Amy J; Cao, Yuan; Hill, Haley M; Mongerson, Chandler R L; Stapornkul, Briana; Itoh, Noriko; Sofroniew, Michael V; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

2013-06-26

72

ACTIVE MEDIA: Interaction of Er3+ ions in Er-doped calcium — niobium — gallium garnet crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium — niobium — gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er3+ ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations CEr=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes 4I11/2? 4I15/2, 4I11/2? 4F7/2, 4I11/2? 4I15/2, 4I13/2? 4F9/2; and 4I13/2? 4I15/2, 4I13/2? 4I9/2, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes 4S3/2?4I9/2, 4I15/2?4I13/2, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er3+ ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%.

Malov, A. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Popov, A. V.; Bol'shakov, E. V.

2010-08-01

73

Suppression of concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence in Er-doped GaN  

SciTech Connect

Erbium-doped GaN with different doping concentrations were grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy. The intra-4f-shell transitions related green luminescence were observed by both photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. It was found that concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence was observed in PL measurements while not in CL measurements. The different excitation and relaxation processes are suggested as the cause of the concentration quenching characteristics between PL and CL. The strong Er-related CL intensity in highly doped GaN demonstrates that high energy excitation is a promising approach to suppress the concentration quenching in Er-doped GaN.

Chen Shaoqiang; Tomita, Shigeo; Kudo, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Dierre, Benjamin; Lee, Woong; Sekiguchi, Takashi [Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2010-05-03

74

Apigenin Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth through ER?1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two flavonoids, genistein and apigenin, have been implicated as chemopreventive agents against prostate and breast cancers. However, the mechanisms behind their respective cancer-protective effects may vary significantly. The goal of this study was to determine whether the antiproliferative action of these flavonoids on prostate (DU-145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells expressing only estrogen receptor (ER) ? is mediated by this ER subtype. It was found that both genistein and apigenin, although not 17?-estradiol, exhibited antiproliferative effects and proapoptotic activities through caspase-3 activation in these two cell lines. In yeast transcription assays, both flavonoids displayed high specificity toward ER? transactivation, particularly at lower concentrations. However, in mammalian assay, apigenin was found to be more ER?-selective than genistein, which has equal potency in inducing transactivation through ER? and ER?. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of ER? abrogated the antiproliferative effect of apigenin in both cancer cells but did not reverse that of genistein. Our data unveil, for the first time, that the anticancer action of apigenin is mediated, in part, by ER?. The differential use of ER? and ER? signaling for transaction between genistein and apigenin demonstrates the complexity of phytoestrogen action in the context of their anticancer properties.

Mak, Paul; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Harwood, Charlotte; Ho, Shuk-Mei

2006-01-01

75

Pancreatic Insulin Content Regulation by the Estrogen Receptor ER?  

PubMed Central

The function of pancreatic ?-cells is the synthesis and release of insulin, the main hormone involved in blood glucose homeostasis. Estrogen receptors, ER? and ER?, are important molecules involved in glucose metabolism, yet their role in pancreatic ?-cell physiology is still greatly unknown. In this report we show that both ER? and ER? are present in pancreatic ?-cells. Long term exposure to physiological concentrations of 17?-estradiol (E2) increased ?-cell insulin content, insulin gene expression and insulin release, yet pancreatic ?-cell mass was unaltered. The up-regulation of pancreatic ?-cell insulin content was imitated by environmentally relevant doses of the widespread endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA). The use of ER? and ER? agonists as well as ER?KO and ER?KO mice suggests that the estrogen receptor involved is ER?. The up-regulation of pancreatic insulin content by ER? activation involves ERK1/2. These data may be important to explain the actions of E2 and environmental estrogens in endocrine pancreatic function and blood glucose homeostasis.

Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Ropero, Ana B.; Carrera, M. Pilar; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Baquie, Mathurin; Gauthier, Benoit R.; Nef, Serge; Stefani, Enrico; Nadal, Angel

2008-01-01

76

Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-?m eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

2012-05-01

77

Interplay between Er and Co magnetism in ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles calculations within the tight binding linear muffin tin orbital method confirm the ferrimagnetic coupling between the Er 4f and Co 3d moments in the magnetically ordered phase and the change of sign of the Co 3d magnetization across the magnetostructural transition. Both the experimental x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements and theoretical results show that the influence of the rare-earth moment on the Co sp band is so strong that the polarization of the sp band does not follow that of the 3d band, but is determined by the Er sublattice magnetization, both in the magnetically ordered and paramagnetic states.

Herrero-Albillos, J.; Paudyal, D.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Young, A. T.; Jaouen, N.; Rogalev, A.

2008-04-01

78

Estrogen receptors   and   (ER  and ER ) and androgen receptor (AR) in human sperm: localization of ER  and AR in mitochondria of the midpiece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The central role of estrogens and androgens in the male reproductive system has focused attention on the presence and distribution of their cognate receptors (estrogen receptor (ER) , ER and androgen receptor (AR)) in male reproductive tissues and cells. Since the presence of steroid hormone receptors in mitochondria of mammalian cells has been well documented, we investigated the possibility

S. Solakidi; G. Psarra; S. Nikolaropoulos; C. E. Sekeris

2005-01-01

79

Synuclein ? Stimulates Membrane-Initiated Estrogen Signaling by Chaperoning Estrogen Receptor (ER)-?36, a Variant of ER-?  

PubMed Central

Synuclein ? (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. The molecular targets of SNCG during breast cancer progression have not been fully identified. Here we analyzed the effect of SNCG on stimulation of membrane-initiated estrogen signaling. While SNCG expression enhanced estrogen-induced activation of ERK1/2 and mammalian target of rapamycin, knockdown of endogenous SNCG decreased membrane-initiated estrogen signaling. SNCG functions as a molecular chaperone protein for estrogen receptor (ER)-?36, a membrane-based variant of ER-?. SNCG bound to ER-?36 in the presence and absence of functional molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90. Disruption of heat shock protein 90 with 17-AAG significantly reduced ER-?36 expression and membrane-initiated estrogen signaling. However, expression of SNCG prevented ER-?36 degradation and completely recovered 17-AAG-mediated down-regulation of estrogen signaling. The function of SNCG in ER-?36-mediated estrogen signaling is consistent with its ability to stimulate cell growth in response to estrogen. Expression of SNCG also renders tamoxifen resistance, which is consistent with the clinical observation on the association of ER-?36 expression and tamoxifen resistance. The present study indicates that ER-?36 is a new member of the ER-? family that mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling and that SNCG can replace the function of heat shock protein 90, chaperone ER-?36 activity, stimulate ligand-dependent cell growth, and render tamoxifen resistance.

Shi, Yuenian Eric; Chen, Yiding; Dackour, Raduwan; Potters, Louis; Wang, Shui; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Yiliang Ellie

2010-01-01

80

Multiple coulomb excitation of 167Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground-state rotational band in 167Er has been investigated through multiple Coulomb excitation with a 160 MeV 35Cl beam. Excited states up to 25\\/2+ were established by measuring gammagamma coincidences and gamma-ray angular distributions. Gamma-gamma angular correlations were also measured. Nuclear lifetimes of levels up to spin 23\\/2 have been determined from Doppler-broadened gamma-ray lineshapes, and B(M1) and B(E2) values

Masumi Ohshima; Eisuke Minehara; Mitsuhiko Ishii; Takashi Inamura; Akira Hashizume

1985-01-01

81

Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses  

PubMed Central

In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS).

Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

2012-01-01

82

The properties of upconversion luminescence on YAIO3:Er(3+) nanophosphors with different Er(3+) concentrations.  

PubMed

We report the properties of upconversion luminescence on Yttrium aluminum perovoskite (YAIO3) doped with trivalent erbium at concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 mol%. The samples were synthesized by solvo-thermal reaction method and the XRD patterns conforms that the YAP:Er(3+) nanophosphors have orthorhombic phase. Efficient green and red upconversion (UC) emission of YAP:Er(3+) nanophosphors was measured under the excitation of 975 nm continuous wave diode laser, and its dynamics and pump power dependence were investigated. As concentration of Er(3+) ion increased from 1 to 7 mol%, the red UC emission increased more rapidly. It is attributed to the energy transfer (4I(11/2) --> 4I(15/2):4I(13/2) --> 4F(9/2)) and to the cross relaxation (4S(3/2) --> 4I(9/2):4I(15/2) --> 4I(13/2)) between Er(3+) ions. In this case, the green and red emissions were yielding from quadratic to linear. These conclusions obtained are confirmed by theoretical investigations based on steady-state rate equations. PMID:21137926

Noh, Hyun Mi; Choi, Haeyoung; Kim, Jung Hwan; Moon, Byung Kee; Jung, Hong Chae; Jeong, Jung Hyun

2010-11-01

83

Dynamics and retention of misfolded proteins in native ER membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When co-translationally inserted into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, newly synthesized proteins encounter the lumenal environment of the ER, which contains chaperone proteins that facilitate the folding reactions necessary for protein oligomerization, maturation and export from the ER. Here we show, using a temperature-sensitive variant of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein tagged with green fluorescent protein (VSVG–GFP), and fluorescence recovery after

Sarah Nehls; Erik L. Snapp; Nelson B. Cole; Kristien J. M. Zaal; Anne K. Kenworthy; Theresa H. Roberts; Jan Ellenberg; John F. Presley; Eric Siggia; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

2000-01-01

84

Raman spectroscopy studies of Er 3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Er3+-doped tellurite-based glasses have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The study is aimed to determine the structural characteristics of systems with broad Er3+ emission bands. In the Er2O3 concentration 0.5–4mol% range studied, experimental results showed that adding erbium ions to zinc tellurite glass converts TeO4 trigonal bipyramid (tbp) units into TeO3 trigonal pyramid (tp) groups. A Raman band, associated with

N. Jaba; A. Mermet; E. Duval; B. Champagnon

2005-01-01

85

Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum’s complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and

Shawn Means; Alexander J. Smith; Jason Shepherd; John Shadid; John Fowler; Richard J. H. Wojcikiewicz; Tomas Mazel; Gregory D. Smith; Bridget S. Wilson

2006-01-01

86

Generation of stable reporter breast cancer cell lines for the identification of ER subtype selective ligands.  

PubMed

Estrogen signaling is mediated by two estrogen receptors (ERs), ER? and ER?, which have unique roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell proliferation. ER? induces proliferation in response to estrogen and ER? inhibits proliferation in breast cancer cells, suggesting that ER? selective ligands may be beneficial for promoting the anti-proliferative action of ER?. Subtype selective ligands can be identified using transcriptional assays, but cell lines in which ER? or ER? are independently expressed are required. Of the available reporter cell lines, none have been generated in breast cancer cells to identify subtype selective ligands. Here we describe the generation of two isogenic breast cancer cell lines, Hs578T-ER?Luc and Hs578T-ER?Luc, with stable integration of an estrogen responsive luciferase reporter gene. Hs578T-ER?Luc and Hs578T-ER?Luc cell lines are highly sensitive to estrogenic chemicals and ER subtype selective ligands, providing a tool to characterize the transcriptional potency and subtype selectivity of estrogenic ligands in the context of breast cancer cells. In addition to measuring reporter activity, ER? target gene expression and growth inhibitory effects of ER? selective ligands can be determined as biological endpoints. The finding that activation of ER? by estrogen or ER? selective natural phytoestrogens inhibits the growth of Hs578T-ER? cells implies therapeutic potential for ER? selective ligands in breast cancer cells that express ER?. PMID:21924251

Shanle, Erin K; Hawse, John R; Xu, Wei

2011-09-06

87

Radiation Hydrodynamics with FLOW-ER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of radiative transport are an important aspect of many astrophysical fluid problems, such as binary star accretion discs and common envelope evolution. Unfortunately, the full radiative transport problem is seven dimensional and outside the realm of current computational capabilities. The gray field flux limited diffusion (FLD) approximation has been shown to provide a feasible four dimensional approximation to the full radiative transport problems in many cases. The flux is approximated through an algebraic expression which interpolates between the two extremes of diffusive and free streaming radiation. FLD allows for the exchange of energy and momentum between the fluid and radiation field. We are implementing this into our current Newtonian astrophysical fluid simulation code named FLOW-ER. Unlike other FLD codes, FLOW-ER handles shocks without the use of artificial viscosity. At this point, the code runs in 1D and 2D on a single processor. The ultimate goal is a fully 3D parallel code running on an adaptive mesh. Presented are results for test cases in 1D and 2D, compared to analytic results where available, and to ZeusMP2 when not. This research has been supported, in part, by NSF grants AST-0407070 and AST-0708551.

Marcello, Dominic; Tohline, J. E.; Motl, P. M.

2008-03-01

88

Raman Spectrum of Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 and Fluorescence Properties of Er3+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Er-Y-codoped ZrO2 mixed oxides with monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic structures were prepared by a sol-gel method. The crystal structure of ZrO2 matrix and the effect of the ZrO2 phases on the fluorescence properties of Er3+ were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that the fluorescence properties of Er3+ depend on its local ZrO2 crystal structures. As ZrO2 matrix transferred

Jun He; Meng-fei Luo; Ling-yun Jin; Mai He; Ping Fang; Yun-long Xie

2007-01-01

89

The new ternary pnictides ErNiP and ErNiAs: Crystal structures and magnetic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new ternary pnictides ErNiP and ErNiAs have been synthesized from the elements. They crystallize with hexagonal structures determined from single-crystal X-ray data for ErNiP (space group P6\\/m, a=1.63900(3) nm, c=0.37573(1) nm, Z=1, R{sub F}=0.062 for 1574 F-values and 74 variable parameters), and for ErNiAs (TmNiAs-type structure, space group P6-bar , a=1.6208(1) nm, c=0.38847(2) nm, Z=1, R{sub F}=0.026 for 1549

Stepan Oryshchyn; Volodymyr Babizhetskyy; Olga Zhak; Mariya Zelinska; Jean-Yves Pivan; Viola Duppel; Arndt Simon; Lorenz Kienle

2010-01-01

90

Very low Schottky barrier to n-type silicon with PtEr-stack silicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate Er silicide formed on n-type silicon. In order to protect the Er from oxidation during the formation of Er silicide in non-UHV conditions, a Pt layer is deposed successively on top of Er layer. Surprisingly, we observe that Pt remains essentially unaffected in the formation of Er silicide at temperatures lower than 700 °C. We find that silicidation

Xiaohui Tang; J. Katcki; E. Dubois; N. Reckinger; J. Ratajczak; G. Larrieu; P. Loumaye; O. Nisole; V. Bayot

2003-01-01

91

Suppression of Er optical de-activation using silicon-rich silicon nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nitride passivation on the Si nanocluster -Er coupling and Er optical activity is investigated. Based on a comparison with Er doped Si-rich Si oxide (SRSO), breaking of nc-Si\\/Er coupling and Er de-activation in Si-rich Si nitride (SRSN) are strongly reduced.

Moon-Seung Yang; Kyung Joong Kim; J. H. Shin

2007-01-01

92

Multiple coulomb excitation of 167Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground-state rotational band in 167Er has been investigated through multiple Coulomb excitation with a 160 MeV 35Cl beam. Excited states up to 25/2+ were established by measuring ?? coincidences and ?-ray angular distributions. Gamma-gamma angular correlations were also measured. Nuclear lifetimes of levels up to spin 23/2 have been determined from Doppler-broadened ?-ray lineshapes, and B(M1) and B(E2) values of intra-band transitions deduced. Considerable signature dependence was observed for level energies and M1 transition probabilities. A Coriolis band-mixing calculation was carried our for comparison with the experimental results. The measured M1 transition probabilities are compared to calculations based on a particle-rotor model, a cranking model, and a microscopic model with quantum-number projection.

Ohshima, Masumi; Minehara, Eisuke; Ishii, Mitsuhiko; Inamura, Takashi; Hashizume, Akira

1985-04-01

93

Giant dipole resonances in excited Er isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The shape evolution of /sup 160/Er at high excitation energies was studied by measuring the giant dipole resonance following the heavy ion fusion reaction /sup 19/F+/sup 141/Pr at excitation energies of 59.2, 61.2, 74.3, and 90.3 MeV. The data analysis yields prolate, oblate, and triaxial solutions and without theoretical systematics none of them can be ruled out. Detailed comparison with theoretical predictions favor the prolate solution with a deformation decreasing from ..beta.. = 0.28 at 59.2 MeV to 0.24 at 90.3 MeV. No phase transition from a prolate to an oblate deformation was found in the temperature range (Tapprox.1.1--1.5 MeV) covered by this experiment.

Chakrabarty, D.R.; Thoennessen, M.; Sen, S.; Paul, P.; Butsch, R.; Herman, M.G.

1988-04-01

94

Performance of Pin Electrode ER Valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work concentrates on the development of an uncommon type of electrodes to be used in electrorheological devices. Rather than using electrodes with constant gap, pin electrodes are used, in order to achieve variation in the gap. The device described has pins running across the direction of the flow. The ER fluid moves through rows and columns of pin electrodes of different polarities. One of the main problems would be the development of the head pressure drop as the number of rows of pins increases. The work presents different configurations that could be constructed using pin electrodes. One of the configurations is developed and tested as to the pressure gradients that could be achieved when different magnitudes of electric potentials are applied. The results are compared to the ones obtained when two of the constructed modules are aligned one after the other for the tests.

Georgiades, G.; Oyadiji, S. O.

95

Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry  

PubMed Central

We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations.

Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

2006-01-01

96

Role of Codopants in Er Doped Si Material and Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this investigation was to determine the role of co- dopants in the effort to obtain useful EL from Er doped Si devices. One unforeseen difficulty was the essential role that co-dopants played in the simple epitaxial growth of Er doped Si mater...

W. Varhue

2001-01-01

97

Changing Consumer Food Prices: A User's Guide to ERS Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) uses different economic models to estimate the impact of higher input prices on consumer food prices. The present study compares three ERS models. In the first two models, neither consumers nor food producers respond to market prices. We refer to these two models as short-run models. In the third model, both consumers and food producers

Albert J. Reed; Kenneth Hanson; Howard Elitzak; Gerald E. Schluter

1997-01-01

98

Position control system using ER clutch and piezoactuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ultra precision positioning system consisting of electrorheological(ER) clutch and piezoelectric actuators using dual servo control mechanism. ER clutch and ball screw are adopted for a coarse positioning stage, and magnification device driven by multi-stack piezoelectric actuator is manufactured for a fine positioning stage. After deriving the dynamic modeling for coarse motion stage, a sliding mode controller is

Seung-Bok Choi; Sang-Soo Han

2003-01-01

99

Activation of PERK Signaling Attenuates Abeta-Mediated ER Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (A?), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including

Do Yeon Lee; Kyu-Sun Lee; Hyun Jung Lee; Do Hee Kim; Yoo Hun Noh; Kweon Yu; Hee-Yeon Jung; Sang Hyung Lee; Jun Young Lee; Young Chul Youn; Yoonhwa Jeong; Dae Kyong Kim; Won Bok Lee; Sung Su Kim; Mel B. Feany

2010-01-01

100

Mesoscale wind measurements using recalibrated ERS SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precision images (PRI) of the synthetic aperture radars (SAR) on board the European Remote Sensing Satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used to derive mesoscale wind fields over the ocean. For calculation of the wind speed the C- band model (CMOD4) is used, which was originally developed by Stoffelen and Anderson [1993] for the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive

S. Lehner; J. Horstmann; W. Koch; W. Rosenthal

1998-01-01

101

Completion report for Well ER-19-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of th...

1995-01-01

102

Electron Spin Resonance of Er in High Susceptibility Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic resonance of Er in dilute Pt and Pd based alloys is reported. Large negative g shifts in both hosts are inferred from the systematics of the hyperfine coupling, and the proportionality of Er and Gd g shifts to the host metal susceptibility of...

C. Rettori D. Davidov D. Shaltiel L. J. Tao R. Orbach

1971-01-01

103

The manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD2.  

SciTech Connect

Erbium dihydride Er(H,D,T){sub 2} is a fluorite structure rare-earth dihydride useful for the storage of hydrogen isotopes in the solid state. However, thermodynamic predictions indicate that erbium oxide formation will proceed readily during processing, which may detrimentally contaminate Er(H,D,T){sub 2} films. In this work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered TEM, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution TEM are used to examine the manifestation of oxygen contamination in ErD{sub 2} thin films. An oxide layer {approx}30-130 nm thick was found on top of the underlying ErD{sub 2} film, and showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial orientation to the underlying ErD{sub 2}. Electron diffraction confirmed the oxide layer to be Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. While the majority of the film was observed to have the expected fluorite structure for ErD{sub 2}, secondary diffraction spots suggested the possibility of either nanoscale oxide inclusions or hydrogen ordering. In situ heating experiments combined with electron diffraction ruled out the possibility of hydrogen ordering, so epitaxial oxide nanoinclusions within the ErD{sub 2} matrix are hypothesized. TEM techniques were applied to examine this oxide nanoinclusion hypothesis.

Snow, Clark Sheldon; Parish, Chad Michael; Brewer, Luke N.

2008-10-01

104

Optical Absorption Spectrum of ErCrO3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented is a study of the optical absorption spectrum of ErCrO3 as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Three types of processes are observed: (1) creation of a Cr(+3) R-line exciton, (2) excitation of the Kramers-split Er(+3) single-ion states...

R. S. Meltzer H. W. Moos

1970-01-01

105

Bioactive Dietary Supplements Reactivate ER Expression in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Active Chromatin Modifications  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Although tamoxifen therapy is successful for some patients, it does not provide adequate benefit for those who have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative cancers. Therefore, we approached novel treatment strategies by combining two potential bioactive dietary supplements for the reactivation of ER? expression for effective treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer with tamoxifen. Bioactive dietary supplements such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and sulforaphane (SFN) inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively, which are of central importance to cancer prevention. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer cells with GTPs and SFN alone or in combination leads to the reactivation of ER? expression. The combination of 20 µg/mL GTPs and 5 µM SFN was found to be the optimal dose of ER?-reactivation at 3 days in MDA-MB-231 cells. The reactivation of ER? expression was consistently correlated with ER? promoter hypomethylation and hyperacetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the ER? promoter revealed that GTPs and SFN altered the binding of ER?-transcriptional co-repressor complex thereby contributing to ER?-reactivation. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen in combination with GTPs and SFN significantly increased both cell death and inhibition of cellular proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells in comparison to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Collectively, our findings suggest that a novel combination of bioactive-HDAC inhibitors with bioactive-demethylating agents is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens.

Meeran, Syed M.; Patel, Shweta N.; Li, Yuanyuan; Shukla, Samriddhi; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

2012-01-01

106

Interaction between P2X3 and ER?/ER? in ATP-mediated calcium signaling in mice sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence support a role of purinergic P2X3 receptors in modulating nociceptive signaling in sensory neurons. Previously we showed that DRG neurons (L1-S1) express both ER? and ER? receptors. In this study we investigated the expression of P2X3 receptors and the effect of 17?-estradiol (E2) on ATP-induced [Ca2+]i increase in DRG neurons collected from C57Bl/6J, ER?KO and ER?KO mice. Our data showed a significant decrease for P2X3 in ER?KO (all levels) and ER?KO (mostly observed in L1, L2, L4, and L6). Furthermore, 17?-estradiol (100 nM) significantly attenuated the ATP (10 ?M)-induced [Ca2+]i in C57Bl/6J mice. ERs antagonist ICI 182,780 (1?M) blocked this attenuation. Homomeric P2X3 receptors are plentifully expressed in DRG neurons and contribute to nociceptive signals. ?,?-me ATP which is a specific agonist of P2X2/3 receptors showed similar responses to the ATP-induced calcium increase in knock-out mice. A membrane-impermeable E-6-BSA (1?M) had the same effect as E2 suggesting action on the membrane. In DRG neurons from ER?KO and WT miceE2 attenuated the ATP/?,?-me ATP-induced [Ca2+]i fluxes but in DRG neurons from ER?KO mice, this hormone had no effect suggesting that this attenuation depends on membrane-associated ER? receptors. Together our data indicate an interaction between P2X3 and membrane-associated ER? in primary sensory neurons that may represent a novel mechanism to explain sex differences observed in clinical presentation of visceral nociceptive syndromes.

Cho, Taehoon; Chaban, Victor V.

2011-01-01

107

Bioactive dietary supplements reactivate ER expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells by active chromatin modifications.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Although tamoxifen therapy is successful for some patients, it does not provide adequate benefit for those who have estrogen receptor (ER)-negative cancers. Therefore, we approached novel treatment strategies by combining two potential bioactive dietary supplements for the reactivation of ER? expression for effective treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer with tamoxifen. Bioactive dietary supplements such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and sulforaphane (SFN) inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively, which are of central importance to cancer prevention. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of ER?-negative breast cancer cells with GTPs and SFN alone or in combination leads to the reactivation of ER? expression. The combination of 20 µg/mL GTPs and 5 µM SFN was found to be the optimal dose of ER?-reactivation at 3 days in MDA-MB-231 cells. The reactivation of ER? expression was consistently correlated with ER? promoter hypomethylation and hyperacetylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of the ER? promoter revealed that GTPs and SFN altered the binding of ER?-transcriptional co-repressor complex thereby contributing to ER?-reactivation. In addition, treatment with tamoxifen in combination with GTPs and SFN significantly increased both cell death and inhibition of cellular proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells in comparison to treatment with tamoxifen alone. Collectively, our findings suggest that a novel combination of bioactive-HDAC inhibitors with bioactive-demethylating agents is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens. PMID:22662208

Meeran, Syed M; Patel, Shweta N; Li, Yuanyuan; Shukla, Samriddhi; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

2012-05-25

108

Phytoestrogen-mediated inhibition of proliferation of the human T47D breast cancer cells depends on the ER?\\/ER? ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the importance of the intracellular ratio of the two estrogen receptors ER? and ER? for the ultimate potential of the phytoestrogens genistein and quercetin to stimulate or inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This is of importance because (i) ER? has been postulated to play a role in modulating ER?-mediated cell proliferation, (ii) genistein and quercetin may be agonists

A. M. Sotoca; D. Ratman; P. van der Saag; A. Ström; J. A. Gustafsson; J. J. M. Vervoort; I. M. C. M. Rietjens; A. J. Murk

2008-01-01

109

SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: Calcium and ROS  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca2+ and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function.

Csordas, Gyorgy; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy

2009-01-01

110

GRP94 in ER Quality Control and Stress Responses  

PubMed Central

A system of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones has evolved to optimize the output of properly folded secretory and membrane proteins. An important player in this network is Glucose Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94). Over the last decade, new structural and functional data have begun to delineate the unique characteristics of GRP94 and have solidified its importance in ER quality control pathways. This review describes our current understanding of GRP94 and the four ways in which it contributes to the ER quality control: 1) chaperoning the folding of proteins; 2) interacting with other components of the ER protein folding machinery; 3) storing calcium; and 4) assisting in the targeting of malfolded proteins to ER associated degradation (ERAD).

Eletto, Davide; Dersh, Devin; Argon, Yair

2013-01-01

111

Linking ER Stress to Autophagy: Potential Implications for Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Different physiological and pathological conditions can perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to a condition known as ER stress. ER stress activates a complex intracellular signal transduction pathway, called unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is tailored essentially to reestablish ER homeostasis also through adaptive mechanisms involving the stimulation of autophagy. However, when persistent, ER stress can switch the cytoprotective functions of UPR and autophagy into cell death promoting mechanisms. Recently, a variety of anticancer therapies have been linked to the induction of ER stress in cancer cells, suggesting that strategies devised to stimulate its prodeath function or block its prosurvival function, could be envisaged to improve their tumoricidial action. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine the final outcome of UPR and autophagy activation by chemotherapeutic agents, will offer new opportunities to improve existing cancer therapies as well as unravel novel targets for cancer treatment.

Verfaillie, Tom; Salazar, Maria; Velasco, Guillermo; Agostinis, Patrizia

2010-01-01

112

COPII machinery cooperates with ER-localized Hsp40 to sequester misfolded membrane proteins into ER-associated compartments.  

PubMed

Proteins that fail to fold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Certain transmembrane ERAD substrates are segregated into specialized ER subdomains, termed ER-associated compartments (ERACs), before targeting to ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. The traffic-independent function of several proteins involved in COPII-mediated ER-to-Golgi transport have been implicated in the segregation of exogenously expressed human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into ERACs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we focus on the properties of COPII components in the sequestration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-CFTR into ERACs. It has been demonstrated that the temperature-sensitive growth defects in many COPII mutants can be suppressed by overexpressing other genes involved in COPII vesicle formation. However, we show that these suppression abilities are not always correlated with the ability to rescue the ERAC formation defect, suggesting that COPII-mediated EGFP-CFTR entry into ERACs is independent of its ER-to-Golgi trafficking function. In addition to COPII machinery, we find that ER-associated Hsp40s are also involved in the sequestration process by directly interacting with EGFP-CFTR. COPII components and ER-associated Hsp40, Hlj1p, act in the same pathway to sequester EGFP-CFTR into ERACs. Our findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs. PMID:23303252

Kakoi, Shogo; Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken

2013-01-09

113

The greater impact of menopause on ER– than ER+ breast cancer incidence: a possible explanation (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Analysis of 3359 Danish breast cancer cases indicated that menopause exerted a greater protective effect on estrogen- receptor negative (ER–) breast cancer than on estrogen- receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. We examined US age-specific breast cancer rates by hormone receptor status in white and black women and men to investigate this unexpected result. Methods: Age-specific breast cancer incidence rates

Robert E. Tarone; Kenneth C. Chu

2002-01-01

114

COPII machinery cooperates with ER-localized Hsp40 to sequester misfolded membrane proteins into ER-associated compartments  

PubMed Central

Proteins that fail to fold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Certain transmembrane ERAD substrates are segregated into specialized ER subdomains, termed ER-associated compartments (ERACs), before targeting to ubiquitin–proteasome degradation. The traffic-independent function of several proteins involved in COPII-mediated ER-to-Golgi transport have been implicated in the segregation of exogenously expressed human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) into ERACs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we focus on the properties of COPII components in the sequestration of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–CFTR into ERACs. It has been demonstrated that the temperature-sensitive growth defects in many COPII mutants can be suppressed by overexpressing other genes involved in COPII vesicle formation. However, we show that these suppression abilities are not always correlated with the ability to rescue the ERAC formation defect, suggesting that COPII-mediated EGFP-CFTR entry into ERACs is independent of its ER-to-Golgi trafficking function. In addition to COPII machinery, we find that ER-associated Hsp40s are also involved in the sequestration process by directly interacting with EGFP-CFTR. COPII components and ER-associated Hsp40, Hlj1p, act in the same pathway to sequester EGFP-CFTR into ERACs. Our findings point to an as-yet-undefined role of COPII proteins in the formation of ERACs.

Kakoi, Shogo; Yorimitsu, Tomohiro; Sato, Ken

2013-01-01

115

Abnormal expression and processing of keratins in pupoid fetus (pf/pf) and repeated epilation (Er/Er) mutant mice  

PubMed Central

The pupoid fetus (pf) and repeated epilation (Er) mutations of mice result in a failure of epidermal differentiation in homozygotes. Expression of the epidermal keratins has been followed in pf/pf and Er/Er mice by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting using polyclonal antibodies that are monospecific for individual keratin polypeptides. Our results show that expression of the differentiation-specific keratins (K1 and K10) is delayed in both the pf/pf and Er/Er mutants and that, when these keratins do appear later in development, they are localized in the deeper layers of the thickened mutant epidermis. Conversely, K6 and K16, two keratins found in low abundance in normal epidermis, are abundant in mutant epidermis. In newborn mutant epidermis, K6 and K16 are found to be most abundant in the outermost epidermal cells, a distribution opposite to that of K1 and K10. These findings suggest that the expression of these hyperplastic keratins in mutant mice may occur to the exclusion of the differentiation-specific keratins both during development and in newborn animals. Differentiation, and an apparently normal pattern of keratin expression, occur when whole pf/pf or Er/Er skin is grafted to normal mice. These results suggest that the pf and Er genes may be expressed systemically and that transfer of the mutant skin to a "normal" environment results in the recovery of a normal phenotype.

1987-01-01

116

Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) mRNA copy numbers in immunohistochemically ER?-positive-, and negative breast cancer tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The presence of ER? is the basis for treating breast cancer patients with targeted molecular therapies that block estrogen stimulation of breast cancer cell division. To select patients for the above therapies, currently, the ER? presence in breast cancer tissues is determined in clinical laboratories by microscopically scoring the slides subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC). This method is not quantitative,

Indira Poola; Qingqi Yue

2007-01-01

117

Phase separation growth of Er2SiO5 thin film in Si-rich ErSiO preform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ErSiO crystalline compounds such as erbium silicates (Er2Si2O7 and Er2SiO5) and Er2O3 have been attracting attention as the new light source material for silicon photonics. In our previous reports, several results indicated that the ErSiO crystalline compound was non-stoichiometry (Er:Si:O=1:2:2.4) and showed carrier mediated excitation. In our later study, however, it has been found the ErSiO crystalline compound contains Er2SiO5 (PDF#52-1809) crystalline matrix. ErSiO compounds made from the sol-gel solution of Er:Si=1:2 and Er:Si=2:1 show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak patterns are in good agreement with the Er2SiO5. Rutherford back scattering (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results for the ErSiO compounds also show phase separation of Er2SiO5 and SiO2. SiO2-rich Er2O3-SiO2 systems usually show phase separation of Er2Si2O7 and SiO2 but this system behaves in a different manner. Furthermore, bulk Er2SiO5 emits light only by direct excitation of Er. From PL excitation (PLE) measurements, the indirect excitation emission observed in the Si-rich non-stoichiometric ErSiO compound is considered due to Er2SiO5 crystallites embedded in SiOx, which can be formed by the phase separation.

Isshiki, H.; Oe, M.; Samejima, T.; Ushiyama, T.; Kimura, T.

2009-05-01

118

Auger de-excitation of different Er centers in Si:Er layers grown with sublimation molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Auger de-excitation of erbium ions in sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) grown Si:Er/Si layers differing in the type of Er centers is investigated. In layers with the precipitate-like emitting centers (Tgr ˜ 500 °C) the Auger de-excitation of Er3+ ions depends on the ionization of donors with the ionization energy Ei ˜ 38 meV and a concentration of about 1?·?1016 cm-3, whereas in layers with the Er-O1 centers (Tgr ˜ 400 °C) it is determined by the ionization of donors having a lower ionization energy Ei ˜ 20 meV and a higher concentration of ˜2?·?1017 cm-3. It is shown that the compensation ratio of SMBE grown n-Si:Er layers with the precipitate-like emitting centers reaches 10% and more. The nature of the compensating impurity has not been identified.

Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shmagin, V. B.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

2012-10-01

119

Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.  

PubMed

Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers. PMID:22413290

Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

2011-11-01

120

Comparing Efficiency and Root Surface Morphology After Scaling with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Lasers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the root morphology of teeth and efficiency of scaling after using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Thirty-two periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. The border of an appropriate calculus was marked using a diamond bur on each tooth, and the calculus was divided into two almost equal parts. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, power of 1 W, and energy density of 17.7 J/cm2 and an Er:YAG laser with pulse energy of 200 mJ, power of 2.4 W, and energy density of 21 J/cm2 were used to remove the calculus. The time for scaling was recorded for each group, and using stereomicroscopic analysis, the calculus remnant, carbonization, and number of craters were investigated. The mean time required for calculus removal in the Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser groups was 15.22 ± 6.18 seconds and 7.12 ± 4.11 seconds, respectively. The efficiency of calculus removal in the Er:YAG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group. Under stereomicroscope examination, no carbonization or remaining calculus was found in samples from either group, but all samples had craters. The number of craters in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er:YAG laser group. According to the parameters used and limitations of this study, there was no significant difference in efficiency per power for calculus removal between the two groups. PMID:24116368

Etemadi, Ardavan; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Razavi, Fahime; Aoki, Akira; Azad, Reza Fekr; Chiniforush, Nasim

121

Quantitative profiles of the mRNAs of ER-? and its novel variant ER-?36 in breast cancers and matched normal tissues*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The novel estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) variant ER-?36 is reported to be functional in the estrogen signaling pathway and is related to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. However, ER-?36 tends to be a favorable factor for survival in patients without tamoxifen therapy. To investigate the mechanisms behind this paradox, we determined the differences between the transcriptional profiles of ER-?36 and full-length ER-? (ER-?66) in breast cancers and matched normal tissues. Methods: We analyzed ER-?36 and ER-?66 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 74 pairs of breast cancers and matched normal tissues using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and correlated the results with their clinicopathological characteristics. Results: Breast cancers expressed lower ER-?36 mRNA levels than matched normal tissues regardless of their ER-?66 expression status. Down-regulation of ER-?36 mRNA was correlated with local progression, lymph node metastasis, and advanced cancer stage. The level of ER-?66 mRNA was lower in ER-? negative breast cancers compared with matched normal tissues. No differences in ER-?66 mRNA levels were observed during cancer progression. Conclusion: Down-regulation of ER-?36 is associated with carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer.

Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhen-zhen; Sheng, Jian-ming; Zhang, Xiao-chen; Wang, Hao-hao; Teng, Xiao-dong; Liu, Xiao-jiao; Cao, Jiang; Teng, Li-song

2010-01-01

122

ER Calcium and Alzheimer's Disease: In a State of Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive either to the lipid messenger inositol trisphosphate(IP3) or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Presenilin-1 (PS1) is an integral membrane protein in the ER; mutations in PS1 that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release and also enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.

Mark P. Mattson (Baltimore;National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program REV)

2010-03-23

123

ER Calcium and Alzheimer's Disease: In a State of Flux  

PubMed Central

The calcium ion (Ca2+) plays fundamental roles in orchestrating dynamic changes in the function and structure of nerve cell circuits in the brain. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a particularly intriguing organelle that actively removes Ca2+ from the cytoplasm, and can release stored Ca2+ through ER membrane receptor channels responsive to either the lipid messenger IP3 or to cytosolic Ca2+. Emerging findings suggest that perturbed ER Ca2+ homeostasis contributes to the dysfunction and degeneration of neurons that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, mutations in presenilin-1 (PS1) (an integral membrane protein in the ER of neurons) that cause early-onset inherited AD increase the pool of ER Ca2+ available for release, and enhance Ca2+ release through ER IP3- and ryanodine-sensitive channels. By enhancing Ca2+ flux across the ER membrane, PS1 mutations may exaggerate Ca2+ signaling in synaptic terminals and thereby render them vulnerable to dysfunction and degeneration in the settings of aging and amyloid accumulation in AD.

Mattson, Mark P.

2011-01-01

124

Neonatal agonism of ER? impairs male reproductive behavior and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

The organization of the developing male rodent brain is profoundly influenced by endogenous steroids, most notably estrogen. This process may be disrupted by estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) resulting in altered sex behavior and the capacity to attract a mate in adulthood. To better understand the relative role each estrogen receptor (ER) subtype (ER? and ER?) plays in mediating these effects, we exposed male Long Evans rats to estradiol benzoate (EB, 10 ?g), vehicle, or agonists specific for ER? (DPN, 1 mg/kg) or ER? (PPT, 1 mg/kg) daily for the first four days of life, and then assessed adult male reproductive behavior and attractiveness via a partner preference paradigm. DPN had a greater adverse impact than PPT on reproductive behavior, suggesting a functional role for ER? in the organization of these male-specific behaviors. Therefore the impact of neonatal ER? agonism was further investigated by repeating the experiment using vehicle, EB and additional DPN doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg bw). Exposure to DPN suppressed male reproductive behavior and attractiveness in a dose dependent manner. Finally, males were exposed to EB or an environmentally relevant dose of genistein (GEN, 10 mg/kg), a naturally occurring xenoestrogen, which has a higher relative binding affinity for ER? than ER?. Sexual performance was impaired by GEN but not attractiveness. In addition to suppressing reproductive behavior and attractiveness, EB exposure significantly lowered the testis to body weight ratio, and circulating testosterone levels. DPN and GEN exposure only impaired behavior, suggesting that disrupted androgen secretion does not underlie the impairment.

Sullivan, Alana W.; Hamilton, Peter; Patisaul, Heather B.

2011-01-01

125

Differential regulation of dopaminergic gene expression by Er81  

PubMed Central

A recent study proposed that differentiation of dopaminergic neurons requires a conserved “dopamine motif” (DA-motif) that functions as a binding site for ETS DNA binding domain transcription factors. In the mammalian olfactory bulb, the expression of a set of five genes (including tyrosine hydroxylase, Th) that are necessary for differentiation of dopaminergic neurons was suggested to be regulated by the ETS-domain transcription factor ER81 via the DA-motif. To investigate this putative regulatory role of ER81, expression levels of these five genes were compared both in olfactory bulbs of adult wild-type mice subjected to unilateral naris closure and in the olfactory bulbs of neonatal Er81 wild-type and mutant mice. These studies found that ER81 was necessary only for Th expression, and not the other cassette genes. ChIP and EMSA experiments showed that ER81 bound directly to a consensus binding site/DA-motif in the rodent Th proximal promoter. However, the ER81 binding site/DA-motif in the Th proximal promoter is poorly conserved in other mammals. Both ChIP assays with canine OB tissue and EMSA experiments with the human Th proximal promoter did not detect ER81 binding to the Th DA-motif from these species. These results suggest that regulation of Th expression by the direct binding of ER81 to the Th promoter is a species-specific mechanism. These findings indicate that ER81 is not necessary for expression of the OB dopaminergic gene cassette, and that the DA-motif is not involved in differentiation of the mammalian OB dopaminergic phenotype.

Cave, John W.; Akiba, Yosuke; Banerjee, Kasturi; Bhosle, Shivraj; Berlin, RoseAnn; Baker, Harriet

2010-01-01

126

ERS: Economic Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Economic Research Service (ERS) is one of four agencies in the Research, Education, and Economics (REE) Mission Area of the US Department of Agriculture addressing issues of efficiency, efficacy and equity in agriculture and rural development. Recently, ERS has relaunched their site, emphasizing ease of accessibility to publications such as research reports, periodicals, maps, photos and fact sheets to view or download (.pdf format). ERS also provides email, fax, and phone numbers of subject specialists for direct research questions, and a "What's New" menu gives calendars of up-coming titles.

1998-01-01

127

Optimization of Yb-Er microchip laser parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Output parameters of microchip lasers based on Yb:Er co-doped phosphate glasses have been numerically calculated using a simplified 4-level model in order to optimize the Yb and Er concentrations and active medium length. It was shown that active media with Yb concentration ~2·1027 m-3 and length of the order of 1 mm were most appropriate to obtain the practically maximum slope efficiency and minimum threshold power. Simulation results indicated that the Er concentration could be much lower than those currently used in practice. The obtained results were in good agreement with available experimental data.

Burov, L. I.; Krylova, L. G.

2012-07-01

128

The distributions of the duplicate oestrogen receptors ER-?a and ER-?b in the forebrain of the Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus): evidence for subfunctionalization after gene duplication  

PubMed Central

Teleost fishes have three distinct oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes: ER-?, ER-?a (or ER-?) and ER-?b. ER-?a and ER-?b arose from a duplication of an ancestral ER-? gene early in the teleost lineage. Here, we describe the distribution of the three ER mRNAs in the hypothalamus and cerebellum of the Atlantic croaker to address two issues: the specific functions of multiple ERs in the neuroendocrine system and the evolution and fate of duplicated genes. ER-? was detected in nuclei of the preoptic area (POA) and hypothalamus previously shown to possess ER-?s in teleosts. AcER-?b, but not ER-?a, labelling was detected in the magnocellular neurons of the POA, nucleus posterior tuberis, the nucleus recessus posterior and cerebellum. By contrast, acER-?a, but not ER-?b, was detected in the dorsal anterior parvocellular POA and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Both ER-?s were found in posterior parvocellular and ventral anterior POA nuclei, the ventral hypothalamus, and periventricular dorsal hypothalamus. The differences we observed in ER subtype mRNA distribution within well-characterized brain nuclei suggest that ER-?a and ER-?b have distinct functions in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction and behaviour, and provide evidence that the teleost ER-? paralogues have partitioned functions of the ancestral ER-? gene they shared with tetrapods.

Hawkins, M.B; Godwin, J; Crews, D; Thomas, P

2005-01-01

129

FFAT rescues VAPA-mediated inhibition of ER-to-Golgi transport and VAPB-mediated ER aggregation  

PubMed Central

Summary The VAMP-associated proteins termed VAP are a small gene family of proteins characterised by the presence of an N-terminal major sperm protein (MSP) domain. The P56S mutation of the B isoform (VAPB) has been linked to late-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS8) and its expression causes formation of large ER aggregates. Overexpression of the wild-type A isoform (VAPA) but not the B isoform (VAPB), inhibited ER-to-Golgi transport of membrane proteins. This transport block by VAPA was primarily due to decreased segregation of membrane cargo into ER vesicles. We also found that VAPA inhibited lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, most likely through its stable association with microtubules. The MSP domain of VAP is known to interact with the FFAT motif (two phenylalanines in an acidic tract) of proteins involved in sterol regulation. Overexpression of FFAT restored ER-to-Golgi transport and lateral diffusion of membrane proteins, and resolved the large ER aggregates in VAPB-P56S. Application of a FFAT peptide restored in vitro ER vesicle budding and disrupted VAP-microtubule association. Thus, overexpression of the two VAP isoforms causes retention of ER membrane proteins by impeding lateral diffusion and their incorporation into transport vesicles. This inhibitory effect can be relieved by expression of the FFAT motif.

Prosser, Derek C.; Tran, Duvinh; Gougeon, Pierre-Yves; Verly, Carine; Ngsee, Johnny K.

2010-01-01

130

Absorption and photoluminescence properties of Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses  

SciTech Connect

Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses with various concentrations of Er and Yb were fabricated. The absorption and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured and analyzed. For the Er- doped soda-slilicate glasses, the optimum Er concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm turns out to be 0.5 at. %, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectrum increases from 18 to 26 nm, with the increase of the concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 at. %. The PL intensity of Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate glasses with an Er concentration of 0.5 at. % is enhanced approximately by four times, and the optimum Yb concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm is analyzed to be 3.0 at. %. The PL spectrum becomes broader with increasing the Yb concentration, up to a FWHM of 80 nm at 6.0 at. %. Yb. The relation between the absorption and PL spectra, together with the mechanism of PL broadening, has also been addressed.

Li, S.F.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Lee, Y.P. [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quantum Photonic Science Research Center and Department of Physics, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-11-01

131

Exploiting MEK inhibitor-mediated activation of ER? for therapeutic intervention in ER-positive ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

While the clinical benefit of MEK inhibitor (MEKi)-based therapy is well established in Raf mutant malignancies, its utility as a suppressor of hyperactive MAPK signaling in the absence of mutated Raf or Ras, is an area of ongoing research. MAPK activation is associated with loss of ER? expression and hormonal resistance in numerous malignancies. Herein, we demonstrate that MEKi induces a feedback response that results in ER? overexpression, phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of ER-regulated genes. Mechanistically, MEKi-mediated ER? overexpression is largely independent of erbB2 and AKT feedback activation, but is ERK-dependent. We subsequently exploit this phenomenon therapeutically by combining the ER-antagonist, fulvestrant with MEKi. This results in synergistic suppression of tumor growth, in vitro and potentiation of single agent activity in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts. Thus, we demonstrate that exploiting adaptive feedback after MEKi can be used to sensitize ER?-positive tumors to hormonal therapy, and propose that this strategy may have broader clinical utility in ER?-positive ovarian carcinoma. PMID:23390495

Hou, June Y; Rodriguez-Gabin, Alicia; Samaweera, Leleesha; Hazan, Rachel; Goldberg, Gary L; Horwitz, Susan Band; McDaid, Hayley M

2013-02-04

132

Estradiol and ER? agonists enhance recognition memory, and DPN, an ER? agonist, alters brain monoamines  

PubMed Central

Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ER?-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER?-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4 h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2–4 h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ER? contributes to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60–130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40–80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER? mediates sub chronic and acute effects of estrogens on recognition memory and that memory enhancements by DPN may occur, in part, through alterations in monoaminergic containing systems primarily in PFC and hippocampus.

Jacome, Luis F.; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S.; Luine, Victoria

2010-01-01

133

Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin  

SciTech Connect

A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2007-01-05

134

Return of collective rotation in 157Er and 158Er at ultrahigh spin.  

PubMed

A new frontier of discrete-line gamma-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei (157,158) Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin approximately 65 variant Planck's over 2pi and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at approximately 45 variant Planck's over 2pi. Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in (161-167) Lu. PMID:17358470

Paul, E S; Twin, P J; Evans, A O; Pipidis, A; Riley, M A; Simpson, J; Appelbe, D E; Campbell, D B; Choy, P T W; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Fallon, P; Görgen, A; Joss, D T; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; Nolan, P J; Ward, D; Ragnarsson, I

2007-01-05

135

Dynamics of induced dipole ER fluid: a continuous energetic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied dynamics of Electrorheological (ER) fluid by continuum induced dipole fluid method [1]. We found that the velocity profile of ER fluid increases in high shear-rate region and solid particles are separated from colloid in high electric field. These findings demonstrated the breakdown of Bingham fluid model under high shear-rate and high electric field. Our continuum approach describes ER fluid's behaviors under most conditions. We also found that the shift of maximum shear stress under different electric field follows the same trend as that of the maximum static stress. This indicates that the static and dynamic stresses are both dominated by the same energetic process. A connection between micro-particles' structures and macro-dynamic properties under varying conditions is established by our continuum method. Our studies probe the physics of induced dipole ER fluid. [4pt] [1] Jianwei Zhang, Xiuqing Gong, Chun Liu, Weijia Wen, and Ping Sheng, Physical Review Letters 101, 194503, 2008.

Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Jiaxi

2011-03-01

136

FDA Approves Zohydro ER and Responds to CLAAD Citizen ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... has approved Zohydro ER, the first extended-release, single-entity hydrocodone ... analgesic class safety labeling changes and will be subject to the ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/informationbydrugclass

137

Telemedicine Improves Care for Kids Seen in Rural ERs  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Telemedicine improves care for kids seen in rural ERs (*this news item will ... Reuters Health. "It's a great way to leverage technology to improve the quality of care that we ...

138

Regulation of coat assembly- sorting things out at the ER  

PubMed Central

Summary of Recent Advances The small GTPase Sar1 resides at the core of a regulatory cycle that controls protein export from the ER in COPII vesicles. Recent advances in minimally reconstituted systems indicate continual flux of Sar1 through GTPase cycles facilitates cargo concentration into forming vesicles that ultimately bud from membranes. During export from ER membranes, this GTPase cycle is harnessed through the combinatorial power of multiple coat subunits and cargo adaptors to sort an expanding array of proteins into ER-derived vesicles. The COPII budding machinery is further organized into higher-order structures at transitional zones on the ER surface where the large multi-domain Sec16 protein appears to perform a central function.

Miller, Elizabeth A.; Barlowe, Charles

2010-01-01

139

Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the magnetic behavior of the nanocrystalline form of a well-known Laves phase compound, ErCo2—the bulk form of which has been known to undergo an interesting first-order ferrimagnetic ordering near 32 K—synthesized by high-energy ball-milling. It is found that, in these nanocrystallites, Co exhibits ferromagnetic order at room temperature, as inferred from the magnetization data. However, the magnetic transition temperature for the Er sub-lattice remains essentially unaffected suggesting the (Er)4f-Co(3d) coupling is weak on Er magnetism. The net magnetic moment as measured at high fields, for example at 120 kOe, is significantly reduced with respect to that for the bulk in the ferrimagnetically ordered state and possible reasons are outlined for this. We have also compared the magnetocaloric behavior for the bulk and for nanoparticles.

Das, Sitikantha D.; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K.; Bapat, R. D.; Sampathkumaran, E. V.

2009-07-01

140

Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ErCo(2).  

PubMed

We have investigated the magnetic behavior of the nanocrystalline form of a well-known Laves phase compound, ErCo(2)-the bulk form of which has been known to undergo an interesting first-order ferrimagnetic ordering near 32 K-synthesized by high-energy ball-milling. It is found that, in these nanocrystallites, Co exhibits ferromagnetic order at room temperature, as inferred from the magnetization data. However, the magnetic transition temperature for the Er sub-lattice remains essentially unaffected suggesting the (Er)4f-Co(3d) coupling is weak on Er magnetism. The net magnetic moment as measured at high fields, for example at 120 kOe, is significantly reduced with respect to that for the bulk in the ferrimagnetically ordered state and possible reasons are outlined for this. We have also compared the magnetocaloric behavior for the bulk and for nanoparticles. PMID:21828543

Das, Sitikantha D; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K; Bapat, R D; Sampathkumaran, E V

2009-07-03

141

Griffiths phase and parimagnetism in ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study of the paramagnetic phase of ErCo2 has recently allowed to identify the inversion of the net magnetization of the Co net moment with respect to the applied field well above the ferrimagnetic ordering temperature, TC. This phenomenon, which we have denoted parimagnetism, may be related with the onset of a Griffiths-like phase in paramagnetic ErCo2. We have measured SANS and ac susceptibility on ErCo2 as a function of temperature, applied field, and excitation frequency. Several characteristics shared by systems showing a Griffiths phase are present in ErCo2, namely the formation of ferromagnetic clusters in the disordered phase, the loss of analyticity of the magnetic susceptibility and its extreme sensitivity to an applied field. Our XMCD study of the Co magnetic moment flipping process show the ocurrence of a pseudo-violation of the third Hund's rule at the para- to parimagnetic ``transition''.

Bartolome, Fernando; Garcia, Luis M.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Young, Anthony T.; Funk, Tobias

2008-03-01

142

ER Docs Can Tell Difference Between Stroke and Bell's Palsy  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. ER Docs Can Tell Difference Between Stroke and Bell's Palsy Some symptoms, such as facial ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Bell's Palsy Emergency Medical Services Stroke THURSDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Symptoms of Bell's ...

143

ER 101: 10 Things Emergency Physicians Want You to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... might be helping ER staff save a life. Wait times can be long Every emergency physician feels your ... These changes have caused a significant increase in wait times. You might need another specialist Sometimes emergency physicians ...

144

The role of ER stress-induced apoptosis in neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

Post-mortem analyses of human brain tissue samples from patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders have demonstrated dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A common characteristic of the aforementioned disorders is the intracellular accumulation and aggregation of proteins due to genetic mutations or exogenous factors, leading to the activation of a stress mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). This mechanism aims to restore cellular homeostasis, however, if prolonged, can trigger pro-apoptotic signals, which are thought to contribute to neuronal cell death. The authors present evidence to support the role of ER stress-induced apoptosis in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and further examine the interplay between ER dyshomeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction, and the function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in the intricate relationship between the two organelles. Possible treatments for neurodegenerative diseases that are based on combating ER stress are finally presented. PMID:22299619

Stefani, Ioanna C; Wright, Daniel; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

2012-03-01

145

Medicaid Patients Behind Jump in California ER Visits, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Medicaid Patients Behind Jump in California ER Visits, Study Finds Number of adults treated ... rise in emergency department visits by adults in California with Medicaid coverage, according to researchers. Emergency department ...

146

Use of ERS-1 Scatterometer Winds in Canadian Forecast Centres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current and future use of ERS-1 scatterometer data at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in Montreal and at regional forecast centers is described. Scatterometer data are received at CMC, decoded, filtered, and retransmitted as pseudo ship codes...

P. King

1993-01-01

147

Snow and Glacier Investigations by ERS-1 SAR: First Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The backscattering behavior of snow and glacier ice was investigated using 12 ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) scenes acquired over the test site Otztal in the Austrian Alps between Apr. and Oct. 1992. Significant temporal changes of the backscatterin...

H. Rott T. Nagler

1993-01-01

148

Measurement of Er:YAG laser ablation plume dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of tissue ablation using an Er:YAG laser were studied using flash photography and optical pump-probe techniques. Both normal-spiking-mode and Q-switched Er:YAG laser radiation were used to study the ablation of skin and bone. Time-resolved photographs of the ablation plume were obtained using a microscope-mounted camera together with pulsed illumination from an excimer-pumped dye laser. The velocity of the

J. T. Walsh; T. F. Deutsch

1991-01-01

149

Integrating the ER Approach in an OO Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We translate Entity-Relationship (ER) schemas into the object-oriented specification language TROLL light. This language describes the Universe of Discourse (UoD) as a system of concurrently existing and interacting objects, i.e., an object community. Thereby two essential aspects, structure and behavior, are integrated in one formalism. By doing the translation from ER to TROLL light we preserve the visual advantages of

Martin Gogolla; Rudolf Herzig; Stefan Conrad; Grit Denker; Nikolaos Vlachantonis

1993-01-01

150

The ER Behavior of Surface Modified Complex Strontium Titanate Suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ER behavior of the water-free complex strontium titanate(STO) particles, which were synthesized by means of sol-gel technique with surface modification dispersed in silicone oil, was investigated systematically. It is found that this fluid has attractive ER properties with high shear stress, low leakage current, wide dynamic range in both temperature and shear rate, as well as good antisettling character.

Zhang, Yuling; Zhang, Shaohua; Lu, Kunquan

151

Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5?m, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330

B. Svecova; P. Nekvindova; A. Mackova; J. Oswald; J. Vacik; R. Grötzschel; J. Spirkova

2009-01-01

152

Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er 3+-doped tellurite glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped tellurite glasses (TeO2–ZnO–Na2O3: Er3+ (TZNE)) were elaborated from the melt-quenching method. Various spectroscopic parameters were obtained to evaluate their dependence and the potential of the samples as a laser material in the eye-safe laser wavelength (1.53?m) as a function of the Er3+ concentration. The dependence of infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra on doping concentration shows a quenching of the PL

I. Jlassi; H. Elhouichet; M. Ferid; R. Chtourou; M. Oueslati

2010-01-01

153

Comparison of laser phacovaporization using the Er:YAG and the Er:YSGG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future advances in cataract surgery aim to remove the crystalline lens through a small opening such that the capsular bag, once devoid of lens epithelial cells, may be refilled with a clear polymer which may exhibit the elastic properties of a young lens and restore accommodation. Several different lasers are currently being investigated for laser cataract surgery including the excimer, pulsed visible and short infrared, and mid infrared lasers. Taking advantage of the strong water absorption peak at 2.94 micrometers , we have investigated the laser tissue interaction of the Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) and Er:YSGG (2.79 micrometers ) which have water absorption coefficients of 13,000 cm-1 and 7,000 cm-1, respectively. We have devised a delivery system which measures the ablation time versus radiant energy through a known thickness on a lens nucleus in free air for these two wavelengths. The current presentation compares the ablation rates versus radiant exposure of these two lasers in human lens nuclei. We also show the histopathology from ablated lenses of these two different wavelengths at different radiant exposures. Integration with fiberoptics and clinical applications is discussed.

Gailitis, Raymond P.; Patterson, Scott W.; Samuels, Mark A.; Hagen, Kerry B.; Ren, Qiushi; Waring, George O.

1992-08-01

154

Alleviation of seipinopathy-related ER stress by triglyceride storage.  

PubMed

Mutations affecting the N-glycosylation site in Berardinelli-Seip lipodystrophy (BSCL)-associated gene BSCL2/seipin lead to a dominantly inherited spastic paraplegia termed seipinopathy. While the loss of function of seipin leads to severe congenital lipodystrophy, the effects of seipin N-glycosylation mutations on lipid balance in the nervous system are unknown. In this study, we show that expression of seipin N-glycosylation mutant N88S led to decreased triglyceride (TG) content in astrocytoma and motor neuron cell lines. This was corrected by supplementation with exogenous oleic acid. Upon oleic acid loading, seipin N88S protein was relocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the surface of lipid droplets and this was paralleled by alleviation of ER stress induced by the mutant protein. This effect was not limited to seipin N88S, as oleic acid loading also reduced tunicamycin-induced ER stress in motor neuron cells. Furthermore, both seipin N88S and tunicamycin-induced ER stress were decreased by inhibiting lipolysis, suggesting that lipid droplets protected neuronal cells from ER stress. In developing zebrafish larvae, seipin N88S expression led to TG imbalance and reduced spontaneous free swimming. Importantly, supplementation with exogenous oleic acid reduced ER stress in the zebrafish head and increased fish motility. We propose that the decreased TG content contributes to the pathology induced by seipin N88S, and that rescuing TG levels may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in seipinopathy. PMID:23250914

Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Salo, Veijo T; Ohsaki, Yuki; Suster, Maximiliano L; Ikonen, Elina

2012-12-18

155

Spectroscopic properties of Nd, Er codoped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of Er doped and Nd, Er codoped fluoride glasses were investigated under illumination of the simulated sunlight, laser or a monochromatic light filtered from a Xe lamp. Er was used as a sensitizing agent enhancing the energy conversion and the emission efficiency of Nd ions in fluoride glass intended for the sunlight excitation. Er doped

Shintaro Mizuno; Hiroshi Ito; Kazuo Hasegawa; Hiroyuki Kawai; Hiroyuki Nasu; Mark A. Hughes; Takenobu Suzuki; Yasutake Ohishi

2011-01-01

156

The plant ER-Golgi interface: a highly structured and dynamic membrane complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

As compared with other eukaryotic cells, plants have developed an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi in- terface with very specific structural characteristics. ER to Golgi and Golgi to ER transport appear not to be dependent on the cytoskeleton, and ER export sites have been found closely associated with Golgi bodies to constitute entire mobile units. However, the molec- ular machinery involved in

Patrick Moreau; Federica Brandizzi; Sally Hanton; Laurent Chatre; Su Melser; Chris Hawes; Beatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre

2010-01-01

157

Reconstitution of Retrograde Transport from the Golgi to the ER In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER is an essential process. Resident ER proteins that escape the ER and proteins that cycle between the Golgi and the ER must be retrieved. The interdepen- dence of anterograde and retrograde vesicle trafficking makes the dissection of both processes difficult in vivo. We have developed an in vitro system that measures the

Anne Spang; Randy Schekman

1998-01-01

158

20 CFR 234.47 - Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. 234.47 Section 234.47 Employees...Election of the RLS by a widow(er) or parent. (a) An RLS cannot be paid if...to anyone other than a widow(er) or parent. A widow(er) or parent can...

2013-04-01

159

The unfolded protein response: controlling cell fate decisions under ER stress and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a salient feature of specialized secretory cells and is also involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a homeostatic signalling network that orchestrates the recovery of ER function, and failure to adapt to ER stress results in apoptosis.

Claudio Hetz

2012-01-01

160

ERs Associate with and Regulate the Production of Caveolin: Implications for Signaling and Cellular Actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence supports the existence of a plasma membrane ER. In many cells, E2 activates signal transduction and cell proliferation, but the steroid inhibits signaling and growth in other cells. These effects may be related to interactions of ER with signal-modulating proteins in the membrane. It is also unclear how ER moves to the membrane. Here, we demonstrate ER in

MAHNAZ RAZANDI; PHILIP OH; ALI PEDRAM; JAN SCHNITZER; ELLIS R. LEVIN

2002-01-01

161

Upconversion luminescence in Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ codoped zirconia and hafnia nanocrystals excited at 980 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency upconversion (UC) luminescence in nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) and hafnia (HfO2) doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ was studied under continuous-wave excitation at 980 nm. Samples of ZrO2:Er3+, ZrO2:Er3+/Yb3+, and HfO2:Er3+/Yb3+ were prepared by the sol-gel technique and characterized using x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. A study of the infrared-to-green and infrared-to-red UC processes was performed including the analysis of the spectral and the temporal behavior. The mechanisms contributing to the UC luminescence were identified as excited state absorption and energy transfer among rare-earth ions.

Gómez, Luis A.; Menezes, Leonardo De S.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Gonçalves, Rogeria R.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Messaddeq, Younes

2010-06-01

162

Progression of mouse skin carcinogenesis is associated with increased ER? levels and is repressed by a dominant negative form of ER?.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ER), namely ER? and ER?, are hormone-activated transcription factors with an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the implication of ER? in skin cancer, using chemically-induced mouse skin tumours, as well as cell lines representing distinct stages of mouse skin oncogenesis. First, using immunohistochemical staining we showed that ER? is markedly increased in aggressive mouse skin tumours in vivo as compared to the papilloma tumours, whereas ER? levels are low and become even lower in the aggressive spindle tumours of carcinogen-treated mice. Then, using the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model, we showed that ER? gradually increases during promotion and progression stages of mouse skin carcinogenesis, peaking at the most aggressive stage, whereas ER? levels only slightly change throughout skin carcinogenesis. Stable transfection of the aggressive, spindle CarB cells with a dominant negative form of ER? (dnER?) resulted in reduced ER? levels and reduced binding to estrogen responsive elements (ERE)-containing sequences. We characterized two highly conserved EREs on the mouse ER? promoter through which dnER? decreased endogenous ER? levels. The dnER?-transfected CarB cells presented altered protein levels of cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules, slower growth rate and impaired anchorage-independent growth in vitro, whereas they gave smaller tumours with extended latency period of tumour onset in vivo. Our findings suggest an implication of ER? in the aggressiveness of spindle mouse skin cancer cells, possibly through regulation of genes affecting cell shape and adhesion, and they also provide hints for the effective targeting of spindle cancer cells by dnER?. PMID:22870269

Logotheti, Stella; Papaevangeliou, Dimitra; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Sideridou, Maria; Tsimaratou, Katerina; Christodoulou, Ioannis; Pyrillou, Katerina; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Vlahopoulos, Spiros; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis

2012-08-03

163

Genistein modulates oxidative stress in breast cancer cell lines according to ER?/ER? ratio: effects on mitochondrial functionality, sirtuins, uncoupling protein 2 and antioxidant enzymes.  

PubMed

Genistein is a biologically active isoflavone with estrogenic activity and can be found in a variety of soy products. This natural compound displays a wide array of biological activities, but it is best known for its ability to inhibit cancer progression, especially for hormone-related ones such as breast cancer. Genistein has been shown to bind both the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and the estrogen receptor beta (ER?), although it has a higher affinity for the ER?. The ER?/ER? ratio is a prognostic marker for breast tumors, and ER? expression could indicate the presence of tumors more benign in state, whereas ER? indicates malignant tumors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of genistein on oxidative stress and mitochondrial functionality through its interaction with the estrogen receptor in breast cancer cell lines with different ER?/ER? ratios. The lower ER?/ER? ratio T47D cell line showed lower oxidative stress and greater mitochondrial functionality, along with an up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2 and sirtuins. On the other hand, genistein-treated MCF-7 cell line, with the highest ER?/ER? ratio, reported no changes for the control situation. On the whole, our results show different genistein effects depending on ER?/ER? ratio for oxidative stress regulation, mitochondrial functionality, and modulation of UCPs, antioxidant enzymes and sirtuins in breast cancer cell lines. Effects of genistein on oxidative stress and mitochondria could be due at least in part, to a higher ER? presence, but could also be due to up-regulation of ER? caused by the genistein treatment. PMID:23871935

Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Sastre-Serra, Jorge; Blanquer-Rosselló, M del Mar; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

2013-07-17

164

Regional, laminar, and cellular distribution of immunoreactivity for ER alpha and ER beta in the cerebral cortex of hormonally intact, adult male and female rats.  

PubMed

Behavioral, biochemical and anatomical studies suggest that estrogen stimulates structure and/or function in the adult cerebral cortex. The studies presented here used immunocytochemistry to map the alpha and beta isoforms of intracellular estrogen receptors (ER alpha, ER beta) in major subdivisions of adult rat cortex to identify potential sites for relevant receptor-mediated hormone actions. These studies revealed that immunoreactivity for ER alpha (ER alpha-IR) and ER beta (ER beta-IR) was present in most cortical areas, was associated exclusively with neurons, and was similar in males and females. Each receptor isoform also had its own unique distribution with respect to cortical regions, layers, and cells. In sensorimotor areas, for example, ER beta-IR was more prominent than ER alpha-IR, and was concentrated in layer V neurons that were immunoreactive for parvalbumin. In contrast, ER alpha-IR was scattered among parvalbumin-immunonegative cells in layers II/III and V/VI. Likewise, in entorhinal cortex, ER beta-IR was present in calbindin-containing cells in layers III-VI, while ER alpha-IR was restricted to small numbers of calbindin-negative neurons in infragranular layers. In sum, ER beta-IR and ER alpha-IR were differentially distributed both with respect to cortical compartments and with respect to each other. Accordingly, estrogen activation at these two sites may be anticipated to impact disparate sets of cortical circuits, cells, and functions. PMID:11739260

Kritzer, M F

2002-02-01

165

Cellular localization of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER?) and -beta (ER?) mRNA in the boar testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boar testes synthesize high amounts of estrogens which are known to stimulate several male sexual functions in a variety of\\u000a extragonadal target tissues. Possible effects within the testis depend on the existence of the estrogen receptor subtypes\\u000a ? and ? (ER?, ER?). The precise cellular localization of these subtypes within the testis was, so far, based mainly on protein\\u000a expression

O. Lekhkota; R. Brehm; R. Claus; A. Wagner; R. M. Bohle; M. Bergmann

2006-01-01

166

Near-yrast discrete line ?-ray spectroscopy of 159Er and 160Er to I? or ?40h?  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-spin states in 159Er and 160Er have been populated using the 116Cd+48Ca reaction at a 48Ca bombarding energy of 210 MeV. Gamma rays were detected in an array (TESSA2) of six escape suppressed germanium spectrometers and a 50 element BGO multiplicity and summed energy detector. Decay scheme and angular correlation data for these nuclei were deduced from the gamma -

J Simpson; M A Riley; J R Cresswell; D V Elenkov; P D Forsyth; G B Hagemann; D Howe; B M Nyako; S Ogaza; J C Lisle; J F Sharpey-Schafer

1987-01-01

167

DAX-1 expression in human breast cancer: comparison with estrogen receptors ER-?, ER-? and androgen receptor status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  So far there have been no reports on the expression pattern of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) in human breast cells and its relationship to the estrogen receptors, ER-? and ER-?, and the androgen receptor (AR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, the presence and distribution of

Isabel Conde; Juan M Alfaro; Benito Fraile; Antonio Ruíz; Ricardo Paniagua; Maria I Arenas

2004-01-01

168

Functional integration between defence and IRE1-mediated ER stress response in rice.  

PubMed

Conditions within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) influence most secretory proteins that pass through the ER. Therefore, eukaryotic cells must strike a balance between the ER stress response, which changes the conditions in the ER, and other considerations associated with protein secretion. Here, an interaction between the ER stress and defence responses in rice is described. Expression of OsWRKY45, which encodes a transcription factor that plays a central role in defence mediated by salicylic acid (SA), is induced by ER stress. Additionally, expression of some genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) secretory proteins is reduced by the ER stress response mediated by the stress sensor IRE1. Concomitant activation of the SA and ER stress responses suppresses the induction of ER stress-responsive genes, with the exception of OsWRKY45, and the reduction of PR gene expression. These findings demonstrate a functional integration between the defence and ER stress responses in plants. PMID:22993695

Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

2012-09-19

169

Bond strength of composites on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an in vitro study the bond strength of composite materials on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-radiated enamel was examined. The results achieved on enamel surfaces conditioned conventionally using the acid etching method served as a control. On 80 extracted cariesfree third molars an enamel area of 4 X 4 mm was conditioned with three different systems. The Er:YAG laser was used at pulse frequencies of 8 Hz, 10 Hz, 12 Hz and 15 Hz using an energy of 120 mJ at each setting. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at the settings of 20 Hz/50 mJ, 20 Hz/100 mJ and 20 Hz/150 mJ. The repetition rate for this device is constantly 20 Hz. In the reference group 10 teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. In order to be able to perform the tensile tests under standard conditions metal brackets were placed on the conditioned surfaces. The 'Orthodontic-Bonding-System' was used as an adhesive system. The brackets were pulled off from the etched surfaces vertically to the tooth using a tensile testing machine. The results confirmed the highest bond strengths in the group of enamel surfaces which have been conditioned with acid etching gel. The bond strength of the Er:YAG laser (8, 10 and 12 Hz)- and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (20 Hz/150 mJ)-conditioned enamel surfaces was not significantly lower.

Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

1999-02-01

170

Organisation of human ER-exit sites: requirements for the localisation of Sec16 to transitional ER  

PubMed Central

Summary The COPII complex mediates the selective incorporation of secretory cargo and relevant machinery into budding vesicles at specialised sites on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane called transitional ER (tER). Here, we show using confocal microscopy, immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections and electron tomography that in human cells at steady state, Sec16 localises to cup-like structures of tER that are spatially distinct from the localisation of other COPII coat components. We show that Sec16 defines the tER, whereas Sec23-Sec24 and Sec13-Sec31 define later structures that precede but are distinct from the intermediate compartment. Steady-state localisation of Sec16 is independent of the localisation of downstream COPII components Sec23-Sec24 and Sec13-Sec31. Sec16 cycles on and off the membrane at a slower rate than other COPII components with a greater immobile fraction. We define the region of Sec16A that dictates its robust localisation of tER membranes and find that this requires both a highly charged region as well as a central domain that shows high sequence identity between species. The central conserved domain of Sec16 binds to Sec13 linking tER membrane localisation with COPII vesicle formation. These data are consistent with a model where Sec16 acts as a platform for COPII assembly at ERES.

Hughes, Helen; Budnik, Annika; Schmidt, Katy; Palmer, Krysten J.; Mantell, Judith; Noakes, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Carter, Deborah A.; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J.

