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Sample records for rastrelliger kanagurta canned

  1. Spatial distribution of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1817) in the South China Sea Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razib, N. A.; Mustapha, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Rastrelliger kanagurta inhabits the South China Sea, where it is the most abundant commercial fish. Understanding distribution of this species is important. Objective of this study is to describe the relationship between spatial distribution of R. kanagurta and its local environmental factors. Chlorophyll-a distribution and sea surface temperature was obtained from Aqua MODIS satellite image. Fisheries data of 2007 to 2010 were obtained from the Southeast Asean Fisheries Department Center (SEAFDEC). These data were analyzed in relation to physical and environmental factors to establish the spatial-temporal distribution of the species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was calculated from the fisheries data and used as abundance index. Kernel Density maps of the abundance were created. The result showed that the abundance generated by Kernel Density analysis at 10.0 to 12.0 were associated with chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.4 ± 0.1 mg/m3 and sea surface temperature of 27.0 ± 1.0 °C at offshore of Pahang coast. The density maps showed that the increase of R. kanagurta abundance was occurred in October. The environmental factors in South China Sea played an important role on R. kanagurta's density patterns. This study indicated the capability of GIS and satellite image to indicate aggregation area of R. kanagurta.

  2. Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciformes: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Lamjed; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al, Suliman Y Omar

    2015-01-01

    During a survey the occurrence of Kudoa quraishii Mansour, Harrath, Abd-Elkader, Alwasel, Abdel-Baki et Al Omar, 2014, recently identified in the muscles of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), a species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 infecting oocytes of mature females of the same host fish was found. The new species, for which the name Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. is proposed, infects oocytes that are enlarged with a whitish colour. The parasite develops in vesicular polysporous plasmodia within the oocyte. Infection occurs with a mean prevalence of 20% (7/35) of examined females. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in apical view, having four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores are 2.4-3.6 µm long (mean ± SD 3.1 ± 0.3 µm), 4.3-5.4 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) wide and 3.4-4.3 µm (3.8 ± 0.3 µm) in thickness and long. The smaller size of the new Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequences shows that the highest percentage of similarity of 98.5% was observed with K. ovivora Swearer et Robertson, 1999, reported from oocytes of labroid fish from the Caribbean coasts of Panama. The percentage of similarity was 98% with K. azevedoi Mansour, Thabet, Chourabi, Harrath, Gtari, Al Omar et Ben Hassine, 2013 and 89% with K. quraishii. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU and LSU rDNA data revealed a consistent of the new species with K. azevedoi and K. ovivora. Our findings support the creation of Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. that infects oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta. PMID:25960554

  3. High Connectivity in Rastrelliger kanagurta: Influence of Historical Signatures and Migratory Behaviour Inferred from mtDNA Cytochrome b

    PubMed Central

    Akib, Noor Adelyna Mohammed; Tam, Bui Minh; Phumee, Preeda; Abidin, Muchlisin Zainal; Tamadoni, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and population structure of the pelagic Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta were examined in 23 populations collected from the Indonesian-Malaysian Archipelago (IMA) and the West Indian Ocean (WIO). Despite the vast expanse of the IMA and neighbouring seas, no evidence for geographical structure was evident. An indication that R. kanagurta populations across this region are essentially panmictic. This study also revealed that historical isolation was insufficient for R. kanagurta to attain migration drift equilibrium. Two distinct subpopulations were detected between the WIO and the IMA (and adjacent populations); interpopulation genetic variation was high. A plausible explanation for the genetic differentiation observed between the IMA and WIO regions suggest historical isolation as a result of fluctuations in sea levels during the late Pleistocene. This occurrence resulted in the evolution of a phylogeographic break for this species to the north of the Andaman Sea. PMID:25786216

  4. Production and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysate from Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel).

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Sheriff Sheik; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2014-09-01

    Fishery waste and by-products are valuable sources of raw material for recovery of antioxidant and bioactive peptides. Due to the increased demand for protein hydrolysates with antioxidative properties by various sectors of consumable food, health care and pharmaceutical industries, the present study focused in the production of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic digestion from the backbone of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluated its antioxidant potential. The observed results of the degree of hydrolysis suggest that the rapid phase of proteolytic cleavage was occurred in the first 60 minutes of incubation and during this period, the rate of hydrolysis was found to be increased with increasing ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The result of the antioxidant properties clearly indicates that the 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficacy of FPH was similar to that of synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The FPH also exhibited significant reducing power ability and great potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in equivalence with that of synthetic and natural antioxidants such as BHT and α-tocopherol respectively. The overall findings of the study reveal that, FPH produced by tryptic digestion has considerable amount of bioactive peptides with potent antioxidant properties. The synthesized FPH is a good candidate for further development into a commercial food additive. PMID:25176365

  5. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  6. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant functions of protein hydrolysate from backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta by proteolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Sheik Abdulazeez; Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Ramamoorthy, Baranitharan; Ponnusamy, Ponmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Every year, a huge quantity of fishery wastes and by-products are generated by fish processing industries. These wastes are either underutilized to produce low market value products or dumped leading to environmental issues. Complete utilization of fishery wastes for recovering value added products would be beneficial to the society and individual. The fish protein hydrolysates and derived peptides of fishery resources are widely used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants from fishery resources have attracted the attention of researchers as they are cheaper in cost, easy to derive, and do not have side effects. Thus the present investigation was designed to produce protein hydrolysate by pepsin and papain digestion from the backbones of Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) and evaluate its antioxidant properties through various in vitro assays. The results reveal that both hydrolysates are potent antioxidants, capable of scavenging 46% and 36% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl) and 58.5% and 37.54% of superoxide radicals respectively. The hydrolysates exhibit significant (p < 0.05) reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Among the two hydrolysates produced, pepsin derived fraction is superior than papain derived fraction in terms of yield, DH (Degree of hydrolysis), and antioxidant activity. PMID:24596496

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grape and papaya seed extracts and their application on the preservation of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during ice storage.

    PubMed

    Sofi, Faisal Rashid; Raju, C V; Lakshmisha, I P; Singh, Rajkumar Ratankumar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of grape (GSE) and papaya seed extracts (PSE) were tested in vitro at varied concentrations and growth inhibition were seen against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. The results revealed that GSE contain four times higher phenolic and six folds higher flavonoid content than PSE. The antioxidant properties of GSE and PSE showed dose dependent activities and were comparatively much higher in GSE. Linoleic acid model of GSE and PSE displayed 67.67 and 46.43 % of inhibition respectively at 500 mg/L. The effect of dip treatment by GSE and PSE at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/L respectively on the quality changes of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in iced condition were assessed using chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters along with chilled whole control (CWC). The inhibition of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products by GSE at 500 mg/L was comparable to BHT at 200 mg/L. GSE exhibited higher antimicrobial activity on gram-positive strains compared to PSE and reduced the formation of volatile bases significantly. On the day of sensory rejection for CWC, the formation of trimethylamine and total volatile base nitrogen were reduced by 32.27 and 31.85 % in GSE samples and 19.01 and 24.70 % in PSE samples respectively. The dip treatment of GSE increased the shelflife of mackerel up to 15 days, PSE by 12 and 9 days for CWC during ice storage. Therefore, it can be concluded that, GSE can be used as a promising natural preservative and a substitute to the synthetic counterparts. PMID:26787935

  8. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, M. U.; Asaduzzaman, Kh.; Nawi, S. M.; Usman, A. R.; Amin, Y. M.; Daar, E.; Bradley, D. A.; Ahmed, H.; Okhunov, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrouding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance. PMID:26075909

  9. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

  10. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-01-01

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species. PMID:21968625

  11. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to <2 mg/kg at the other two temperatures. Storage at 10°C also resulted in an increase in trans-UCA after 3 days, only to decrease after 6 days. The concentration of cis-UCA increased nearly 13-fold after 15 days at 0 and 3°C, decreased at 10°C and remained unchanged at 23°C. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C. PMID:23561112

  12. Mitochondrial DNA control region of three mackerels, genus Rastrelliger: structure, molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial control regions (CR) of three mackerels (Rastrelliger spp.) were examined and analyzed. The CR contained three domains, in which three termination-associated sequences (TAS-I, TAS-II and TAS-III), two central conserved sequence blocks (CSB-E, CSB-D), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-I, CSB-II, and CSB-III) and a putative promoter were detected. Molecular indices analyses of the aligned complete CR sequences showed high level of haplotype diversities and genetic divergences among the three species. The intraspecific divergence among species of this genus ranked from 0.25% to 1.62% and interspecific divergence from 1.90% to 4.30%. The phylogenetic tree shows monophyly with R. brachysoma as a basal species of Rastrelliger. Applying the average divergence rate for fish control regions, the results suggest that the time of separation among Rastrelligers could have occurred in the middle Pleistocene era. PMID:26119119

  13. A transcriptomic scan for positively selected genes in two closely related marine fishes: Sebastes caurinus and S. rastrelliger.