2009-01-01

171

Organisation of human ER-exit sites: requirements for the localisation of Sec16 to transitional ER.  

PubMed

The COPII complex mediates the selective incorporation of secretory cargo and relevant machinery into budding vesicles at specialised sites on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane called transitional ER (tER). Here, we show using confocal microscopy, immunogold labelling of ultrathin cryosections and electron tomography that in human cells at steady state, Sec16 localises to cup-like structures of tER that are spatially distinct from the localisation of other COPII coat components. We show that Sec16 defines the tER, whereas Sec23-Sec24 and Sec13-Sec31 define later structures that precede but are distinct from the intermediate compartment. Steady-state localisation of Sec16 is independent of the localisation of downstream COPII components Sec23-Sec24 and Sec13-Sec31. Sec16 cycles on and off the membrane at a slower rate than other COPII components with a greater immobile fraction. We define the region of Sec16A that dictates its robust localisation of tER membranes and find that this requires both a highly charged region as well as a central domain that shows high sequence identity between species. The central conserved domain of Sec16 binds to Sec13 linking tER membrane localisation with COPII vesicle formation. These data are consistent with a model where Sec16 acts as a platform for COPII assembly at ERES. PMID:19638414

Hughes, Helen; Budnik, Annika; Schmidt, Katy; Palmer, Krysten J; Mantell, Judith; Noakes, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Carter, Deborah A; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J

2009-07-28

172

BmCREC Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Resident Protein and Required for ER/Golgi Morphology.  

PubMed

Silkworm posterior silkgland is a model for studying intracellular trafficking. Here, using this model, we identify several potential cargo proteins of BmKinesin-1 and focus on one candidate, BmCREC. BmCREC (also known as Bombyx mori DNA supercoiling factor, BmSCF) was previously proposed to supercoil DNA in the nucleus. However, we show here that BmCREC is localized in the ER lumen. Its C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF is recognized by the KDEL receptor, and subsequently it is retrogradely transported by coat protein I (COPI) vesicles to the ER. Lacking the HDEF tetrapeptide of BmCREC or knocking down COPI subunits results in decreased ER retention and simultaneously increased secretion of BmCREC. Furthermore, we find that BmCREC knockdown markedly disrupts the morphology of the ER and Golgi apparatus and leads to a defect of posterior silkgland tube expansion. Together, our results clarify the ER retention mechanism of BmCREC and reveal that BmCREC is indispensable for maintaining ER/Golgi morphology. PMID:23921381

Wang, Qiao; Shen, Birong; Zheng, Pengli; Feng, Hui; Guo, Yige; Cao, Wenyuan; Chen, Liang; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Guodong; Xu, Sizheng; Shen, Weide; Chen, Jianguo; Teng, Junlin

2013-08-06

173

NAI2 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Body Component That Enables ER Body Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants develop various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived structures, each of which has specific functions. The ER body found in Arabidopsis thaliana is a spindle-shaped structure that specifically accumulates high levels of PYK10\\/BGLU23, a b-glucosidase that bears an ER-retention signal. The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the ER body remain obscure. We isolated an ER body-deficient mutant in Arabidopsis seedlings that

Kenji Yamada; Atsushi J. Nagano; Momoko Nishina; Ikuko Hara-Nishimura; Mikio Nishimura

2008-01-01

174

Magnetism in ErCo2 under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of experiments and ab initio calculations focused on the stability of Co magnetism in ErCo2 exerted to high pressures. In the experiments we have studied pressure effects on electrical-resistivity anomalies in the vicinity of Curie temperature (TC=33 K in ambient pressure) that are intimately related to the formation and ordering of Co itinerant 3d electron moments. The Co magnetism in this material is a consequence of the itinerant electron metamagnetism (IEM) induced in a large exchange field appearing at TC where the localized Er moments order ferromagnetically. At lower pressures, TC decreases linearly with increasing pressure p (? ln TC/?p=0.24 GPa-1). Magnetovolume measurements under pressure and magnetic-moment calculations performed for reduced lattice parameters reveal that also the Co moment decreases with increasing pressure. At higher pressures, the TC vs p dependence strongly deviates from the initial linear trend and above a critical pressure pc~4 GPa, the TC becomes nearly pressure independent. To explain this behavior we propose a scenario assuming that for p>pc the 3d band broadens to such extent that the projected Co-3d density of states in the vicinity of EF decreases critically and the Er-Co-Er exchange channel becomes ineffective to induce the IEM. The Er sublattice then orders at much lower temperature TC~13 K, which is determined by the Er-Er interaction channel mediated by conduction electrons. This scenario is corroborated by results of the ab initio calculations that indicate the collapse of IEM in pressures above a certain value.

Syshchenko, O.; Fujita, T.; Sechovský, V.; Diviš, M.; Fujii, H.

2001-02-01

175

Influence of Cellular ER \\/ER  Ratio on the ER Agonist Induced Proliferation of Human T47D Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer cells show overexpression of estrogen receptor (ER) a relative to ERb compared to normal breast tissues. This observation has lead to the hypothesis that ERb may modulate the proliferative effect of ERa. This study investigated how variable cellular expression ratios of the ERa and ERb modulate the effects on cell proliferation induced by ERa or ERb agonists, respectively.

Ana Maria Sotoca Covaleda; Hans van den Berg; Jacques Vervoort; Paul van der Saag; Anders Strom; J.-A. Gustafsson; I. Rietjens; A. J. Murk

2008-01-01

176

Effect of the breakdown nature on Er-related electroluminescence intensity and excitation efficiency in Si:Er light emitting diodes grown with sublimation MBE technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the p–n junction breakdown mechanism on the Er3+ electroluminescence (EL) intensity and excitation efficiency (an intra 4f transition 4I13\\/2?4I15\\/2 of Er3+ ion at the wavelength of 1.54?m) has been investigated in Si:Er light emitting diodes (LED) grown with sublimation molecular beam epitaxy (SMBE) method. It is shown that the avalanche LEDs are characterized by a greater Er3+

V. B Shmagin; V. P Kuznetsov; D. Yu Remizov; Z. F Krasil’nik; L. V Krasil’nikova; D. I Kryzhkov

2003-01-01

177

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of estrogen receptor betas (ER?1 and ER?2) during gonad development in the Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ER) play a crucial role in mediation of estrogen activities. Here we report the isolation and expression analysis of ER?1 and ER?2 from ovary Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). were isolated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. The cDNA of this study, ER?1 (588 amino acids) and ER?2 (659 amino acids) were identified using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends procedures. Structural analysis showed both ER?s contain six typical nuclear receptor-characteristic domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Korean rockfish ER?s were highly conserved among teleost. RT-PCR confirmed that the ER?s were widely distributed in both gonads and extra gonadal tissues. Further, we analyzed the expression patterns of male and female S. schlegeli during the reproductive cycle using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the highest expression levels were observed in testis at immature sperm stage for both of KrER?1 and KrER?2. For female, the expressions of KrER?1 and KrER?2 were significantly higher in the ovary at the early-oocyte stage. Cloning these two ER? subtypes in the Korean rockfish, together with the information on expression levels in adult fish has given us the foundation to investigate their possible role in brain-pituitary-gonad neuroendocrine axis in future studies. PMID:23587909

Mu, W J; Wen, H S; Shi, D; Yang, Y P

2013-04-12

178

INVESTIGATION OF CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIATIONS OF RADAR BACKSCATTER WITH ALTIMETER-DERIVED ICE SHEET ELEVATION CHANGES AND ERS-2\\/ERS-1 BIASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possibility of a correlation between Greenland ice sheet elevation changes (dH\\/dt) derived from ERS-1 and ERS-2 altimetry and temporal and spatial variations of radar return power. We also determine the bias between ERS-1 and ERS-2 elevation measurements during the 12-month tandem period. Backscatter correlations are investigated using the sigma0, which is provided with the data, and

Anita C. Brenner; H. Jay Zwally; Helen G. Cornejo; Jack L. Saba

179

Self-Diffusion of Er and Hf in Pure and HfO sub 2 -Doped Polycrystalline Er sub 2 O sub 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970 exp 0 C in pure and HfO sub 2 -doped polycryatalline Er sub 2 O sub 3 . Up to about 10 m/o HfO sub 2 dopant level, the Er self-dif...

R. W. Scheidecker

1979-01-01

180

ER-?36, a Variant of ER-?, Promotes Tamoxifen Agonist Action in Endometrial Cancer Cells via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a novel variant of ER-?, ER-?36 was identified and cloned. ER-?36 lacks intrinsic transcription activity and mainly mediates nongenomic estrogen signaling. Here, we studied the role of nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by ER-?36 in tamoxifen resistance and agonist action. Methodology The cellular localization of ER-?36 was examined by immunofluorescence in MCF-7 cells and Hec1A cells. MCF-7 breast cancer cells, MCF-7 cells expressing recombinant ER-?36 (MCF-7/ER36), Hec1A endometrial cancer cells and Hec1A cells with siRNA knockdown of ER-?36 (Hec1A/RNAiER36) were treated with 17?-estradial (E2) and tamoxifen (TAM) in the absence and presence of kinase inhibitor U0126 and LY294002. We examined phosphorylation of signaling molecules and the expression of c-Myc by immunoblotting, and tumor cell growth by MTT assay. Conclusions ER variant ER-?36 enhances TAM agonist activity through activation of the membrane-initiated signaling pathways in endometrial cancer, and that ER-?36 is involved in de novo and acquired TAM resistance in breast cancer.

Lin, Sheng-Li; Yan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Yuan, Ju; Li, Mo; Qiao, Jie; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2010-01-01

181

Synergistic epigenetic reactivation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) by combined green tea polyphenol and histone deacetylase inhibitor in ER?-negative breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The status of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) is critical to the clinical prognosis and therapeutic approach in breast cancer. ER?-negative breast cancer is clinically aggressive and has a poor prognosis because of the lack of hormone target-directed therapies. Previous studies have shown that epigenetic regulation plays a major role in ER? silencing in human breast cancer cells. Dietary green tea

Yuanyuan Li; Yih-Ying Yuan; Syed M Meeran; Trygve O Tollefsbol

2010-01-01

182

Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 ?s at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 ?m diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was used during irradiation, there was a high chance that the veneer would fractured during debonding. However if samples were not stored in water and only air spray was used, 75% of the veneers could be removed without any fracture. The use of an Er:YAG laser can be effective in not only debonding porcelain veneers and preserving tooth structure, but also in maintaining veneer integrity.

Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

2010-02-01

183

Mechanisms determining the morphology of the peripheral ER  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a peripheral network of tubules and membrane sheets. The tubules are shaped by the curvature-stabilizing proteins reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, but how the sheets are formed is unclear. Here we identify several sheet-enriched membrane proteins in the mammalian ER, including proteins that translocate and modify newly synthesized polypeptides, as well as coiled-coil membrane proteins that are highly upregulated in cells with proliferated ER sheets, all of which are localized by membrane-bound polysomes. These results indicate that sheets and tubules correspond to rough and smooth ER, respectively. One of the coiled-coil proteins, Climp63, serves as a “luminal ER spacer” and forms sheets when overexpressed. More universally, however, sheet-formation appears to involve the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, which localize to sheet edges and whose abundance determines the ratio of sheets to tubules. These proteins may generate sheets by stabilizing the high curvature of edges.

Shibata, Yoko; Shemesh, Tom; Prinz, William A.; Palazzo, Alexander F.; Kozlov, Michael M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

2010-01-01

184

The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.  

PubMed

Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits for about 2.8 million widow(er)s and would cost about $3.1 billion a year. Most of the additional government expenditures would not go to the poor and the near poor. Another change would be more successful in aiding low-income widow(er)s: requiring that the limit amount never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. About 58 percent of the government expenditures from that option would be received by the poor and the near poor. Overall, 1.2 million widow(er)s would be helped, and the cost would be about $816 million a year. Although the limit provision is consistent with the overall intent of the 1972 Congress, it can have effects that may have been unintended and that some policymakers might consider unusual. Persons who delay receipt of Social Security benefits usually receive higher monthly benefit amounts, but a widow(er) who faces a limit cannot increase his or her monthly benefit through delayed receipt of benefits. Thus, many persons who are widowed before the NRA face strong incentives to claim benefits early. That is somewhat unusual because the actuarial adjustments under Social Security are approximately fair, so there are no cost savings to the Social Security program from "forcing" a widow(er) to claim early benefits as opposed to allowing him or her to delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher monthly amount. And many widow(er)s would be better off if they could use the Social Security program to, in effect, save (that is, delay receipt of benefits in exchange for a higher amount later). This article analyzes two other options that would provide widow(er)s with additional filing options under Social Security. The ARLA option would ultimately help about 229,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be small (about $69 million a year). The SARLA option would help about 117,000 widow(er)s, and the cost would be about $41 million a year. Robert J. Myers, a former Chief Actuary of Social Security, has offered a proposal that would provide relief from the widow(er)'s limit in cases in which the worker dies shortl

Weaver, D A

185

Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er : YAB single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Er-doped VAB (YAl3(BO3)(4)) is a potential self-frequency-doubling laser material. Single crystals were grown by the top-seeded flux method. The absorption spectra of the infrared Er3+ transitions were monitored in YAB crystals in the 9-300 K temperature range by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. In the whole spectral range the energy levels and Stark components of 12 transitions were detectable. In this paper the two infrared transitions (from the I-4(15/2) ground state to the I-4(13/2) and I-4(11/2) levels) were analyzed in detail. The low temperature absorption spectra of Er:YAB consist of sharp lines, the number of which corresponds to the theoretical predictions. This suggests that Er3+ ions occupy one specific lattice site (yttrium positions) with negligible aggregation at the higher dopant concentrations investigated (i.e. 0.12 Er atom/YAB mole).

Foldvari, I.; Beregi, E.; Capelletti, R.; Baraldi, A.; Munoz, A.; Sosa, R.

2003-01-01

186

Anxiolytic Effects and Neuroanatomical Targets of Estrogen Receptor-? (ER?) Activation by a Selective ER? Agonist in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

The dichotomous anxiogenic and anxiolytic properties of estrogens have been reported to be mediated by two distinct neural estrogen receptors (ER), ER? and ER?, respectively. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we confirmed that the anxiolytic actions of estradiol are mediated by ER? and extended and these observations to demonstrate the neuroanatomical targets involved in ER? activation in these behavioral responses. We examined the effects of the biologically active S-enantiomer of diarylpropionitrile (S-DPN) on anxiety-related behavioral measures, the corresponding stress hormonal response to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity, and potential sites of neuronal activation in mutant female mice carrying a null mutation for ER? gene (?ERKO). S-DPN administration significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the open field, light-dark exploration, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) in ovariectomized wild-type (WT) mice, but not in their ?ERKO littermates. Stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and ACTH were also attenuated by S-DPN in the WT mice but not in the ?ERKO mice. Using c-fos induction after elevated plus maze, as a marker of stress-induced neuronal activation, we identified the anterodorsal medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis as the neuronal targets of S-DPN action. Both areas showed elevated c-fos mRNA expression with S-DPN treatment in the WT but not ?ERKO females. These studies provide compelling evidence for anxiolytic effects mediated by ER?, and its neuroanatomical targets, that send or receive projections to/from the paraventricular nucleus, providing potential indirect mode of action for the control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function and behaviors.

Oyola, Mario G.; Portillo, Wendy; Reyna, Andrea; Foradori, Chad D.; Kudwa, Andrea; Hinds, Laura; Handa, Robert J.

2012-01-01

187

Influence of annealing on the Er luminescence in Si-rich SiO2 layers coimplanted with Er ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in producing samples by sequential implantation of Si and Er ions into a 200 nm SiO2 layer combined with different annealing cycles as well as the corresponding room-temperature visible and infrared photoluminescence (PL) have been studied. The Er-related PL intensity at 1533 nm for the samples prepared by implanting Si with subsequent annealing, followed by Er implantation, and final annealing (type I) was found to be stronger than the one produced similarly but without the first annealing step (type II). In fact, the 1533 nm peak intensity in the optimized RTA processed sample is comparable to the PL yield of the furnace-annealed sample. Moreover, the excitation wavelength (405 nm) was found to be suitable for exciting the Si=O related point defects in the SiO2 layer and can provide a PL band with a maximum at ~580 nm. While this band was further intensified in the presence of Si nanocrystals (Si NCs), it became weaker by introducing additional Er3+ ions with a concomitant rise of the 1533 nm Er PL, confirming the visible range pumping of Er3+. The detailed spectral analyses suggest that the 580 nm band is the result of the excitation/deexcitation mechanism in molecule such as states in the Si=O or the Si=O state mediated recombination of carriers in Si NCs according to the model proposed by [Wolkin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999)]. The samples were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The time-resolved PL measurements and a modeling by rate equations were also performed to determine and justify the energy migration mechanism from Si NC to the neighboring Er3+.

Kanjilal, A.; Rebohle, L.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

2008-11-01

188

Morpholino-Mediated Knockdown of ER?, ER?a, and ER?b mRNAs in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos Reveals Differential Regulation of Estrogen-Inducible Genes.  

PubMed

Genetically distinct estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ER? and ER?) play a major role in mediating estrogen actions in vertebrates, but their unique and overlapping functions are not entirely clear. Although mammals have 1 gene of each subtype (ESR1 and ESR2), teleost fish have a single esr1 (ER?) and 2 esr2 (ER?a and ER?b) genes. To determine the in vivo role of different ER isoforms in regulating estrogen-inducible transcription targets, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were microinjected with esr-specific morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides to disrupt splicing of the exon III/intron III junction in the DNA-binding domain. Each MO knocked down its respective normal transcript and increased production of variants with a retained intron III (esr1 MO) or a deleted or mis-spliced exon III (esr2a and esr2b MOs). Both esr1 and esr2b MOs blocked estradiol induction of vitellogenin and ER? mRNAs, predominant hepatic genes, but esr2b was the only MO that blocked induction of cytochrome P450 aromatase B mRNA, a predominant brain gene. Knockdown of ER?a with the esr2a MO had no effect on estrogen induction of the 3 mRNAs but, when coinjected with esr1 MO, attenuated the effect of ER? knockdown. Results indicate that ER? and ER?b, acting separately or cooperatively on specific gene targets, are positive transcriptional regulators of estrogen action, but the role of ER?a, if any, is unclear. We conclude that MO technology in zebrafish embryos is an advantageous approach for investigating the interplay of ER subtypes in a true physiological context. PMID:23928376

Griffin, Lucinda B; January, Kathleen E; Ho, Karen W; Cotter, Kellie A; Callard, Gloria V

2013-08-08

189

SEPS1 protects RAW264.7 cells from pharmacological ER stress agent-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Selenoprotein S (SEPS1) is a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein and it is known to play an important role in production of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show evidence that SEPS1 is stimulated by pharmacological ER stress agents in RAW264.7 macrophages as well as other cell types. Overexpression studies reveal a protective action of SEPS1 in macrophages against ER stress-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, resulting in promoting cell survival during ER stress. The protective action of SEPS1 is largely dependent on ER stress-mediated cell death signal with less effect on non-ER stress component cell death signals. Conversely, suppression of SEPS1 in macrophages results in sensitization of cells to ER stress-induced cell death. These findings suggest that SEPS1 could be a new ER stress-dependent survival factor that protects macrophage against ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction.

Kim, Kee-Hong; Gao, Yuan; Walder, Ken; Collier, Greg R.; Skelton, Joseph; Kissebah, Ahmed H.

2007-01-01

190

Tapentadol-ER for the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.  

PubMed

With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients. PMID:24129223

Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

2013-10-01

191

Residual vibration suppression of flexible arms using ER adaptive structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decades, there have been a number of research activities to control unwanted vibration of flexible robot arms. The electrorheological (ER) adaptive structures, which behave as viscoelastic damping structures with controllable shear modulus, are used to suppress the residual vibrations of the rotating flexible arm in this study. The flexible arm is designed as an ER sandwich structures, in which ER fluids is sandwiched between two elastic surface layers. Experimental tests are conducted. The vibration response performances of the beam subjected to different electric field intensity and motion conditions are demonstrated and evaluated. The experimental results obtained indicate that significant vibration attenuation is achieved at different operating conditions by applying an electric field to the rotating flexible arm.

Wei, Kexiang; Meng, Guang; Tang, Huanqing; Liu, Yingchun

2007-10-01

192

Ferrimagnetic correlations in paramagnetic ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments on ErCo2 in order to measure the Er and Co net magnetic moments above and below its ferrimagnetic transition. The results demonstrate the occurrence of an unexpected antiparallel alignment of Co and Er sublattices almost 30 K above the magnetic transition. We attribute this antiparallel alignment to magnetic short-range order. We have characterized the temperature dependence of the magnetic correlation length (?) with small angle neutron scattering measurements. We observe the expected divergence of ? right above T and, a wide region well within the paramagnetic phase, where the correlation length has an almost constant value of 7Å. We have further observed a direct correlation between Co magnetic moment and ?: at the onset of the long range order both magnitudes experience an abrupt increase, while the temperature range at which ? has a constant value coincides with the change of sign of the Co magnetic moment.

Herrero-Albillos, J.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Campo, J.; Young, A. T.; Funk, T.; Cuello, G. J.

2007-03-01

193

Luminescence enhancement in AlN(Er) by hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Room-temperature Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence increases of a factor of 5 are observed for AlN(Er) samples treated in a {sup 2}H plasma at 200{degree}C for 30 min. The atomic deuterium passivates defects in the AlN, which normally provide alternative carrier recombination routes. Postdeuteration annealing at 300{degree}C for 20 min removes the luminescence enhancement by depassivating the nonradiative centers. The AlN(Er) provides a high degree of resistance to thermal quenching of luminescence as a function of temperature because of its wide band gap (6.2 eV), and hydrogenation is a simple method for maximizing the optical output in this materials system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Hoemmerich, U.; Wu, X. [Department of Physics, Research Center for Optical Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States); Wilson, R.G.; Schwartz, R.N. [Hughes Research Laboratories, Malibu, California 90265 (United States); Zavada, J.M. [U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Ren, F. [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

1997-09-01

194

Crosstalk between ER stress and immunogenic cell death.  

PubMed

Preclinical and clinical findings suggest that tumor-specific immune responses may be responsible--at least in part--for the clinical success of therapeutic regimens that rely on immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers, including anthracyclines and oxaliplatin. The molecular pathways whereby some, but not all, cytotoxic agents promote bona fide ICD remain to be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, a central role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been revealed in all scenarios of ICD described thus far. Hence, components of the ER stress machinery may constitute clinically relevant druggable targets for the induction of ICD. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in the field of ICD research with a special focus on ER stress mechanisms and their implication for cancer therapy. PMID:23787159

Kepp, Oliver; Menger, Laurie; Vacchelli, Erika; Locher, Clara; Adjemian, Sandy; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Martins, Isabelle; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Michaud, Michael; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Zitvogel, Laurence

2013-06-17

195

Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2008-11-11

196

ER-?36-mediated gastric cancer cell proliferation via the c-Src pathway  

PubMed Central

Previously, a novel variant of estrogen receptor (ER)-?, ER-?36, was identified and cloned and reported to mainly mediate non-genomic estrogen signaling. More recently, we identified that ER-?36 is important for the invasion and lymph node metastasis of human gastric cancer. In the present study, the c-Src signaling pathway was demonstrated to be involved in the non-genomic estrogen signaling mediated by ER-?36 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 cells were subjected to the siRNA-mediated knockdown of ER-?36 (PLKO.1-PURO-SP6-ER-?36-L) or transfected with an ER-?36 upregulated expression plasmid (PLJM1-ER-?36-H) and treated with 17?-estradiol (E2?) and PP2, a c-Src protein inhibitor. The expression of ER-?36 and c-src/p-c-Src and cyclin D1 was examined by western blot analysis, and tumor cell growth was analyzed by cell proliferation and nude mouse xenograft assays. The ER variant, ER-?36, was shown to enhance gastric cancer cell proliferation through activation of the membrane-initiated c-Src signaling pathways, indicating that ER-?36 is important for the regulation of proliferation in gastric cancer. In addition, ER-?36 was shown to directly interact with c-Src by immunoprecipitation. The results of the present study indicate that the use of ER-?36 may be a targeted therapeutic approach in gastric cancer.

WANG, XUMING; DENG, HAO; ZOU, FENG; FU, ZHENQI; CHEN, YING; WANG, ZHAOYI; LIU, LIJIANG

2013-01-01

197

Impaired Cutinase Secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Induces Irregular Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Membrane Proliferation, Oxidative Stress, and ER-Associated Degradation  

PubMed Central

Impaired secretion of the hydrophobic CY028 cutinase invokes an unfolded protein response (UPR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Here we show that the UPR in CY028-expressing S. cerevisiae cells is manifested as an aberrant morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and as extensive membrane proliferation compared to the ER morphology and membrane proliferation of wild-type CY000-producing S. cerevisiae cells. In addition, we observed oxidative stress, which resulted in a 21-fold increase in carbonylated proteins in the CY028-producing S. cerevisiae cells. Moreover, CY028-producing S. cerevisiae cells use proteasomal degradation to reduce the amount of accumulated CY028 cutinase, thereby attenuating the stress invoked by CY028 cutinase expression. This proteasomal degradation occurs within minutes and is characteristic of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Our results clearly show that impaired secretion of the heterologous, hydrophobic CY028 cutinase in S. cerevisiae cells leads to protein aggregation in the ER, aberrant ER morphology and proliferation, and oxidative stress, as well as a UPR and ERAD.

Sagt, C. M. J.; Muller, W. H.; van der Heide, L.; Boonstra, J.; Verkleij, A. J.; Verrips, C. T.

2002-01-01

198

High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 ?s combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.

2011-02-01

199

Gyromagnetic ratios of collective states of 166 Er  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static hyperfine field ofBhf4.2k(ErHo) = 739(18)T of a ferromagnetic holmium single crystal polarized in an external magnetic field of ± 0.48T at ~4.2K was used for integral perturbed ?-? angular correlation (IPAQ measurements of the g-factors of collective states of166Er. The 1,200y166mHo activity was used which populates the ground state band and the ? vibrational band up to high

A. Alzner; E. Bodenstedt; B. Gemünden; J. van den Hoff; H. Reif

1985-01-01

200

Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption, fluorescence and decay properties of erbium-doped alkali tellurofluorophosphate glasses (RTFP) with the molar compositions of 50 (NaPO3)6-10 TeO2-20 AlF3-19 RF-1 Er2O3 (R = Li,Na or K) have been investigated in order to utilize these materials for the development of fibre amplifiers and lasers. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) model was applied to the absorption intensities of Er3+ (4f11) transitions to determine

M. Jayasimhadri; L. R. Moorthy; K. Kojima; K. Yamamoto; Noriko Wada; Noriyuki Wada

2005-01-01

201

Clinical highlights from the 2011 ERS Congress in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

This article reports on selected papers pertinent to the most important clinical problems in the field of respiratory medicine. Expert authors from the Clinical Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have selected updated reports related to presentations given at the 2011 ERS Annual Congress, which was held in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and attended by more than 20,000 participants. The hot topics and selected abstracts from the scientific groups of the Clinical Assembly are discussed here in the context of recent literature.

Spruit, Martijn A.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Herth, Felix J.F.; Poletti, Venerino; Ley, Sebastian; Burghuber, Otto C.; Clini, Enrico; Cottin, Vincent

2012-01-01

202

The molecular hug between the ER and the mitochondria.  

PubMed

A long-observed but often neglected property of cellular organelles is their ability to associate into junctions. Aspects of cell physiology appear more and more to depend upon these contact sites, as their central molecular components are being identified. Contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria are emerging as a prime example of such contacts. The physiological role of these contact sites, first thought to be limited to the facilitation of lipid and calcium exchange between the two organelles, is found to extend to unexpected aspects of mitochondria and ER functions. PMID:23478213

Kornmann, Benoît

2013-03-13

203

Concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions contributing to 1.5-{mu}m emission in Si/Si:Er nanolayers  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the percentage of Er{sup 3+} ions which contribute to the low temperature 1.5-{mu}m photoluminescence in Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures grown by sublimation molecular beam epitaxy. In a structure optimized for preferential formation of the Er-1 center with ultranarrow emission lines, we find that emission saturates when approximately 2% of all the Er dopants recombine radiatively upon optical excitation. In a structure where the silicon spacer thickness has been optimized for the maximum (broadband) emission intensity relative to Er contents, we show that in saturation approximately 15% of Er dopants contribute photons. At the same time, from the initial growth of emission intensity on excitation flux at low power, we estimate the maximum percentage of Er ions attaining optical activity. These limits of optical activity of Er in Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures are determined as 25% and 48% for Er-1 and total emission, respectively. In the context of this high level of optical activity, potential of Si/Si:Er nanolayer structures for realization of optical amplification at low temperatures is pointed out.

Vinh, N. Q. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Minissale, S.; Gregorkiewicz, T. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, NL-1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrielinck, H. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2007-08-15

204

Er3+ interlayer energy migration as the limiting photoluminescence quenching factor in nanostructured Er3+:Y2O3 thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effects of Er3+ nanostructuring on optical properties of heterogeneously doped Er3+:Y2O3 thin films synthesized by radical enhanced atomic layer deposition. By alternating the cycle sequences of Y2O3 and Er2O3, rare earth (RE) ion concentrations were controlled from 4.8 to 11.8 at. % Er and the local Er2O3 thicknesses were varied between 0.7 to 7.6 A?. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to examine the 1535 nm (Er 4I13/2-->4I15/2) emission at two excitation wavelengths, 488 nm and 976 nm. The normalized PL increased with increasing Er3+ concentrations up to 11.8 and 9.6 at. % under 488 and 976 nm excitations, respectively. The introduction of a local Er2O3 layer greater than 2.4 A? resulted in significant PL quenching, over an order of magnitude, under both excitation wavelengths. The quenching was attributed to enhanced local Er3+<-->Er3+ interlayer energy migration. Compared to homogeneously doped RE systems where the RE concentration is directly related to the average RE<-->RE spatial distance, increased luminescence was observed at high Er3+ concentrations in heterogeneously doped systems. These results suggest that controlling the RE proximity is key to engineering the optical properties of RE doped heterogeneous materials.

Hoang, J.; Schwartz, Robert N.; Wang, Kang L.; Chang, J. P.

2012-07-01

205

Loss of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in endometrial tumors is not associated with de novo methylation of the 5' end of the ER gene.  

PubMed

Normal endometrium, an estrogen-responsive tissue, expresses the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha gene. Loss of ER expression, the basis for which is currently unknown, is often seen in advanced stage, poor prognosis endometrial tumors. The ER gene undergoes de novo methylation with high frequency in a wide variety of human tumors, including ER-negative breast cancers. In this study, we used several bisulfite-based detection methods to assess whether loss of ER positivity in endometrial tumors is associated with aberrant methylation of the ER gene. Although extensive methylation of a 600-bp region at the 5' end of the gene was seen in two endometrial carcinoma cell lines, none of the 55 CpGs in this region was methylated in 25 of 26 ER-deficient endometrial carcinomas. PMID:11051252

Navari, J R; Roland, P Y; Keh, P; Salvesen, H B; Akslen, L A; Iversen, O E; Das, S; Kothari, R; Howey, S; Phillips, B

2000-10-01

206

Comparison of the room temperature 1.53 ?m Er photoluminescence from flash lamp and furnace annealed Er-doped Ge-rich SiO2 layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The furnace and flash-lamp annealing (FLA) temperature dependent variation in the room temperature 1.53 ?m Er photoluminescence (PL) from Er-doped Ge-rich SiO2 layers is investigated. The appearance of the 1.53 ?m Er PL is discussed in the framework of the phonon-assisted fluorescent resonant energy transfer from Ge-related luminescence-centers (LCs) to the Er3+. Detailed analyses suggest that in case of FLA the decrease in the 1.53 ?m Er PL intensity is governed by the temperature dependent recrystallization of Ge nanoclusters, while for furnace-annealing it is associated with the reduction in the LC-Er3+ coupling due to Ge out-diffusion and the formation of Er-rich clusters with increasing temperature.

Kanjilal, A.; Prucnal, S.; Rebohle, L.; Voelskow, M.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

2010-06-01

207

Experimental Phase Diagram of the Al-Er-Zr Ternary System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagram of the Al-Er-Zr ternary system at 773 K has been experimentally investigated by means of x-ray powder diffraction\\u000a (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive analysis (EDX). The\\u000a existence of 13 binary compounds, i.e. Al3Zr, Al2Zr, Al3Zr2, AlZr, Al3Zr4, Al2Zr3, AlZr2, AlZr3, Al3Er, Al2Er, AlEr, Al2Er3 and AlEr2 was confirmed. It is

Jing Hu; Yongzhong Zhan; Mingjun Pang; Chunliu Li; Wenchao Yang; Yong Du

208

Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

Greg Ruskauff

2011-12-01

209

Fluoride glass fiber for reliable Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser power delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to other transparent infrared fiber materials, ZBLAN fluoride glasses promise to be best suited for laser power delivery in the 3?m wavelength region due to their high transmission and excellent mechanical flexibility. These claims were demonstrated in a series of power handling tests of both straight and coiled fibers using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser emitting a train of pulses of 150 ?s duration at a repetition frequency of 20 Hz producing 7.5 W average power. Large core fibers (450/510?m 0,2NA) are characterized by an attenuation of 0.02dB/m at 3?m and stay within 0.5°C from ambient temperature when carrying full laser power. A 2-m fiber length prepared with bare cleaves has been tested for over 23 hours, cumulating 1,140,000 shots of 1530 J/cm2 fluence while maintaining 90% transmission without any measurable degradation. Coiling the fiber to 11 cm radius did not have an impact on power handling reliability. These results show the potential of these highly transparent fibers in surgical laser delivery applications.

Séguin, François; Saad, Mohammed; Orsini, Patrick; Baierl, Dieter

2008-03-01

210

Spectroscopic properties of Nd, Er codoped glasses for solar pumped fiber lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of Er doped and Nd, Er codoped fluoride glasses were investigated under illumination of the simulated sunlight, laser or a monochromatic light filtered from a Xe lamp. Er was used as a sensitizing agent enhancing the energy conversion and the emission efficiency of Nd ions in fluoride glass intended for the sunlight excitation. Er doped fluoride glasses showed four emission peaks under simulated sunlight illumination at the wavelengths of 550, 848, 980, and 1530 nm attributed to the electronic transitions of Er3+ ions. The quantum efficiency of the emission from all of the bands had a peak at x = 0.5 mol. % Er and with the maximum of 73 %. The intensity of each emission band showed different ratios for various ErF3 contents. It is expected that concentration quenching of 4S3/2 state is easy to occur with high concentration of ErF3 compared to the other states. The energy transfer from Er to Nd was studied using a monochromatic light illumination which is absorbed by Er3+ ions only. Strong contribution of Er absorption to the 1.05 ?m emission of Nd, Er co-doped fluoride glass was observed. Er was confirmed as a suitable sensitizer for the enhanced energy conversion and emission efficiency of Nd ions in ZBLAN glasses which are proposed for highly efficient solar pumped fiber lasers.

Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Hiroyuki; Hughes, Mark A.; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

2011-02-01

211

Calumenin has a role in the alleviation of ER stress in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis causes ER stress (ERS), and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) that consequently reduces accumulation of unfolded proteins by increasing the quantity of ER chaperones. Calumenin, a Ca(2+)-binding protein with multiple EF hand motifs, which is located in the ER/SR, is highly expressed during the early developmental stage of the heart, similar to other ER-resident chaperones. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of calumenin during ERS in the heart. Like other chaperones (e.g., GRP94 and GRP78), calumenin expression was highly upregulated during ERS induced by 10?g/ml tunicamycin, but attenuated in the presence of 500?M PBA, the chemical chaperone in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). Upon 7.5-fold overexpression of calumenin using a recombinant adenovirus system, the expression levels of ERS markers (GRP78, p-PERK, and p-elF2?) and ER-initiated apoptosis markers (CHOP and p-JNK) were reduced, whereas the survival protein BCL-2 was upregulated during ERS compared to the control. Evaluation of cell viability by TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis was also significantly reduced by calumenin overexpression in ERS-induced cells. Taken together, our results suggest that calumenin plays an essential role in the alleviation of ERS in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. PMID:24012670

Lee, Joo Hee; Kwon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Han

2013-09-06

212

Resonantly pumped continuous wave Er:YAP laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous wave Er:YAP laser pumped by Mgo:PPLN laser locked at 1535 nm was reported. 170 mW of 1609 nm output was achieved under total incident pump power of 7 W at 77 K. The slope efficiency were 5.0 and 3.1% with the cavity length 75 and 140 mm.

Yao, B. Q.; Liu, X. L.; Yu, L. X.; Sun, X. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, Y. Z.

2012-04-01

213

Resonantly pumped multiwavelength operation in Er:YAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiwavelength Er:YAP laser pumped by MgO:PPLN locked at 1535 nm with etalon was reported. 170 mW of 1609 nm, 120 mW of 1623 nm output were achieved under total incident pump power of 7 W at 77 K. The slope efficiency were 5.5, 7.2% of the two wavelength.

Yao, B. Q.; Liu, X. L.; Yu, L. X.; Sun, X. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, Y. Z.

2012-05-01

214

Simulation of the optical properties of Er:ZBLAN glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption and emission spectra of Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass at room temperature were estimated from structural models prepared by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on crystal field theory and point-charge approximation. The calculated absorption and emission spectra substantially agreed with the observed ones. Furthermore, it was found that the emission spectra at low temperatures could be also reproduced to some

Hiroyuki Inoue; Kohei Soga; Akio Makishima

2002-01-01

215

Investigations into Deployment Complications of the ERS-1 SAR Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna is an important part of the first European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1). In deployed configuration it consists of a 10 by 1 m planar array, divided into a 5 single panel arrangement. The results of the invest...

R. Barho

1993-01-01

216

Observations of atmospheric composition from NASA ER2 spectroradiometer measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA ER-2, an atmospheric sensing version of the US Air Force U-2, has been used in many measurement campaigns since the mid-1980s to probe the chemistry and dynamics of the lower stratosphere using suites of miniaturized instruments. The Composition and Photodissociative Flux Measurement (CPFM) spectroradiometer was added in 1992 primarily for the direct calculation of photolysis rate coefficients. The

Christopher Anthony McLinden

1998-01-01

217

Narrowband Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator at 1645 nm.  

PubMed

We report 1645 nm narrowband operation of a monolithic Er:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator resonantly pumped at 1532 nm. Unidirectional cw power up to 0.5 W was obtained with a measured linewidth of 21 kHz. PMID:21479028

Chen, Da-Wun; Belden, Paul M; Rose, Todd S; Beck, Steven M

2011-04-01

218

Technological Process Control Computer System ER-II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nomenclature of the general purpose process control system ER-2 is reviewed with the detailed justification of the technical and economic reasons for the choice of the particular units of the system. The considerations are carried out on the transfer ...

A. Davor G. Vladimir M. Bozidar S. Adnan

1971-01-01

219

Wind vector retrieval using ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated algorithm intended for operational use is developed and tested for estimating wind speed and direction using ERS-1 SAR imagery. The wind direction comes from the orientation of low frequency, linear signatures in the SAR imagery that the authors believe are manifestations of roll vortices within the planetary boundary layer. The wind direction thus has inherently a 180° ambiguity

Christopher C. Wackerman; Clifford L. Rufenach; Robert A. Shuchman; Johnny A. Johannessen; Kenneth L. Davidson

1996-01-01

220

Stratospheric constituent trends from ER2 profile data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trend analysis of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition's ER-2 profile data reveals an average decrease in N2O on potential temperature isentropes which can be attributed to diabatic cooling of inner vortex air. This conclusion is independently supported by radiative transfer computations. Trends in ozone and water vapor over the same period are not consistent with the magnitude of the diabatic

Mark R. Schoeberl; Michael H. Proffitt; Ken K. Kelly; Leslie R. Lait; Paul A. Newman; Joan E. Rosenfield; Max Loewenstein; Jim R. Podolske; Susan E. Strahan; K. Roland Chan

1990-01-01

221

Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (-6 km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles

David T. Sandwell; Walter H. F. Smith

1997-01-01

222

Change detection techniques for ERS-1 SAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques for detecting temporal changes in satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) imagery are compared, using both theoretical predictions and spaceborne SAR data collected by the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, ERS-1. In a first set of techniques, changes are detected based on differences in the magnitude of the signal intensity between two dates. Ratioing of the multidate radar intensities is

Eric J. M. Rignot; Jakob J. van Zyl

1993-01-01

223

ER designer toolkit: a graphical event definition authoring tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there exist several tools for Complex Event Recognition, varying from design platforms for business process modeling (BPM) to advanced Complex Event Processing (CEP) engines. Several efforts have been reported in literature aiming to support domain experts in the process of defining event recognition (ER) rules. However, few of them offer graphical design environments for the definition of such rules,

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Giannis Mouchakis; George Paliouras; Vangelis Karkaletsis

2011-01-01

224

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

225

Magnetovolume and magnetocaloric effects in Er2Fe17  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining different experimental techniques, investigations in hexagonal P63/mmc Er2Fe17 show remarkable magnetovolume anomalies below the Curie temperature, TC. The spontaneous magnetostriction reaches 1.6×10-2 at 5 K and falls to zero well above TC, owing to short-range magnetic correlations. Moreover, Er2Fe17 exhibits direct and inverse magnetocaloric effects (MCE) with moderate isothermal magnetic entropy ?SM, and adiabatic temperature ?Tad changes [?SM˜-4.7 J(kgK)-1 and ?Tad˜2.5 K near the TC, and ?SM˜1.3 J(kgK)-1 and ?Tad˜-0.6 K at 40 K for ?H=80 kOe, respectively, determined from magnetization measurements]. The existence of an inverse MCE seems to be related to a crystalline electric field-level crossover in the Er sublattice and the ferrimagnetic arrangement between the magnetic moments of the Er and Fe sublattice. The main trends found experimentally for the temperature dependence of ?SM and ?Tad as well as for the atomic magnetic moments are qualitatively well described considering a mean-field Hamiltonian that incorporates both crystalline electric field and exchange interactions. ?SM(T) and ?Tad(T) curves are essentially zero at ˜150 K, the temperature where the transition from direct to inverse MCE occurs. A possible interplay between the MCE and the magnetovolume anomalies is also discussed.

Álvarez-Alonso, Pablo; Gorria, Pedro; Blanco, Jesús A.; Sánchez-Marcos, Jorge; Cuello, Gabriel J.; Puente-Orench, Inés; Rodríguez-Velamazán, Jose Alberto; Garbarino, Gastón; de Pedro, Imanol; Fernández, Jesús Rodríguez; Sánchez Llamazares, José L.

2012-11-01

226

Improved polarimetric tuning of an Er3+-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show theoretically and experimentally that the wavelength tunability of an Er3+-doped fiber laser is improved by using a cavity with two polarizers. A wavelength tuning range of 30 nm around 1.54 ?m is measured, which is twice the value obtained with a one-polarizer cavity in agreement with our modeling.

Azami, N.; Saïssy, A.; de Micheli, M.; Monnom, G.; Ostrowsky, D. B.

1998-12-01

227

Er:YAG clinical results on hard tissue: phase II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: In Phase I, we demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the pulsed 2.94 micron Er:YAG laser for caries removal, cavity preparation and laser etching utilizing in vivo teeth scheduled for removal to quantitatively verify the safety of the product for up to one year following treatment. Phase II was a continuation of this study evaluating in vivo teeth to verify the safety and efficacy of the Er:YAG in a long-term follow-up study. Methods: We randomly divided the patients into two groups: a laser group and a control group, which employed the high speed drill. The investigators rated clinical efficacy by several criteria, evaluated pain and measured pulpal vitality up to two years following treatment. This phase consisted of 512 procedures that made up the laser group and 357 procedures that made up the control group. Conclusions: The results from this phase showed that the Er:YAG laser was able to perform as well as, if not better than, the drill in caries removal, cavity preparation, and acid etching alone. Use of the laser virtually eliminated the need for anesthesia. The Er:YAG laser is safe and efficacious for removal of caries, cavity preparation and etching prior to acid etching.

Cozean, Colette D.; Powell, G. L.

1998-04-01

228

E²R: Hardware Abstraction Layer for Configurable Execution Modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic and platform independent reconfiguration of reconfigurable devices in an E²R environment is based on a reconfiguration strategy which is distributed across different layers of abstraction. This paper introduces an architecture of the hardware abstraction layer for configurable execution modules, which perform the reconfiguration on a fine grain level and carry out the tasks associated with a particular radio

Hendrik Seidel; Marcus Bronzel; Naveen Altaf; Bernd Steinke; Mirsad Halimic; Laurent Alimi

229

Xenobiotic perturbation of ER stress and the unfolded protein response.  

PubMed

The proper folding, assembly, and maintenance of cellular proteins is a highly regulated process and is critical for cellular homeostasis. Multiple cellular compartments have adapted their own systems to ensure proper protein folding, and quality control mechanisms are in place to manage stress due to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. When the accumulation of unfolded proteins exceeds the capacity to restore homeostasis, these systems can result in a cell death response. Unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to ER stress with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) governed by the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathways. Many xenobiotics have been shown to influence ER stress and UPR signaling with either pro-survival or pro-death features. The ultimate outcome is dependent on many factors including the mechanism of action of the xenobiotic, concentration of xenobiotic, duration of exposure (acute vs. chronic), cell type affected, nutrient levels, oxidative stress, state of differentiation, and others. Assessing perturbations in activation or inhibition of ER stress and UPR signaling pathways are likely to be informative parameters to measure when analyzing mechanisms of action of xenobiotic-induced toxicity. PMID:23334697

Lafleur, Marc A; Stevens, James L; Lawrence, Jeffrey W

2013-01-18

230

Er and Yb Isotope Fractionation in Planetary Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of Er and Yb isotopes in Earth, meteorites, and the Moon by MC-ICP-MS. The main results concern the Yb redox state, condensation of the Moon from the impact vapor, and neutron adsorption by the lunar surface.

Albalat, E.; Telouk, P.; Albarede, F.

2012-03-01

231

Validating a scatterometer wind algorithm for ERS-1 SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean surface wind field is observed from space operationally using scatterometry. The European Space Agency's (ESAs) ERS-1 satellite scatterometer routinely produces a wind product that is assimilated into forecast models. Scatterometry cannot give accurate wind estimates close to land, however, because the field of view of a spaceborne scatterometer is on the order of 50 km. Side lobe contamination,

Florence Fetterer; Denise Gineris; Christopher C. Wackerman

1998-01-01

232

Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

Leanos-Castaneda, Olga [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: olgalidia09@yahoo.com; Kraak, Glen van der [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

2007-10-15

233

Effects of material growth technique and Mg doping on Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies have been carried out at 6 K on the {similar_to}1540 nm {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}{endash}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} emissions of Er{sup 3+} in Er-implanted and annealed GaN. These studies revealed the existence of multiple Er{sup 3+} centers and associated PL spectra in Er-implanted GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, and molecular beam epitaxy. The results demonstrate that the multiple Er{sup 3+}PL centers and below-gap defect-related absorption bands by which they are selectively excited are universal features of Er-implanted GaN grown by different techniques. It is suggested that implantation-induced defects common to all the GaN samples are responsible for the Er site distortions that give rise to the distinctive, selectively excited Er{sup 3+}PL spectra. The investigations of selectively excited Er{sup 3+}PL and PLE spectra have also been extended to Er-implanted samples of Mg-doped GaN grown by various techniques. In each of these samples, the so-called violet-pumped Er{sup 3+}PL band and its associated broad violet PLE band are significantly enhanced relative to the PL and PLE of the other selectively excited Er{sup 3+}PL centers. More importantly, the violet-pumped Er{sup 3+}PL spectrum dominates the above-gap excited Er{sup 3+}PL spectrum of Er-implanted Mg-doped GaN, whereas it was unobservable under above-gap excitation in Er-implanted undoped GaN. These results confirm the hypothesis that appropriate codopants can increase the efficiency of trap-mediated above-gap excitation of Er{sup 3+} emission in Er-implanted GaN. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Kim, S.; Henry, R. L.; Wickenden, A. E.; Koleske, D. D.; Rhee, S. J.; White, J. O.; Myoung, J. M.; Kim, K.; Li, X.; Coleman, J. J. (and others)

2001-07-01

234

Formation of an hER?-COUP-TFI complex enhances hER? AF-1 through Ser118 phosphorylation by MAPK  

PubMed Central

The enhancement of the human estrogen receptor ? (hER?, NR3A1) activity by the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFI is found to depend on the establishment of a tight hER?–COUP-TFI complex. Formation of this complex seems to involve dynamic mechanisms different from those allowing hER? homodimerization. Although the hER?–COUP-TFI complex is present in all cells tested, the transcriptional cooperation between the two nuclear receptors is restricted to cell lines permissive to hER? activation function 1 (AF-1). In these cells, the physical interaction between COUP-TFI and hER? increases the affinity of hER? for ERK2/p42MAPK, resulting in an enhanced phosphorylation state of the hER? Ser118. hER? thus acquires a strengthened AF-1 activity due to its hyperphosphorylation. These data indicate an alternative interaction process between nuclear receptors and demonstrate a novel protein intercommunication pathway that modulates hER? AF-1.

Metivier, Raphael; Gay, Frederique A.; Hubner, Michael R.; Flouriot, Gilles; Salbert, Gilles; Gannon, Frank; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

2002-01-01

235

HDLs protect the MIN6 insulinoma cell line against tunicamycin-induced apoptosis without inhibiting ER stress and without restoring ER functionality.  

PubMed

HDLs protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis induced by several endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, including thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, palmitate and insulin over-expression. This protection is mediated by the capacity of HDLs to maintain proper ER morphology and ER functions such as protein folding and trafficking. Here, we identified a distinct mode of protection exerted by HDLs in beta cells challenged with tunicamycin (TM), a protein glycosylation inhibitor inducing ER stress. HDLs were found to inhibit apoptosis induced by TM in the MIN6 insulinoma cell line and this correlated with the maintenance of a normal ER morphology. Surprisingly however, this protective response was neither associated with a significant ER stress reduction, nor with restoration of protein folding and trafficking in the ER. These data indicate that HDLs can use at least two mechanisms to protect beta cells against ER stressors. One that relies on the maintenance of ER function and one that operates independently of ER function modulation. The capacity of HDLs to activate several anti-apoptotic pathways in beta cells may explain their ability to efficiently protect these cells against a variety of insults. PMID:23994023

Puyal, Julien; Pétremand, Jannick; Dubuis, Gilles; Rummel, Coralie; Widmann, Christian

2013-08-28

236

Mitofusin 2 in POMC Neurons Connects ER Stress with Leptin Resistance and Energy Imbalance.  

PubMed

Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establish MFN2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for MFN2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. PMID:24074867

Schneeberger, Marc; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Sebastián, David; Imbernón, Mónica; Castaño, Carlos; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Rodríguez, Ignacio Castrillón; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Gomis, Ramon; Nogueiras, Ruben; Horvath, Tamas L; Zorzano, Antonio; Claret, Marc

2013-09-26

237

ER?1 expression is regulated by miR-92 in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

ER?1 downregulation occurs in many breast cancers but the responsible molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that levels of ER?1 expression are negatively regulated by the microRNA miR-92. Expression analysis in a cohort of primary breast tumours confirmed a significant negative correlation between miR-92 and both ER?1 mRNA and protein. Inhibition of miR-92 in MCF-7 cells increased ER?1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas miR-92 overexpression led to ER?1 downregulation. Reporter constructs containing candidate miR-92 binding sites in the 3?-UTR of ER?1 suggested by bioinformatics analysis confirmed that miR-92 downregulated ER?1 via direct targeting of its 3?-UTR. Our results define a potentially important mechanism for downregulation of ER?1 expression in breast cancer.

Al-Nakhle, H; Burns, PA; Cummings, M; Hanby, AM; Hughes, TA; Satheesha, S; Shaaban, AM; Smith, L; Speirs, V

2010-01-01

238

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228...OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent....

2009-04-01

239

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228...OF SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.50 Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent....

2010-04-01

240

Suppression of second-order cooperative up-conversion in Er/Yb silicate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the efforts of suppressing Er ion's second-order cooperative up-conversion (CUC). Er/Yb and Er/Y silicate glass waveguides were fabricated, which have same structure, similar Er concentration and peak emission cross-section. Under same 1480 nm pump power, Er/Yb silicate glass shows 4.7 times weaker visible up-conversion luminescence and four times stronger infrared luminescence than Er/Y silicate glass. Through analyzing the physical mechanism, we found that the energy back transfer from Er to Yb plays a significant role on the luminescence difference, which affects and further suppresses the second-order CUC process in Er/Yb co-doped materials.

Guo, Ruimin; Wang, Bing; Wang, Xingjun; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Lingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

2013-03-01

241

Structural and functional features and significance of the physical linkage between ER and mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The role of mitochondria in cell metabolism and survival is controlled by calcium signals that are commonly transmitted at the close associations between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the physical linkage of the ER–mitochondria interface and its relevance for cell function remains elusive. We show by electron tomography that ER and mitochondria are adjoined by tethers that are ?10 nm at the smooth ER and ?25 nm at the rough ER. Limited proteolysis separates ER from mitochondria, whereas expression of a short “synthetic linker” (<5 nm) leads to tightening of the associations. Although normal connections are necessary and sufficient for proper propagation of ER-derived calcium signals to the mitochondria, tightened connections, synthetic or naturally observed under apoptosis-inducing conditions, make mitochondria prone to Ca2+ overloading and ensuing permeability transition. These results reveal an unexpected dependence of cell function and survival on the maintenance of proper spacing between the ER and mitochondria.

Csordas, Gyorgy; Renken, Christian; Varnai, Peter; Walter, Ludivine; Weaver, David; Buttle, Karolyn F.; Balla, Tamas; Mannella, Carmen A.; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy

2006-01-01

242

Cell Cycle Regulatory Roles of ER-Alpha in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The roles of estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER) in normal mammary gland development and in transformation to a tumor phenotype have been extensively studied. However, although the cumulative data suggests an important role for ER in breast cancer, the fu...

S. Kamrani

2007-01-01

243

Continuous wave 1.6 mum laser action in Er doped garnets at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on room-temperature cw laser action of Er3+: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and Er3+: Yttrium-gallium-garnet (YGG) crystals at 1.64 mum. The laser operates from the metastable4 I 13\\/2 manifold into an upper Stark level of the4 I 15\\/2 ground-state manifold of Er3+. Due to reabsorption losses, the Er3+ concentration of the laser crystals must be low. Laser pumping at a wavelength

H. Stange; K. Petermann; G. Huber; E. W. Duczynski

1989-01-01

244

A membrane protein complex mediates retro-translocation from the ER lumen into the cytosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elimination of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by retro-translocation is an important physiological adaptation to ER stress. This process requires recognition of a substrate in the ER lumen and its subsequent movement through the membrane by the cytosolic p97 ATPase. Here we identify a p97-interacting membrane protein complex in the mammalian ER that links these two events. The

Yihong Ye; Yoko Shibata; Chi Yun; David Ron; Tom A. Rapoport

2004-01-01

245

The study of optical behaviour porous silicon (PSI) doped with Erbium (Er) by photoluminescence technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous Silicon (PS) doped Erbium (Er) has been studied where Er on PSi is involved interaction of silicon and silicon dioxide. The Er doping process was carried out by immersion technique with electrolyte composed of Erbium (III) nitrate pentahydrate (Er3NO3OH5) and Ethanol. The photoluminescence (PL) effect on PSi samples have been studied and shows a PL intensity is improves at

N. I Ikhsan; S. Abdullah; M. Rusop

2011-01-01

246

?-Synuclein Delays Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi Transport in Mammalian Cells by Antagonizing ER/Golgi SNAREs  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of human ?-synuclein when expressed in simple organisms can be suppressed by overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport machinery, suggesting that inhibition of constitutive secretion represents a fundamental cause of the toxicity. Whether similar inhibition in mammals represents a cause of familial Parkinson's disease has not been established. We tested elements of this hypothesis by expressing human ?-synuclein in mammalian kidney and neuroendocrine cells and assessing ER-to-Golgi transport. Overexpression of wild type or the familial disease-associated A53T mutant ?-synuclein delayed transport by up to 50%; however, A53T inhibited more potently. The secretory delay occurred at low expression levels and was not accompanied by insoluble ?-synuclein aggregates or mistargeting of transport machinery, suggesting a direct action of soluble ?-synuclein on trafficking proteins. Co-overexpression of ER/Golgi arginine soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (R-SNAREs) specifically rescued transport, indicating that ?-synuclein antagonizes SNARE function. Ykt6 reversed ?-synuclein inhibition much more effectively than sec22b, suggesting a possible neuroprotective role for the enigmatic high expression of ykt6 in neurons. In in vitro reconstitutions, purified ?-synuclein A53T protein specifically inhibited COPII vesicle docking and fusion at a pre-Golgi step. Finally, soluble ?-synuclein A53T directly bound ER/Golgi SNAREs and inhibited SNARE complex assembly, providing a potential mechanism for toxic effects in the early secretory pathway.

Thayanidhi, Nandhakumar; Helm, Jared R.; Nycz, Deborah C.; Bentley, Marvin; Liang, Yingjian

2010-01-01

247

Measurement of ER Stress Response and Inflammation in the Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle that is responsible for protein folding and assembly, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and intracellular calcium storage. Biochemical or pathophysiological stimuli that disrupt protein-folding reaction or increase protein-folding load can cause accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, a condition called “ER stress”. As an adaptive intracellular stress

Ze Zheng; Chunbin Zhang; Kezhong Zhang

2011-01-01

248

Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last 7.8 years. The ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea surface temperature as these satellites are equipped with an

Ole B Andersen; Per Knudsen; Brian Beckley

2002-01-01

249

20 CFR 228.50 - Tier II annuity component widow(er), child, or parent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. 228.50 Section 228.50 Employees...annuity component widow(er), child, or parent. (a) General. The tier II annuity...disabled widow(er), child, or parent, but not to a surviving divorced...

2013-04-01

250

Characterisation of Human Oestrogen Receptor beta (ER?) Splice Variants in Neuronal Cells  

PubMed Central

Oestrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? are members of the ligand-activated superfamily of nuclear receptors and mediate most facets of oestrogen signalling. Several naturally occurring splice variants of each ER have been identified in the human brain, yet the biological significance of these splice variants in the brain remains unknown. In the present study, we exploit the unique structural differences of the human ER? splice variants to determine the functional significance of individual ER domains in the brain. We previously established that full-length rodent ER? (i.e. rER?1) has constitutive transcriptional activity in neuronal cells in the absence of ligand. By contrast to the rodent splice variants, the human ER? splice variants used in the present study contain varying length truncations of exon 8, which encodes for the E/F domains. Our results reveal that, in neuronal cells, each human-specific ER? splice variant constitutively activated promoters mediated by a canonical oestrogen response element and repressed promoters mediated by activator protein-1 sites via p38 activity. From these data, we conclude that the C-terminus, encoding the AF-2 region and F domain, is not essential for the constitutive properties of human ER?. Taken together, these studies show that human-specific ER? variants are constitutively active and also provide novel insight into the contributions of the functional domains of ER? towards mediating constitutive transcription at various promoters in neuronal cells.

Mott, N. N.; Pak, T. R.

2013-01-01

251

Electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate gate dielectric formed by interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the electrical and structural properties of high-k Er-silicate film formed by the interfacial reaction between Er and SiO{sub 2} films. The increase in rapid thermal annealing temperature leads to the reduction of the interface trap density by one order of magnitude, indicating the improvement in the interface quality of Er-silicate gate dielectric. The increased capacitance value of Er-silicate gate dielectric with thermal treatment is attributed in part to the reduction of SiO{sub 2} thickness and to the increase in the relative dielectric constant of Er-silicate film caused by the chemical bonding change from Si-rich to Er-rich silicate.

Choi, Chel-Jong; Jang, Moon-Gyu; Kim, Yark-Yeon; Jun, Myung-Sim; Kim, Tae-Youb; Song, Myeong-Ho [IT Convergence Technology Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); National Nanofab Center, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-02

252

Er and Yb isotope fractionation in planetary materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial planets are depleted in volatile elements relative to solar abundances. Little is known, however, about volatility at the high temperatures relevant to asteroidal collisions and to the giant lunar impact. Although refractory rare-earth elements have overall similar crystallochemical properties, some differ in their temperatures of condensation from the nebular gas. This is the case for Yb, which condenses at ˜1490K and in the vapor is mostly in elemental form. By contrast, Er, largely present as ErO, condenses at ˜1660K. We analyzed the Er and Yb isotopic compositions in 33 terrestrial basalts, garnets, different classes of chondrites and achondrites, and lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The range of mass-dependent isotope fractionation is larger for Yb (0.43‰ per amu) than Er (0.23‰) isotopes. For terrestrial rocks, a positive correlation between ?Yb and La/Yb suggests that the isotopic differences between Er and Yb can be accounted for by the presence of small fractions of Yb2+. Yb is isotopically heavy in kimberlite and light in garnets. Ytterbium behaves similarly to Fe, with Yb3+ being more incompatible than the much less abundant Yb2+. In addition, the coexistence of divalent and trivalent sites in the garnet structure and the preference of heavy isotopes for stable bonds makes Yb in garnet isotopically light. The deficit of heavy Yb isotopes in lunar basaltic samples relative to the Earth, chondrites, and eucrites provides new evidence that the Moon formed by the condensation of silicate vapor in the aftermath of the giant lunar impact. Separation of vapor from melt and of heavy from light isotopes is first expected during the adiabatic expansion of the initial vapor plume. Subsequently, friction between melt and gas tends to further enrich the Moon feeding zone in silicate vapor to compensate the inward migration of melt out of the pre-lunar disk. A major consequence of interpreting the present lunar data by vapor/melt segregation is that the relative abundances of refractory elements in the Moon are unlikely to be chondrite-like or even Earth-like. Erbium isotope ratios in lunar samples reflect the capture of neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays. The first resonance of 167Er for neutron capture will help cover an energy range poorly covered by other nuclides.

Albalat, Emmanuelle; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

2012-11-01

253

Prognostic significance of oestrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?), progesterone receptor A (PRA) and B (PR-B) in endometrial carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of the classic steroid receptors ER? and PR-A has been correlated with stage, histological grade and survival in endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer samples (293) were immunohistochemically analysed with monoclonal antibodies against the four steroid receptors. The loss of ER?, PR-A and PR-B resulted in a poorer survival in endometrial cancer patients, while ER? expression did not demonstrate any

Naim Shabani; Christina Kuhn; Susanne Kunze; Sandra Schulze; Doris Mayr; Darius Dian; Andrea Gingelmaier; Christian Schindlbeck; Franz Willgeroth; Harald Sommer; Udo Jeschke; Klaus Friese; Ioannis Mylonas

2007-01-01

254

Measurement of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral for the ¹°Er(n,)¹¹Er reaction by using a Mn monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal neutron cross section and the resonance integral of the reaction ¹°Er(n,)¹¹Er were measured by the Cd-ratio method using a Mn monitor as single comparator. Analytical grade MnO and ErO powder samples with and without a cylindrical 1 mm Cd shield box were irradiated in an isotropic neutron field obtained from three ²¹Am-Be neutron sources. The induced activities in

Haluk Yuecel; M. Gueray Budak; Mustafa Karadag

2007-01-01

255

Measurement of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral for the Er170(n,gamma)Er171 reaction by using a Mn55 monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal neutron cross section and the resonance integral of the reaction Er170(n,gamma)Er171 were measured by the Cd-ratio method using a Mn55 monitor as single comparator. Analytical grade MnO2 and Er2O3 powder samples with and without a cylindrical 1 mm Cd shield box were irradiated in an isotropic neutron field obtained from three Am241-Be neutron sources. The induced activities in

Haluk Yücel; M. Güray Budak; Mustafa Karadag

2007-01-01

256

Estradiol Regulates Expression of Estrogen Receptor ER?46 in Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Background Monocytes and macrophages are key innate immune effector cells that produce cytokines and chemokines upon activation. We and others have shown that 17?-estradiol (E2) has a direct role in the modulation of monocyte and macrophage immune function. However, relatively little is known about the ability of E2 to regulate isoform expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in these cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we quantify expression of ER? and ER? in human monocytes and macrophages. We also show for the first time that the N-terminal truncated ER? variant, ER?46, is expressed in both cell types. Promoter utilization studies reveal that transcription of ER? in both cell types occurs from upstream promoters E and F. Treatment with E2 induces ER? expression in macrophages but has no effect on ER? levels in either cell type. During monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, ER? is upregulated in a time-dependent manner. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that E2 treatment attenuates production of the chemokine CXCL8 in an ER-dependent manner. We now show that ER? expression levels parallel the ability of E2 to suppress CXCL8 production. Conclusions/Significance This work demonstrates for the first time that human macrophages predominantly express the truncated ER variant ER?p46, which is estradiol-inducible. This is mediated through usage of the ER? F promoter. Alternative promoter usage may account for tissue and cell type-specific differences in estradiol-induced effects on gene expression. These studies signify the importance of ER? expression and regulation in the ability of E2 to modulate innate immune responses.

Murphy, Amy J.; Guyre, Paul M.; Wira, Charles R.; Pioli, Patricia A.

2009-01-01

257

Bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates BI-1 protein stability and function in ER Stress.  

PubMed

Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), among other ER-associated signaling proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in mammalian cells. IRE1 signaling becomes attenuated under prolonged ER stress. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. An ER resident protein, Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), interacts with IRE1 and directly inhibits IRE1 activity. However, little is known about regulation of the BI-1 protein. We show here that bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) functions as an ER-associated RING-type E3 ligase, interacts with BI-1, and promotes proteasomal degradation of BI-1. Overexpression of BAR reduced BI-1 protein levels in a RING-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous BAR increased BI-1 protein levels and enhanced inhibition of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. We also found that the levels of endogenous BAR were reduced under prolonged ER stress. Our findings suggest that post-translational regulation of the BI-1 protein by E3 ligase BAR contributes to the dynamic control of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. PMID:21068390

Rong, Juan; Chen, Lili; Toth, Julia I; Tcherpakov, Marianna; Petroski, Matthew D; Reed, John C

2010-11-10

258

Effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ion-irradiation induced defects on the nanocluster Si/Er{sup 3+} coupling in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) thin film is investigated. Er-doped SRSO, which consists of silicon nanoclusters (nc-Si) in a SiO{sub 2} matrix, was fabricated using electron-cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using SiH{sub 4} and O{sub 2} with concurrent sputtering of Er followed by a high temperature annealing. Defects were introduced into the film via irradiation with 3 MeV Si ions and subsequently removed by high temperature annealings. The authors find that ion irradiation reduces Er{sup 3+} luminescence from SRSO films, even when the excitation cross section and luminescence efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions are completely restored. On the other hand, ion irradiation increases the intrinsic nc-Si luminescence and has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence from a similarly prepared, Er-doped SiO{sub 2} film, indicating that the presence of irradiation induced defects in the initial amorphous film can reduce the number of Er{sup 3+} ions available for nc-Si mediated luminescence by as much as a factor of 3.

Seo, Se-Young; Jeong, Hoon; Shin, Jung H.; Choi, Han Woo; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ion Beam Application Group, Korean Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-09

259

Bifunctional Apoptosis Regulator (BAR), an Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-associated E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Modulates BI-1 Protein Stability and Function in ER Stress*  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), among other ER-associated signaling proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in mammalian cells. IRE1 signaling becomes attenuated under prolonged ER stress. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. An ER resident protein, Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), interacts with IRE1 and directly inhibits IRE1 activity. However, little is known about regulation of the BI-1 protein. We show here that bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) functions as an ER-associated RING-type E3 ligase, interacts with BI-1, and promotes proteasomal degradation of BI-1. Overexpression of BAR reduced BI-1 protein levels in a RING-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous BAR increased BI-1 protein levels and enhanced inhibition of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. We also found that the levels of endogenous BAR were reduced under prolonged ER stress. Our findings suggest that post-translational regulation of the BI-1 protein by E3 ligase BAR contributes to the dynamic control of IRE1 signaling during ER stress.

Rong, Juan; Chen, Lili; Toth, Julia I.; Tcherpakov, Marianna; Petroski, Matthew D.; Reed, John C.

2011-01-01

260

Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling reveals a link between the PI3K pathway and lower estrogen-receptor (ER) levels and activity in ER+ breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that both levels and activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) are dramatically influenced by growth-factor receptor (GFR) signaling pathways, and that this crosstalk is a major determinant of both breast cancer progression and response to therapy. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, a key mediator of GFR signaling, is one of the most altered pathways in breast cancer. We thus examined whether deregulated PI3K signaling in luminal ER+ breast tumors is associated with ER level and activity and intrinsic molecular subtype. Methods We defined two independent molecular signatures of the PI3K pathway: a proteomic (reverse-phase proteomic array) PI3K signature, based on protein measurement for PI3K signaling intermediates, and a PI3K transcriptional (mRNA) signature based on the set of genes either induced or repressed by PI3K inhibitors. By using these signatures, we scored each ER+ breast tumor represented in multiple independent expression-profiling datasets (four mRNA, n = 915; one protein, n = 429) for activation of the PI3K pathway. Effects of PI3K inhibitor BEZ-235 on ER expression and activity levels and cell growth were tested by quantitative real-time PCR and cell proliferation assays. Results Within ER+ tumors, ER levels were negatively correlated with the PI3K activation scores, both at the proteomic and transcriptional levels, in all datasets examined. PI3K signature scores were also higher in ER+ tumors and cell lines of the more aggressive luminal B molecular subtype versus those of the less aggressive luminal A subtype. Notably, BEZ-235 treatment in four different ER+ cell lines increased expression of ER and ER target genes including PR, and treatment with IGF-I (which signals via PI3K) decreased expression of ER and target genes, thus further establishing an inverse functional relation between ER and PI3K. BEZ-235 had an additional effect on tamoxifen in inhibiting the growth of a number of ER+ cell lines. Conclusions Our data suggest that luminal B tumors have hyperactive GFR/PI3K signaling associated with lower ER levels, which has been correlated with resistance to endocrine therapy. Targeting PI3K in these tumors might reverse loss of ER expression and signaling and restore hormonal sensitivity.

2010-01-01

261

Spectra and laser properties of Er 3+, Yb 3+:phosphate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Al2O3, Yb2O3, Er2O3 and OH on spectral properties of P2O5·Na2O·SrO·Al2O3·Yb2O3·Er2O3 erbium phosphate glass were studied. 5, 8, 13 mol% Al2O3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 mol% Yb2O3 and 0.05, 0.2, 0.4 mol% Er2O3 were used. It was found Al2O3 improves fluorescent lifetime of Er3+ ions, but the integrated absorption cross-section of Er3+ ions decreases with the

Zhuping Liu; Changhong Qi; Shixun Dai; Yasi Jiang; Lili Hu

2003-01-01

262

Hollow polycarbonate fiber for Er:YAG laser light delivery.  

PubMed

We developed hollow fibers with polycarbonate (PC) capillaries for use as a supporting tube. The PC capillaries were prepared by using a glass-drawing technique. Hollow PC fibers are safer and more flexible than hollow glass fibers because no fragments are released when the fibers are broken in various applications. Inner coating layers of silver and cyclic olefin polymer (COP) enhanced the reflection rate at the Er:YAG laser light wavelength. Using these fibers, we attained low loss for Er:YAG laser light transmission. By adjusting the drawing temperature in the fabrication of the PC capillaries, we created a smooth inner surface and uniform PC capillaries. We also demonstrated low-loss properties for visible pilot beams. PMID:16642109

Nakazawa, Masayuki; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji; Iwai, Katsumasa; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

2006-05-15

263

100-megawatt power Q-switched Er-glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very high energy Q-switched Er-glass laser is reported. We incorporated a rotating, resonant mirror/Porro-cavity reflector optical arrangement to achieve very high shutter speeds on the cavity Q of a laser designed for energetic, flashlamp-pumped, 600-?s, 1540-nm pulses. Reproducible 3.75-J, 35-ns, 1533-nm laser pulses were obtained at a repetition rate less than 1 minute. Our work shows that reliable, very high energy, Q-switched, Er-glass laser pulses at 1533 nm can be generated mechanically with no apparent damage to laser cavity components. We demonstrate the applications of this "eye safe" wavelength to energetic processes such as LIBS and materials processing. The laser could also serve as a new tool for bioeffects studies and targeting applications.

Taboada, John; Taboada, John M.; Stolarski, David J.; Zohner, Justin J.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Kumru, Semih S.; Cain, Clarence P.

2006-03-01

264

Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped ?-Al2O3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of comprehensive spectroscopic study of the recently successfully synthesized nanopowders and fully densified transparent ceramics of Er3+-doped ?-Al2O3 (corundum). Fluorescence and excitation spectra in a range of temperatures of 10-300 K were used to infer the energy level schemes of the ground state and the first three excited Er3+ multiplets (4I15/2, 4I13/2, 4I11/2, and 4I9/2) in this material. Obtained experimental data also allowed us to assess this material as a potential gain medium for high power laser applications in anticipation that it becomes available in the low-loss grain-aligned ceramic or single crystalline form in the near future.

Sanamyan, T.; Pavlacka, R.; Gilde, G.; Dubinskii, M.