    PubMed

    Heras, Joseph; Koop, Ben F; Aguilar, Andres

    2011-06-01

    Comparative genomic analyses can provide valuable insight into functional evolutionary divergence among closely related species. Here we employ a comparative evolutionary analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two closely related species of marine fishes (genus Sebastes--rockfish). Sebastes is a highly diverse group of marine fishes that inhabit a wide array of marine habitats and the study of this group can provide insights into speciation in the marine environment. ESTs were developed for S. caurinus (23,668 from brain, kidney, and spleen tissues) and S. rastrelliger (11,207 from brain and pituitary tissues). Following assembly we were able to identify, with high confidence, 257 orthologous sequence pairs between the two species through a reciprocal best hit blast search. An analysis of functional divergence between orthologs revealed that 19.46% had Ka/Ks values greater than 0.5 and 8.17% had Ka/Ks values greater than one, identifying a large pool of candidate genes to further study adaptive divergence in the group. Genes with elevated Ka/Ks values belonged to the following functional categories: immune function, metabolism, longevity, and reproductive behavior, indicating that adaptive divergence in these functional groups may be important in the diversification of this group of fishes. This study provides the ground work to better understand the molecular evolution of genes involved in a radiation of marine fishes. PMID:21620330

  14. A Description of Lecithocladium angustiovum (Digenea: Hemiuridae) in Short Mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Scombridae), of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Indaryanto, Forcep Rio; Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Wardiatno, Yusli; Tiuria, Risa; Imai, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Lecithocladium angustiovum is identified from the stomach (87.33%) and the intestine (12.67%) of Indonesian short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma). The description includes an elongated body; a mean total length of 1018.84 µm; and an ecsoma of 47.52% of the total length. The oral and ventral sucker ratio is 1:0.63, and the pharynx length is 97.42 µm. The sequence results were obtained by 18s rDNA gene sequencing of the 354 basepair (bp) DNA segment, and the mean base composition (%) was 17.7 A; 35.7 T; 29.6 G; and 17.1 C. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to demonstrate the genetic distance between L. angustiovum and sequences from Lecithocladium excisum, Dinurus longisinus, Plerurus digitatus and Lecithochirium caesionis obtained from GenBank. PMID:26868591

  15. A Description of Lecithocladium angustiovum (Digenea: Hemiuridae) in Short Mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Scombridae), of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Indaryanto, Forcep Rio; Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Wardiatno, Yusli; Tiuria, Risa; Imai, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    Lecithocladium angustiovum is identified from the stomach (87.33%) and the intestine (12.67%) of Indonesian short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma). The description includes an elongated body; a mean total length of 1018.84 µm; and an ecsoma of 47.52% of the total length. The oral and ventral sucker ratio is 1:0.63, and the pharynx length is 97.42 µm. The sequence results were obtained by 18s rDNA gene sequencing of the 354 basepair (bp) DNA segment, and the mean base composition (%) was 17.7 A; 35.7 T; 29.6 G; and 17.1 C. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to demonstrate the genetic distance between L. angustiovum and sequences from Lecithocladium excisum, Dinurus longisinus, Plerurus digitatus and Lecithochirium caesionis obtained from GenBank. PMID:26868591

  16. Can Read, Can Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Linda Worden always loved books. She liked the way they felt in her hands and the way they smelled. The only problem was she could not read them--until she took part in Channel 4's "Can't Read, Can't Write". This article tells the story of Linda Worden and how learning to read changed her life. Her attempts to learn as an adult are a shocking…

  17. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  18. You CAN!

    MedlinePlus

    ... person gets depressed. You CAN overcome it. Remember Cognitive dysfunction affects 50-65% of people with MS. ... School! School means increased stress, fatigue, and possibly cognitive challenges. You CAN handle the challenge. Manage a ...

  19. Balanced Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the…

  20. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  1. You Can!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, J. Jioni

    2008-01-01

    A young person's energy and creativity can be unleashed on the world of politics by a high school government or current events class. In the case of Ray Zaccaro, all it took was a teacher's question. It was 1995, the spring of his senior year at North Babylon High School on New York's Long Island. Zaccaro was 17, riding high with plans to attend…

  2. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... not recommended. Learn more . Lower Your Risk with Vaccines In the United States, there are vaccines that ...

  3. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-02-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

  4. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for illustrating in an…

  5. Can Movement Promote Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Creativity can be an elusive concept. It may be misunderstood and difficult to define, but it is clearly necessary, particularly in a world so rapidly changing. Creative people are those who can imagine. This means they can imagine solutions to problems and challenges faced. They can also imagine what it is like to be someone or something…

  6. CAN HANDLING FIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Kelman, Ler.R.; Yaggee, F.L.

    1958-08-01

    A sleeveless cauning apparatus is described for bonding and canning uranium fuel elements under the surface of a liquid bonding alloy. The can is supported on a pedestal by vertical pegs, and an adjustable collar is placed around the upper, open end of the can, which preferably is flared to assure accurate centering in the fixture and to guide the uranium slug into the can. The fixture with a can in place is then immersed in a liquid aluminum-silicon alloy and the can becomes filled with the liquid alloy. The slug is inserted by a slug guide located vertically above the can opening. The slug settles by gravity into the can, after which a cap is emplaced. A quenching tool lifts the capped can out of the bath by means of a slot provided for it in the pedestal. This apparatus provides a simple means of canning the slug without danger of injury to the uranium metal or the aluminum can.

  7. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  8. You Can Do It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Carolyn, Ed.; And Others

    Children can often be heard asking what they can do to help wildlife and the environment. Listed in this pamphlet are materials on these topics and suggestions for projects that children can do. Topics addressed in this guide include: (1) "Giving Habitat a Hand"; (2) "Saving a Place for Wildlife"; (3) "Injured or Abandoned Wild Animals"; (4)…

  9. Can strain magnetize light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Strain in photonic structures can induce pseudomagnetic fields and Landau levels. Nature Photonics spoke to Mordechai Segev, Mikael Rechtsman, Alexander Szameit and Julia Zeuner about their unique approach.

  10. But Can You Hit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The author shares a story told to him by a colleague more than thirty years ago. The dean of a midsized American university was explaining the path to tenure to a roomful of newly appointed assistant professors. "We know you boys can all "field"," he declared. "Now we want to see if you can hit." A lot has changed over the intervening decades. If…

  11. Can the Creativity!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Art teachers know that budget limitations are one of the obstacles that affect creativity in art class. However, teachers can now pour creative juices into their curriculum by using aluminum cans to give their high-school students a project that conceptualizes their sense of environment. This project allows students the freedom to experiment with…

  12. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print A A A Text Size What's ... too. Although there is no surefire way to prevent acne, try these tips to help reduce the ...

  13. I Can Learn Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Michael; Funato, Makiko

    This set of materials for Japanese second language instruction was designed for students who can be taught most effectively through a functional, conversational approach. It is intended as a supplement to the regular course of study so that all students, regardless of ability level, can be provided with an effective instructional program. It…

  14. Managing Garbage Can Hierarchies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, John F.

    1980-01-01

    Operationalizes garbage-can theory into a stochastic process model for the case of a traditional Weberian bureaucracy. Illustrates how ambiguity may impinge on decision making within a structural setting familiar to classical organization theorists and derives the managerial implications of garbage-can theory. (Author/IRT)

  15. Grandparents Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth

    1976-01-01

    Although grandparents may have difficulty in accepting their handicapped grandchild due to such factors as the notion of "bad blood," they can be helpful to parents by drawing from their experience to give new perspectives to complex problems. (SB)

  16. Can Baby Hear?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Prior to this, the average age ...

  17. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 05/26/2016 Email Updates Click ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  18. Can You Beat This?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrow, Charles H.; Holbrow, Charles J.

    2016-05-01

    Here is a nice 1-D kinematics problem disguised in a musical (drumming) context. We think the novel perspective of the problem can enliven the study of the basic equations that describe motion under constant acceleration.

  19. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  20. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  1. Tin Cans Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderber, Nadine L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the use of spreadsheets as an alternative method for precalculus students to solve maximum or minimum problems involving surface area and volume. Concludes that students with less technical backgrounds can solve problems normally requiring calculus and suggests sources for additional problems. (MDH)

  2. Together We Can...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Kaye B.; Clark, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Using technology in the classroom for learning is no longer new and innovative; it is expected and even demanded. K-12 teachers have a responsibility to employ technology tools in multiple ways to teach and foster students' development of 21st-century skills and enhance researching, learning, and creating. School librarians can be instrumental in…

  3. Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Susan

    2015-01-01

    "One of the most powerful educational tools available to students and teachers lies hidden in plain sight, in every classroom--conversation," writes Susan Engel. The conversational exchanges that happen naturally between parents and young children are full of questions that can lead to learning. Within the context of these casual…

  4. Words Can Hurt, but ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormon-Flynn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Having a conscience and the ability to communicate verbal or non-verbal messages gives humans a great deal of power to express a broad range of emotions. We can then demonstrate our feelings to make an impression on the lives of those around us. Fortunately, our personal skills and available technological resources allow us to enhance lives and…

  5. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  6. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  7. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  8. CanTrilBat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-24

    This application can determine the performance and chemical behavior of batteries in 1D when they are cycled. With CanTrilBat, we are developing predictive phenomenological models for battery systems to predict operating performance and rate limiting steps in the performance of battery models. Particular attention is paid to primary and secondary chemistry mechanisms, such as the thermal runaway mechanisms experienced in secondary lithium ion batteries or self-discharge reaction mechanism that all batteries experience to one extentmore » or another. The first application of this model has been for modeling the performance of thermal batteries. However, an implementation for secondary ion batteries is next. CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. A control volume formulation is used to track conserved quantities. An operator-split approach is used to calculate the chemistry, diffusion and electronic transport that occurs within cathode and anode particles, allowing for the reduction in code complexity.« less

  9. Can Pictures Be Arguments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that widening the study of argumentation to include the visual unjustifiably expands common understandings of argument, particularly those that define argument as a two-part, two-sided act. Contends that by calling pictures "arguments," it is possible that attention will be diverted away from the rhetorical functions pictures can and do…

  10. Mathematics Can Be Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lawrence P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of real (professional) bingo sheets for a math bingo game is described. The game can be adapted to many levels of learning for a variety of concepts by using different calls. A sample of these calls is given. (MNS)

  11. Soup-Can Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randall D.

    2004-01-01

    In these studies, a vegetable can containing fluid was swung as a pendulum by supporting its end-lips with a pair of knife edges. The motion was measured with a capacitive sensor and the logarithmic decrement in free decay was estimated from computer-collected records. Measurements performed with nine different homogeneous liquids, distributed…

  12. Music You Can See

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Shannon Sweny

    2012-01-01

    Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Smaller Can Be Beautiful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Many liberal arts colleges will survive or disappear depending on how well they can analyze their problems and apply solutions. What is needed is a College Futures Planning Center that could provide at minimal cost consulting and support services to private colleges seriously desiring to contend with decline. (Author/LBH)