2013-03-01

265

RAPID COMMUNICATION: Magnetocaloric effect in ErCo2 compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ErCo2 compound is prepared by arc-melting and its entropy changes are calculated using Maxwell relation. Its entropy change reaches 38 J/(kg.K) and its refrigerant capacity achieves 291 J/kg at 0-5 T. The mean field approximation is used to calculate the magnetic entropy of ErCo2 compound. Results estimated by using the Maxwell relation deviate from mean field approximation calculations in ferrimagnetic state; however, the data obtained by the two ways are consistent in the vicinity of phase transition or at higher temperatures. This indicates that entropy changes are mainly derived from magnetic degree of freedom, and the lattice has almost no contribution to the entropy change in the vicinity of phase transition but its influence is obvious in the ferrimagnetic state below TC.

Zou, Jun-Ding; Shen, Bao-Gen; Sun, Ji-Rong

2007-07-01

266

Luminescence from Er and Tb implanted into MOS tunnel diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the 1.5?m electroluminescence from implanted Er ions inside the SiO2 insulator of a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure under forward bias. The Er ions are excited by the direct impact from electrons tunneling through the oxide at electric fields larger than 6MV/cm. We measured an excitation cross-section of 6x10-15cm2 and a total lifetime of 1.5ms. In order to change the emission wavelength into the visible regime, we changed to Tb ions. Photoluminescence data show a broad defect luminescence band and several sharp lines due to the Tb transitions. We find a noticeable influence of Tb-Tb-cross-relaxation which favours the green lines over the blue luminescence lines.

Wang, S.; Amekura, H.; Eckau, A.; Carius, R.; Buchal, Ch.

1999-01-01

267

Passively Q-switched eyesafe Yb:Er:glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, pulsed operation of the 980 nm diode-pumped Yb:Er:glass solid-state-laser operating at 1543 nm using Co:Spinel saturable absorber is described. The Yb:Er:glass gain medium was end-pumped using a 10 W fiber-coupled 980 nm laser diode. Passively q-switched laser operation was accomplished for both CW and quasi-CW operations. Up to 2 mm thick uncoated Co:Spinel samples were used for our tests. With quasi-CW pumping, pulsewidths greater than 20 ns, pulse energies of greater than 250 ?J and free-running PRFs up to 1.2 kHz have been demonstrated. So far, up to 3 % optical-to-optical efficiency has been achieved with uncoated q-switch materials. Currently, this laser is being developed for pumping a long-wave IR (8-12 ?m) optical parametric oscillator for use in spectrapolarimetric applications.

Prasad, Narasimha S.; Urbina, Chris J.; Tousley, Bradford C.; Shori, Ramesh K.; Stone-Sundberg, Jennifer L.; Kokta, Milan R.

2004-07-01

268

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview  

PubMed Central

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients.

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

269

Er:YAG and adhesion in conservative dentistry : clinical overview.  

PubMed

The notion of utilizing laser technology in conservative dentistry was proposed in 1990 by Hibst and Keller, who introduced the possibility of using an Er:YAG laser as alternative to conventional instruments such as the turbine and micro-motor. In subsequent years a continuing effort has been made by clinicians, researchers and commercial companies to improve the technology. The aim of this clinical study is to demonstrate, by the description of different clinical cases, the possibilities and the advantages of using Er:YAG lasers in conservative dentistry and to show that better results may be achieved in terms of stronger adhesion, less invasiveness, reduced pain as well as greater comfort and satisfaction of patients. PMID:24155547

Fornaini, Carlo

2013-01-01

270

Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw

1996-03-01

271

Completion report for well ER-30-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

272

Fluorescence waveforms and coupled energy levels in Er 3+:ZBLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved fluorescence data was obtained from a number of levels in Er3+:ZBLAN glasses where the fluorescing level was populated by the decay of a higher level. The waveforms were substantially different from those obtained by direct pumping into the levels and care had to be exercised in the analysis of the data to derive a self-consistent physical interpretation. The fluorescing

V. K. Bogdanov; D. J. Booth; W. E. K. Gibbs

2002-01-01

273

Energy upconversion and spectroscopic studies of ZBLAN:Er3+  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed spectroscopic investigation of ZBLAN:Er3+ sample was performed. Infrared to green, red to blue and blue to ultraviolet energy upconversion studies in this material were also performed. When the material was pumped with a 637 nm dye laser upconversion signals at 402 nm, whose efficiency is ~0.04%, were detected. Intensity parameters, transition probabilities, lifetimes and quantum efficiencies are also

S. R. Bullock; B. R. Reddy; P. Venkateswarlu; S. K. Nash-Stevenson; J. C. Fajardo

1997-01-01

274

Spectroscopic analysis of Er 3+ transitions in lithium niobate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of a spectroscopic analysis of the transition strengths of Er-doped LiNbO3. The line strengths of several transitions from the ground state to excited state manifolds are evaluated from measured polarised absorption spectra and analysed using Judd-Ofelt theory, taking into account the crystal anisotropy. The measured and calculated oscillator strengths at 300 K compare favourably within

J. Amin; B Dussardier; T Schweizer; M Hempstead

1996-01-01

275

Optical properties of Er 3+ ions in transparent glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of optical properties and upconversion processes among Er3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramic matrix has been carried out. From optical absorption spectra, the oscillator strengths have been obtained for several transitions and they have been used to calculate the Judd–Ofelt parameters. Experimental lifetime values are compared with those obtained with the Judd–Ofelt theory. Different upconversion emissions

J. Méndez-Ramos; V. Lav??n; I. R. Mart??n; U. R. Rodr??guez-Mendoza; J. A. González-Almeida; V. D. Rodr??guez; A. D. Lozano-Gorr??n; P. Núñez

2001-01-01

276

Accuracy of topographic maps derived from ERS-1 interferometric radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interferometric radar technique for topographic mapping of surfaces promises a high-resolution approach to the generation of digital elevation models. The authors present analyses of data collected by the synthetic aperture radar instrument on-board the ERS-1 satellite on successive orbits. Use of a single satellite in a nearly repeating orbit is attractive for reducing cost and spaceborne hardware complexity; also

Howard A. Zebker; Charles L. Werner; Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley

1994-01-01

277

Synthesis of Structural and Storage Lipids by the ER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in plants plays a key role in the synthesis of a wide range\\u000a of lipids which are essential structural components of all cellular membranes. Lipids also represent the\\u000a major form of storage carbon in the seeds, pollen and fruit of many plant species and in some cases over\\u000a 75% of the dry mass of these tissues has been

Matthew J. Hills; Thomas Roscoe

278

Der g R -Faktor des 2+-Rotationsniveaus von Er168  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotation of the angular correlation between the gamma-group at about 820 keV and the 80 keV radiation in the decay of Tm168 has been observed in an external magnetic field of 20300 gauss. The result: omega R·tau=0,485±0,051 yields for the g R -factor of the 80 keV state of Er168: g R =+0,25±0,03. The evaluation includes a paramagnetic correction

E. Bodenstedt; H. J. Körner; E. Gerdau; J. Radeloff; L. Mayer; K. Auerbach; J. Braunsfurth; G. Mielken

1962-01-01

279

Active diagnostic of edge Er using neutral-particle analysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a careful choice of the viewing parameters, neutral-particle analysers could be used to detect small changes in the radial electric field Er immediately next to the separatrix with a submillisecond (50-100 µs) resolution. In particular, the poloidal viewing angle has to be optimized according to the ripple- and plasma geometry. In addition, the use of a small diagnostic beam is proposed to improve the signal level and quality.

Kurki-Suonio, T.; Sipilä, S. K.; Heikkinen, J. A.

2000-05-01

280

IX Draconis, ER UMa-type dwarf nova  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of our world-wide observing campaign which was dedicated to one of the most active dwarf novae, IX Draconis. We investigated photometric behaviour of the system to derive its basic parameters. This study is important in the context of our understanding of the accretion process of IX Draconis, as well as other active cataclysmic variables, especially those from the still poorly studied type of ER UMa stars.

Otulakowska-Hypka, M.; Olech, A.; de Miguel, E.; Rutkowski, A.; Koff, R.; Bakowska, K.

2013-02-01

281

Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER ? Inhibition.  

PubMed

The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor ? (ER ? ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER ? protein levels, thereby suppressing ER ? transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER ? and increased ER ? ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER ? dissociation and ER ? ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER ? degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER ? degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER ? distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER ? protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

2013-06-24

282

ER Stress and Its Functional Link to Mitochondria: Role in Cell Survival and Death  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary site for synthesis and folding of secreted and membrane-bound proteins. Proteins are translocated into ER lumen in an unfolded state and require protein chaperones and catalysts of protein folding to assist in proper folding. Properly folded proteins traffic from the ER to the Golgi apparatus; misfolded proteins are targeted to degradation. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly regulated intracellular signaling pathway that prevents accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. UPR provides an adaptive mechanism by which cells can augment protein folding and processing capacities of the ER. If protein misfolding is not resolved, the UPR triggers apoptotic cascades. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying ER stress-induced apoptosis are not completely understood, increasing evidence suggests that ER and mitochondria cooperate to signal cell death. Mitochondria and ER form structural and functional networks (mitochondria-associated ER membranes [MAMs]) essential to maintain cellular homeostasis and determine cell fate under various pathophysiological conditions. Regulated Ca2+ transfer from the ER to the mitochondria is important in maintaining control of prosurvival/prodeath pathways. We discuss the signaling/communication between the ER and mitochondria and focus on the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in these complex processes.

Malhotra, Jyoti D.; Kaufman, Randal J.

2011-01-01

283

Estrogen dependent activation function of ER? is essential for the sexual behavior of mouse females  

PubMed Central

We previously generated and characterized a genuine estrogen receptor (ER) ?-null mouse line (named ER?STL?/L?) and showed that ER?STL?/L? mice were sterile, due to an ovulation impairment in females and to an unknown reason in males, as their reproductive organs and spermatozoid motility appeared normal. We report here an assessment of the sexual behavior of ER?STL?/L? null mice. We found that ER?STL?/L? males display mildly impaired sexual behavior and that ER?STL?/L? females are significantly less receptive and less attractive than wild-type (WT) females. Decreased attractivity is also exhibited by ER?AF20 but not by ER?AF10 mutant females (females devoid of either AF2 or AF1 activation function of ER?). Interestingly, by using an odor preference test, we have determined that the low attractiveness of ER?STL?/L? and ER?AF20 females is related to a deficiency of a volatile chemosignal.

Antal, Maria Cristina; Petit-Demouliere, Benoit; Meziane, Hamid; Chambon, Pierre; Krust, Andree

2012-01-01

284

The Development of a Passive Electrostatic Electron Recycling System (ERS).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a completely new type of electron spectrometer, an ``Electron Recycling Spectrometer'' (ERS) is described in which low energy (<˜50 eV) electrons are passively stored in a `desktop' sized ring. The orbital path for the electrons is 0.65 m long with a race-track geometry and is defined through the application of design voltages to two series of cylindrical electrostatic lenses inserted between two identical hemispherical deflector analyzers. The ERS design concept exploits the very low scattering cross sections in electron-molecule collisions, where the majority of electrons do not interact with the gaseous target. Unscattered electrons are collected, passed back through the ERS for another collision opportunity in the interaction region - i.e. they are ``recycled'' so that each electron generated in the electron source may undertake multiple passes through the interaction region. Initial results will be presented which demonstrate that the electron beam undergoes up to ˜1000 orbits in a time of ˜250 ?s. The design of the system is likely to enable the storage at low kinetic energy of any type of non-relativistic charged particle, including positrons, polarized electrons, and positive & negative ions.

Tessier, David; Niu, Ying; Seccombe, Dominic; Reddish, Timothy; Alderman, Aaron; Birdsey, Ben; Hammond, Peter; Read, Frank

2007-06-01

285

Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

2005-02-01

286

An Overview of ER-2 Platform Science during TC4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft flew 11 science flight out of San Jose, Costa Rica during July and August 2007 as part of the NASA-sponsored Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The ER-2 flew a remote sensing payload consisting of passive optical and microwave imagers (MAS/MASTER, CoSSIR, AMPR), a high spectral resolution IR imager (S-HIS), active sensors (CPL lidar, CRS and EDOP radars), spectral solar (SSFR) and IR flux radiometers, a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a visible video camera (MVIS). This suite of sensors provided a high spatial resolution simulator for cloud, aerosol, sounding, and trace gas retrieval capabilities from the "A-Train" constellation, in particular, the Aqua, CloudSat, and CALIPSO satellites. In this talk we present an overview of the ER-2 TC4 science and validation objectives, and a summary of the campaign accomplishments. Science goals included observations of convective system development, anvil cirrus property evolution (i.e., microphysics, optical properties, narrow and broadband radiative fluxes), tropical Tropopause Transition Layer (TTL) and subvisual cirrus detection and characterization, marine boundary layer cloud properties, aerosol transport and optical properties, and trace gas and atmospheric state characteristics. Coordination with the DC-8 and/or WB-57 aircrafts allowed for validation of various retrievals from these observations. Morning flights (due to adverse local afternoon weather conditions) included coordination with the Terra spacecraft when feasible.

Platnick, S.; Newman, P. A.

2007-12-01

287

Metamagnetic transition and magnetocaloric effect in ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetization MH(T) and the specific heat capacity cP,H(T) of the ErCo2 intermetallic compound were measured in the temperature range 5 - 100 K and in 0, 7 or 14 T applied field, respectively. A clear first-order phase transition is found at the magnetic ordering of the Er sublattice. While for order-disorder transitions in simple ferromagnets there is a good agreement between magnetocaloric performance predicted on the basis of magnetization measurements compared to calorimetric measurements, it is necessary to investigate whether the agreement is still present for materials with more complex transitions (e.g. order - order, metamagnetic, first order etc). From the magnetization data the magnetic entropy change at the transition was calculated using the Maxwell relations. From the cP,H(T) measurements both the magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change were calculated and compared to values obtained from MH(T) and to the values calculated by the usual approximative expressions. The agreement is less good than in the case of second-order phase transitions. The discrepancy is interpreted in terms of the theory of first-order/metamagnetic transitions showing that the boundary conditions used in the derivation of the approximative formulae for simple ferromagnetic materials are not appropriate for more complex transitions as in ErCo2.

Giguere, A.; Foldeaki, M.; Schnelle, W.; Gmelin, E.

1999-09-01

288

Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-5  

SciTech Connect

The Well Cluster ER-20-5 drilling and completion project was conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Its primary tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality in addition to pathways and rates of groundwater migration. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented to obtain site-specific data about the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides that might have been produced by an underground nuclear explosion. Well Cluster ER-20-5 is the first near-field drilling project initiated at the NTS. This document presents construction data and summarizes the scientific data gathered during the drilling and well-installation phases for all three holes drilled at Well Cluster ER-20-5. Some of this information is preliminary and unprocessed, but was released so that drilling, geotechnical, well design, and completion data could be rapidly disseminated. Additional information about water levels, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling will be reported after any of this work is performed. Any additional geologic and/or geophysical investigations conducted for this project is described in one or more analysis and interpretation reports. The lithologic and stratigraphic logs, however, are provided in final form.

NONE

1997-03-01

289

Completion report for Well ER-19-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-19-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs. The Well ER-19-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) project at the NTS. The goals of the UGTA project include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, migration rates, and quality at the NTS. An additional major objective of drilling Well ER-19-1 was to develop dual-wall, reverse-circulation drilling technology for use on small-diameter wells at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

290

Reduced thermal conductivity in Er-doped epitaxial InxGa1-xSb alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of epitaxially grown semiconducting alloys of InxGa1-xSb is studied and compared to Er doped alloys. At concentrations as low as ~0.4% vol. Er, the Er coalesces to form epitaxially embedded ErSb nanocrystals which reduce the thermal conductivity compared to undoped alloys. The thermomechanical properties of epitaxial ErSb are studied for comparison. ErSb is found to be metallic with significantly higher thermal conductivity and stiffness than InxGa1-xSb alloys. The stiffness and density contrast from ErSb nanocrystals helps explain its high effectiveness as a phonon scattering center, as they are the highest of any known lattice matched material pair.

Feser, Joseph P.; Xu, Dongyan; Lu, Hong; Zhao, Yang; Shakouri, Ali; Gossard, Arthur C.; Majumdar, Arun

2013-09-01

291

USP14 inhibits ER-associated degradation via interaction with IRE1{alpha}  

SciTech Connect

Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen induces ER stress. Eukaryotic cells possess the ER quality control systems, the unfolded protein response (UPR), to adapt to ER stress. IRE1{alpha} is one of the ER stress receptors and mediates the UPR. Here, we identified ubiquitin specific protease (USP) 14 as a binding partner of IRE1{alpha}. USP14 interacted with the cytoplasmic region of IRE1{alpha}, and the endogenous interaction between USP14 and IRE1{alpha} was inhibited by ER stress. Overexpression of USP14 inhibited the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and USP14 depletion by small interfering RNA effectively activated ERAD. These findings suggest that USP14 is a novel player in the UPR by serving as a physiological inhibitor of ERAD under the non-stressed condition.

Nagai, Atsushi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Kadowaki, Hisae; Maruyama, Takeshi [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takeda, Kohsuke [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nishitoh, Hideki [Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)], E-mail: hnishitoh@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ichijo, Hidenori [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-02-20

292

Effects of site substitutions and concentration on upconversion luminescence of Er(3+)-doped perovskite titanate.  

PubMed

Upconversion photoluminescence (PL) of Er(3+)-doped BaTiO3 (BTO) with perovskite ABO3 structure is studied in terms of Er3+ substitutions for Ba (A-) and Ti (B-site) with different Er3+ doping concentrations. PL quenching with an increase Er3+ doping concentration is investigated based on the structural change and energy transfer of cross-relaxation process in BTO: Er, i.e. (2)H(11/2) + (4)I(15/2) ? (4)I(9/2) + (4)I(13/2). Temperature dependence of the PL in BTO: Er is revealed, which is associated with phase transitions of BTO host. The results imply that the emission from substituted Er3+ ions may be used as a structural probe for the ferroelectric titanates. PMID:21368996

Zhang, Yang; Hao, Jianhua; Mak, Chee Leung; Wei, Xianhua

2011-01-31

293

Interaction between P2X3 and oestrogen receptor (ER)?/ER? in ATP-mediated calcium signalling in mice sensory neurones.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence supports a role of purinergic P2X3 receptors in modulating nociceptive signalling in sensory neurones. Previously, we showed that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones (L1-S1) express both oestrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? receptors. In the present study, we investigated the expression of P2X3 receptors and the effect of 17?-oestradiol (E(2)) on the ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase in DRG neurones collected from C57Bl/6J, ER? knockout (KO) and ER?KO mice. Our data showed a significant decrease for P2X3 in ER?KO (all levels) and ER?KO (mostly observed in L1, L2, L4 and L6). Furthermore, E(2) (100 nm) significantly attenuated the ATP (10 ?m)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) in C57Bl/6J mice. ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 ?m) blocked this attenuation. Homomeric P2X3 receptors are plentifully expressed in DRG neurones and contribute to nociceptive signals. ?,?-Methylene (?,?-me) ATP, which is a specific agonist of P2X2/3 receptors, showed similar responses to the ATP-induced calcium increase in KO mice. A membrane-impermeable E-6-bovine serum albumin (1 ?m) had the same effect as E(2) , suggesting action on the membrane. In DRG neurones from ER?KO and wild-type mice, E(2) attenuated the ATP/?,?-me ATP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) fluxes but, in DRG neurones from ER?KO mice, this hormone had no effect, suggesting that this attenuation depends on membrane-associated ER? receptors. Together, our data indicate an interaction between P2X3 and membrane-associated ER? in primary sensory neurones that may represent a novel mechanism to explain sex differences observed in the clinical presentation of visceral nociceptive syndromes. PMID:22175770

Cho, T; Chaban, V V

2012-05-01

294

Interaction of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) with Estrogen Receptor (ER) ? and Activator Protein 1 (AP1) in Dexamethasone-mediated Interference of ER? Activity*  

PubMed Central

The role of glucocorticoids in the inhibition of estrogen (17-?-estradiol (E2))-regulated estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell proliferation is well established. We and others have seen that synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) antagonizes E2-stimulated endogenous ER? target gene expression. However, how glucocorticoids negatively regulate the ER? signaling pathway is still poorly understood. ChIP studies using ER?- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-positive MCF-7 cells revealed that GR occupies several ER?-binding regions (EBRs) in cells treated with E2 and Dex simultaneously. Interestingly, there was little or no GR loading to these regions when cells were treated with E2 or Dex alone. The E2+Dex-dependent GR recruitment is associated with the displacement of ER? and steroid receptor coactivator-3 from the target EBRs leading to the repression of ER?-mediated transcriptional activation. The recruitment of GR to EBRs requires assistance from ER? and FOXA1 and is facilitated by AP1 binding within the EBRs. The GR binding to EBRs is mediated via direct protein-protein interaction between the GR DNA-binding domain and ER?. Limited mutational analyses indicate that arginine 488 located within the C-terminal zinc finger domain of the GR DNA-binding domain plays a critical role in stabilizing this interaction. Together, the results of this study unravel a novel mechanism involved in glucocorticoid inhibition of ER? transcriptional activity and E2-mediated cell proliferation and thus establish a foundation for future exploitation of the GR signaling pathway in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer.

Karmakar, Sudipan; Jin, Yetao; Nagaich, Akhilesh K.

2013-01-01

295

EPR and optical measurements of weakly doped LiNbO3: Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy measurements of the congruent LiNbO3 (LN) single crystals, weakly doped with Er (0.1 0.3 wt%) and Er (0.3 wt%) and Yb (0.5 wt%), have been carried out. The shape of the optical absorption and additional absorption bands registered after ?-irradiation suggests the presence of Er3+ ion pairs. EPR investigations were performed for LN single crystal doped with Er (0.1 wt%). Unusual behaviour of the temperature dependence of the intensity and linewidth of the main EPR line—corresponding to the fine transition of evenEr3+—ions, is reported. The main EPR line appears to be a superposition of several paramagnetic centres originating from isolated evenEr3+ ions and evenEr3+ evenEr3+ pairs of ions. In low temperature region (below 20 K), the main EPR signal is dominated by signals arising from evenEr3+ evenEr3+ pairs of ions. The inverse intensity of the EPR line at low temperature region fulfils the Curie Weiss law and enabled to determine the Curie Weiss constant ?=1.5±0.5 K. The positive sign of ? suggests that the ferromagnetic interactions arise in the system of evenEr3+ evenEr3+ ion pairs in LN. Our results suggest that the distribution of Er ions in congruent LN is not homogeneous and Er impurity ions can form clusters in host lattice even in the case of weak erbium doping.

Bodziony, T.; Kaczmarek, S. M.

2007-11-01

296

The disulfide bond pairing of the pheromones Er-1 and Er-2 of the ciliated protozoan Euplotes raikovi.  

PubMed Central

The disulfide pairings of the two Euplotes raikovi pheromones Er-1 and Er-2 have been determined by chemical and mass spectrometric analyses. Cystine-linked peptides from thermolytic digestions of the native molecules were purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and identified in the known sequences to make the assignments. The same pairing, Cys(I)-Cys(IV), Cys(II)-Cys(VI), and Cys(III)-Cys(V), was found in both pheromones, suggesting that this pattern occurs commonly throughout this family of molecules. This arrangement of disulfides indicates that the three-dimensional structure is defined by three loops, which can vary in size and charge distribution from one pheromone to another.

Stewart, A. E.; Raffioni, S.; Chaudhary, T.; Chait, B. T.; Luporini, P.; Bradshaw, R. A.

1992-01-01

297

Remodeling the Proteostasis Network to Rescue Glucocerebrosidase Variants by Inhibiting ER-Associated Degradation and Enhancing ER Folding  

PubMed Central

Gaucher’s disease (GD) is characterized by loss of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GC) activity. Mutations in the gene encoding GC destabilize the protein’s native folding leading to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of the misfolded enzyme. Enhancing the cellular folding capacity by remodeling the proteostasis network promotes native folding and lysosomal activity of mutated GC variants. However, proteostasis modulators reported so far, including ERAD inhibitors, trigger cellular stress and lead to induction of apoptosis. We show herein that lacidipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker that also inhibits ryanodine receptors on the ER membrane, enhances folding, trafficking and lysosomal activity of the most severely destabilized GC variant achieved via ERAD inhibition in fibroblasts derived from patients with GD. Interestingly, reprogramming the proteostasis network by combining modulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and ERAD inhibition remodels the unfolded protein response and dramatically lowers apoptosis induction typically associated with ERAD inhibition.

Wang, Fan; Segatori, Laura

2013-01-01

298

Simultaneous achievement of high-quality oxide passivation of nc-Si and suppression of Er de-activation by silicon-rich silicon oxide \\/ Er-doped silicon nitride multilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nc-Si\\/Er environment is investigated. We find that by using a silicon-rich silicon-oxide\\/SiN:Er multilayers, high quality nc-Si passivation and suppression of Er de-activation can be achieved simultaneously for optimal Er luminescence.

In Yong Kim; J. H. Shin; Kyung Joon Kim; Moon-Seung Yang

2008-01-01

299

The Possible Impact of Obesity on Androgen, Progesterone and Estrogen Receptors (ER? and ER?) Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity has been associated with increased mortality from hormone dependant cancers such as breast cancer which is the most prevalent cancer in women. The link between obesity and breast cancer can be attributed to excess estrogen produced through aromatization in adipose tissue. The role of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer development is well studied but how obesity can affect the expression pattern of steroid hormones in patients with different grades of breast cancer was the aim of this study. Methods In this case-control study, 70 women with breast cancer participated with different grades of obesity (36 none obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 34 obese, BMI ? 25 kg/m2). The mean age of participants was 44.53 ± 1.79 yr (21–70 yr). The serum level of estrogen, progesterone and androgen determined by ELISA. Following quantitative expression of steroid hormone receptors mRNA in tumor tissues evaluated by Real-time PCR. Patients with previous history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy were excluded. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results The difference in ER?, ER? and PR mRNA level between normal and obese patients was significant (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression of AR mRNA was found to be higher than other steroid receptors. There was no significant relation between ER? gene expression in two groups (P = 0.68). We observed a significant relationship between ER? and AR mRNA with tumor stage and tumor grade, respectively (P = 0.023, P = 0.015). Conclusion According to the obtained results, it is speculated that obesity could paly a significant role in estrogen receptors gene expression and also could affect progression and proliferation of breast cancer cells.

Esfahlan, R. Jahanban; Zarghami, N.; Esfahlan, A. Jahanban; Mollazadeh, M.; Nejati, K.; Nasiri, M.

2011-01-01

300

WatER: The proposed Water Elevation Recovery satellite mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface water storage and discharge globally. The core mission objective is to describe and understand the continental water cycle and the hydrological processes (e.g., floodplain hydraulics) at work in a river basin. The key question that will be answered by WatER is: "Where is water stored on Earth's land surfaces, and how does this storage vary in space and time?" WatER will facilitate societal needs by (1) improving our understanding of flood hazards; (2) freely providing water volume information to countries who critically rely on rivers that cross political borders; and (3) mapping the variations in water bodies that contribute to disease vectors (e.g., malaria). Conventional altimeter profiles are, without question, incapable of supplying the measurements needed to address scientific and societal questions. WatER will repeatedly measure the spatially distributed water surface elevations (h) of wetlands, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. Successive h measurements yield dh/dt, (t is time), hence a volumetric change in water stored or lost. Individual images of h yield dh/dx (x is distance), hence surface water slope, which is necessary for estimating streamflow. WatER's main instrument is a Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIN) which is the only technology capable of supplying the required imaging capability of h. KaRIN has a rich heritage based on (1) the many highly successful ocean observing radar altimeters, (2) the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and (3) the development effort of the Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA). The interferometric altimeter is a near-nadir viewing, 120 km wideswath based instrument that uses interferometric SAR processing of the returned pulses to yield single-look 5m azimuth and 10m to 70m range resolution, with an elevation accuracy of approximately 50 cm. Polynomial based averaging of heights along the water body increases the height accuracy to about 3 cm. The entire globe is covered twice every 16 days and orbit subcycles allow the average visit to be about half this time at low to mid-latitudes, and almost daily at high latitudes. The WatER mission is an international effort with a large, supporting scientific community. It is already proposed as an ESA Earth Explorer Core mission and will also be jointly submitted to NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder program. WatER is designed to meet high priority targets for all nations and will provide essential data for the EU Water Framework Directive and the European Flood Alert System. WatER will meet the United Nations call for a "greater focus on water related issues", responds to the hydroclimatological needs of the International Working Group on Earth Observations, and answers the U.S. federal government call to focus on our "ability to measure, monitor, and forecast U.S. and global supplies of fresh water".

Alsdorf, D.; Mognard, N.; Rodriguez, E.; Participants, W.

2005-12-01

301

COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3  

SciTech Connect

Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 282.6 meters, prior to development and hydrologic testing. Detailed lithologic descriptions and stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 120 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 91 meters in Wells ER-5-3 and ER-5-3 No.2, supplemented by geophysical log data. The wells penetrated Quaternary/Tertiary alluvium to the depth of 622.4 meters, and an 8.5-meter-thick basalt flow was encountered within the alluvium. Tertiary tuff was penetrated to the depth of approximately 1,425.9 meters, where the top of the lower carbonate aquifer was tagged in Well ER-5-3 No.2.

BECHTEL NEVADA

2005-12-01

302

The isolated ER-Golgi intermediate compartment exhibits properties that are different from ER and cis-Golgi  

PubMed Central

A procedure has been established in Vero cells for the isolation of an intermediate compartment involved in protein transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The two-step subcellular fractionation procedure consists of Percoll followed by Metrizamide gradient centrifugation. Using the previously characterized p53 as a marker protein, the average enrichment factor of the intermediate compartment was 41. The purified fraction displayed a unique polypeptide pattern. It was largely separated from the rough ER proteins ribophorin I, ribophorin II, BIP, and protein disulfide isomerase, as well as from the putative cis-Golgi marker N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester-alpha-N- acetylglucosaminidase, the second of the two enzymes generating the lysosomal targeting signal mannose-6-phosphate. The first enzyme, N- acetylglucosaminylphosphotransferase, for which previous biochemical evidence had suggested both a pre- and a cis-Golgi localization in other cell types, cofractionated with the cis-Golgi rather than the intermediate compartment in Vero cells. The results suggest that the intermediate compartment defined by p53 has unique properties and does not exhibit typical features of rough ER and cis-Golgi.

1991-01-01

303

Enhanced Lysosomal Activity Is Involved in Bax Inhibitor-1-induced Regulation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response and Cell Death against ER Stress  

PubMed Central

Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that protects cells against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress while also affecting the ER stress response. In this study, we examined BI-1-induced regulation of the ER stress response as well as the control of the protein over cell death under ER stress. In BI-1-overexpressing cells (BI-1 cells), proteasome activity was similar to that of control cells; however, the lysosomal fraction of BI-1 cells showed sensitivity to degradation of BSA. In addition, areas and polygonal lengths of lysosomes were greater in BI-1 cells than in control cells, as assessed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. In BI-1 cells, lysosomal pH was lower than in control cells and lysosomal vacuolar H+-ATPase(V-ATPase), a proton pump, was activated, suggesting high H+ uptake into lysosomes. Even when exposed to ER stress, BI-1 cells maintained high levels of lysosomal activities, including V-ATPase activity. Bafilomycin, a V-ATPase inhibitor, leads to the reversal of BI-1-induced regulation of ER stress response and cell death due to ER stress. In BI-1 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts, lysosomal activity and number per cell were relatively lower than in BI-1 wild-type cells. This study suggests that highly maintained lysosomal activity may be one of the mechanisms by which BI-1 exerts its regulatory effects on the ER stress response and cell death.

Lee, Geum-Hwa; Kim, Do-Sung; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Jung-Wook; Chung, Chin-Ha; Ahn, Taeho; Lim, Jung Min; Kim, In-Ki; Chae, Han-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Ryong

2011-01-01

304

Involvement of ER-?36, Src, EGFR and STAT5 in the biphasic estrogen signaling of ER-negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

It is well established that estrogen is a potent mitogen in cells expressing estrogen receptors (ER). However, a large body of evidence has demonstrated that the effects of mitogenic estrogen signaling exhibit a non-monotonic or biphasic, dose-response curve; estrogen at low concentrations, elicits a mitogenic signaling pathway to stimulate cell proliferation, while at high concentrations, estrogen inhibits cell growth. The molecular mechanism underlying this paradoxical effect of estrogen on cell proliferation remains largely unknown. Recently, we reported that ER-?36, a variant of ER-?, mediates mitogenic estrogen signaling in ER-negative breast cancer cells. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the biphasic estrogen signaling in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB -436 ER-negative breast cancer cells. We found that 17?-estradiol (E2?) at l nM induced the phosphorylation of Src-Y416, an event that activates Src, while at 5 ?M failed to induce Src-Y416 phosphorylationbut induced Src-Y527 phosphorylation an event that inactivates Src. E2? at 1 nM, but not at 5 ?M, also induced phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK and activated Cyclin D1 promoter activity through the Src/EGFR/STAT5 pathway. Knockdown of ER-?36 abrogated the biphasic estrogen signaling in these cells. Our results thus indicate that in ER-negative breast cancer cells Src functions as a switch in ER-?36-mediated biphasic estrogen signaling through the EGFR/STAT5 pathway.

Zhang, Xin-Tian; Ding, Ling; Kang, Lian-Guo; Wang, Zhao-Yi

2012-01-01

305

RPA theory of magnetic excitations in rare earth-transition metal compounds: Application to ErCo2 and ErFe2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the magnetic excitation spectrum and neutron scattering intensities appropriate to the Laves phase compounds ErCo2 and ErFe2 using standard basis operator Greens functions in the random phase approximation. The results are in excellent agreement with recent neutron inelastic scattering data.

Koon, N. C.; Rhyne, J. J.

1980-01-01

306

Enhancement of 1.53 ?m photoluminescence from spin-coated Er Si O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er Si O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films are fabricated by the spin-coating and subsequent annealing process. The fraction of erbium is estimated to be 21.5 at% based on Rutherford backscattering measurement. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that the Er Si O films are similar to Er2SiO5 compound in the crystal structure. The fine structure of room-temperature photoluminescence of Er3+-related transitions suggests that Er has a local environment similar to the Er O6 octahedron. Our preliminary results show that the intensity of 1.53 ?m emission is enhanced by a factor of seven after nitrogen plasma treatment by NH3 gas with subsequent post-annealing. The full-width at half-maximum of 1.53 ?m emission peak increases from 7.5 to 12.9 nm compared with that of the untreated one. Nitrogen plasma treatment is assumed to tailor Er3+ local environment, increasing the oscillator strength of transitions and thus the excitation/emission cross-section.

Wang, X. X.; Zhang, J. G.; Cheng, B. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Wang, Q. M.

2006-03-01

307

MEMBRANE-BOUND FATTY ACID DESATURASES ARE INSERTED CO-TRANSLATIONALLY INTO THE ER AND CONTAIN DIFFERENT ER RETRIEVAL MOTIFS AT THEIR CARBOXY TERMINI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) play a prominent role in plant lipid metabolism and are located in various subcellular compartments including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate the biogenesis of ER-localized membrane-bound FADs, we characterized the mechanisms responsible for insertion of ...

308

Model validation of the output reciprocating dynamic responses of a twin electro-rheological (ER) clutch mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-rheological (ER) fluid devices are becoming more popular in the industrial applications. This is due to the fast speed of response and large output dynamics of the ER actuators. The usefulness of this ER dynamic response is considered in the material winding processes where fast output bi-directional responses are essential. Therefore in the present paper, an ER twin clutch mechanism

K. P. Tan; A. R. Johnson; R. Stanway; W. A. Bullough

2007-01-01

309

The effects of ambient oxygen pressure on the 1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide films grown by laser ablation of a Si+Er target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO:Er) films by pulsed laser deposition. A Si+Er target consisting of an Er metallic strip and a silicon disk was adopted with a goal to achieve a convenient control of the Er and oxygen density in the film. We found that the photoluminescence (PL) at 1.54 ?m is highly dependent on the ambient oxygen pressure,

J. S. Ha; G. Y. Sung; S. Lee; Y. R. Jang; K. H. Yoo; C. H. Bae; J. S. Jeon; S. H. Nam; S. M. Park

2004-01-01

310

The effects of ambient oxygen pressure on the 1.54 mum photoluminescence of Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide films grown by laser ablation of a Si+Er target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fabricated Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO:Er) films by pulsed laser deposition. A Si+Er target consisting of an Er metallic strip and a silicon disk was adopted with a goal to achieve a convenient control of the Er and oxygen density in the film. We found that the photoluminescence (PL) at 1.54 mum is highly dependent on the ambient oxygen

J. S. Ha; G. Y. Sung; S. Lee; Y. R. Jang; K. H. Yoo; C. H. Bae; J. S. Jeon; S. H. Nam; S. M. Park

2004-01-01

311

Expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta in normal and malignant prostatic epithelial cells: regulation by methylation and involvement in growth regulation.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study is to demonstrate normal and malignant prostatic epithelial cells (PrECs) as targets for receptor-mediated estrogenic and antiestrogenic action. Using an improved protocol, we have successfully isolated and maintained highly enriched populations of normal PrECs from ultrasound-guided peripheral zone biopsies, individually determined to be morphologically normal. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses were used to determine whether transcripts of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and those of ER-beta were expressed in our normal PrEC primary cultures, in a commercially available PrEC preparation (PrEC; Clontech), in an immortalized PrEC line established from a benign prostatic hyperplasia specimen (BPH-1), and in three prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145). Expression levels of ER-alpha and ER-beta transcripts were related to those of two estrogen-responsive genes [progesterone receptor (PR) and pS2], at the message levels, to gain insights into the functionality of the ER subtypes in PrECs. Interestingly, only transcripts of ER-beta, but not those of ER-alpha, were found in our primary cultures of normal PrECs, along with both PR and pS2 mRNA. These data strongly suggest that estrogen action was signaled exclusively via ER-beta in normal human PrECs. In contrast, PrEC (Clontech) and BPH-1 cells expressed both ER-alpha and ER-beta transcripts and no PR nor pS2 mRNA in PrEC and only a minimal level of PR mRNA in BPH-1. Among the three prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP expressed ER-beta mRNA along with transcripts of PR and pS2, DU145 expressed messages of ER-beta and PR, and PC-3 cells exhibited ER-alpha, ER-beta, and pS2 mRNA. Thus, unlike normal PrECs, expression patterns of these genes in malignant PrECs are more variable. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with demethylation agents effectively reactivated the expression of ER-alpha mRNA in LNCaP and DU145 and that of pS2 message in DU145. These findings provide experimental evidence that ER-alpha gene silencing in prostate cancer cells, and perhaps also in normal PrECs, are caused by DNA hypermethylation. To evaluate the potential of using antiestrogens as prostate cancer therapies, we have assessed the growth-inhibitory action of estrogens (estradiol and diethylstilbestrol) and antiestrogens (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and ICI-182,780) on PC-3 and DU-145 cells. In PC-3 cells, which express both ER subtypes, estrogens as well as antiestrogens are effective inhibitors. In contrast, in DU145 cells, which express only ER-beta, antiestrogens, but not estrogens, are growth inhibitors. By comparison, ICI 182,780 is the more effective cell growth inhibitor. Importantly, the ICI 182,780-induced antiproliferative effects were reversed by cotreatment of DU145 cells with an ER-beta antisense oligonucleotide, hence lending additional support to a central role played by ER-beta in mediating growth-inhibitory action of antiestrogens. PMID:10866308

Lau, K M; LaSpina, M; Long, J; Ho, S M

2000-06-15

312

The dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p mediates homotypic ER fusion in S. cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a network of tubules and sheets that requires homotypic membrane fusion to be maintained. In metazoans, this process is mediated by dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) called atlastins (ATLs), which are also required to maintain ER morphology. Previous work suggested that the dynamin-like GTPase Sey1p was needed to maintain ER morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this paper, we demonstrate that Sey1p, like ATLs, mediates homotypic ER fusion. The absence of Sey1p resulted in the ER undergoing delayed fusion in vivo and proteoliposomes containing purified Sey1p fused in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Sey1p could be partially replaced by ATL1 in vivo. Like ATL1, Sey1p underwent GTP-dependent dimerization. We found that the residual ER–ER fusion that occurred in cells lacking Sey1p required the ER SNARE Ufe1p. Collectively, our results show that Sey1p and its homologues function analogously to ATLs in mediating ER fusion. They also indicate that S. cerevisiae has an alternative fusion mechanism that requires ER SNAREs.

Anwar, Kamran; Klemm, Robin W.; Condon, Amanda; Severin, Katharina N.; Zhang, Miao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hu, Junjie; Rapoport, Tom A.

2012-01-01

313

Interaction between IGF-IR and ER Induced by E2 and IGF-I.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptor (ER) is a nuclear receptor and the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Estrogen and IGF-I are known to have synergistic effects on the growth of breast cancer cells. Recently, non-nuclear effects of ER have been under investigation. To study the mechanism involved in this process, we have used MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines transfected with IGF-IR anti-sense cDNA (SX13, MCF-7(SX13)) that resulted in 50% reduction of IGF-IR. In MCF-7 cells, estradiol (E2) and IGF-I induced the rapid association of ER to IGF-IR, however, the interaction was abrogated in MCF-7(SX13) cells. In addition, NWTB3 cells (NIH3T3 cells overexpressing IGF-IR) were transiently transfected with ER?, the ER-IGF-IR interaction was induced by both E2 and IGF-I. Moreover, ER? regulated the IGF-I signaling pathways through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt and the interaction of ER-IGF-IR potentiated the cell growth. Finally, E2 and IGF-I stimulated translocation of ER from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Taken together, these findings reveal that the interaction of the ER and IGF-IR is important for the non-genomic effects of ER. PMID:23704881

Yu, Zhenghong; Gao, Weimin; Jiang, Enze; Lu, Fang; Zhang, Luo; Shi, Zhaorong; Wang, Xinxing; Chen, Longbang; Lv, Tangfeng

2013-05-21

314

Deficiency of ?B crystallin augments ER stress induced apoptosis by enhancing mitochondrial dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked to several pathological conditions including age-related macular degeneration. Excessive ER stress initiates cell death cascades which are mediated, in part, through mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we identify ?B crystallin as an important regulator of ER stress-induced cell death. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from ?B crystallin (?/?) mice, and human RPE cells transfected with ?B crystallin siRNA, are more vulnerable to ER stress induced by tunicamycin. ER stress-mediated cell death is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, depletion of glutathione in mitochondria, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, increased release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases 3 and 4. The ER stress signaling inhibitors, salubrinal and 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride, decrease mitochondrial damage and reduce RPE apoptosis induced by ER stress. Prolonged ER stress decreases levels of ?B crystallin, thus exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction. Overexpression of ?B crystallin protects RPE cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis by attenuating increases in Bax, CHOP, mitochondrial permeability transition, and cleaved caspase 3. Thus, these data collectively demonstrate that ?B crystallin provides critical protection of mitochondrial function during ER stress-induced RPE apoptosis.

Dou, Guorui; Sreekumar, Parameswaran G; Spee, Christine; He, Shikun; Ryan, Stephen J; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R

2012-01-01

315

AMPK Regulates ER Morphology and Function in Stressed Pancreatic ?-Cells via Phosphorylation of DRP1.  

PubMed

Experimental lipotoxicity constitutes a model for ?-cell demise induced by metabolic stress in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fatty acid excess induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is accompanied by ER morphological changes whose mechanisms and relevance are unknown. We found that the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, is an ER resident regulating ER morphology in stressed ?-cells. Inhibition of DRP1 activity using a GTP hydrolysis-defective mutant (Ad-K38A) attenuated fatty acid-induced ER expansion and mitochondrial fission. Strikingly, stimulating the key energy-sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increased the phosphorylation at the anti-fission site Serine 637 and largely prevented the alterations in ER and mitochondrial morphology. Expression of a DRP1 mutant resistant to phosphorylation at this position partially prevented the recovery of ER and mitochondrial morphology by AMPK. Fatty acid-induced ER enlargement was associated with proinsulin retention in the ER, together with increased proinsulin/insulin ratio. Stimulation of AMPK prevented these alterations, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. In summary, DRP1 regulation by AMPK delineates a novel pathway controlling ER and mitochondrial morphology, thereby modulating the response of ?-cells to metabolic stress. DRP1 may thus function as a node integrating signals from stress regulators, such as AMPK, to coordinate organelle shape and function. PMID:23979843

Wikstrom, Jakob D; Israeli, Tal; Bachar-Wikstrom, Etty; Swisa, Avital; Ariav, Yafa; Waiss, Meytal; Kaganovich, Daniel; Dor, Yuval; Cerasi, Erol; Leibowitz, Gil

2013-08-26

316

Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: II. Collinear components and ferrimagnetic compensation.  

PubMed

Magnetization measurements on an Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) glass and polarized-beam neutron scattering measurements on Fe(78)Er(5)B(17) and Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) were described in part I. The finite spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using a sperimagnetic structure based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The temperature variation of the cross sections of Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) suggested that a compensated sperimagnetic phase existed at T(comp).The analysis of the non-spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections is described here in part II. Two spin-dependent total structure factors S(±±)(Q) were defined from these cross sections and, despite the limited range of the data 0.5 Å(-1) < Q < 6.5 Å(-1), their Fourier transform gave reliable spin-dependent radial distribution functions RDF(±±)(r). These were interpreted in terms of the atomic pair correlation functions ?(±±)(AB)(r) and their weighting factors ?(±±)(AB). The data on Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 1.5 K showed, for example, how the directions of the magnetic sublattices can be defined uniquely. The analysis of the RDF(±±)(r) for Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 112 K confirmed that the mean collinear components of the magnetic moments , are zero on both sublattices in the compensated sperimagnetic structure at T(comp). The pre-peak in the spin-dependent total structure factors at 112 K showed that it originated in the atomic structure and it may involve Fe-Er-Fe 'collineations' at a radial distance of ?6.0 Å. Finally, the RDF(±±)(r) of Fe(64)Er(19)B(17) at 180 K and of Fe(78)Er(5)B(17) at 2 K show that both glasses have the (?(Fe) UP:?(Er) DOWN) structure like the (Fe,Tb)(83)B(17) collinear ferrimagnets. PMID:22121203

Cowlam, N; Wildes, A R

2011-12-14

317

Contribution of enhanced transcriptional activation by ER to [12Val] K-Ras mediated NIH3T3 cell transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the biological significance of estrogen receptors (ER) in NIH3T3 cell transformation by the [12Val] K-Ras mutant. This mutant enhanced the steady state level of ER. Cells expressing mutant K-Ras (K12V cell) were tumorigenic. To determine the role of ER accumulation in Ras-transformed cells, we developed cells (KwtER cells) that overexpressed both wild-type (wt) K-Ras and ER, and found

Kiyoko Kato; Yousuke Ueoka; Keiji Kato; Toshiro Hachiya; Jun-ichi Nishida; Norio Wake; N Wake

1997-01-01

318

Restoration of Tamoxifen Sensitivity in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells: Tamoxifen-Bound Reactivated ER Recruits Distinctive Corepressor Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast tumors expressing estrogen receptor-A (ER) respond well to therapeutic strategies using selective ER modulators, such as tamoxifen. However, f30%of invasive breast cancers are hormone independent because they lack ER expression due to hypermethylation of ER promoter. Treatment of ER- negative breast cancer cells with demethylating agents (5-aza- 2¶-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (trichostatin A) leads to expression

Dipali Sharma; Neeraj K. Saxena; Nancy E. Davidson; Paula M. Vertino

2006-01-01

319

Identification of an enhancer element in the estrogen receptor upstream region: implications for regulation of ER transcription in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogen receptor (ER) serves as a diagnostic marker for the treatment of breast cancer. Patients with ER-positive breast tumors are likely to respond to hormonal therapies, while ER-negative breast cancers are resistant to endocrine therapies. Most ER-negative tumors do not express detectable levels of ER transcript, highlighting the importance of transcriptional regulation. A novel regulatory element which resembles a

Claudia S Cohn; Julia Ann Sullivan; Todd Kiefer; Steven M Hill

1999-01-01

320

Ground-state spin dynamics of ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the ground-state magnetic excitation spectrum of ErCo2 at 4.2 K using neutron inelastic scattering. Four modes were observed, two which are nondispersive and two which are weakly dispersive. Each of the weakly dispersive modes is degenerate with one of the nondispersive modes at the zone boundary, but falls lower in energy at the zone center. From the dynamic structure factor of the excitations we conclude that the nondispersive modes correspond to out-of-phase precession of the two rare-earth spins in the primitive cell, while the weakly dispersive modes correspond to in-phase precession. The results are described very well by a Green's-function random-phase-approximation theory using standard basis operators to account for the crystalline electric fields, which we find to be comparable in strength to the exchange interactions. The observed excitation modes are associated with transitions from the Er3+ ground state to the second and fourth excited states. By fitting the energies and intensities of the modes we determine JEr-Er=0+/-0.01 meV, JEr-Co=-0.153 meV, A04=4.3 meV/a40, and A06=-0.142 meV/a60. We did not observe a predominantly Co spin-wave mode predicted by the theory, which may indicate a breakdown of the Heisenberg model when applied to the Co spins. Calculations for the observed modes, however, are nearly independent of the dynamics assumed for the Co sublattice.

Koon, N. C.; Rhyne, J. J.

1981-01-01

321

Magnetocaloric effect of Er5Si4 under hydrostatic pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of the compound Er5Si4 has been investigated as a function of the applied magnetic field (up to 50 kOe) and the hydrostatic pressure (from ambient pressure up to 9 kbar). At constant magnetic field change, increasing the pressure up to 1.4 kbar induces a global rise of the magnetic entropy change, |?Smag| , with the peak at TC?30K growing from 14.9 to 20.1J/kgK . Between 1.4 and 9 kbar, the size and shape of the |?Smag| vs T curve remain nearly constant but the peak moves to higher temperatures and stabilizes above 3.5 kbar at Ttilde 36K . Contrary to many other R5(SixGe1-x)4 compounds, the magnetocaloric effect in Er5Si4 does not originate from the simultaneous field-induced magnetic and structural transformations since previous studies of the compound have demonstrated that moderate steady magnetic fields are not strong enough to induce the M?O(I) transformation at the atmospheric pressure. However, the pressure dependence of the MCE is associated with pressure-induced M?O(I) structural transformation that takes place in Er5Si4 . The increase in the magnetic entropy change occurs because of a modification of the magnetic coupling derived from the differences in the interlayer bonding in the M and O(I) states. This gives rise to an enhancement of the ferromagnetic interactions in the O(I) phase with respect to the ambient pressure M state, resulting in a stronger saturation magnetization and a higher Curie temperature, i.e., TCM=30K and TCO(I)=36K .

Arnold, Z.; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.; Algarabel, P. A.; Kamarad, J.; Ibarra, M. R.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.

2009-04-01

322

Stark level analysis for Er 3+-doped ZBLAN glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the absorption and emission spectra recorded in a conventional way at 13 K, the Stark levels in manifolds from 4I15\\/2 to 2H9\\/2 for Er3+-doped ZBLAN (ZrF4–BaF2–LaF3–AlF3–NaF) glass have been investigated by means of the effective crystal field model previously proposed to describe the average of local symmetries occupied by rare earth ions in oxide glasses [1]. This model, based

Y. D. Huang; M. Mortier; F. Auzel

2001-01-01

323

Final Report on Grant DE-FG-02ER63350  

SciTech Connect

Research funded by grant DE-FG-02ER63350 focused on DNA bending measured NMR spectroscopy and modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bending is a structural aspect of DNA that is plays a key role in its function. The most important finding of our research was that oxidation of guanine, a ubiquitous DNA lesion caused by endogenous and environmental oxidative stress, changes DNA bending dynamics in a way that favors binding of glycosylases, repair enzymes that remove damaged bases from DNA. Hence, the effect of 8-oxoguanine on DNA bending contributes to its recognition and removal by the base excision repair system.

John H. Miller

2005-06-10

324

Completion report for well ER-3-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-3-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) at the Nevada Test Site. IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling Program and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The well will become part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) monitoring well network.

NONE

1995-12-01

325

High-spin structure beyond band termination in 157Er.  

PubMed

The angular-momentum induced transition from a deformed state of collective rotation to a noncollective configuration has been studied. In 157Er this transition manifests itself as favored band termination near I=45 Planck's. The feeding of these band terminating states has been investigated for the first time using the Gammasphere spectrometer. Many weakly populated states lying at high excitation energy that decay into these special states have been discovered. Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these states arise from weakly collective "core-breaking" configurations. PMID:15245000

Evans, A O; Paul, E S; Simpson, J; Riley, M A; Appelbe, D E; Campbell, D B; Choy, P T W; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Fallon, P; Görgen, A; Joss, D T; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; Nolan, P J; Pipidis, A; Ward, D; Ragnarsson, I; Sari?, F

2004-06-25

326

Calorimetric study on magnetism of ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific heat of ErCo2 was measured in the temperature range 13 to 300 K. A sharp peak was observed at 32 K associated with a first order phase transition. The crystal field contribution to the specific heat was evaluated and crystal parameters were determined in both ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic regions. The saturation value of the magnetic entropy is quite close to R ln(2J + 1) = 23.1 (J/K mol), indicating negligibly small contribution of the Co moment. An entropy discontinuity at Tc can be understood by a sudden change of the ground state degeneracy.

Imai, H.; Wada, H.; Shiga, M.

1995-02-01

327

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-221 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-221 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 221).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

328

Sdg interacting-boson model applied to /sup 168/Er  

SciTech Connect

The sdg interacting-boson model is applied to /sup 168/Er. Energy levels and E2 transitions are calculated. This model is shown to solve the problem of anharmonicity regarding the excitation energy of the first K/sup ..pi../ = 4/sup +/ band relative to that of the first K/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ one. The level scheme including the K/sup ..pi../ = 3/sup +/ band is well reproduced and the calculated B(E2)'s are consistent with the experimental data.

Yoshinaga, N.; Akiyama, Y.; Arima, A.

1986-03-17

329

Continuous wave 1.6 ?m laser action in Er doped garnets at room temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on room-temperature cw laser action of Er3+: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and Er3+: Yttrium-gallium-garnet (YGG) crystals at 1.64 ?m. The laser operates from the metastable4 I 13/2 manifold into an upper Stark level of the4 I 15/2 ground-state manifold of Er3+. Due to reabsorption losses, the Er3+ concentration of the laser crystals must be low. Laser pumping at a wavelength of 647.1 nm yields lowest thresholds around 30 mW and slope efficiencies up to 12.7% for Er:YAG. Laser operation in Er:YGG is achieved with higher thresholds of about 200 mW and smaller slope efficiencies of 0.9%. The effective emission cross section in YAG is estimated to be ?e?5×10-21 cm2.

Stange, H.; Petermann, K.; Huber, G.; Duczynski, E. W.

1989-09-01

330

Luminescence properties of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped glasses in the VUV region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy of APLF + Nd and APLF + Er glass, with composition 20Al(PO3)3-80LiF + 1NdF3 and + 1ErF3 (in mol%). APLF + Nd and APLF + Er have a dominant fluorescence peak at 185 nm and 168 nm with decay times of 4.5 ns and 5.8 ns, respectively. Fluorescence from APLF + Nd is attributed to 4f25d ? 4f3 transitions in neodymium (Nd) while fluorescence from APLF + Er is due to spin allowed transition in erbium (Er). This is the first report of VUV fluorescence from rare earth ions doped in glass hosts, which could provide the basis for mass production of VUV emitting materials. Our results also suggest the potential of using APLF + Nd and APLF + Er as neutron scintillators during inertial confinement fusion.

Yamanoi, Kohei; Murata, Takahiro; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Cadatal-Raduban, Marilou; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Nakai, Mitsuo; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Fujino, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Satoh, Nakahiro; Kan, Hirofumi

2013-09-01

331

Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy investigation of (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides deposited by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the nature of violet-blue emission from (Ge, Er) codoped Si oxides (Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}) using photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) measurements. The PL spectra and PAS analysis for a control Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} (Ge+SiO{sub 2}) indicate that Ge-associated neutral oxygen vacancies (Ge-NOV) are likely responsible for the major emission in the violet-blue band. For Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}, both Ge-NOV and GeO color centers are believed to be responsible for the emission band. The addition of Er has a significant influence on the emission, which is discussed in terms of Er-concentration-related structural change in the Ge+Er+SiO{sub 2}.

Heng, C. L.; Chelomentsev, E.; Peng, Z. L.; Mascher, P. [Department of Engineering Physics and Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Simpson, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2009-01-01

332

Population inversion and low cooperative upconversion in Er-doped silicon-rich silicon nitride waveguide.  

PubMed

Single-mode, strip-loaded silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRSN) waveguide with 11 at.% excess Si and 1.7×10(20) cm(-3) Er was fabricated and characterized. By using a 350 nm thick SRSN:Er core layer and a 850 nm wide SiO2 strip, a high core-mode overlap of 0.85 and low transmission loss of 2.9 dB/cm is achieved. Population inversion of 0.73-0.75, close to the theoretical maximum, is estimated to have been achieved via 1480 nm resonant pumping, indicating that nearly all doped Er in SRSN are optically active. Analysis of the pump power dependence of Er3+ luminescence intensity and lifetime indicate that the Er cooperative upconversion coefficient in SRSN:Er is as low as 2.1×10(-18) cm3/sec. PMID:21643091

Chang, Jee Soo; Kim, In Yong; Sung, Gun Yong; Shin, Jung H

2011-04-25

333

Structural and Luminescence Properties of Transparent Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ films are reported. Transparent nano-ZrO2 crystalline films doped with Er3+ have been prepared using a wet chemistry process. An intense room-temperature emission at 1527 nm with a full width at half-maximum of 46 nm has been observed, which is assigned to the 4I13/2 ? 4I15/2 intra-4fn electric transition of Er3+. Correlations between the luminescence properties and structures of the nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ films have been investigated. Infrared-to-visible upconversion occurs simultaneously upon excitation of a commercially available 980-nm laser diode and the involved mechanisms have also been explained. The results indicate that the nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ films might be suggested as promising materials for achieving broadband Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers and upconversion waveguide lasers.

Zhang, Qin-Yuan; Yang, Gang-Feng; Jiang, Zhong-Hong; Que X., W.

2006-04-01

334

Acuminated fluorescence of Er3+ centres in endohedral fullerenes through the incarceration of a carbide cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements have allowed the acquisition of high resolution spectra at low temperature for the endohedral metallofullerenes, Er@C (isomer I) and ErC@C (isomer I). The characteristic emission in the 1.5-1.6 ?m region corresponds to the 4I(m)?4I(n) transitions of the Er ion for both molecules. The emission arising from ErC@C(I) appears acuminated (narrow lines that taper to a point) when compared with that of Er@C(I). The ErC@C(I) emission linewidths are comparable to those found in crystals, making this molecule of interest for applications where accessible, well-defined quantum states are required.

Plant, Simon R.; Dantelle, Géraldine; Ito, Yasuhiro; Ng, Tsz Cheong; Ardavan, Arzhang; Shinohara, Hisanori; Taylor, Robert A.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

2009-07-01

335

Energy transfer mechanism in Yb 3+:Er 3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamics of forward energy transfer and backward energy transfer processes in fluorozirconate glass doubly doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ have been explained by “rate equation” and “fluorescence transfer function” models. From the rate equation analysis, macroscopic energy transfer parameters, the cross-relaxation coefficients, were determined to be 1.36×10?17 and 3.38×10?17s?1cm3 for the forward energy transfer (Yb3+?Er3+) and the backward transfer (Er3+?Yb3+),

Z. Meng; K. Nagamatsu; M. Higashihata; Y. Nakata; T. Okada; Y. Kubota; N. Nishimura; T. Teshima; S. Buddhudu

2004-01-01

336

Plasma membrane localization and function of the estrogen receptor variant (ER46) in human endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen receptor (ER) variants have been identified in an array of nonendothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that estrogen rapidly induces nitric oxide release via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/Akt\\/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway in EA.hy926 cells (immortalized human endothelial cells), which express a 46-kDa ER. We now confirm that, due to alternative splicing, the 46-kDa endothelial cell protein (ER46) is an amino-terminal

Lei Li; M. Page Haynes; Jeffrey R. Bender

2003-01-01

337

Caloric restriction decreases ER stress in liver and adipose tissue in ob\\/ ob mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Although caloric restriction (CR) improves obesity-related disorders, the effects of CR on ER stress in obesity remain unknown. To investigate how CR affects ER stress in obesity, ob\\/ob mice were assigned to either ad libitum (AL) (ob-AL) or CR (ob-CR) feeding (2g food\\/day) for

Atsuyuki Tsutsumi; Hiroyuki Motoshima; Tatsuya Kondo; Shuji Kawasaki; Takeshi Matsumura; Satoko Hanatani; Motoyuki Igata; Norio Ishii; Hiroyuki Kinoshita; Junji Kawashima; Kayo Taketa; Noboru Furukawa; Kaku Tsuruzoe; Takeshi Nishikawa; Eiichi Araki

2011-01-01

338

Orbital moment at the Curie temperature in ErCo 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the L2,3 Co and M4,5 Er absorption edges through the magnetic ordering transition of ErCo2 has been measured as a function of temperature. Below TC the cobalt orbital moment is strongly increased. The correlation between the Co orbital moment and the spontaneous anisotropic magnetostriction in ErCo2 at TC is evidenced.

F. Bartolomé; J. Herrero-Albillos; L. M Garc??a; A. T Young; T. Funk; N. Plugaru; E. Arenholz

2004-01-01

339

Upconversion luminescence of monodisperse CaF2:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Monodispersed CaF(2):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals have been prepared via a facile wet chemical technology. The upconversion luminescence properties of CaF(2):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals were compared with those of NaYF(4):Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals with different phases and particle sizes. The results indicated that CaF(2) is a promising host material for producing desirable upconversion luminescence. PMID:19775118

Wang, Guofeng; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

2009-10-14

340

Xenoestrogen action in breast cancer: impact on ER-dependent transcriptionand mitogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several estrogen mimics (xenoestrogens) inappropriately activate the estrogen receptor (ER) in the absence of endogenous ligand.\\u000a Given the importance of the ER in breast cancer growth and regulation, delineating the impact of these agents under conditions\\u000a related to tumor treatment is of significant importance. We examined the effect of two prevalent xenoestrogens (bisphenol\\u000a A and coumestrol) on ER activation and

J. K. Hess-Wilson; J. Boldison; K. E. Weaver; K. E. Knudsen

2006-01-01

341

Orbital moment at the Curie temperature in ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the L2,3 Co and M4,5 Er absorption edges through the magnetic ordering transition of ErCo2 has been measured as a function of temperature. Below TC the cobalt orbital moment is strongly increased. The correlation between the Co orbital moment and the spontaneous anisotropic magnetostriction in ErCo2 at TC is evidenced.

Bartolomé, F.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; García, L. M.; Young, A. T.; Funk, T.; Plugaru, N.; Arenholz, E.

2004-05-01

342

Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of Nd 3+ and Er 3+ in a zinc borate glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

4ZnO · 3B2O3 glasses doped with Nd3+ and Er3+ were investigated by optical spectroscopy. Emission transition probabilities, radiative life-times and fluorescence branching ratios for several excited states of the Nd3+ and Er3+ ions were estimated from the room temperature absorption spectra. The stimulated emission cross sections ?p for the near infrared laser transitions of Nd3+ and Er3+ were obtained from

Maurizio Casarin

1996-01-01

343

Room-Temperature Electroluminescence from Er-Implanted Semi-Insulating Polycrystalline Silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharp room-temperature luminescence at 1.54 ¿m in erbium-doped semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon (SIPOS) is demonstrated. Electroluminescence due to intra-4f transitions of Er3+ ions was investigated in metal-SIPOS-silicon devices. The compatibility of SIPOS with VLSI technology combined with the demonstration that Er in SIPOS can be electrically excited, indicates that Er-doped SIPOS is a very interesting candidate as active material for electrically

S. Lombardo; S. U. Campisano; G. N. van den Hoven; A. Polman

1994-01-01

344

Thermomechanical and optical properties of calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with Er 3+ and Yb 3+  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a series of Er2O3 and Yb2O3 doped and Er2O3–Yb2O3 co-doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses have been melted at 1470°C under vacuum conditions. Measurements of optical absorption coefficient, mass density, refractive index, Vickers micro-hardness, glass transformation temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tx) have been carried out. The results showed that these glasses dissolved ?1.5 mol% Er2O3 and

J. A Sampaio; T Catunda; A. A Coelho; S Gama; A. C Bento; L. C. M Miranda; M. L Baesso

2000-01-01

345

Integrating bioinformatic data sources over the SFSU ER design tools XML databus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SFSU ER Design Tools were developed to support database design and data integration over multiple implementation data models. These tools allow users to enter and view Entity Relationship (ER) schemas and to translate ER schemas into a variety of equivalent implementation schemas, including Relational (ANSI SQL2), Object Oriented (ODMG 3.0), Spreadsheet (Universal Relation with associated functional dependencies) and W3C

Yan Liu; Sorna Vincent; Marguerite C. Murphy

2006-01-01

346

Hyperfine structure in 167Er I+II+III: multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock interpretation of measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report the first high-resolution measurement of hyperfine structure (HFS) in the 4f12 configuration of 167Er III. Together with recent measurements of HFS in the 4f126s2 configuration of 167Er I and in the 4f126s configuration of 167Er II, these data constitute the first detailed description of HFS along several ionisation stages in a rare-earth element. Based on ab initio,

U. Nielsen; L.-U. Aaen Andersen; O. Poulsen; E. Riis

1987-01-01

347

Watt-level Er-doped and Er-Pr-codoped ZBLAN fiber amplifiers at the 2.7-2.8 microm wavelength range.  

PubMed

Characteristics of diode-pumped Er-doped and Er-Pr-codoped ZBLAN fiber amplifiers were investigated at the 2.7-2.8 microm wavelength range. An amplified signal of 4.6 W was obtained from the singly Er-doped amplifier for an input signal of 110 mW, corresponding to a net gain of 16.2 dB. An amplified signal of 2.65 W was obtained from the Er-Pr-codoped amplifier for an input signal of 70 mW, corresponding to a net gain of 15.8 dB. It is found that the gain bandwidth of the singly Er-doped amplifier is much narrower than that of the Er-Pr-codoped amplifier. Small gain, no gain, or even a loss for shorter-wavelength signals propagating through the singly Er-doped amplifier should attribute for the large number residual populations in the lower laser level caused by the inefficient depopulation of the energy transfer upconversion processes. PMID:18628803

Zhu, Xiushan; Jain, Ravi

2008-07-15

348

Defective ER associated degradation of a model luminal substrate in yeast carrying a mutation in the 4th ER luminal loop of Sec61p.  

PubMed

The major constituent of the eukaryotic ER protein-translocation channel (Sec61p in yeast, Sec61? in higher eukaryotes) shows a high degree of evolutionary conservation from yeast to humans. The vast majority of eukaryotic species have a conserved di-tyrosine in the 4th ER luminal loop. Previously, we discovered through a screen of ethylnitrosourea- (ENU-) mutagenized mice that substitution of the latter of these tyrosines with histidine (Y344H) of the murine Sec61? protein results in diabetes and hepatic steatosis in mice that is a result of ER stress. To further characterize the mechanism behind ER stress in these mice we made the homologous mutation in yeast Sec61p (Y345H). We found that this mutation increased sensitivity of yeast to ER stressing agents and to reduction of Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1) activity. Furthermore, we found that, while this mutation did not affect translocation, it did delay degradation of the model ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrate CPY(?). Replacing both ER luminal tyrosines with alanines resulted in a destabilization of the Sec61 protein that was rescued by over expression of Sss1p. This double mutant still lacked a noticeable translocation defect after stabilization by Sss1p, but exhibited a similar defect in CPY(?) degradation. PMID:23044417

Wheeler, Matthew C; Gekakis, Nicholas

2012-10-05

349

Downregulation of RhoGDI? increased migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs) can inhibit cell motility, invasion, and metastasis in cancer by inactivating the RhoGTPases. A member of RhoGDI family has been consistently shown to interact with estrogen receptor (ER), and change its transcriptional activity. ER is a receptor known to be inversely correlated with cell motility and invasion in breast cancer. The consequence of RhoGDI? activity on migration and invasion of ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancers is not clear. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible opposing effect of RhoGDI? on the migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RhoGDI? was downregulated using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDI?, and their ability for migration and invasion was assayed using transwell chambers. It was found that the silencing of RhoGDI? in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells significantly increased migration and invasion of these cells into the lower surface of porous membrane of the chambers. Overexpression of RhoGDI? in MCF7 cells suppressed their migration and invasion, but no significant effect was found on MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicate that the downregulation of RhoGDI? similarly affects the in vitro migration and invasion of ER (+) MCF7 and ER (-) MDA-MB-231 cells. However, our assays are differently affected by the upregulation of RhoGDI? in these two cell lines and this may be due to the differences in ER expression, primary invasive ability and/or other molecules between these two cell line models which warrant further investigation. PMID:23563506

Hooshmand, Somayeh; Ghaderi, Abbas; Yusoff, Khatijah; Karrupiah, Thilakavathy; Rosli, Rozita; Mojtahedi, Zahra

2013-04-05

350

A distal estrogen responsive element upstream the cap site of human transthyretin gene is an enhancer-like element upon ER? and/or ER? transactivation.  

PubMed

Previous studies reported that 17 beta-estradiol (E2) is responsible for the up-regulation of transthyretin (TTR) expression via an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent pathway in rat choroid plexus (CP) and liver. A computer-assisted homology search identified a putative estrogen-responsive element (ERE) in the 5' flanking region of the human TTR (hTTR) gene (ERETTR), with the sequence aAGTCAAAGTGACCa, between -3406 and -3392bp. Luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and supershift analysis were carried out to investigate if E2 regulates TTR transcription via this putative ERE. Luciferase reporter assays in COS-7 cells were carried out with a plasmid construction where the TTR fragment containing the putative ERETTR was cloned in pGL2-promoter vector (pGL2-P) (pGL2-P/TTR), co-transfected with estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and/or estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression vectors. These assays demonstrated that, upon incubation with E2, one or both ERs (? and/or ?) transactivate the reporter gene. The pGL2-P/TTR showed a significant transactivation of up to 6.8-fold, by E2, when co-transfected with ER?, and up to 4-fold with ER?. Specific binding of ER (? and/or ?) to ERETTR was demonstrated by EMSA and supershift assays confirmed the binding to ER? and/or ER?. Our findings further suggest a mechanism underlying the regulation of TTR expression through the identification of a novel ERE in the TTR gene, which functions as an E2-dependent enhancer-like element. PMID:23860318

Martinho, A; Santos, C R; Gonçalves, I

2013-07-13

351

Regulation of ER-phagy by a Ypt/Rab GTPase module.  

PubMed

Accumulation of misfolded proteins on intracellular membranes has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. One cellular pathway that clears such aggregates is endoplasmic reticulum autophagy (ER-phagy), a selective autophagy pathway that delivers excess ER to the lysosome for degradation. Not much is known about the regulation of ER-phagy. The conserved Ypt/Rab GTPases regulate all membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. We recently showed that a Ypt module, consisting of Ypt1 and autophagy-specific upstream activator and downstream effector, regulates the onset of selective autophagy in yeast. Here we show that this module acts at the ER. Autophagy-specific mutations in its components cause accumulation of excess membrane proteins on aberrant ER structures and induction of ER stress. This accumulation is due to a block in transport of these membranes to the lysosome, where they are normally cleared. These findings establish a role for an autophagy-specific Ypt1 module in the regulation of ER-phagy. Moreover, because Ypt1 is a known key regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport, these findings establish a second role for Ypt1 at the ER. We therefore propose that individual Ypt/Rabs, in the context of distinct modules, can coordinate alternative trafficking steps from one cellular compartment to different destinations. PMID:23924895

Lipatova, Zhanna; Shah, Ankur H; Kim, Jane J; Mulholland, Jonathan W; Segev, Nava

2013-08-07

352

?EF1 Down-Regulates ER-? Expression and Confers Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Resistance to tamoxifen therapy represents a major barrier to the successful treatment of breast cancer, where a loss of or reduced ER-? level is considered a primary mechanism. Understanding how ER-? expression is regulated would provide insights into new intervention points to overcome tamoxifen resistance. In this study, we report that the expression of ?EF1 is up-regulated by 17?-estradiol (E2) in MCF-7 cells in an ER-?-dependent manner, through either PI3K or NF-?B pathway. Ectopic expression of ?EF1 in turn repressed ER-? transcription by binding to the E2-box on the ER-? promoter. At the tissue level of breast cancer, there is a strong and inverse correlation between the expression levels of ?EF1 and ER-?. In MCF-7 cells, an elevated expression of ?EF1 made the cells less sensitive to tamoxifen treatment, whereas overexpression of ER-? compromised the effects of ?EF1 and restored the sensitivity. Also, depletion of ?EF1 by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells restored the expression of ER-? and tamoxifen sensitivity. In conclusion, we have identified an important role of ?EF1 in the development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Inhibiting ?EF1 to restore ER-? expression might represent a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

Tong, Qi; Gu, Feng; Zhu, Tianhui; Fu, Li; Yang, Shuang

2012-01-01

353

Continuous wave 1.6 ?m laser action in Er doped garnets at room temperature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on room-temperature cw laser action of Er3+: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and Er3+: Yttrium-gallium-garnet (YGG) crystals at 1.64 µm. The laser operates from the metastable4I13\\/2 manifold into an upper Stark level of the4I15\\/2 ground-state manifold of Er3+. Due to reabsorption losses, the Er3+ concentration of the laser crystals must be low. Laser pumping at a wavelength of 647.1 nm yields

H. Stange; K. Petermann; G. Huber; E. W. Duczynski

1989-01-01

354

PKA phosphorylation redirects ER? to promoters of a unique gene set to induce tamoxifen resistance.  