  14. Macrame and Tin Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James K.

    1978-01-01

    If your school district is like most school districts, money for supplies is an increasing problem. Art teachers are continually trying to develop meaningful art projects for which the cost is minimal. Here students learn to use discarded, large number 10 cans as planters for a macrame project. (Author/RK)

  15. Can One Teacher Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumpf, Milton

    1973-01-01

    There is a powerful inducement for the teacher to channel the problem of drug addiction to the administrators but the teacher can't ignore it because the prime responsibility of the teacher is the student. This article deals with this relationship. (Author)

  16. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  17. Tin Can Racer Derby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes directions for constructing "racing" cars out of simple materials like spools and coffee cans. Discusses procedures for students to build cars, then to test and race them. Stresses that the activity allows for self-discovery of problem solving techniques and opportunities to discuss the scientific concepts related to the activity. (TW)

  18. Can All Children Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Belinda; Newcombe, Ellen

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) is engaged in an effort to put meaning behind the words "all children can learn" by charting guidelines for the work it takes to change urban education. The result is a decision-making strategy, the Urban Learner Framework (ULF), which focuses on the education or teaching and learning…

  19. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  20. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  1. Can Computers be Social?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2002-09-01

    Of main concern in agent based computing is the conception that software agents can attain socially responsible behavior. This idea has its origin in the need for agents to interact with one another in a cooperating manner. Such interplay between several agents can be seen as a combinatorial play where the rules are fixed and the actors are supposed to closely analyze the play in order to behave rational. This kind of rationality has successfully being mathematically described. When the social behavior is extended beyond rational behavior, mere mathematical analysis falls short. For such behavior language is decisive for transferring concepts and language is a holistic entity that cannot be analyzed and defined mathematically. Accordingly, computers cannot be furnished with a language in the sense that meaning can be conveyed and consequently they lack all the necessary properties to be made social. The attempts to postulate mental properties to computer programs are a misconception that is blamed the lack of true understanding of language and especially the relation between formal system and its semantics.

  2. Can We Build Inclusion?

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural

  3. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  4. What can ESP do ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Judy

    ESP (English for Specific Purposes) has been the focus of much attention recently but the question arises of “what can ESP do?” Proposed here are three things that are possible with ESP. The first is using ESP as a tool to help students who are not English majors learn how language “works” via the concept of genre texts. The second is using an ESP approach to simulate professional communication contexts in order to raise student interest and motivation. The third is to aim for ESP bilingualism, which is a realistic and attainable goal. All three points will be illustrated with specific examples.

  5. Can power be shared?

    PubMed

    Ten Pas, William S

    2013-01-01

    Dental insurance began with a partnership between dental service organizations and state dental associations with a view toward expanding the number of Americans receiving oral health care and as a means for permitting firms and other organizations to offer employee benefits. The goals have been achieved, but the alliance between dentistry and insurance has become strained. A lack of dialogue has fostered mutual misconceptions, some of which are reviewed in this paper. It is possible that the public, the profession, and the dental insurance industry can all be strengthened, but only through power-sharing around the original common objective. PMID:24761578

  6. Can familism be justified?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kam-Yuen; Ming, Thomas; Lai, Aaron

    2012-10-01

    This paper argues against the continued practice of Confucian familism, even in its moderate form, in East Asian hospitals. According to moderate familism, a physician acting in concert with the patient's family may withhold diagnostic information from the patient, and may give it to the patient's family members without her prior approval. There are two main approaches to defend moderate familism: one argues that it can uphold patient's autonomy and protect her best interests; the other appeals to cultural relativism by construing the principle of 'family autonomy' to be incommensurable with that of individual autonomy. We respond to the first approach by explaining how the familist arguments either depend on some unreasonable assumptions or simply fail to articulate. The critique of the second approach is based on our recent survey showing that there is no dichotomy of relevant values between the East and the West: we believe that the result can effectively block the familist's reliance on certain traditional or cultural values to explain their resistance to the incorporation of pluralist values. Despite our disagreement with familism, we consider the Eastern emphasis on the family to be conducive to the communication between patient, family members and medical personnel, which is indispensible to the patient's well being and autonomy. We conclude that respect for patient autonomy is perfectly consistent with the involvement of the family in making medical decision as long as the family plays a merely consultant role. PMID:21320141

  7. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  8. How Can Evolution Learn?

    PubMed

    Watson, Richard A; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2016-02-01

    The theory of evolution links random variation and selection to incremental adaptation. In a different intellectual domain, learning theory links incremental adaptation (e.g., from positive and/or negative reinforcement) to intelligent behaviour. Specifically, learning theory explains how incremental adaptation can acquire knowledge from past experience and use it to direct future behaviours toward favourable outcomes. Until recently such cognitive learning seemed irrelevant to the 'uninformed' process of evolution. In our opinion, however, new results formally linking evolutionary processes to the principles of learning might provide solutions to several evolutionary puzzles - the evolution of evolvability, the evolution of ecological organisation, and evolutionary transitions in individuality. If so, the ability for evolution to learn might explain how it produces such apparently intelligent designs. PMID:26705684

  9. Can bubbles sink ships?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueschen, Michael A.

    2010-02-01

    I investigate the interplay between the buoyancy force and the upwelling (or drag) force which act on a floating object when bubbles are rising through a body of water. Bubbles reduce the buoyant force by reducing the density of the water, but if they entrain an upwelling flow of water as they rise, they can produce a large upward drag force on the floating object. In an upwelling flow, our model ship (density=0.94 g/cm3) floats in a foam whose density is only 0.75 g/cm3. Comparing results with and without upwelling currents is an interesting demonstration and has real-world applications to ships in the ocean.

  10. Can we measure connectivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Richard; Vericat, Damia; Cerda, Artemi; Brardinoni, Francesco; Batalla, Ramon; Masselink, Rens; Wittenberg, Lea; Nadal Romero, Estela; López-Tarazón, José; Estrany, Joan; Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Whilst the term 'connectivity' in hydrological and sediment-based research is becoming increasing well-known, it is neither used consistently in the existing literature, nor is it clear from that literature, that the connectivity of a landscape, or part of a landscape can be measured. However, it is argued that understanding how well critical source areas of water or sediment are connected to receiving surface waters, may be an essential step towards improvement of land management to mitigate flooding, soil erosion and water quality problems. The first part of this paper, therefore, explores what is currently meant by the term connectivity; addressing the differences between structural and functional, or process-based connectivity, specifically with reference to the movement of water and sediment through an ecosystem. We argue that most existing studies do not measure connectivity. Instead, they address only part of the story. Existing work may describe structural change in a landscape, which can perhaps elucidate the potential for connectivity to occur, or indeed the emergent spatial properties of an ecosystem, but it rarely quantifies the connectivity of an ecosystem in a process-based manner through time. Alternatively, a great deal of work describes fluxes of water and sediment at (sometimes multiple) points in a landscape and infers connectivity of the system via analysis of time series data; from rainfall peak to hydrograph peak or start of sediment flux until peak sediment flux within an event. Such data are doubtless useful to understand catchment function, but alone, they do not provide evidence that quantifies (for example) how well connected sediment sources are to the outlets of the catchments from which they flux. Finally, there are many examples of water and particularly sediment tracing studies, which attempt to link, either directly or indirectly water or sediment sources with their sinks (which might more usefully be termed temporary stores

  11. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  12. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%). PMID:17898471

  13. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminarse las marcas de acne? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  14. How Can I Manage Stress?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Quit Smoking? How Can I Manage Stress? How Can I Make My Lifestyle Healthier? How Can I Monitor My Cholesterol, Blood Pressure and Weight? Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure ...

  15. 28. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can conveyor which transported cans from the third floor of the main warehouse (right) to the canning area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. 29. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR One of three external can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR One of three external can conveyor systems which criss-crossed the multi-leveled confusion of roof structures of the cannery complex. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  18. How Can Angina Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... making lifestyle changes and treating related conditions. Making Lifestyle Changes Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent or delay angina and heart disease. To adopt a healthy lifestyle, you can: Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke ...

  19. Can Rhabdomyosarcoma Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of rhabdomyosarcoma Can rhabdomyosarcoma be found early? At this time, there ... or other parts of the urinary tract and can cause trouble emptying the bladder or blood in ...

  20. Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity We Can! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Promotes Healthier Children We Can! is a national childhood obesity prevention program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, ...

  1. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  2. What Can White Faculty Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jill

    2007-01-01

    White faculty members, even those who desire to participate in institutional change, are often unsure what role they can play in making their campuses places where American racial minority students want, and are able, to learn. Knowing what they can do may be the first step for White faculty members to begin making changes that can positively…

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  4. Synthesis Can Take Many Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis can take many forms at the high school level and from a Big6 perspective. Synthesis means purposeful, valuable and interesting assignments. It is very important for a classroom teacher to recognize that students can synthesize information several times during a project and that there are many different ways to present information.

  5. Uses for Free Film Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

    1973-01-01

    Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

  6. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  7. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  8. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  9. What Dancers Can Teach Pianists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of dance training can be helpful in improving performance skills on the piano. These include correct posture, breathing, and a physical sense of self. Learning to move to music, whether through formal training or on one's own, can help relaxation, concentration, and endurance. (CS)

  10. Can Technology Really Widen Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil; Gorard, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Information technology can remove barriers of time and location, institutional requirements, and prior schooling attitudes. However, it can impose new ones such as socioeconomic inequities in access. Privately sponsored virtual learning environments tend to focus on only a narrow base of core skills and competencies. (SK)

  11. Resource heterogeneity can facilitate cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Kun, Ádám; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although social structure is known to promote cooperation, by locally exposing selfish agents to their own deeds, studies to date assumed that all agents have access to the same level of resources. This is clearly unrealistic. Here we find that cooperation can be maintained when some agents have access to more resources than others. Cooperation can then emerge even in populations in which the temptation to defect is so strong that players would act fully selfishly if their resources were distributed uniformly. Resource heterogeneity can thus be crucial for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. We also show that resource heterogeneity can hinder cooperation once the temptation to defect is significantly lowered. In all cases, the level of cooperation can be maximized by managing resource heterogeneity. PMID:24088665

  12. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  13. Beginning Chemistry Can Be Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews ways of applying laboratory work in general and analytical chemistry to supermarket products. Describes ways water and air pollution analysis can illustrate acid-base reactions, redox reactions, precipitimetry, and colorimetry. (PR)

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-12-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) as part of Department of Energy's two-track approach for the disposition of weapons-usable plutonium. The PIP will utilize the ceramic can-in-canister technology in a process that mixes plutonium with ceramic formers and neutron absorbers, presses the mixture into a ceramic puck-like form, sinters the pucks in a furnace, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into large canisters. The canisters will subsequently be filled with high level waste glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. This paper will discuss the PIP can inspection components, control system, and test results.

  16. Equilibrium Constants You Can Smell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michael; Buckley, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple experiment involving the sense of smell that students can accomplish during a lecture. Illustrates the important concepts of equilibrium along with the acid/base properties of various ions. (JRH)

  17. The Handicapped Can Dance Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marcia L.

    1978-01-01

    A program of dance therapy activities can offer handicapped individuals positive experiences in such areas as body image, spatial awareness, self-confidence, hand-eye/foot-eye coordination, visual focusing, balance and social relations. (Author/MJB)

  18. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be spread during sex -- including vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and oral sex -- but sex doesn't ... by not letting others have contact with your anal or genital area, but even then there could ...

  19. Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be spread during sex – including vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and oral sex – but sex doesn’t ... not letting others come in contact with your anal or genital area, but even then there could ...

  20. Summer Science Can Strengthen Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Ava F.; Smith, Ruby

    1989-01-01

    Described are 22 activities which can be done by students outside of school. Topics include the seashore, shadows, restaurants, water, amusement parks, factories, museums, camping, weather, animals, photography, plants, food, and exercise. (CW)

  1. How Presidents Can Wield Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Research on power and the presidency shows leaders can develop charisma, the key to exercising authority. There is nothing genetic or intuitive about charisma; it comes through social distance, personal, style, and perceived self-confidence. (Author/MSE)

  2. Can Medical Education be Researched?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The issues involved in conducting educational research are addressed. Some suggestions for methodology that can be used are suggested. Concerns about attempting to carry out investigations that follow the positivist model are discussed. (KR)

  3. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus ( ... to protect people against KSHV. For now, preventing KS depends on reducing the chance of becoming infected ...

  4. Pain: You Can Get Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can share your ideas and thoughts while learning from others. Participate in activities you enjoy. Taking part in activities that you find relaxing, like listening to music or doing art, might help take your mind ...

  5. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Dai, Tianhong; Chung, Hoon; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Chiang, Long Y.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill cancer cells and infectious microorganisms. Due to the tendency of most photosensitizers (PS) to be poorly soluble and to form nonphotoactive aggregates, drug-delivery vehicles have become of high importance. The nanotechnology revolution has provided many examples of nanoscale drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to PDT. These include liposomes, lipoplexes, nanoemulsions, micelles, polymer nanoparticles (degradable and nondegradable), and silica nanoparticles. In some cases (fullerenes and quantum dots), the actual nanoparticle itself is the PS. Targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides can be used to increase specificity. Gold and silver nanoparticles can provide plasmonic enhancement of PDT. Two-photon excitation or optical upconversion can be used instead of one-photon excitation to increase tissue penetration at longer wavelengths. Finally, after sections on in vivo studies and nanotoxicology, we attempt to answer the title question, “can nano-technology potentiate PDT?” PMID:26361572

  6. Selenium Digestibility and Bioactivity in Dogs: What the Can Can, the Kibble Can't.

    PubMed

    van Zelst, Mariëlle; Hesta, Myriam; Gray, Kerry; Beech, Karen; Cools, An; Alexander, Lucille G; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the long-term health effects of selenium (Se) over- or underfeeding. The efficiency of utilization of dietary Se is subject to many factors. Our study in dogs evaluated the effect of diet type (canned versus kibble) and dietary protein concentration on Se digestibility and bioactivity. Canned and kibble diets are commonly used formats of dog food, widely ranging in protein concentration. Twenty-four Labrador retrievers were used and four canned and four kibble diets were selected with crude protein concentrations ranging from 10.1 to 27.5 g/MJ. Crude protein concentration had no influence on the digestibility of Se in either canned or kibble diets, but a lower Se digestibility was observed in canned compared to kibble diets. However, the biological activity of Se, as measured by whole blood glutathione peroxidase, was higher in dogs fed the canned diets than in dogs fed the kibble diets and decreased with increasing crude protein intake. These results indicate that selenium recommendations in dog foods need to take diet type into account. PMID:27043433

  7. Enhancing What Students Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2007-01-01

    The Human Function Model, as described in the University of Kentucky Assistive Technology Project, places assistive technology in its proper perspective, as an external support that can enhance an individual's ability to function within the environment. The National Assistive Technology Research Institute groups assistive technology and related…

  8. Can Teachers Really Be Leaders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This is a wonderfully provocative question that might be answered simply: Yes, teachers can be leaders! Much more complicated and interesting, though, are the specifics of how teachers become leaders and the different ways teachers lead. Before considering how teachers become leaders, there is a need to understand the context within which teachers…

  9. Can Teacher Evaluation Improve Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The answer to the question, Can evaluation improve teaching? is a qualified yes. Teacher evaluation has changed and the role of the principal has changed as well; the focus now is on evidence, not merely good judgment. With the right tools, systems, and support, it should be possible to help improve teaching performance and student learning…

  10. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can try: draw or scribble designs on paper using a red pen or paint on white paper — if it helps, make the paint drip write ... hurt, anger, or pain using a pen and paper draw the pain compose songs or poetry to ...

  11. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  12. What Can Teacher Education Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Teachers bring to their work assumptions that shape how they think about globalization. To prepare children to analyze globalization perceptively, teachers must stretch their assumptions and knowledge; teacher education can help. First, if teacher candidates have not already had substantive interaction with people whose backgrounds and…

  13. Here's How You Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This "Afterschool Action Kit" contains tips on what the community can do to support afterschool programs. The kit is a useful tool for parents, community members or practitioners, and gives advice on finding or starting a quality program, identifying program needs and what resources to tap for help. The kit notes that Americans agree that…

  14. Scholarship can help ideas flourish.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-03-01

    Scholarships from the Florence Nightingale Foundation are providing nurses with the financial means to put innovative ideas into practice. Nurses from all four countries of the UK can apply for leadership, travel and research scholarships to support their career development and help improve patient care. PMID:26959448

  15. Can Children Read Evolutionary Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Saffer, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Representations of the "tree of life" such as cladograms show the history of lineages and their relationships. They are increasingly found in formal and informal learning settings. Unfortunately, there is evidence that these representations can be challenging to interpret correctly. This study explored the question of whether children aged 7-11…

  16. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  17. Can we graze 300+ days?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grazing season can be extended by using a system of forages that will require an intensification of the overall management of both the cattle and pastures. Fertilization and weed control should be done when needed, and pasture composition should be monitored and inventoried to determine if weed...

  18. "It Can Change Your Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosley, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that lack of internet access can reinforce the social and economic disadvantages already facing some older people. Recognising the divisive nature of digital exclusion, the government has invested 2.8 million British Pounds in Get Digital, a project that will enable sheltered housing residents to develop computer and internet…

  19. What Lessons Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has become commonplace to ask, whenever anything has gone wrong, what lessons can be learned from the experience. But the appearance of open-endedness in that question is misleading: not every answer that we could give to it is acceptable. There are, in the context of such a question, tacit constraints in what counts as a valid lesson to be…

  20. Can You Hear Me Now?

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Erin L; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2016-02-01

    Auditory communication is central to the social interactions of many animals. In fruit flies, males sing to court females. Coen et al. (2016) demonstrate that males can dynamically adjust the loudness of their songs according to the distance to a female. PMID:26844825

  1. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... doesn't matter whether you consider your skin light, dark, or somewhere in between. You are at risk for skin cancer. Being in the sun can damage your skin. Sunlight causes damage through ultraviolet, or UV rays, (they make up just one part of ...

  2. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  3. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  4. Beyond the Canned Food Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how some educators are turning to service-learning projects for charitable activities--and helping to foster connections between students and the human beings they aim to serve. The author highlights a program called Kids Can Make a Difference, also known simply as KIDS, as an example of how to turn food…

  5. Can Humanists Talk to Poststructuralists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldblatt, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Someone possessed of conventional thought processes shouldn't even try to discuss opinions with poststructuralists. Derrida, Barthes, and Foucault couldn't care less about contradictions. P and "Not-P" can exist comfortably together as true premises of an argument that for them is perfectly deductive, and in the name of whatever revolutionary…

  6. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  7. Libraries Can Learn from Banks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Gail H.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences of banks introducing computerized services to the public are described to provide some idea of what libraries can expect when they introduce online systems. Volume of use of Automated Teller Machines, types of users, introduction of machines, and user acceptance are highlighted. Thirty-two references are cited. (EJS)

  8. Can Tag Help Schools Teach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Elementary schools are faced with a challenge: boosting student learning in an era when students face far more than schoolwork-related difficulties. Too often today, kids enter the classroom contending with issues ranging from bullying and emotional trauma to family instability and economic hardship--which can lead to behavioral problems that…

  9. Cryopumping Field Joint Can Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, James E.; Meneghelli, Barry E.

    2011-01-01

    For long installations, vacuum jacketed piping often comes in 40 foot sections that are butt welded together in the field. A short can is then welded over the bare pipe connection to allow for insulation to be protected from the environment. Traditionally, the field joint is insulated with multilayer insulation and a vacuum is pulled on the can to minimize heat leak through the bare section and prevent frost from forming on the pipe section. The vacuum jacketed lines for the Ares I mobile launch platform were to be a combined 2000 feet long, with 60+ pipe sections and field joint cans. Historically, Kennedy Space Center has drilled a hole in the long sections to create a common vacuum with the field joint can to minimize maintenance on the vacuum jacketed piping. However, this effort looked at ways to use a passive system that didn't require a vacuum, but may cryopump to create its own vacuum. Various forms of aerogel, multilayer insulations, and combinations thereof were tested to determine the best method of insulating the field joint while minimizing maintenance and thermal losses.