PubMed

Protein kinase A (PKA)-induced estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) phosphorylation at serine residue 305 (ER?S305-P) can induce tamoxifen (TAM) resistance in breast cancer. How this phospho-modification affects ER? specificity and translates into TAM resistance is unclear. Here, we show that S305-P modification of ER? reprograms the receptor, redirecting it to new transcriptional start sites, thus modulating the transcriptome. By altering the chromatin-binding pattern, Ser305 phosphorylation of ER? translates into a 26-gene expression classifier that identifies breast cancer patients with a poor disease outcome after TAM treatment. MYC-target genes and networks were significantly enriched in this gene classifier that includes a number of selective targets for ER?S305-P. The enhanced expression of MYC increased cell proliferation in the presence of TAM. We demonstrate that activation of the PKA signaling pathway alters the transcriptome by redirecting ER? to new transcriptional start sites, resulting in altered transcription and TAM resistance. PMID:22907427

de Leeuw, R; Flach, K; Bentin Toaldo, C; Alexi, X; Canisius, S; Neefjes, J; Michalides, R; Zwart, W

2012-08-20

355

ER stress in the brain subfornical organ mediates angiotensin-dependent hypertension  

PubMed Central

Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a pathologic mechanism in a variety of chronic diseases, it is unclear what role it plays in chronic hypertension (HTN). Dysregulation of brain mechanisms controlling arterial pressure is strongly implicated in HTN, particularly in models involving angiotensin II (Ang II). We tested the hypothesis that ER stress in the brain is causally linked to Ang II–dependent HTN. Chronic systemic infusion of low-dose Ang II in C57BL/6 mice induced slowly developing HTN, which was abolished by co-infusion of the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) into the lateral cerebroventricle. Investigations of the brain regions involved revealed robust increases in ER stress biomarkers and profound ER morphological abnormalities in the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a region outside the blood-brain barrier and replete with Ang II receptors. Ang II–induced HTN could be prevented in this model by selective genetic supplementation of the ER chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) in the SFO. These data demonstrate that Ang II–dependent HTN is mediated by ER stress in the brain, particularly the SFO. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ER stress, notably brain ER stress, plays a key role in chronic HTN. Taken together, these findings may have broad implications for the pathophysiology of this disease.

Young, Colin N.; Cao, Xian; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R.; Pierce, Joseph P.; Morgan, Donald A.; Wang, Gang; Iadecola, Costantino; Mark, Allyn L.; Davisson, Robin L.

2012-01-01

356

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways  

PubMed Central

ER stress–induced apoptosis is implicated in various pathological conditions, but the mechanisms linking ER stress–mediated signaling to downstream apoptotic pathways remain unclear. Using human and mouse cell culture and in vivo mouse models of ER stress–induced apoptosis, we have shown that cytosolic calcium resulting from ER stress induces expression of the Fas death receptor through a pathway involving calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) and JNK. Remarkably, CaMKII? was also responsible for processes involved in mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, including release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. CaMKII-dependent apoptosis was also observed in a number of cultured human and mouse cells relevant to ER stress–induced pathology, including cultured macrophages, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells subjected to proapoptotic ER stress. Moreover, WT mice subjected to systemic ER stress showed evidence of macrophage mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, renal epithelial cell apoptosis, and renal dysfunction, and these effects were markedly reduced in CaMKII?-deficient mice. These data support an integrated model in which CaMKII serves as a unifying link between ER stress and the Fas and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Our study also revealed what we believe to be a novel proapoptotic function for CaMKII, namely, promotion of mitochondrial calcium uptake. These findings raise the possibility that CaMKII inhibitors could be useful in preventing apoptosis in pathological settings involving ER stress–induced apoptosis.

Timmins, Jenelle M.; Ozcan, Lale; Seimon, Tracie A.; Li, Gang; Malagelada, Cristina; Backs, Johannes; Backs, Thea; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Anderson, Mark E.; Tabas, Ira

2009-01-01

357

Study of thermal treated a-Si implanted with Er and O ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible luminescence of amorphous silicon layers either implanted with Er or co-implanted with Er and O and subsequently annealed in nitrogen has been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning electron microscope. Co-implanted samples show a more intense luminescence, which is revealed by annealing at lower temperatures than the samples implanted only with erbium. Thermal treatments cause the formation of erbium oxide as well as Er-Si complexes or precipitates. Violet-blue luminescence has been found from CL images and spectra to be related to Er-Si precipitates. Emission in the green-red range is attributed to oxide species.

Plugaru, R.; Méndez, B.; Piqueras, J.; Tate, T. J.

2002-12-01

358

Intracellular signaling in ER stress-induced autophagy in skeletal muscle cells.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to muscle disuse and unloading is known to be associated with so-called ER stress, which, in turn, activates autophagy and contributes to muscle atrophy. Different molecules are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy, among which PKC? has recently been described. In this study, we dissected both in vitro and in vivo ER stress-induced autophagy pathways in muscle. Using C2C12 muscle cells in culture, we demonstrated that PKC activation induced autophagy in the absence of ER stress. We further demonstrated that PKC? was strongly activated in cultured myoblasts and myotubes during ER stress induced by different stimuli, such as TG or TN treatment, and that it localized into Lc3-positive autophagic dots upon TG treatment. Neither Akt dephosphorylation nor Foxo or GSK3? activation was observed in these conditions. Moreover, PKC? inhibition in myoblasts and myotubes prevented ER stress-induced Lc3 activation and autophagic dot formation, but not ER stress. In vivo, lack of PKC? prevented both food deprivation- and immobilization-induced autophagy and muscle atrophy, irrespective of Akt pathway inhibition. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PKC? functions as an ER stress sensor in skeletal muscle, required for ER-stress-dependent autophagy activation, and can be proposed as a novel molecular target to maintain muscle homeostasis in response to external stimuli, such as disuse and unloading, still allowing intracellular clearance. PMID:23388382

Madaro, Luca; Marrocco, Valeria; Carnio, Silvia; Sandri, Marco; Bouché, Marina

2013-02-06

359

Inflammation, ER Stress, Autophagy and MCP-1/CCR2 Pathway  

PubMed Central

Numerous inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 that is expressed by mainly inflammatory cells and stromal cells such as endothelial cells, and its expression is upregulated following pro-inflammatory stimuli and tissue injury. MCP-1 can function as a traditional chemotactic cytokine and also regulates gene transcription. The recently discovered novel zinc-finger protein, called MCPIP (MCP-1-induced protein), which initiates a series of signaling events that causes oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to autophagy that can result in cell death or differentiation depending on the cellular context. After briefly reviewing the basic processes involved in inflammation, ER stress and autophagy, the recently elucidated role of MCP-1 and MCPIP in inflammatory diseases is reviewed. MCPIP was found to be able to control inflammatory response by inhibition of NF?B activation via its deubiquitinase activity or by degradation of mRNA encoding a set of inflammatory cytokines via its RNase activity. The potential inclusion of such a novel deubiquitinase in the emerging anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of inflammation related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes is briefly discussed.

Kolattukudy, Pappachan E.; Niu, Jianli

2012-01-01

360

Completion Report for Well ER-8-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-11-01

361

Completion Report for Well ER-2-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

Bechtel Nevada

2004-10-01

362

Gyromagnetic ratios of collective states of166Er  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static hyperfine field of B {hf/4.2k}(Er Ho) = 739(18)T of a ferromagnetic holmium single crystal polarized in an external magnetic field of ± 0.48T at ˜4.2K was used for integral perturbed ?-? angular correlation (IPAQ measurements of the g-factors of collective states of166Er. The 1,200 y 166 m Ho activity was used which populates the ground state band and the ? vibrational band up to high spins. The results: 10050_2005_Article_BF01412082_TeX2GIFE1.gif begin{gathered} g(4_g^ + ) = + 0.315(16) \\ g(6_g^ + ) = + 0.258(11) \\ g(8_g^ + ) = + 0.262(47)and \\ g(6_? ^ + ) = + 0.254(32) \\ exhibit a significant reduction of the g-factors with increasing rotational angular momentum. The following E2/ M1 mixing ratios of interband transitions were derived from the angular correlation coefficients: 10050_2005_Article_BF01412082_TeX2GIFE2.gif begin{gathered} 5_? ^ + Rightarrow 4_g^ + :? (810keV) = - (36_{ - 7}^{ + 11} ) \\ 7_? ^ + Rightarrow 6_g^ + :? (831keV) = - (18_{ - 2}^{ + 3} )and \\ 7_? ^ + Rightarrow 8_g^ + :? (465keV) = - (63_{ - 12}^{ + 19} ). \\ The results are discussed and compared with theoretical predictions.

Alzner, A.; Bodenstedt, E.; Gemünden, B.; van den Hoff, J.; Reif, H.

1985-09-01

363

Hollow waveguide for giant Er:YAG laser pulses transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short Er:YAG laser pulses were delivered by a cyclic olefin polymer coated silver hollow glass (COP/Ag) waveguide specially designed for a high power radiation. Er:YAG laser was Q-switched by an electro-optic shutter - LiNbO3 Pockels cell with Brewster angle cut input/output faces. The maximum energy output obtained from this system was 29 mJ with the length of pulse 69 ns corresponding to 420 kW output peak power. The system was working with the repetition rate of 1.5 Hz. A delivery system composed of a lens (f = 40 mm), protector and waveguide with the 700/850 ?m diameter and 50 cm or 1 m length. The measured maximum delivered intensity was 86 MW/cm2 what corresponds to the transmission of 78.6 % for whole delivery system. Using of a sealed cap, this delivery system gives a possibility of the contact surgical treatment in many medicine branches, for example ophthalmology, urology or dentistry.

Nemec, Michal; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Cech, Miroslav; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

2004-06-01

364

Storage Modes in a Passive Electrostatic Electron Recycling Spectrometer (ERS).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of electron spectrometer based around the storage of low energy (˜30 eV) electrons in electrostatically defined orbits has been recently reported [Phys Rev Lett 99, 253201 (2007)]. The ERS consists of two hemispherical deflection analysers (HDAs) whose exits and entrances are connected by a series of electrostatic lenses to form a race-track structure of ``desk-top'' size. Electrons are injected into the ring in a pulse of length ˜ 50 ns through one of the HDA's onto the optical axis of the ERS and stored with lifetimes of ˜50?s (corresponding to ˜150 orbits of the ˜65cm circumference). We outline the theoretical description of the charged particle optics design leading to long term storage of electrons in the ring. Preliminary experimental results exploring storage as a function of different mean pass energies in the two HDA's will also be presented. Complex orbital behavior is observed under certain operating conditions, indicating the likelihood of the storage of electrons of well-defined kinetic energy.

Tessier, D. R.; Reddish, T. J.; Read, F. H.; Alderman, A. J.; Hammond, P.

2008-05-01

365

Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the energy-transfer processes in Er3+: flouride glasses with doping concentrations of 0.2-18 mol % is presented. Fluorescence wave forms for 11 erbium transitions were measured under 802-nm, 1.5-?m, 975-nm, 520-nm, and 403-nm excitation from a high-energy short-pulse source. The analysis of these data provided a physical understanding of the processes responsible for the temporal behavior of the populations of a large number of energy levels. A comprehensive nine-level rate-equation model of the Er3+ population dynamics in these fluoride glasses is developed. The model performs well in predicting the observed fluorescence behavior of the main fluorescing lines under all pumping conditions. The modeling process allowed 14 ion-ion energy-transfer processes that are important for the population dynamics in these fluoride glasses to be identified and their rate constants obtained. Noticeably, the inclusion of seven three-ion processes was found necessary in order to obtain good fits to the experimental fluorescence wave forms. It was also found that some three-ion processes have a significant effect on the population dynamics of the levels even in lower doping concentrations.

Bogdanov, V. K.; Booth, D. J.; Gibbs, W. E.; Javorniczky, J. S.; Newman, P. J.; Macfarlane, D. R.

2001-05-01

366

Properties of the rotational bands in {sup 161}Er  

SciTech Connect

High-spin states in {sup 161}Er have been studied experimentally using the {sup 150}Nd({sup 16}O,5n) reaction at a beam energy of 86 MeV. The 5/2{sup +}[642], 3/2{sup -}[521], and 11/2{sup -}[505] bands are extended up to high-spin states, and particularly the {alpha}=-1/2 branch of the ground state 3/2{sup -}[521] band is revised significantly. The relatively enhanced E1 transitions from the 3/2{sup -}[521] band to the 5/2{sup +}[642] band are observed. The band properties are analyzed within the framework of a triaxial particle-rotor model, and near-prolate shape and triaxial deformation are proposed to the 3/2{sup -}[521] and 5/2{sup +}[642] bands, respectively. Signature inversion occurs in the 3/2{sup -}[521] band after the band crossing in {sup 161}Er, and the systematics of the signature inversion associated with the 3/2{sup -}[521] configuration are discussed. By analyzing the properties of the relatively enhanced E1 transitions, it is found that the R(E1/E2) values show angular momentum dependence before the band crossing, and these enhanced E1 transitions could be attributed to octupole softness.

Chen, L.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Zhang, N. T.; Zhou, H. B.; Li, G. S.; Wang, H. X.; Ding, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M. L.; Ma, F.; Fang, Y. D.; Hua, W.; Guo, S.; Qiang, Y. H.; Lei, X. G.; Guo, Y. X. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhu, L. H.; Wu, X. G. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2011-03-15

367

Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS 1 satellite altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closely spaced satellite altimeter profiles collected during the Geosat Geodetic Mission (~6km) and the ERS 1 Geodetic Phase (8 km) are easily converted to grids of vertical gravity gradient and gravity anomaly. The long-wavelength radial orbit error is suppressed below the noise level of the altimeter by taking the along-track derivative of each profile. Ascending and descending slope profiles are then interpolated onto separate uniform grids. These four grids are combined to form comparable grids of east and north vertical deflection using an iteration scheme that interpolates data gaps with minimum curvature. The vertical gravity gradient is calculated directly from the derivatives of the vertical deflection grids, while Fourier analysis is required to construct gravity anomalies from the two vertical deflection grids. These techniques are applied to a combination of high-density data from the dense mapping phases of Geosat and ERS 1 along with lower-density but higher-accuracy profiles from their repeat orbit phases. A comparison with shipboard gravity data shows the accuracy of the satellite-derived gravity anomaly is about 4-7 mGal for random ship tracks. The accuracy improves to 3 mGal when the ship track follows a Geosat Exact Repeat Mission track line. These data provide the first view of the ocean floor structures in many remote areas of the Earth. Some applications include inertial navigation, prediction of seafloor depth, planning shipboard surveys, plate tectonics, isostasy of volcanoes and spreading ridges, and petroleum exploration.

Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.

1997-05-01

368

Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser oscillation around 1.6 ?m was realised at room temperature for low-doped Er:YVO4 crystals (0.5 at% and 1 at%) as well as for Er(1 at%), Yb(5 at%):YVO4 crystal in continuous-wave mode. The maximum slope of the input-output curve was about 19% (vs. absorbed power) for Er(0.5 at%):YVO4. The laser oscillation was discretely tunable in the spectral range between 1531 and 1604 nm.

Sokólska, I.; Heumann, E.; Kück, S.; Lukasiewicz, T.

369

Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of A-site cation ordered BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on a synthesis procedure, structural and electrical properties of BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6, A-site double perovskites having layered arrangement of Ba and Er cations. These materials belong to a family of BaLnMn2O5+? oxides, which up to now were successfully synthesized for Ln=Y and La–Ho lanthanides. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful synthesis of BaErMn2O5 and BaErMn2O6, yielding>95 wt% of the considered compounds. Structural characterization of the materials is given at room temperature, together with in situ XRD studies, performed during oxidation of BaErMn2O5 in air, at elevated temperatures up to 500 °C. A complex structural behavior was observed, with oxidation process of BaErMn2O5 occurring at around 300 °C. The oxidized BaErMn2O6 shows a structural phase transition at about 225 °C. Results of structural studies are supported by thermogravimetric measurements of the oxidation process, performed in air, as well as reduction process, preformed in 5 vol% of H2 in Ar. Additionally, isothermal oxidation/reduction cycles were measured at 500 °C, showing interesting properties of BaErMn2O5+?, from a point of view of oxygen storage technology. Electrical conductivity of BaErMn2O5 is of the order of 10?4 S cm?1 at room temperature and shows activated character on temperature with activation energy Ea=0.30(1) eV. Positive sign of Seebeck coefficient for this material indicates holes as dominant charge carriers. Oxidized BaErMn2O6 possesses much higher electrical conductivity, almost 0.2 S cm?1 at room temperature. Additional, about 10-fold increase of electrical conductivity, occurring in the vicinity of 225 °C for this material, can be associated with phase transition from charge/orbital-ordered insulator COI(CE) to paramagnetic metal PM phase. The highest conductivity for BaErMn2O6 was measured near 500 °C and is almost equal to 40 S cm?1, while negative sign of Seebeck coefficient can be associated with electrons being dominant charge carriers.

?wierczek, Konrad; Klimkowicz, Alicja; Zheng, Kun; Dabrowski, Bogdan

2013-07-01

370

Optical Properties of Er in Er-Doped Zn2Si_0.5Ge_0.5O4 Waveguide Amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need for compact, efficient integrated waveguide optical amplifiers for use in optoelectronic communication. Zn2Si_0.5Ge_0.5O4 (ZSG) doped with Er (ZSG-Er) is a promising new host material due to the high concentration of Er that can be incorporated and the high optical activity of the incorporated Er. In this paper, the absorption and emission cross sections of Er in ZSG-Er (to the authors' knowledge,for the first time) are measured both through photoluminescence spectra and direct gain and absorption measurements. Peak absorption and emission cross sections are about 3 x 10^-24 m? from a Landenburg-Fuchtbauer analysis of the photoluminescence spectra, comparable to measurements on other oxide-based glass amplifiers. The population statistics of the excited Er level, along with the excited-state lifetime, are determined through a novel frequency-domain method in which the spontaneous emission power at 1550 nm is measured as a function of frequency under a modulated 980-nm input. The determined lifetime of 2 ms is comparable to the 2.3 ms measured using a conventional pump-probe technique. The novel analysis technique yields the population statistics of the excited Er atoms and the lifetime of the excited Er state under given pumping conditions independent of the unknown and variable coupling in and out of the waveguide. This method predicts zero net gain at 70 mW, about what is observed. Comparison of calculated gain and absorption based on Er density and measured cross sections with measured gains suggest that only about 20%-30% of the Er in the material is optically active. A 4.7-cm-long sample demonstrated a signal enhancement of ~ 13 dB. Cavity characteristics were measured using an analysis of coherent reflection under no pumping. The facet reflectivity was determined to be 0.27, and the scattering/absorption loss was 1.05/cm, for a total distributed loss of 1.65/cm in a 4-cm cavity. These losses, compared with an estimated achievable gain of 0.25/cm under full inversion, suggest that optically pumped lasing at this concentration is not possible. Measurements of both the cross sections and population statistics,compared with actual gain and absorption properties, give insight into the contribution of the Er dopant under different conditions and can be used to model and improve rare-earth-based amplifiers.

Banerjee, Siddhartha; Baker, Christopher C.; Steckl, Andrew J.; Klotzkin, David

2005-03-01

371

[Direct upconversion sensitization luminescence comparison of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride fluoride pentaphosphate glass].  

PubMed

This paper investigates the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of the ErYb co-doped oxyfluoride glass (ErYb: FOG), fluoride glass (ErYb: ZBLAN) and pentaphosphate noncrystalline (ErYb: PP) excited by a 966 nm diode laser. The splendid upconversion luminescence phenomenon is found. It is resulted from that the Yb3+ concentration in rather high, the energy transfer among Er(3+)-Yb3+ and Yb(3+)-Yb3+ ions is rather strong. An important fact is found that the direct upconversion sensitization luminescence of ErYb: FOG is about 100-100,000 times greater than that of ErYb: PP. And meanwhile it is interesting that the upconversion luminescence intensity of ErYb: FOG is near to that of ErYb: ZBLAN. It is significant to enhance the comprehensive level of up-conversion luminescence. PMID:12939953

Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Zhao, Chen-yi; Sawanobori, N; Ma, Hui; Song, Zeng-fu

2003-02-01

372

Negative regulation of ER? by a novel protein CAC1 through association with histone demethylase LSD1.  

PubMed

ER?, a critical transcriptional factor for breast cancer proliferation, is regulated by a complex binding repertoire that includes coactivators and corepressors. Here, we identified a novel class of ER? coregulator called CAC1. The CoRNR box of CAC1 was required for the binding to and inactivation of ER?. CAC1 also associated with histone demethylase LSD1 and suppressed LSD1-enhanced ER? activity. CAC1 impaired recruitment of ER? and LSD1 to the ER?-responsive promoter, leading to greater H3K9me3 accumulation. This effect was reversed by CAC1 depletion. Finally, CAC1 increased paclitaxel-induced cell death in ER?-positive MCF7 cells, which are paclitaxel-resistant. Overall, our study provides the first evidence that CAC1, associated with LSD1, functions as an ER? corepressor, implicating a potential antitumor target in ER?-positive breast cancer. PMID:23178685

Kim, JuHyun; Park, Ui-Hyun; Moon, MinO; Um, Soo-Jong; Kim, Eun-Joo

2012-11-20

373

Inhibition of Neu-induced mammary carcinogenesis in transgenic mice expressing ER?3, a dominant negative estrogen receptor ? variant.  

PubMed

The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) splicing variant with an in-frame deletion of exon 3 (ER?3) is frequently expressed in the normal breast, but its influence on tumorigenesis has not been explored. In vitro, ER?3 has dominant negative activity, suggesting it may suppress estrogen stimulation in the breast. ER?3 may inhibit classical signaling on estrogen response element (ERE)-regulated genes as well as activate non-classical pathways at Sp1 and AP-1 sites. Transgenic mice were developed that express mouse ER?3 in all tissues examined, including the mammary gland. To investigate if ER?3 expression affects tumorigenesis, ER?3 mice were crossbred with MMTV-Neu mice. Mammary tumor onset was significantly delayed in ER?3/Neu versus MMTV-Neu females and metastatic incidence and burden was significantly reduced. Consequently, ER?3 expression suppressed tumor development and metastasis in this aggressive model of HER2/Neu-positive breast cancer. To determine if ER ligands with anticancer activity may augment ER?3 protection, the bitransgenic mice were treated with tamoxifen and soy isoflavones starting at age 2 months. Soy protein with isoflavones (181 mg/1,800 kcal) did not affect tumor development in MMTV-Neu or ER?3/Neu mice; however, metastatic progression was not inhibited in soy-treated ER?3/Neu mice, as it was in untreated ER?3/Neu mice. In contrast, tamoxifen (20 mg/1,800 kcal) significantly enhanced tumor prevention in ER?3/Neu versus MMTV-Neu mice (98% vs. 81% tumor free). The results in ER?3/Neu mice demonstrate that ER?3 influences estrogen-dependent mammary carcinogenesis and, thus, may be protective in women expressing ER?3 in the breast. However, exposure to different estrogens may augment or block its beneficial effects. PMID:22968785

Davis, Vicki L; Shaikh, Firdos; Gallagher, Katie M; Villegas, Michael; Rea, Sheri L; Cline, J Mark; Hughes, Claude L

2012-09-12

374

ER and HER2 expression are positively correlated in HER2 non-overexpressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Estrogen receptor-? (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity are inversely correlated by standard criteria. However, we investigated the quantitative relation between ER and HER2 expression at both RNA and protein levels in HER2+ve and HER2-ve breast carcinomas. Methods ER and HER2 levels were assessed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and (for HER2) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) in formalin-fixed primary breast cancers from 448 patients in the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trial (ABC) tamoxifen-only arm. Relations at the RNA level were assessed in 1,139 TransATAC tumors. Results ER and HER2 RNA levels were negatively correlated as expected in HER2+ve (IHC 3+ and/or FISH-amplified) tumors (r = -0.45; P = 0.0028). However, in HER2-ve tumors (ER+ve and ER-ve combined), a significant positive correlation was found (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001), HER2 RNA levels being 1.74-fold higher in ER+ve versus ER-ve tumors. This correlation was maintained in the ER+veHER2-ve subgroup (r = 0.24; P = 0.0023) and confirmed in this subgroup in 1,139 TransATAC tumours (r = 0.25; P < 0.0001). The positive relation extended to IHC-detected ER in ABC: mean ± 95% confidence interval (CI) H-scores were 90 ± 19 and 134 ± 19 for 0 and 1+ HER2 IHC categories, respectively (P = 0.0013). A trend toward lower relapse-free survival (RFS) was observed in patients with the lowest levels of ER and HER2 RNA levels within the ER+veHER2-ve subgroup both for ABC and TransATAC cohorts. Conclusions ER and HER2 expression is positively correlated in HER2-ve tumors. The distinction between HER2+ve and HER2-ve is greater in ER-ve than in ER+ve tumors. These findings are important to consider in clinical trials of anti-HER2 and anti-endocrine therapy in HER2-ve disease. Trial Registration Clinical trial identifier: ISRCTN31514446.

2012-01-01

375

ER Ca2+ Depletion Activates XBP1 and Controls Terminal Differentiation in Keratinocytes and Epidermis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ depletion, previously shown to signal pathologic stress responses, has more recently been found also to trigger homeostatic physiologic processes such as differentiation. In keratinocytes and epidermis, terminal differentiation and barrier repair require physiologic apoptosis and differentiation, as evidenced by protein synthesis, caspase 14 expression, lipid secretion, and stratum corneum (SC) formation. Objectives To investigate the role of Ca2+ depletion induced ER stress in Keratinocytes differentiation and barrier repair in vivo and in cell culture. Methods The SERCA2 Ca2+ pump inhibitor Thapsigargin (TG) is used to deplete ER Calcium both in cultured Keratinocytes and in mice. Levels of the ER stress factor XBP1, loricrin, Caspase 14, lipid synthesis and intracellular Ca2+ are compared after both TG treatment and barrier abrogation. Results We show here that these components of terminal differentiation and barrier repair are signaled by physiologic ER stress, via release of Stratum Granulosum (SG) ER Ca2+ stores. We first find that keratinocyte and epidermal ER Ca2+ depletion activate the ER-stress-induced transcription factor XBP1. Next, we demonstrate that external barrier perturbation results in both intracellular Ca2+ emptying and XBP1 activation. Finally, we show that TG treatment of intact skin does not perturb the permeability barrier, yet stimulates and mimics the physiologic processes of barrier recovery. This report is the first to quantify and localize ER Ca2+ loss after barrier perturbation and show that homeostatic processes that restore barrier function in vivo can be reproduced solely by releasing ER Ca2+, via induction of physiologic ER stress.

Celli, A.; Mackenzie, D.S.; Crumrine, D.S.; Tu, C.L.; Hupe, M.; Bikle, D.D.; Elias, P.M.; Mauro, T.M.

2010-01-01

376

Er-doped sesquioxides for 1.5-micron lasers - spectroscopic comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the favorable thermal properties of sesquioxides as hosts for rare earth laser ions, we have recently studied the spectroscopy of Er:Lu2O3 in the 1400-1700 nm wavelength range, and here report its comparison with our earlier results on Er:Y2O3 and Er:Sc2O3. These studies include absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, and inference of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections, all as a function of temperature. At room temperature, optical absorption limits practical laser operation to wavelengths longer than about 1620 nm. In that spectral range, the strongest stimulated emission peak is that at 1665 nm in Er:Sc2O3, with an effective cross section considerably larger than those of Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3. At 77K, the absorption is weak enough for efficient laser operation at considerably shorter wavelengths, where there are peaks with much larger stimulated emission cross sections. The three hosts all have peaks near 1575-1580 nm with comparably strong cross sections. As we have reported earlier, it is possible to lase even shorter wavelengths efficiently at this temperature, in particular the line at 1558 nm in Er:Sc2O3. Our new spectroscopic studies of Er:Lu2O3 indicate that its corresponding peak, like that of Er:Sc2O3, has a less favorable ratio of stimulated emission to absorption cross sections. Reasons for the differences will be discussed. We conclude that for most operating scenarios, Er:Sc2O3 is the most promising of the Er-doped sesquioxides studied for laser operation around 1.5-1.6 microns.

Merkle, Larry D.; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay

2013-05-01

377

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica.  

PubMed

: Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm-3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm-3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites. PMID:23336324

Talbot, Etienne; Lardé, Rodrigue; Pareige, Philippe; Khomenkova, Larysa; Hijazi, Khalil; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

2013-01-21

378

Nanoscale evidence of erbium clustering in Er-doped silicon-rich silica  

PubMed Central

Photoluminescence spectroscopy and atom probe tomography were used to explore the optical activity and microstructure of Er3+-doped Si-rich SiO2 thin films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of post-fabrication annealing treatment on the properties of the films was investigated. The evolution of the nanoscale structure upon an annealing treatment was found to control the interrelation between the radiative recombination of the carriers via Si clusters and via 4f shell transitions in Er3+ ions. The most efficient 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence was observed from the films submitted to low-temperature treatment ranging from 600°C to 900°C. An annealing treatment at 1,100°C, used often to form Si nanocrystallites, favors an intense emission in visible spectral range with the maximum peak at about 740 nm. Along with this, a drastic decrease of 1.53-?m Er3+ photoluminescence emission was detected. The atom probe results demonstrated that the clustering of Er3+ ions upon such high-temperature annealing treatment was the main reason. The diffusion parameters of Si and Er3+ ions as well as a chemical composition of different clusters were also obtained. The films annealed at 1,100°C contain pure spherical Si nanocrystallites, ErSi3O6 clusters, and free Er3+ ions embedded in SiO2 host. The mean size and the density of Si nanocrystallites were found to be 1.3± 0.3 nm and (3.1± 0.2)×1018 Si nanocrystallites·cm?3, respectively. The density of ErSi3O6 clusters was estimated to be (2.0± 0.2)×1018 clusters·cm?3, keeping about 30% of the total Er3+ amount. These Er-rich clusters had a mean radius of about 1.5 nm and demonstrated preferable formation in the vicinity of Si nanocrystallites.

2013-01-01

379

Sperimagnetism in Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 metallic glasses: II. Collinear components and ferrimagnetic compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization measurements on an Fe64Er19B17 glass and polarized-beam neutron scattering measurements on Fe78Er5B17 and Fe64Er19B17 were described in part I. The finite spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections were calculated using a sperimagnetic structure based on random cone arrangements of the magnetic moments. The temperature variation of the cross sections of Fe64Er19B17 suggested that a compensated sperimagnetic phase existed at Tcomp. The analysis of the non-spin-flip neutron scattering cross sections is described here in part II. Two spin-dependent total structure factors S±±(Q) were defined from these cross sections and, despite the limited range of the data 0.5 Å-1 < Q < 6.5 Å-1, their Fourier transform gave reliable spin-dependent radial distribution functions RDF±±(r). These were interpreted in terms of the atomic pair correlation functions {\\rho }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }(r) and their weighting factors {\\omega }_{{AB}}^{+/- +/- }. The data on Fe64Er19B17 at 1.5 K showed, for example, how the directions of the magnetic sublattices can be defined uniquely. The analysis of the RDF±±(r) for Fe64Er19B17 at 112 K confirmed that the mean collinear components of the magnetic moments \\langle {\\mu }_{{Er}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle , \\langle {\\mu }_{{Fe}}^{\\parallel }\\rangle are zero on both sublattices in the compensated sperimagnetic structure at Tcomp. The pre-peak in the spin-dependent total structure factors at 112 K showed that it originated in the atomic structure and it may involve Fe-Er-Fe ‘collineations’ at a radial distance of ?6.0 Å. Finally, the RDF±±(r) of Fe64Er19B17 at 180 K and of Fe78Er5B17 at 2 K show that both glasses have the (?Fe UP:?Er DOWN) structure like the (Fe,Tb)83B17 collinear ferrimagnets.

Cowlam, N.; Wildes, A. R.

2011-12-01

380

Preparation and up-conversion fluorescence of rare earth (Er{sup 3+} or Yb{sup 3+}\\/Er{sup 3+})-doped TiO nanobelts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatase TiO nanobelts doped with rare earth (RE) ions Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} or Yb{sup 3+}\\/Er{sup 3+} have been prepared using layered titanate nanobelts (LTO NBs) with RE ions as the precursor obtained by ion-exchange between LTO NBs and RE ions under hydrothermal process. Various measurement results demonstrate that the RE ions have doped into the lattice of TiO, and

Ji Tianhao; Liu Yang; Zhao Hui; Du Haiyan; Sun Jiayue; Ge Guanglu

2010-01-01

381

Annual validation of significant wave heights of ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar wave mode spectra using TOPEX\\/Poseidon and ERS-1 altimeter data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant wave heights retrieved globally during 1994 from low bit rate imagette spectra of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating in the intermittent wave mode (SWM) onboard the first European Remote Sensing (ERS-1) satellite (Hsswm) are validated using independent, buoy-validated satellite altimeter data from TOPEX\\/Poseidon (Hstop) and ERS-1 (Hsers). Hsswm is retrieved using the extended inversion algorithm of the fully

Eva Bauer; Patrick Heimbach

1999-01-01

382

17?-Estradiol activates PI3K\\/Akt signaling pathway by estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms in endometrial cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular response to estrogen is mediated both by estrogen receptor (ER) binding to estrogen response element (ERE) and by non-nuclear actions like activation of signal transducing pathways. The main aims are to study if PI3K\\/Akt signaling pathway can be activated by 17?-estradiol (E2) via non-nuclear action and to investigate the relationship of the action of E2 and ER in endometrial

Rui-Xia Guo; Li-Hui Wei; Zheng Tu; Peng-Ming Sun; Jian-Liu Wang; Dan Zhao; Xiao-Ping Li; Jian-Min Tang

2006-01-01

383

Synergistic Activation of Functional Estrogen Receptor (ER)- by DNA Methyltransferase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibition in Human ER--negative Breast Cancer Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of transcriptional repression complexes such as DNA meth- yltransferase (DNMT) 1\\/histone deacetylase (HDAC) or methyl-CpG binding protein\\/HDAC is emerging as an important mechanism in silenc- ing a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes. Our previous studies showed that treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-- negative human breast cancer cells with the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2- deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) led to ER

Dawn L. Phillips; Anne T. Ferguson; William G. Nelson; James G. Herman; Nancy E. Davidson

2000-01-01

384

Optical properties of Er 3+ ions in lithium borate glasses and comparative energy level analyses of Er 3+ ions in various glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of Er3+ ions are studied in the following lithium borate (LBO) glasses: Li2CO3 + H3BO3 and RCO3 + Li2CO3 + H3BO3 (R = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba). The electronic structure of Er3+(4f11) in these glasses as well as the data that are available for other systems in the literature are also analyzed in terms of a

A. Renuka Devi; C. K. Jayasankar

1996-01-01

385

Ste6p Mutants Defective in Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Reveal Aspects of an ER Quality Control Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We are studying the intracellular trafficking of the multispanning membrane protein Ste6p, the a-factor transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins. In the present study, we have used Ste6p as model for studying the process of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control, about which relatively little is known in yeast. We have identified three mutant forms of Ste6p that are aberrantly ER retained, as determined by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. By pulse-chase metabolic labeling, we demonstrate that these mutants define two distinct classes. The single member of Class I, Ste6–166p, is highly unstable. We show that its degradation involves the ubiquitin–proteasome system, as indicated by its in vivo stabilization in certain ubiquitin–proteasome mutants or when cells are treated with the proteasome inhibitor drug MG132. The two Class II mutant proteins, Ste6–13p and Ste6–90p, are hyperstable relative to wild-type Ste6p and accumulate in the ER membrane. This represents the first report of a single protein in yeast for which distinct mutant forms can be channeled to different outcomes by the ER quality control system. We propose that these two classes of ER-retained Ste6p mutants may define distinct checkpoint steps in a linear pathway of ER quality control in yeast. In addition, a screen for high-copy suppressors of the mating defect of one of the ER-retained ste6 mutants has identified a proteasome subunit, Hrd2p/p97, previously implicated in the regulated degradation of wild-type hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the ER membrane.