  10. Can We Really Teach Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Can you teach another person to read? For readers, this may seem a redundant and unnecessary question. However, it is a perfectly logical query and one that is much more profound than one might imagine. Most reading teachers have had the experience of nurturing and guiding a young person from infancy as a reader through maturity with the printed…

  11. Can arousal modulate response inhibition?

    PubMed

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of salient events and can therefore enhance processing of a cue that indicates to withhold a response and improve response inhibition. In a stop-signal task, participants were required to withhold prepotent responses when a stop signal followed target onset. Abrupt alerting cues preceded the target in one half of the trials. The results showed that alerting improved response inhibition as indicated by shorter stop-signal reaction times following an alerting cue compared with a no-alerting condition. We conclude that modulation of low-level operations can influence what are considered to be higher cognitive functions to achieve optimal goal-directed behavior. However, we stress that such interactions should be treated cautiously as they do not always reflect direct links between lower and higher cognitive mechanisms. PMID:25867610

  12. Can Children Really Create Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereiter, Carl; Scardamalia, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools…

  13. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

    1993-12-21

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

  14. Aerosol can waste disposal device

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Michael D.; Klapperick, Robert L.; Bell, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

  15. Betsy Ross Can Be Dangerous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Harvard

    1979-01-01

    Annotates seven popular American cultural myths and explains how historical myths can serve as vehicles of misinformation in the social studies classroom. Presents tips to teachers on how to teach history in an open and honest manner without glamorizing historical figures. (Author/DB)

  16. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  17. Can Intimacy Justify Home Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Howell, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Many parents cite intimacy as one of their reasons for deciding to educate at home. It seems intuitively obvious that home education is conducive to intimacy because of the increased time families spend together. Yet what is not clear is whether intimacy can provide justification for one's decision to home educate. To see whether this is so, we…

  18. Can environmental perceptions tell us what models can't?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimdavar, Raha

    2014-05-01

    Many developing regions lack the sufficient long term, reliable data required to create and calibrate hydrologic models. Short term data collection regimes and satellites can be used to obtain some or all of the parameters required for modeling, however, these data are often limited in their spatial and temporal coverage. In recent decades there has been a movement to integrate local knowledge into such studies, but there are questions as to how representative this social information can be. This study aims to explore this question through a case study of floods in southwest Haiti. By creating a spatial flood extent map for the region using remote sensing and matching it to environmental risk perceptions survey information, we aim to better understand whether social science field methods could be successfully integrated into engineering based studies of flooding. The number of floods and their durations are calculated from satellite observations of surface reflectance taken from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments operated by NASA. Supplementary flood information regarding the number of people killed, the number of people displaced, and the total economic damage done by flooding is obtained from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The survey information is based on a 2012 household survey by Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). The results from this research are expected to lead to more comprehensive studies in Haiti and in other similar regions regarding environmental data collection using local knowledge. More specifically, we hope that the findings can help to assess whether historical flood information could be collected using social science field methods and used to supplement gaps in physical data in the region.

  19. Can we hear ventricle dyssynchrony? Yes, we can.

    PubMed

    Jurak, P; Halamek, J; Plesinger, F; Reichlova, T; Vondra, V; Viscor, I; Leinveber, P

    2015-08-01

    This study introduces a method for detection of ventricular depolarization activity and the transfer of this activity into an audible stereo audio signal. Heart potentials are measured by an ultra-high-frequency high-dynamic-range electrocardiograph (UHF-ECG) with a 25-kHz sampling rate. Averaged and prolonged UHF amplitude envelopes of V1-3 and V4-6 leads at a frequency range of 500-1000 Hz are used as a modulating function for two carrier audio frequencies. The right speaker makes it possible to listen to the depolarization of the septum and right ventricle (V1-3) and the left speaker the left ventricle lateral wall (V4-6). In the healthy heart, both speakers can be heard simultaneously. A delayed L or R speaker represents the dyssynchronous electrical activation of the ventricles. Examples of the normal heart, right bundle branch block and left bundle branch block can be heard at www.medisig.com/uhfecg. PMID:26737788

  20. Can coffee improve image guidance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirz, Raul; Lathrop, Ray A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica; Russell, Paul T.; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Anecdotally, surgeons sometimes observe large errors when using image guidance in endonasal surgery. We hypothesize that one contributing factor is the possibility that operating room personnel might accidentally bump the optically tracked rigid body attached to the patient after registration has been performed. In this paper we explore the registration error at the skull base that can be induced by simulated bumping of the rigid body, and find that large errors can occur when simulated bumps are applied to the rigid body. To address this, we propose a new fixation method for the rigid body based on granular jamming (i.e. using particles like ground coffee). Our results show that our granular jamming fixation prototype reduces registration error by 28%-68% (depending on bump direction) in comparison to a standard Brainlab reference headband.

  1. Dark antiatoms can explain DAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Cudell, Jean-René

    2015-02-01

    We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark "antiatoms" of mass m~ 1 TeV and size dot a0~ 3 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive signal in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA and no signal in other experiments. The signal comes from the binding of the dark antiatoms to thallium, a dopant in DAMA, and is not present for the constituent atoms of other experiments. The dark antiatoms are made of two particles oppositely charged under a dark U(1) symmetry and can bind to terrestrial atoms because of a kinetic mixing between the photon and the massless dark photon, such that the dark particles acquire an electric millicharge ~ ± 5.10-4e. This millicharge enables them to bind to high-Z atoms via radiative capture, after they thermalize in terrestrial matter through elastic collisions.

  2. Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Be Prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of elevations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related biomarkers prior to the onset of clinically apparent RA raises hopes that individuals who are at risk for future RA can be identified in a preclinical phase of disease that is defined as abnormalities of RA-related immune activity prior to the clinically apparent onset of joint disease. Additionally, there is a growing understanding of the immunologic processes that are occurring in preclinical RA, as well as a growing understanding of risk factors that may be mechanistically related to RA development. Furthermore, there are data supporting that treatment of early RA can lead to drug free remission. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use biomarkers and other factors to accurately identify the likelihood and timing of onset of future RA, and intervene with immunomodulatory therapies and/or risk factor modification to prevent the future onset of RA in at-risk individuals. Importantly, several clinical prevention trials for RA have already been tried, and one is underway. However, while our understanding of the growing understanding of the mechanisms and natural history of RA development may be leading us to the implementation of prevention strategies for RA, there are still several challenges to be met. These include developing sufficiently accurate methods of predicting those at high risk for future RA so that clinical trials can be developed based on accurate rates of development of arthritis and subjects can be adequately informed of their risk for disease, identifying the appropriate interventions and biologic targets for optimal prevention, and addressing the psychosocial and economic aspects that are crucial to developing broadly applicable prevention measures for RA. These issues notwithstanding, prevention of RA may be within reach in the near future. PMID:24315049

  3. Can Ice Prevent Frost Growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Saurabh; Hansen, Ryan; Murphy, Kevin R.; Retterer, Scott; Collier, Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team; CenterNanophase Materials Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    So-called icephobic surfaces that exhibit special wettability characteristics can delay the onset of ice nucleation in supercooled water. However, to date no icephobic surface has been able to passively prevent frost growth once ice nucleates. Here, we demonstrate that the growth rate of frost can be tuned and even halted with a chemically patterned surface that controls the spatial distribution of supercooled condensation. The success and speed of inter-droplet frost growth is found to depend upon two primary factors: the extent of spacing between hydrophilic regions where liquid nucleation occurs and the time allowed for condensation growth prior to the initial freezing event. Instead of delaying the onset of freezing, we initiate freezing as early as possible. This creates a ``dry zone'' where no frost and condensation can occur. The underlying mechanism behind the ``dry zone'' involves the saturation vapor pressure over ice that is lower than that over water at the same temperature, causing ice to behave like a passive humidity sink. Thus, quite remarkably it appears that ice itself may be the solution to the frosting problem.

  4. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  5. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  6. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  7. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.; Nyilas, Charles P.; Denmeade, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  8. Can research influence clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan Pablo

    2007-06-01

    After briefly reviewing the unfavourable reception accorded empirical research by parts of the psychoanalytic community, as well as some of the benefits to clinical practice of analysts being involved in research activities, the author examines whether the findings of process and outcome research in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis can help identify the most appropriate forms of intervention for producing therapeutic change, given the specific condition of the patient and the relationship that the individual establishes with the analyst. He argues that research findings can influence clinical practice on various levels and in different areas, and goes on to examine a number of related issues: the specificity of therapeutic interventions versus the relevance of common curative factors; the dyadic conception of technique and ways of understanding the therapeutic action of the treatment alliance; and the strategic or heuristic conception in psychoanalytic therapy. Finally, the author presents clinical material with the aim of illustrating how the knowledge acquired through research can be applied to psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:17537698

  9. Diversity and Community Can Coexist.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alex; Robins, Garry; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We examine the (in)compatibility of diversity and sense of community by means of agent-based models based on the well-known Schelling model of residential segregation and Axelrod model of cultural dissemination. We find that diversity and highly clustered social networks, on the assumptions of social tie formation based on spatial proximity and homophily, are incompatible when agent features are immutable, and this holds even for multiple independent features. We include both mutable and immutable features into a model that integrates Schelling and Axelrod models, and we find that even for multiple independent features, diversity and highly clustered social networks can be incompatible on the assumptions of social tie formation based on spatial proximity and homophily. However, this incompatibility breaks down when cultural diversity can be sufficiently large, at which point diversity and clustering need not be negatively correlated. This implies that segregation based on immutable characteristics such as race can possibly be overcome by sufficient similarity on mutable characteristics based on culture, which are subject to a process of social influence, provided a sufficiently large "scope of cultural possibilities" exists. PMID:27217326

  10. Recollection can be weak and familiarity can be strong.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Katherine M; Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T

    2012-03-01

    The remember-know procedure is widely used to investigate recollection and familiarity in recognition memory, but almost all of the results obtained with that procedure can be readily accommodated by a unidimensional model based on signal-detection theory. The unidimensional model holds that remember judgments reflect strong memories (associated with high confidence, high accuracy, and fast reaction times), whereas know judgments reflect weaker memories (associated with lower confidence, lower accuracy, and slower reaction times). Although this is invariably true on average, a new 2-dimensional account (the continuous dual-process model) suggests that remember judgments made with low confidence should be associated with lower old-new accuracy but higher source accuracy than know judgments made with high confidence. We tested this prediction--and found evidence to support it--using a modified remember-know procedure in which participants were first asked to indicate a degree of recollection-based or familiarity-based confidence for each word presented on a recognition test and were then asked to recollect the color (red or blue) and screen location (top or bottom) associated with the word at study. For familiarity-based decisions, old-new accuracy increased with old-new confidence, but source accuracy did not (suggesting that stronger old-new memory was supported by higher degrees of familiarity). For recollection-based decisions, both old-new accuracy and source accuracy increased with old-new confidence (suggesting that stronger old-new memory was supported by higher degrees of recollection). These findings suggest that recollection and familiarity are continuous processes and that participants can indicate which process mainly contributed to their recognition decisions. PMID:21967320

  11. You can manage construction risks.

    PubMed

    Macomber, J D

    1989-01-01

    A construction project is about the riskiest thing any company does in the normal course of business. Hundreds of things can go wrong, dozens will. But officers who analyze and manage every other sort of risk often ignore construction risk as if it were uncontrollable. The truth is, it can't be eliminated, but it can be controlled. Construction is not a product but a confusing and often exasperating service. A group of experts--architects, bankers, consultants, contractors, engineers, users, city officials--coordinate the activities of an army of suppliers, laborers, designers, subcontractors, and inspectors. The job of the company officers is to coordinate the coordinators; to make prompt, informed decisions as the work progresses; to take and retain project responsibility at the highest level; and to analyze and manage the entire process in the following seven stages: 1. Study the types and phases of construction risk. 2. Assess the risks of the company's particular project. 3. Match these risks with the in-house capabilities. 4. Define a building strategy. 5. Pick the right kind of contract. 6. Choose a contractor. 7. Monitor construction. Analyzing risk is largely a matter of assessing the complexity of the building, the site, the financing, the schedule, and the special uses and problems of the project. This analysis then drives the choice of contract and contractor. The range runs from low-cost providers, lump sum contracts and very little teamwork at one end of the spectrum to highly differentiated construction companies, guaranteed-maximum-prince contracts, and consultative coordination at the other. PMID:10292513

  12. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  13. Child poverty can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  14. How can we improve adherence?

    PubMed

    Price, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with wound healing difficulties are also coping with the management of a chronic disease or chronic condition that requires them to make lifestyle behaviour changes, for example, managing glucose levels through diet and exercise and regular foot inspection. Many find it difficult to make such changes and often experience feelings of powerlessness when faced with a lifetime of behavioural and psychological change. This article will explore the importance of understanding the patient difficulties associated with adherence to a regime and how life changes can be difficult to maintain over sustained periods of time. However, the article will also discuss the importance of this topic in trying to understand the clinical evidence base for treatment--as many clinical trials investigating treatments for the diabetic foot do not include information on the extent to which patients in the trial conformed to the trial protocol. The article gives an overview of recent developments--including lessons we can learn from other chronic conditions where permanent life changes are required--in particular the need to keep health messages simple, tailored to the individual and repeated frequently. The evidence to date suggests that no one single form of adherence intervention will work with all patients; this is not surprising given complex and multifactorial nature of adherence and the myriad of barriers that exist that patients and health care professionals need to overcome. PMID:26453542

  15. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  16. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed Central

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane. PMID:25948611

  17. Can site response be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large modifications of seismic waves are produced by variations of material properties near the Earth's surface and by both surface and buried topography. These modifications, usually referred to as "site response", in general lead to larger motions on soil sites than on rock-like sites. Because the soil amplifications can be as large as a factor of ten, they are important in engineering applications that require the quantitative specification of ground motions. This has been recognised for years by both seismologists and engineers, and it is hard to open an earthquake journal these days without finding an article on site response. What is often missing in these studies, however, are discussions of the uncertainty of the predicted response. A number of purely observational studies demonstrate that ground motions have large site-to-site variability for a single earthquake and large earthquake-location- dependent variability for a single site. This variability makes site-specific, earthquake-specific predictions of site response quite uncertain, even if detailed geotechnical and geological information is available near the site. Predictions of site response for average classes of sites exposed to the motions from many earthquakes can be made with much greater certainty if sufficient empirical observations are available.

  18. Dark antiatoms can explain DAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Wallemacq, Quentin; Cudell, Jean-René E-mail: jr.cudell@ulg.ac.be

    2015-02-01

    We show that the existence of a sub-dominant form of dark matter, made of dark ''antiatoms'' of mass m∼ 1 TeV and size a-dot {sub 0}∼ 3 fm, can explain the results of direct detection experiments, with a positive signal in DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA and no signal in other experiments. The signal comes from the binding of the dark antiatoms to thallium, a dopant in DAMA, and is not present for the constituent atoms of other experiments. The dark antiatoms are made of two particles oppositely charged under a dark U(1) symmetry and can bind to terrestrial atoms because of a kinetic mixing between the photon and the massless dark photon, such that the dark particles acquire an electric millicharge ∼ ± 5.10{sup −4}e. This millicharge enables them to bind to high-Z atoms via radiative capture, after they thermalize in terrestrial matter through elastic collisions.

  19. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. PMID:26209531

  20. Physarum can compute shortest paths.

    PubMed

    Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish

    2012-09-21

    Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. PMID:22732274

  1. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263

  2. Can dendritic cells see light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-02-01

    There are many reports showing that low-level light/laser therapy (LLLT) can enhance wound healing, upregulate cell proliferation and has anti-apoptotic effects by activating intracellular protective genes. In the field of immune response study, it is not known with any certainty whether light/laser is proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory. Increasingly in recent times dendritic cells have been found to play an important role in inflammation and the immunological response. In this study, we try to look at the impact of low level near infrared light (810-nm) on murine bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Changes in surface markers, including MHC II, CD80 and CD11c and the secretion of interleukins induced by light may provide additional evidence to reveal the mystery of how light affects the maturation of dendritic cells as well how these light-induced mature dendritic cells would affect the activation of adaptive immune response.

  3. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    PubMed

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches. PMID:23888589

  4. Partnership approach can pay dividends.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    While healthcare estates and facilities teams NHS-wide are acutely aware of the need to reduce their facilities' carbon footprint, obtaining the necessary funding to undertake the substantial improvements to buildings, plant, and equipment, that may, in many cases, be essential to achieving this goal, will remain a challenge for many Trusts for some time to come. Nevertheless, the Government has underlined its intention to support the NHS's carbon reduction efforts, having in late January announced a 50 million pounds capital fund for 2013-2014 'to fund new and innovative projects to improve energy efficiency and reduce the carbon footprint of the NHS'. HEJ reports on this, and a number of other potential funding streams available, to help NHS organisations contribute to the wider carbon-cutting agenda, and examines how bodies such as the Carbon and Energy Fund, and the Carbon Trust, can help both with funding, and via advice and technical support. PMID:24000547

  5. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  6. Can IVF influence human evolution?

    PubMed

    Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Hessen, Dag O; Sunde, Arne; Breivik, Jarle

    2016-07-01

    IVF, a procedure in which pharmacological and technological manipulation is used to promote pregnancy, offers help to infertile couples by circumventing selection at the most fundamental level. Fertility is clearly one of the key fitness-promoting drivers in all forms of sexually reproducing life, and fertilization and pregnancy are fundamental evolutionary processes that involve a range of pre- and post-zygotic screening mechanisms. Here, we discuss the various selection and screening factors involved in fertilization and pregnancy and assess IVF practices in light of these factors. We then focus on the possible consequences of these differences in selection pressures, mainly at the individual but also at the population level, to evaluate whether changes in the reproducing genotype can affect human evolution. The aim of the article is not to argue for or against IVF, but to address aspects of assisted reproduction in an evolutionary context. PMID:27094480

  7. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  8. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  9. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  10. Can ash clog soil pores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  11. New microbe can make ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Researchers have created a bacterium that converts all of the sugars from inedible vegetable waste and other woody material into ethanol by inserting the genes of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis into Escherichia coli. The resulting bacterium converts 90% -95% of the main forms of sugar in biomass into 4% - 6% concentrations of ethanol. The goal is to reach a 7% to 8% concentration. Current ethanol production from corn in a yeast-fermentation process yields a 10% - 12% ethanol concentration, but the conversion rate is less efficient than with the new bacterium. Zymomonas, found in cactus plants and used by the Aztecs to make alcohol, was selected for its known conversion efficiency. Providing the engineering challenges can be overcome, there could be several pilot plants running in 3-5 years. Even though it is not currently profitable to make ethanol from vegetable waste, if the fact that this new process reduces the total material by 90% were taken into account, perhaps a landfill reduction credit based on current tipping fees would make the actual costs both more realistic and more attractive.