Loayza, Diego; Tam, Amy; Schmidt, Walter K.; Michaelis, Susan

1998-01-01

386

ERdj4 Protein Is a Soluble Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) DnaJ Family Protein That Interacts with ER-associated Degradation Machinery*  

PubMed Central

Protein localization within cells regulates accessibility for interactions with co-factors and substrates. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) BiP co-factor ERdj4 is up-regulated by ER stress and has been implicated in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of multiple unfolded secretory proteins. Several other ERdj family members tend to interact selectively with nascent proteins, presumably because those ERdj proteins associate with the Sec61 translocon that facilitates entry of nascent proteins into the ER. How ERdj4 selects and targets terminally misfolded proteins for destruction remains poorly understood. In this study, we determined properties of ERdj4 that might aid in this function. ERdj4 was reported to retain its signal sequence and to be resistant to mild detergent extraction, suggesting that it was an integral membrane protein. However, live cell photobleaching analyses of GFP-tagged ERdj4 revealed that the protein exhibits diffusion coefficients uncommonly high for an ER integral membrane protein and more similar to the mobility of a soluble luminal protein. Biochemical characterization established that the ERdj4 signal sequence is cleaved to yield a soluble protein. Importantly, we found that both endogenous and overexpressed ERdj4 associate with the integral membrane protein, Derlin-1. Our findings now directly link ERdj4 to the ERAD machinery and suggest a model in which ERjd4 could help recruit clients from throughout the ER to ERAD sites.

Lai, Chunwei Walter; Otero, Joel H.; Hendershot, Linda M.; Snapp, Erik

2012-01-01

387

The new ternary pnictides Er12Ni30P21 and Er13Ni25As19: Crystal structures and magnetic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ternary pnictides Er12Ni30P21 and Er13Ni25As19 have been synthesized from the elements. They crystallize with hexagonal structures determined from single-crystal X-ray data for Er12Ni30P21 (space group P63/m, a=1.63900(3) nm, c=0.37573(1) nm, Z=1, RF=0.062 for 1574 F-values and 74 variable parameters), and for Er13Ni25As19 (Tm13Ni25As19-type structure, space group P6¯, a=1.6208(1) nm, c=0.38847(2) nm, Z=1, RF=0.026 for 1549 F-values and 116 variable parameters). These compounds belong to a large family of hexagonal structures with a metal-metalloid ratio of 2:1. HRTEM investigations were conducted to probe for local ordering of the disordered structure at the nanoscale. The magnetic properties of the phosphide Er12Ni30P21 have been studied in the temperature of range 2Er3+.

Oryshchyn, Stepan; Babizhetskyy, Volodymyr; Zhak, Olga; Zelinska, Mariya; Pivan, Jean-Yves; Duppel, Viola; Simon, Arndt; Kienle, Lorenz

2010-11-01

388

Optically active centers in Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures containing Er{sup 3+} ions  

SciTech Connect

The basic types of optically active erbium centers that make the major contribution to the photo-luminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content from 10 to 30% are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the origin of the optically active centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions correlates with the molar composition of the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer and the content of oxygen impurity in the layer. The major contribution to the photoluminescence signal from the Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er heterostructures with the Ge content below 25% is made by the well-known centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions and oxygen. An increase in the Ge content in the Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:Er layer (x {>=} 25%) yields the formation of a new type of centers, specifically, the Gecontaining optically active erbium centers unobserved in the Si-based structures previously.

Krasilnikova, L. V., E-mail: Luda@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Strepikhova, M. V.; Baidakova, N. A.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chalkov, V. Yu.; Shengurov, V. G. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Research Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-07-15

389

Squashed embedding of E-R schemas in hypercubes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have been investigating an approach to parallel database processing based on treating entity-relationship (E-R) schema graphs as dataflow graphs. A prerequisite is to find appropriate embeddings of the schema graphs into a processor graph, in this case a hypercube. This paper studies a class of adjacency preserving embeddings that map a node in the schema graph into a subcube (relaxed squashed or RS embeddings) or into adjacent subcubes (relaxed extended squashed or RES embeddings) of a hypercube. The mapping algorithm is motivated by the technique used for state assignment in asynchronous sequential machines. In general, the dimension of the cube required for squashed embedding of a graph is called the weak cubical dimension or WCD of the graph.

Baru, C.K.; Goel, P. (Advanced Computer Architecture Lab., Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (US))

1990-04-01

390

FINAL REPORT DOE/ER/63705-1  

SciTech Connect

Our DOE project is one of the efforts that comprised the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program [VTMX] of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy and was supported originally by DOE grant ER 62847. The Advanced Regional Prediction System [ARPS] computer code was used to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. This continuation grant was designed to allow us to complete our work on VTMX. The primary outcome of this grant was the completion of the dissertation of Dr. Ying Chen. In that work, several turbulence models were tested, a new surface vegetation model was developed, and Weather Research and Forecast code simulations were compared with ARPS runs.

R.L. Street; F.L. Ludwig; Y. Chen

2005-10-31

391

PRARE-2: Building on the lessons learned from ERS-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PRARE (Precise Range and Range-Rate Experiment) instrument's operation is based on onboard measurement of the propagation delay between signal transmission and reception at X-band to provide range information. The round-trip X-band carrier phase is also measured to derive range-rate data. The purpose of the instrument is to provide high-precision measurements of the satellite's position using a network of dedicated ground stations. It is designed both to give the ERS-2 mission a geodetic and geodynamics capability and to support the satellite's Radar Altimeter instrument. It is a two-way microwave ranging system operating at S- and X-band, providing state-of-the-art microwave positioning.

Schaefer, Wolfgang; Schumann, W.

1995-08-01

392

Mode structure of disruption precursors in TFTR - ERS discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of disruption precursor have been observed in TFTR-ERS (Enhanced Reversed Shear) high performance discharges, one with a finite frequency (2-10kHz) and the other with a purely growing amplitude and nearly-zero frequency. The internal mode structure of these precursors was determined with a common mesh analysis using two ECE polychromators separated by 126 degrees. This analysis both refines the radial mode structure and detects slowly varying n=1, 2, toroidally asymmetric phenomena leading toward the disruption. These structures have been compared with the ideal external kink structure using the PEST computer code. The observed radial displacement and the mode rotation frequency, corrected for the Doppler shift, are consistent with ideal MHD theory. A detailed comparison will be presented.

Okabayashi, M.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Jackson, J.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Takahashi, H.; Taylor, G.; TFTR Team

1996-11-01

393

Optical cooling in Er3+:KPb2Cl5.  

PubMed

For the first time, optical cooling has been observed in the (4)I(13/2) excited state of erbium(III), using the low phonon energy host materal, potassium lead chloride (KPb(2)Cl(2)). Cooling was observed when samples were pumped at wavelengths longer than 1557 nm, 17 nm longer than the mean fluorescence wavelength of 1540 nm, which implies a nonradiative heat load of 1.1% for the (4)I(13/2)-->(4)I(15/2) transition. When pumped at 1568 nm, the total cooling efficiency was 0.38% of the absorbed power. These results highlight the potential of Er(3+):KPb(2)Cl(5) as a material for lasers operating in an eye safe spectral region. PMID:19333313

Condon, Nicholas J; Bowman, Steven R; O'Connor, Shawn P; Quimby, Richard S; Mungan, Carl E

2009-03-30

394

Passively Q-switched Yb,Er:phosphate glass laser  

SciTech Connect

The effect of thermal deformations of active elements (AEs) fabricated of phosphate glasses of two types on the mode structure and output energy of a passively Q-switched Yb, Er phosphate glass laser is studied upon longitudinal pumping of AEs by a diode laser array. A scheme of the laser resonator is proposed which simultaneously reduces the influence of a thermal lens induced in the AE on the laser radiation parameters and matches the active-medium volume with the lowest mode of the resonator when the cross section of the pump beam has nearly elliptical shape. In the passively Q-switched regime, output pulses of duration 26 ns and energy 1.4 mJ were obtained with this resonator. (lasers)

Shachkin, L V [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2006-02-28

395

High upconversion optical gain of Er3+-doped tellurite glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upconversion technique of rare-earth-doped glasses or crystals is a potential route for achieving short-wavelength lasers (SWLs). The optical gain is an important parameter for evaluating lasing medium performance. Therefore, upconversion luminescence in glass with composition of 70TeO2-9PbF2-10AlF3-10BaF2-1Er2O3 was demonstrated, and the small-signal optical gain was measured via an amplified spontaneous emission technique when the sample was excited with a 980 nm laser. It was found that the optical gain was as large as 4.0 dB/cm, thus indicating that this glass may be a good medium for SWLs.

Fu, S. B.; Chen, B. J.; Zhang, J. S.; Li, X. P.; Zhong, H.; Tian, B. N.; Wang, Y. Z.; Sun, M.; Zhang, X. Q.; Cheng, L. H.; Zhong, H. Y.; Xia, H. P.

2013-10-01

396

Amalgam ablation with the Er:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any laser that will be used by dentist to replace the dental drill (handpiece) must remove dental hard tissues safely. These lasers must also have the ability to ablate the restorative dental materials which are present in the teeth being treated. Prior to any laser being used to treat humans a thorough knowledge of the effects of the laser treatment on dental materials must be understood. Cores of dental amalgam were created and sliced into thin wafers for this experiment. Ablation efficiency and thermal changes were evaluated with and without water. It appears as if the Er:YAG laser can effectively ablate amalgam dental material with and without water. The water prevents the temperature from increasing much above baseline and does not reduce efficiency of ablation.

Wigdor, Harvey A.; Visuri, Steven R.; Walsh, Joseph T.

1995-04-01

397

Diacylglycerol Kinase ? Suppresses ER-to-Golgi Traffic via Its SAM and PH Domains  

PubMed Central

We report here that the anterograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi was markedly suppressed by diacylglycerol kinase ? (DGK?) that uniquely possesses a pleckstrin homology (PH) and a sterile ? motif (SAM) domain. A low-level expression of DGK? in NIH3T3 cells caused redistribution into the ER of the marker proteins of the Golgi membranes and the vesicular-tubular clusters (VTCs). In this case DGK? delayed the ER-to-Golgi traffic of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) and also the reassembly of the Golgi apparatus after brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and washout. DGK? was demonstrated to associate with the ER through its C-terminal SAM domain acting as an ER-targeting motif. Both of the SAM domain and the N-terminal PH domain of DGK? were needed to exert its effects on ER-to-Golgi traffic. Kinase-dead mutants of DGK? were also effective as the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that the catalytic activity of DGK was not involved in the present observation. Remarkably, the expression of DGK? abrogated formation of COPII-coated structures labeled with Sec13p without affecting COPI structures. These findings indicate that DGK? negatively regulates ER-to-Golgi traffic by selectively inhibiting the formation of ER export sites without significantly affecting retrograde transport.

Nagaya, Hisao; Wada, Ikuo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Kanoh, Hideo

2002-01-01

398

Combinatorial fluorescence lifetime measuring system for developing Er-doped transparent glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence lifetime of Er3+ was measured for F-doped tellurite glasses with parallel heat treatment under a temperature gradient atmosphere in order to find the annealing condition to make transparent glass ceramics in which Er3+ ions are located in the precipitated crystals. The preparation and annealing of the samples were performed in a vertical temperature gradient furnace, where molten glass was

S. Todoroki; S. Inoue

2004-01-01

399

Misfolded proteins are sorted by a sequential checkpoint mechanism of ER quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

isfolded proteins retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway. The mechanisms used to sort them from correctly folded proteins remain unclear. Analysis of substrates with defined folded and misfolded domains has revealed a system of sequential checkpoints that recognize topologically distinct domains of polypeptides. The first checkpoint examines the cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins.

Shilpa Vashist; Davis T. W. Ng

2004-01-01

400

Spatially regulated ubiquitin ligation by an ER\\/nuclear membrane ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin system targets many cellular proteins. Doa10 (also known as Ssm4), a yeast transmembrane ubiquitin ligase (E3), resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but it attaches ubiquitin to soluble proteins that concentrate in the nucleus. A central question is how nuclear substrates gain access to an enzyme in the ER. Here we show that Doa10 reaches the inner nuclear

Min Deng; Mark Hochstrasser

2006-01-01

401

Ubx2 links the Cdc48 complex to ER-associated protein degradation.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation requires the dislocation of selected substrates from the ER to the cytosol for proteolysis via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The AAA ATPase Cdc48 (known as p97 or VCP in mammals) has a crucial, but poorly understood role in this transport step. Here, we show that Ubx2 (Sel1) mediates interaction of the Cdc48 complex with the ER membrane-bound ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 (Der3) and Doa10. The membrane protein Ubx2 contains a UBX domain that interacts with Cdc48 and an additional UBA domain. Absence of Ubx2 abrogates breakdown of ER proteins but also that of a cytosolic protein, which is ubiquitinated by Doa10. Intriguingly, our results suggest that recruitment of Cdc48 by Ubx2 is essential for turnover of both ER and non-ER substrates, whereas the UBA domain of Ubx2 is specifically required for ER proteins only. Thus, a complex comprising the AAA ATPase, a ubiquitin ligase and the recruitment factor Ubx2 has a central role in ER-associated proteolysis. PMID:16179953

Neuber, Oliver; Jarosch, Ernst; Volkwein, Corinna; Walter, Jan; Sommer, Thomas

2005-09-18

402

A System for Measuring Function Points from an ER-DFD Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tool for measuring the Function Point software metric from the specification of a software system expressed in the form of an Entity Relationship diagram plus a Data Flow Diagram (ER-DFD). First, the informal and general Function Point counting rules are translated into rigorous rules expressing properties of the ER-DFD. Then, the rigorous rules are

Evelina Lamma; Paola Mello; Fabrizio Riguzzi

2004-01-01

403

Microtubules, the ER and Exu: New associations revealed by analysis of mini spindles mutations  

PubMed Central

During Drosophila oogenesis, organized microtubule networks coordinate the localization of specific RNAs, the positioning of the oocyte nucleus, and ooplasmic streaming events. We used mutations in mini spindles (msps), a microtubule-associated protein, to disrupt microtubule function during mid- and late oogenesis, and show that msps is required for these microtubule-based events. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization is influenced by microtubules in other systems, we hypothesized that using msps to alter microtubule dynamics might affect the structure and organization of the ER in nurse cells and the oocyte. ER organization was monitored using GFP-tagged versions of Reticulon-like1 and protein disulfide isomerase. Analyses of living cells indicate microtubule associations mediate the movement of ER components within the oocyte. Surprisingly, the distribution and behavior of tubular ER in the oocyte differs from general ER, suggesting these two compartments of the ER interact differently with microtubules. We find that the morphology of Exu particles is msps-dependent, and that Exu is specifically associated with tubular ER in msps mutants. Our results extend previous descriptions of sponge bodies and the fusome, suggesting both are manifestations of a dynamic structure that interacts with microtubules and persists throughout oogenesis.

Pokrywka, Nancy Jo; Payne-Tobin, Anna; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M.; Swartzman, Sasha

2009-01-01

404

ER\\/Golgi Intermediates Acquire Golgi Enzymes by Brefeldin A-Sensitive Retrograde Transport In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretory proteins exit the ER in transport vesicles that fuse to form vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs) which move along microtubule tracks to the Golgi apparatus. Using the well-characterized in vitro approach to study the properties of Golgi membranes, we determined whether the Golgi enzyme NAGT I is transported to ER\\/Golgi intermediates. Secretory cargo was arrested at distinct steps of the

Chung-Chih Lin; Harold D. Love; Jennifer N. Gushue; John J. M. Bergeron; Joachim Ostermann

1999-01-01

405

Lifetime imaging of a fluorescent protein sensor reveals surprising stability of ER thiol redox  

PubMed Central

Interfering with disulfide bond formation impedes protein folding and promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Due to limitations in measurement techniques, the relationships of altered thiol redox and ER stress have been difficult to assess. We report that fluorescent lifetime measurements circumvented the crippling dimness of an ER-tuned fluorescent redox-responsive probe (roGFPiE), faithfully tracking the activity of the major ER-localized protein disulfide isomerase, PDI. In vivo lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) recorded subtle changes in ER redox poise induced by exposure of mammalian cells to a reducing environment but revealed an unanticipated stability of redox to fluctuations in unfolded protein load. By contrast, TCSPC of roGFPiE uncovered a hitherto unsuspected reductive shift in the mammalian ER upon loss of luminal calcium, whether induced by pharmacological inhibition of calcium reuptake into the ER or by physiological activation of release channels. These findings recommend fluorescent lifetime imaging as a sensitive method to track ER redox homeostasis in mammalian cells.

Cross, Benedict C.S.; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Winters, Mikael; Harding, Heather P.; Melo, Eduardo Pinho; Kaminski, Clemens F.

2013-01-01

406

Comparison of Field-Controlled Characteristics between ER and MR Clutches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents torque control characteristics of ER (electro-rheological) and MR (magneto-rheological) clutches. As a first step, Bingham properties of ER and MR fluids are experimentally distilled under the shear mode. A nondimensional model of the clutches is established for reasonable comparison. Two clutches have the same principal design parameters such as outer radius of the disc and electrode gap

Seung-Bok Choi; Sung-Ryong Hong; Chae-Cheon Cheong; Yong-Kun Park

1999-01-01

407

ER-associated protein degradation is a common mechanism underpinning numerous monogenic diseases including Robinow syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct folding of nascent polypeptide chains within the ER is critical for function, assembly into multi- subunit complexes and trafficking through the exocytic pathway for secretory and cell surface proteins. This process is rather inefficient, and a substantial proportion of nascent polypeptides is rejected by an ER quality control system and targeted for degradation. In some cases, only a minor

Ying Chen; William P. Bellamy; Miguel C. Seabra; Mark C. Field; Bassam R. Ali

2005-01-01

408

Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium (Technetium) Tricarbonyl Complexes Integrated in Estrogen Receptor Ligands for ER+ Tumor Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A class of breast tumors, known as ER+, contains significant concentrations of ER which functions to regulate cell growth, and mediate the action of estrogen antagonists. There is a need for the development non- invasive and reliable methods for the deter...

J. A. Katzenellenbogen N. C. Ackroyd

2006-01-01

409

Cyclopentadienyl Rhenium (Technetium) Tricarbonyl Complexes Integrated in Estrogen Receptor Ligands for ER+ Tumor Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A class of breast tumors, known as ER+, contains significant concentrations of ER which functions to regulate cell growth, and mediate the action of estrogen antagonists. There is a need for the development non- invasive and reliable methods for the deter...

N. C. Ackroyd J. A. Katzenellenbogen

2005-01-01

410

A thrombospondin-dependent pathway for a protective ER stress response  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Thrombospondin (Thbs) proteins are induced in sites of tissue damage or active remodeling. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is also prominently induced with disease where it regulates protein production and resolution of misfolded proteins. Here we describe a novel function for Thbs’ as ER resident effectors of an adaptive ER stress response. Thbs4 cardiac-specific transgenic mice were protected from myocardial injury while Thbs4?/? mice were sensitized to cardiac maladaptation. Thbs induction produced a unique profile of adaptive ER stress response factors and expansion of the ER and downstream vesicles. The type-3 repeat domain in Thbs’ bind the ER luminal domain of activating transcription factor 6? (Atf6?) to promote its nuclear shuttling. Thbs4?/?mice failed to show activation of Atf6? and other ER stress response factors with injury, and Thbs4-mediated protection was lost when Atf6? was deleted. Hence, Thbs’ can function inside the cell during disease/remodeling to augment ER function and protect through a mechanism involving regulation of Atf6?.

Lynch, Jeffrey M.; Maillet, Marjorie; Vanhoutte, Davy; Schloemer, Aryn; Sargent, Michelle A.; Blair, N. Scott; Lynch, Kaari A.; Okada, Tetsuya; Aronow, Bruce J.; Osinska, Hanna; Prywes, Ron; Lorenz, John N.; Mori, Kazutoshi; Lawler, Jack; Robbins, Jeffrey; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

2012-01-01

411

Cross Sections for Room and Low Temperature Operation of Er-Doped Sesquioxide Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesquioxides are attractive solid-state laser hosts, and Er3+ is an important ion for eyesafe lasers. Using high-resolution spectra, absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er:sesquioxides are determined for both room temperature and 77 K.

Larry D. Merkle; Nikolay Ter-Gabrielyan; Mark Dubinskii; Akio Ikesue

2007-01-01

412

Cryogenically-cooled laser based on resonantly-pumped Er3+:Y2O3 ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser performance of Er3+-doped Y2O3 ceramic is reported for the first time. Resonantly-pumped, eyesafe, 1.6-mum Er:Y2O3 cryo-laser slope efficiency of ~48% and output power ~7 W have been achieved in this first experiment.

Nikolay Ter-Gabrielyan; Larry D. Merkle; G. Alex Newburgh; Mark Dubinskii

2008-01-01

413

ER stress affects processing of MHC class I-associated peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Viral infection and neoplastic transformation trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Thus, a large proportion of the cells that must be recognized by the immune system are stressed cells. Cells respond to ER stress by launching the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR regulates the two key processes that control major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-peptide presentation: protein synthesis

Diana P Granados; Pierre-Luc Tanguay; Marie-Pierre Hardy; Étienne Caron; Danielle de Verteuil; Sylvain Meloche; Claude Perreault

2009-01-01

414

Interaction between quality control systems for ER protein folding and RNA biogenesis  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the intracellular organelle responsible for the synthesis, folding and assembly of proteins destined for secretion and the endomembrane system of the cell. ER quality control (ERQC) is an intensively studied surveillance mechanism that selectively degrades misfolded proteins to ensure that only properly folded proteins exit the ER en route to the Golgi compartment. Proper protein folding is indispensable for the differentiation and function of cells that secrete high levels of protein and defects in protein folding are implicated in many pathologies, including metabolic, genetic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER activates an adaptive set of signaling pathways, collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), to resolve protein misfolding and restore ER homeostasis. Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an RNA surveillance system that selectively degrades nascent mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). Recently, we used a genetic screen to identify genes that interact with UPR signaling in C. elegans. These studies identified NMD-associated genes that are required for ER protein folding homeostasis. These findings link the quality control systems required for ER protein folding and RNA biogenesis, provide new insights into mechanisms of ERQC and have implications on diseases of ER dysfunction and therapeutic approaches based on NMD inhibition. Here, we discuss the biological significance of these findings and future directions for study.

Sakaki, Kenjiro; Kaufman, Randal J.

2013-01-01

415

Kinesin Is the Motor for Microtubule-mediated Golgi-to-ER Membrane Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and dynamics of both the ER and Golgi complex in animal cells are known to be dependent on microtubules; in many cell types the ER extends toward the plus ends of microtubules at the cell periphery and the Golgi clusters at the minus ends of microtubules near the centrosome. In this study we provide evidence that the microtubule

Jennifer Lippincott-Sehwa; Nelson B. Cole; Alex Marotta; Patricia A. Conrad

1995-01-01

416

Neutron-diffraction investigation of the metamagnetic transition in ErCo2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron powder diffraction was employed to study the magnetic state of ErCo2 as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The metamagnetic transition has been confirmed directly with magnetization values 9.0 and 1.0?B for the Er- and Co-sublattices, respectively.

Pirogov, A.; Podlesnyak, A.; Strässle, T.; Mirmelstein, A.; Teplykh, A.; Morozov, D.; Yermakov, A.

417

Magnetic properties of ErCo12B6(57Fe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic behaviour of ErCo12B6 doped with e57Fe has been investigated by Mössbauer effect measurements (4.2-293 K). The spectra indicate basal plane ordering for ErCo12B6 below its ordering temperature of Tc = 144(2) K.

Cadogan, J. M.; Campbell, S. J.; Zhao, X.

1995-02-01

418

Inverse itinerant electron metamagnetism in Er1-x,TxCo2, T=Y, Tm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ErCo2 the substitution of Er by Y or Tm results in a reduction of the exchange field inducing an itinerant magnetic moment on the Co sites. Close to the critical concentration for a collapse of the itinerant /d moment the itinerant metamagnetic behaviour of the /d subsystem is studied as a function of both external magnetic field and pressure.

Hauser, R.; Grössinger, R.; Hilscher, G.; Arnold, Z.; Kamarád, J.; Markosyan, A. S.

2001-05-01

419

Significance of PELP1 in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer metastasis is a major clinical problem. The molecular basis of breast cancer progression to metastasis remains poorly understood. PELP1 is an estrogen receptor (ER) coregulator that has been implicated as a proto-oncogene whose expression is deregulated in metastatic breast tumors and whose expression is retained in ER-negative tumors. We examined the mechanism and significance of PELP1-mediated signaling in ER-negative breast cancer progression using two ER-negative model cells (MDA-MB231 and 4T1 cells) that stably express PELP1-shRNA. These model cells had reduced PELP1 expression (75% of endogenous levels) and exhibited less propensity to proliferate in growth assays in vitro. PELP1 down regulation substantially affected migration of ER-negative cells in Boyden chamber and invasion assays. Using mechanistic studies, we found that PELP1 modulated expression of several genes involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition EMT including MMPs, Snail1, Twist, and ZEB. In addition, PELP1 knockdown reduced the in vivo metastatic potential of ER-negative breast cancer cells and significantly reduced lung metastatic nodules in a xenograft assay. These results implicate PELP1 as having a role in ER-negative breast cancer metastasis, reveal novel mechanism of coregulator regulation of metastasis via promoting cell motility / EMT by modulating expression of genes, and suggest PELP1 may be a potential therapeutic target for metastatic ER-negative breast cancer.

Roy, Sudipa Saha; Chakravarty, Dimple; Cortez, Valerie; De Mukhopadhyay, Keya; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V.; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Sun, LuZhe; Vadlamudi, Ratna K

2011-01-01

420

Precise orbit determination and gravity field improvement for the ERS satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial orbit error has long been the major error source in ERS-1 altimetry, crippled by having only satellite laser ranging for precise tracking and relying on insufficiently accurate general-purpose gravity field models. Altimeter crossovers are used very effectively as additional tracking data to laser ranging. The ERS Tandem Mission even provides the unique possibility to simultaneously determine orbits of

Remko Scharroo; Pieter Visser

1998-01-01

421

PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II  

EPA Science Inventory

The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

422

Deforestation monitoring in tropical regions using multitemporal ERS\\/JERS SAR and INSAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study to assess the use of SAR data to map and monitor deforestation in Sumatra, a region characterized by rapid depletion of the rain forest. Two approaches, for forest\\/non-forest mapping, are compared: 1$Temporal change approach using ERS and JERS data, 2- Interferometric approach using coherence images from the ERS interferometric pairs. The results obtained from both

Florence Ribbes; T. L. Le Toan; J. Bruniquel; N. Floury; N. Stussi; Soo Chin Liew; U. R. Wasrin

1997-01-01

423

Use of ERS-1 SAR data for forest monitoring in South Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the joint ESA-CEC TREES project, the capacity of ERS-1 SAR data for mapping tropical forest, has been evaluated. The authors investigate new methods of discriminating forests from deforested areas using ERS-1 data over South Sumatra. The method developed is based on the temporal variation of the radar backscatter assessed by the ratio between two images, which

T. Le Toan; F. Ribbes; T. Hahn; N. Floury; U. R. Wasrin

1996-01-01

424

Signify® ER Drug Screen Test evaluation: comparison to Triage® Drug of Abuse Panel plus tricyclic antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signify® ER Drug Screen Test (Signify ER) and Triage® Drug of Abuse Panel plus TCA (Triage DOA Panel) rapid drug screening devices were compared at four laboratories. Both assay systems are point of care immunoassays, measuring phencyclidine, barbiturates, amphetamine, cocaine metabolite, methamphetamine, tricyclic antidepressants, opiates, marijuana metabolite, and benzodiazepines in human urine. The performance of these two assay systems, including

Jane Ellen Phillips; Stuart Bogema; Paul Fu; Wieslaw Furmaga; Alan H. B Wu; Vlasta Zic; Catherine Hammett-Stabler

2003-01-01

425

An observation of ablation effect of soft biotissue by pulsed Er:YAG laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the unique properties with regard to the absorption in organic tissue, pulsed Er:YAG laser has found most interest for various application in medicine, such as dermatology, dentistry, and cosmetic surgery. However, consensus regarding the optimal parameters for clinical use of this tool has not been reached. In this paper, the laser ablation characteristics of soft tissue by Er:YAG

Xianzeng Zhang; Shusen Xie; Qing Ye; Zhenlin Zhan

2007-01-01

426

Armet, a UPR-upregulated protein, inhibits cell proliferation and ER stress-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress that initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activates both adaptive and apoptotic pathways, which contribute differently to disease pathogenesis. To further understand the functional mechanisms of UPR, we identified 12 commonly UPR-upregulated genes by expression microarray analysis. Here, we describe characterization of Armet\\/MANF, one of the

Andria Apostolou; Yuxian Shen; Yan Liang; Jun Luo; Shengyun Fang

2008-01-01

427

Viscous Coefficient Control of Homogeneous ER Fluid Using a Sliding Mode Control Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous ER fluid is one of the smart fluids, having properties by which their apparent viscosity coefficient can be controlled according to the strength of an electric field applied to them. However, the ER effect of the fluid is easily changed by shear rate variation or temperature variation. In this study, a viscous coefficient control method using Sliding Mode Control

Taro Nakamura; Norihiko Saga; Masaru Nakazawa

2004-01-01

428

Tank 241ER311 Interconnected Piping and Equipment Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained from piping, equipment, or facilities connected to tank 241-ER-311. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the effects of the argon purge gas added to tank 241-ER-311. Vapor samples will be taken in

1999-01-01

429

Asymptotic Properties of the Hermite-Fej´er Interpolation on the Roots of the Legendre Polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper, we give a result concerning an asymptotic property of Hkn(cos ?) associated with the Hermite-Fej´er interpolation on the roots xkn = cos ?kn of the Legendre polynomials. Mathematics Subject Classification: 41A05, 41A10 Keywords: Hermite-Fej´ er interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, Legen-

Abedallah Rababah

430

Abrogating endocrine resistance by targeting ER? and PI3K in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Antiestrogen therapies targeting estrogen receptor ? (ER) signaling are a mainstay for patients with ER+ breast cancer. While many cancers exhibit resistance to antiestrogen therapies, a large body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway promotes antiestrogen resistance. In addition, continued ligand-independent ER signaling in the setting of estrogen deprivation may contribute to resistance to endocrine therapy. PI3K activates several proteins which promote cell cycle progression and survival. In ER+ breast cancer cells, PI3K promotes ligand-dependent and -independent ER transcriptional activity. Models of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer often remain sensitive to estrogen stimulation and PI3K inhibition, suggesting that clinical trials with combinations of drugs targeting both the PI3K and ER pathways are warranted. Herein, we review recent findings on the roles of PI3K and ER in antiestrogen resistance, and clinical trials testing drug combinations which target both pathways. We also discuss the need for clinical investigation of ER downregulators in combination with PI3K inhibitors.

Fox, Emily M.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Miller, Todd W.

2012-01-01

431

Distribution and posttranslational modification of synaptic ER? in the adult female rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Acute 17?-estradiol (E2) signaling in the brain is mediated by extranuclear estrogen receptors. Here we used biochemical methods to investigate the distribution, posttranslational modification, and E2 regulation of estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in synaptosomal fractions isolated by differential centrifugation from the adult female rat hippocampus. We find that ER? is concentrated presynaptically and is highly enriched with synaptic vesicles. Immunoisolation of vesicles using vesicle subtype-specific markers showed that ER? is associated with both glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid-containing neurotransmitter vesicles as well as with some large dense core vesicles. Experiments using broad spectrum and residue-specific phosphatases indicated that a portion of ER? in synaptosomal fractions is phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues leading to a mobility shift in SDS-PAGE and creating a double band on Western blots. The phosphorylated form of ER? runs in the upper of the two bands and is particularly concentrated with synaptic vesicles. Finally, we used E2 with or without the acyl protein thioesterase 1 inhibitor, Palmostatin B, to show that 20 min of E2 treatment of hippocampal slices depletes ER? from the synaptosomal membrane by depalmitoylation. We found no evidence that E2 regulates phosphorylation of synaptosomal ER? on this time scale. These studies begin to fill the gap between detailed molecular characterization of extranuclear ER? in previous in vitro studies and acute E2 modulation of hippocampal synapses in the adult brain. PMID:23183182

Tabatadze, Nino; Smejkalova, Tereza; Woolley, Catherine S

2012-11-26

432

Temperature Dependence of the Electric-Field Gradient in Er Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of perturbed angular distributions was used to measure the temperature dependence of the electric-field gradient in Er single crystal for 98 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 456 K. The I/sup pi/ = 11 exp - isomer in exp 154 Er wa...

M. H. Rafailovich O. C. Kistner E. Dafni A. W. Sunyar M . Mohsen

1983-01-01

433

A Hands-On Approach to Teaching Protein Translation & Translocation into the ER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of protein translation and translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can often be challenging for introductory college biology students to visualize. To help them understand how proteins become oriented in the ER membrane, I developed a hands-on activity in which students use Play-Doh to simulate the process of protein…

LaBonte, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

434

Targeting of protein ERGIC-53 to the ER/ERGIC/cis-Golgi recycling pathway  

PubMed Central

ERGIC-53 is a lectin-type membrane protein that continuously recycles between the ER, ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the cis- Golgi. To identify the targeting signals that mediate this recycling, N- glycosylated and myc-tagged variants of ERGIC-53 were constructed. By monitoring endoglycosidase H resistance, we measured the loss from the ER-ERGIC-cis-Golgi cycle of ERGIC-53. A domain exchange approach with the plasma membrane reporter protein CD4 showed that the transmembrane and the lumenal domains are not sufficient, while the cytoplasmic domain of ERGIC-53 is required and sufficient for pre-medial-Golgi localization. However, the ERGIC-53 cytoplasmic domain on CD4 lead to increased ER-staining by immunofluorescence microscopy indicating that this domain alone cannot provide for unbiased recycling through the ER- ERGIC-cis-Golgi compartments. Complete progress through the ER-ERGIC- cis-Golgi recycling pathway requires the cytoplasmic domain acting together with the lumenal domain of ERGIC-53. Dissection of the cytoplasmic domain revealed a COOH-terminal di-lysine ER-retrieval signal, KKFF, and an RSQQE targeting determinant adjacent to the transmembrane domain. Surprisingly, the two COOH-terminal phenylalanines influence the targeting. They reduce the ER-retrieval capacity of the di-lysine signal and modulate the RSQQE determinant.

1995-01-01

435

Novel intronic promoter in the rat ER alpha gene responsible for the transient transcription of a variant receptor.  

PubMed

To analyze the molecular origin of an ER variant, the truncated ER product-1, transiently expressed at the proestrus in lactotrope cells, we generated a 2.5-kb sequence of a genomic region upstream and downstream the specific sequence truncated ER product-1. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that truncated ER product-1 is spliced from a noncoding leader exon localized within the intron 4 of the ER alpha gene. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of a major transcriptional start site, a canonical TATA box and putative cis regulatory elements for pituitary specific expression as well as an E-responsive element. In transient transfection, the truncated ER product-1 promoter was transcriptionally the most active in the lactotrope cell lines (MMQ). Analysis of truncated ER product-1 functionality showed that: 1) the protein inhibited ER alpha binding to the E-responsive element in electromobility shift assays, 2) inhibited the E2 binding to ER alpha in binding assays, 3) the truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex antagonized the transcriptional activity elicited by E2, 4) nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein-ER alpha was altered in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines stably expressing truncated ER product-1. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the protein exerts full dominant negative activity against ER alpha. Moreover, truncated ER product-1/ER alpha complex also repressed the activity of all promoters tested to date, suggesting a general inhibitory effect toward transcription. In conclusion, the data suggest that truncated ER product-1 could regulate estrogen signaling via a specific promoter in lactotrope cells. PMID:11517190

Tiffoche, C; Vaillant, C; Schausi, D; Thieulant, M L

2001-09-01

436

Completion Report for Well ER-18-2  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

Bechtel Nevada

2003-09-01

437

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1  

SciTech Connect

Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

Townsend, M.J.

2000-12-01

438

Nonmuscle Myosin IIB Links Cytoskeleton to IRE1? Signaling during ER Stress  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Here we identify and characterize a cytoskeletal myosin protein required for IRE1? oligomerization, activation, and signaling. Proteomic screening identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIB (NMHCIIB), a subunit of nonmuscle myosin IIB (NMIIB), as an ER stress-dependent interacting protein specific to IRE1?. Loss of NMIIB compromises XBP1s and UPR target gene expression with no effect on the PERK pathway. Mechanistically, NMIIB is required for IRE1? aggregation and foci formation under ER stress. The NMIIB-mediated effect on IRE1? signaling is in part dependent on the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain and the actomyosin contractility of NMIIB. Biologically, the function of NMIIB in ER stress response is conserved as both mammalian cells and C. elegans lacking NMIIB exhibit hypersensitivity to ER stress. Thus, optimal IRE1? activation and signaling require concerted coordination between the ER and cytoskeleton.

He, Yin; Beatty, Alexander; Han, Xuemei; Ji, Yewei; Ma, Xuefei; Adelstein, Robert S.; Yates, John R.; Kemphues, Kenneth; Qi, Ling

2013-01-01