  12. Can human populations be stabilized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  13. Can Nuclear Terrorists be Deterred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Charles

    2005-04-01

    Conventional thinking since September 11, 2001, posits that nuclear-armed terrorists cannot be deterred. However, not all terrorist groups are alike. For instance, those that are strongly affiliated with a national territory or a constituency that can be held hostage are more likely to be self-deterred against using or even acquiring nuclear weapons. In contrast, international terrorist organizations, such as al Qaeda, or apocalyptic groups, such as Aum Shinrikyo, may welcome retaliatory nuclear strikes because they embrace martyrdom. Such groups may be immune to traditional deterrence, which threatens direct punishment against the group in question or against territory or people the terrorists' value. Although deterring these groups may appear hopeless, nuclear forensic techniques could provide the means to establish deterrence through other means. In particular, as long as the source of the nuclear weapon or fissile material could be identified, the United States could threaten a retaliatory response against a nation that did not provide adequate security for its nuclear weapons or weapons-usable fissile material. This type of deterrent threat could be used to compel the nation with lax security to improve its security to meet rigorous standards.

  14. Can One Hear Whistler Waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverry, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a mathematical framework giving access to a better understanding of whistler-mode chorus emissions in space plasmas. There is a general agreement that the emissions of whistler waves involve a mechanism of wave-particle interaction that can be described in the framework of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. In dimensionless variables, these equations involve a penalized skew-symmetric term where the inhomogeneity of the strong exterior magnetic field plays an essential part. The description of the related phenomena is achieved in two stages. The first is based on a new approach allowing one to extend in longer times the classical insights on fast rotating fluids [Chemin et al. (Mathematical geophysics, volume 32 of Oxford Lecture Series in Mathematics and its Applications. The Clarendon Press Oxford UniversityPress, Oxford, 2006), Cheverry et al. (Duke Math J 161(5):845-892, 2012), Frénod and Sonnendrücker (Math Models Methods Appl Sci 10(4):539-553, 2000), Gallagher and Saint-Raymond (SIAM J Math Anal 36(4):1159-1176, 2005)]; it justifies the existence and the validity of long time gyro-kinetic equations; it furnishes criterions to impose on a magnetic field in order to obtain the long time dynamical confinement of plasmas. The second stage is based on a study of oscillatory integrals implying special phases; it deals with the problem of the creation of light inside plasmas.

  15. Can SOHO SWAN detect CMEs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Cyr, O. C.; Malayeri, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Quernerais, E.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Howard, Russ

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) remote sensing instrument on SOHO may be able to detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in neutral Hydrogen Lyman-? emission. We have identified CMEs near the Sun in observations by the SOHO LASCO white-light coronagraphs and in extreme ultraviolet emissions using SOHO E n . There are very few methods of tracking CMEs after they leave the coronagraph's field-of-view, so this is an important topic to study. The primary science goal of the SWAN investigation is the measurement of large-scale structures in the solar wind, and these are obtained by detecting intensity fluctuations in Lyman-?. SWAN consists of a pair of Sensors on opposite panels of SOHO. The instantaneous field-of-view of each sensor unit is a So x So square, divided into lo pixels. A gimbaled periscope system allows each sensor to map the intensity distribution of Lyman-?, and the entire sky can be scanned in less than one day. This is the typical mode of operation for this instrument.

  16. [Burnout. Can it be measured?].

    PubMed

    Korczak, D; Huber, B

    2012-02-01

    Burnout is widely known as a work-related syndrome that is associated by serious individual and social consequences. The aim of the HTA report "Differential diagnostic of the burnout syndrome" published by DIMDI in 2010 was to determine how burnout can be diagnosed and distinguished from other disorders. Based on a systematic literature review of 36 databases, 852 studies published between 2004 and 2009 were identified. After considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 medical and one ethical study remained. The study evidence is predominantly low. Self-assessment tools are mainly used. The analysis showed that no standardized, common valid procedure exists to obtain a burnout diagnosis. Overall the problem is to measure a phenomenon that is not exactly defined. It is primarily important to distinguish burnout from depression, alexithymia, feeling unwell, and the concept of prolonged exhaustion. Beside the need for a valid definition, further research is needed, particularly high-quality, long-term studies, to broaden the understanding of the syndrome. Furthermore, a standardized, internationally accepted and valid procedure for diagnosing burnout is necessary. PMID:22290159

  17. Radon levels can be predicted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Scientists doing a yearlong study of radon levels in houses have identified several major factors that affect concentrations and have developed a method for predicting indoor radon levels before a house is built. Douglas Mose and George Mushrush (George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.) studied 1500 homes in northern Virginia and central Maryland near Washington, D.C.Radon is a radioactive decay product of uranium that occurs in many rock types. The gas can accumulate in buildings and pose a serious health hazard. Results from the Washington-area study show that ˜35% of the houses had average yearly radon concentrations above 4 pico-Curies per liter (pCi/L), the level at which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that a homeowner should take steps to reduce radon concentrations. At a level of 4-10 pCi/L an estimated 13-120 lung cancer deaths would be expected for every 1000 people exposed. Such a risk is comparable to having 200 chest X rays per year, according to EPA statistics.

  18. Can lies be detected unconsciously?

    PubMed Central

    Moi, Wen Ying; Shanks, David R.

    2015-01-01

    People are typically poor at telling apart truthful and deceptive statements. Based on the Unconscious Thought Theory, it has been suggested that poor lie detection arises from the intrinsic limitations of conscious thinking and can be improved by facilitating the contribution of unconscious thought (UT). In support of this hypothesis, Reinhard et al. (2013) observed improved lie detection among participants engaging in UT. The present study aimed to replicate this UT advantage using a similar experimental procedure but with an important improvement in a key control condition. Specifically, participants judged the truthfulness of eight video recordings in three thinking modes: immediately after watching them or after a period of unconscious or conscious deliberation. Results from two experiments (combined N = 226) failed to reveal a significant difference in lie detection accuracy between the thinking modes, even after efforts were made to facilitate the occurrence of an UT advantage in Experiment 2. The results imply that the UT advantage in deception detection is not a robust phenomenon. PMID:26379575

  19. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-06-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper argues that these assumptions are questionable and that indeed science can test supernatural claims. While scientific evidence may ultimately support a naturalistic worldview, science does not presuppose Naturalism as an a priori commitment, and supernatural claims are amenable to scientific evaluation. This conclusion challenges the rationale behind a recent judicial ruling in the United States concerning the teaching of “Intelligent Design” in public schools as an alternative to evolution and the official statements of two major scientific institutions that exert a substantial influence on science educational policies in the United States. Given that science does have implications concerning the probable truth of supernatural worldviews, claims should not be excluded a priori from science education simply because they might be characterized as supernatural, paranormal, or religious. Rather, claims should be excluded from science education when the evidence does not support them, regardless of whether they are designated as ‘natural’ or ‘supernatural’.

  20. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  1. Population growth can be checked.

    PubMed

    Shukla, J P

    Since independence, India's population size has doubled. The rate of growth was 2.5% during 1971-81, an increase from the rate of 2.15% observed during the 1951-61 period. The increase indicated that efforts to decrease population growth have not succeeded. The implications with respect to food, housing, clothing, education, and health facilities, which are fundamental to improving the physical quality of life, are severe. This demographic trend is a serious impediment to progress. The population growth is due to a constant birthrate and a sharp decline in mortality. Reducing the birthrate is necessary to reduce the rate of growth. An attitudinal change adopting the norm of family limitation should be encouraged through propaganda, socioeconomic programs, and religious and cultural organizations. Other measures to bring about a decline in the birthrate include: increasing the marriage age, and expanding educational and employment opportunities for women and girls. These measures will require substantial effort and time. Incentives may show more immediate effects. Monetary incentives are not desired because of the possibility of misuse. However the government could assume responsibility for the education and guarantee employment of children of couples who have only one child, and provide free education to children of couples with only 2 children. These incentives are not likely to be misused, can be available to all segments of the population, and involve no immediate large financial burden on the government. In addition, scholarships to the Harijan students should be limited to 2 per family. If these measures are accepted, they could quickly reduce the birth rate. PMID:12311944

  2. Occurrence and molecular identification of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 from marine fish in southern Makassar Strait, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Anshary, Hilal; Sriwulan; Freeman, Mark A; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2014-02-01

    Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait. PMID:24623876

  3. Evaluating mercury biomagnification in fish from a tropical marine environment using stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N).

    PubMed

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Ababneh, Fuad A; Lean, David R

    2007-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in zooplankton and 13 fish species from a coastal food web of the Gulf of Oman, an arm of the Arabian Sea between Oman and Iran. Stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) also were determined to track mercury biomagnification. The average concentration of T-Hg in zooplankton was 21 +/- 8.0 ng g(-1) with MeHg accounting 10% of T-Hg. Total mercury levels in fish species ranged from 3.0 ng g(-1) (Sardinella longiceps) to 760 ng g(-1) (Rhizoprionodon acutus) with relatively lower fraction of MeHg (72%) than that found in other studies. The average trophic difference (Deltadelta13C) between zooplankton and planktivorous fish (Selar crumenopthalmus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, and S. longiceps) was higher (3.4 per thousandth) than expected, suggesting that zooplankton may not be the main diet or direct carbon source for these fish species. However, further sampling would be required to compensate for temporal changes in zooplankton and the influence of their lipid content. Trophic position inferred by delta15N and and slopes of the regression equations (log10[T-Hg] = 0.13[delta15N] - 3.57 and log10[MeHg] = 0.14[delta15N] - 3.90) as estimates of biomagnification indicate that biomagnification of T-Hg and MeHg was lower in this tropical ocean compared to what has been observed in arctic and temperate ecosystems and tropical African lakes. The calculated daily intake of methylmercury in the diet of local people through fish consumption was well below the established World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake threshold for most of the fish species except Euthynnus affinis, Epinephelus epistictus, R. acutus, and Thunnus tonggol, illustrating safe consumption of the commonly consumed fish species. PMID:17702328

  4. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-03-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed.

  5. Can Endometrial Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer Can endometrial cancer be found early? In most cases, ... reach an advanced stage before signs and symptoms can be noticed. More information can be found in “ ...

  6. Halting Hypothermia: Cold Can Be Dangerous

    MedlinePlus

    ... who spends much time outdoors in very cold weather can get hypothermia. But hypothermia can happen anywhere— ... just outside and not just in bitter winter weather. It can strike when temperatures are cool—for ...

  7. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  8. The Physics of the Imploding Can Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2010-01-01

    One of the popular demonstrations of atmospheric pressure in introductory physics courses is the "crushing can" or "imploding can" experiment. In this demonstration, which has also been extensively discussed on the Internet, a small amount of water is placed in a soda can and heated until it boils and water vapor almost entirely fills the can. The…

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  10. 21 CFR 145.120 - Canned berries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned berries. 145.120 Section 145.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.120 Canned berries. (a) Identity—(1) Ingredients....

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  12. Can Nasopharyngeal Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of nasopharyngeal cancer Can nasopharyngeal cancer be found early? In the United ... simple, non-invasive exams or blood tests that can reliably find this cancer early. But in some ...

  13. Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Can Wilms tumor be found early? Wilms tumors are ... point they have often grown quite large. They can be found earlier in some children with tests ...

  14. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle can help ... Human Services. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  15. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    ... canned vegetables. Try to buy those without added salt and don't overcook any vegetable, whether fresh, frozen, or canned. Instead of boiling them in water for longer periods of time, they should be ...

  16. Online health information - what can you trust?

    MedlinePlus

    ... detective work, you can find information you can trust. Search for websites of well-known health institutions. Medical schools, professional health organizations, and hospitals often provide online health content. Look ...

  17. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir How can you prevent rabies in animals? There are several things you can do to ... properly cared for or vaccinated regularly. Finally, call animal control to remove all stray animals from your ...

  18. Working Together, We Can Defeat Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... friends and relatives. We are now understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the process, and we are ... diseases. We can, thus, understand the genetic and molecular differences, so that we can begin to personalize ...

  19. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  20. Beverage Cans Used for Sediment Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studlick, Joseph R. J.; Trautman, Timothy A.

    1979-01-01

    Beverage cans are well suited for sediment collection and storage containers. Advantages include being free, readily available, and the correct size for many samples. Instruction for selection, preparation, and use of cans in sediment collection and storage is provided. (RE)

  1. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  2. Can I prevent Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? POP Diagnosis POP Treatments 3 Resources + More Bladder Control UI Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent UI? UI Diagnosis UI Treatments 3 Resources + More ...

  3. 'Mystery shoppers' can uncover ED weaknesses.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    One veteran "mystery shopper" has uncovered several common ED practices that can hurt patient satisfaction. You can learn from her observations to improve your ED's customer service: Be sure to let all of your patients know how long they might expect to wait before seeing a doctor. Wash your hands where the patient can see you, so they can be confident you are practicing good hygiene. Clearly explain all forms and discharge instructions to help ensure patient compliance. PMID:17209484

  4. Test report for the Hanford convenience can

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, S.R.

    1997-01-14

    This report provides the test results for the Hanford Convenience Can System. This system consists of four nested sealed steel cans which will be used for the interim storage of plutonium oxide on the Hanford Site. Several of the Convenience Can Systems were loaded with a plutonium oxide simulant and then drop and load tested to ensure that this system would provide adequate containment. The Convenience Can System passed all tests.

  5. How Can I Live with Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... me? Should I stay in bed? ©2015, American Heart Association Multi-language Fact Sheet Topics Heart-related Conditions What is Angina? What is an ... a Coronary Angiogram? How Can I Recover From Heart Surgery? What is Carotid ... Do I Understand "Nutrition Facts" Labels? How Can I Quit Smoking? How Can ...

  6. Can Anal Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of anal cancer Can anal cancer be found early? Many anal cancers can be found early in the course of the ... they reach an advanced stage. Other anal cancers can cause symptoms like those of diseases other than ...

  7. How Can I Prepare for Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart Treatments + Tests How Can I Prepare for Heart Surgery? Doctors do successful heart surgery every day. But it’s normal to be concerned ... recovery to begin. How Can I Prepare for Heart Surgery? HOW CAN I LEARN MORE? Call 1-800- ...

  8. Can Suicide Be a Good Death?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    The issue of whether suicide can be a good death was separated into two different questions: (1) can suicide be an appropriate death, and (2) can suicide be a rational death? Several definitions of an "appropriate" death were proposed, and suicide was seen as potentially appropriate. Similarly, several criteria for rationality were proposed and…

  9. The Rolling Can Investigation: Towards an Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Gren; Twidle, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a context lead approach to rotational dynamics. By using nothing more than two cans of cola the basic notions of linear velocity, angular velocity, moments of inertia and conservation of energy can be explored. The approach can be used equally well as both a demonstration or an investigative assignment. The same starting point…

  10. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.145 Canned oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned...

  11. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned tuna. 161.190 Section 161.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.190 Canned tuna. (a) Identity. (1) Canned tuna is...

  12. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  13. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  14. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; John Hewson, Victor Brunini

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau” model.

  15. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau”more » model.« less

  16. Teaching Geology with Bottles and Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yochelson, Ellis L.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses ways in which student exercises with disposable beverage containers can illustrate, by analogy, such things as rock surveys, animal territoriality, energy conservation, and mechanical weathering. (MLH)

  17. What can Robots Do? Towards Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nogueira, Monica

    1997-01-01

    Robots have become more and more sophisticated. Every robot has its limits. If we face a task that existing robots cannot solve, then, before we start improving these robots, it is important to check whether it is, in principle, possible to design a robot for this task or not. For that, it is necessary to describe what exactly the robots can, in principle, do. A similar problem - to describe what exactly computers can do - has been solved as early as 1936, by Turing. In this paper, we describe a framework within which we can, hopefully, formalize and answer the question of what exactly robots can do.

  18. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

  19. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  20. Commentary: Can This Evaluation Be Saved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Pauline E.

    2004-01-01

    Can this evaluation be saved? More precisely, can this evaluation be saved in such a way that both evaluator and client feel satisfied that their points of view were respected and both agree that the evaluation itself provides valid information obtained in a principled manner? Because the scenario describes a preliminary discussion and no contract…

  1. Kids Do Well If They Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Viewing challenging behavior as the result of lagging skills (kids do well if they can) rather than as poor motivation (kids do well if they want to) has significant ramifications for how adults interact with kids with behavioral challenges and try to help them. A wide range of lagging skills can set the stage for challenging behavior. Challenging…

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  3. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... who participate in winter sports are especially susceptible. Dry, windy weather can stir up pollen and mold in the ... in the dryer (hanging clothes or sheets to dry can allow mold or pollen to ... action plan should list weather triggers and ways to manage them, including any ...

  4. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  5. Certification: How It Can Add Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Discusses certification for members of ISPI (International society for Performance Improvement) and how it can enable a different level of conversation with clients, and allows clients to identify competent practitioners who can improve human performance and have committed to a code of ethics. (LRW)

  6. What Education Can Learn from the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's lecture presented at the 2008 National Art Education Association (NAEA) convention. This lecture examines not what educators can learn from science but what educators can learn from the arts. The author's thesis is that the improvement of education is made possible not only by understandings promoted through…

  7. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  8. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  9. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  10. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  11. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  12. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  13. What Can We Learn from Women's Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Wanda M.; Armuwicz, Allison

    1999-01-01

    Explores the ongoing debate as to whether female students can be better educated in a single or mixed gender environment by reviewing the historical origins of American women's colleges. Discusses the conflicting research surrounding the merit of single gender higher education and explores what coeducational institutions can learn from the women's…

  14. Giving Kids a Can Do Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    The question going into this action research was, "How can a language teacher encourage more positive attitudes toward language learning while building a learning community?" After incorporating "I Can" statements into the curriculum, more than 100 third grade students were surveyed. The survey asked what they thought they could do in Spanish.…

  15. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  16. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  17. Computers Can Be a Real Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Computers Can Be a Real Pain KidsHealth > For Kids > Computers Can Be a Real Pain Print A A ... kids, you probably spend time sitting at the computer, doing schoolwork or playing games. But whether you' ...

  18. Can We Pay for Current Education Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the United States has been engaged in education reform efforts designed to dramatically boost student performance and close achievement gaps linked to poverty and ethnicity. Can schools afford those education ambitions? Most educators have their doubts. The author believes educators can improve student learning even when…

  19. You Can Quote Me on That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanko, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This article presents several punctuation activities that help students practice dialogue-writing skills. Teachers can help their students become intrepid reporters by providing them with story ideas or by inviting them to develop their own "scoops." In addition, comic strips can also be used for dialogue-writing practice.

  20. Creative Energy Management Can Save Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia

    1984-01-01

    Schools can launch energy conservation programs with simple money-saving measures like improving boiler maintenance, recalibrating utility meters, and obtaining preferred utility rates. Becoming more assertive in the marketplace and using "creative financing" when needed, they can then reinvest their savings in more extensive projects. (MCG)

  1. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all...

  2. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps...

  3. Technology: Learning Can Be Fun and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2015-01-01

    Video games can provide cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social benefits to students when properly implemented in the classroom. Teachers who are well versed in their curriculum can use games to differentiate instruction for gifted and talented students. This article discusses the benefits of gaming in education settings and provides…

  4. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  5. Becoming Heroes: Teachers Can Help Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Teachers can provide an effective counterbalance to the effects of an abusive home. They should not allow their skeptical attitudes, fear of liability, defensiveness about discipline, or religious and political affiliations to cloud their perceptions. Teachers can help hurting children by attending to their basic needs for warmth and security,…

  6. Can "Word Choices" Compromise a Woman's Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    A letter of recommendation can catapult a woman into the next phase of the interview process for a particular job--or land her in the slush pile. Word choice in describing this female candidate can make or break her career. Letters of recommendation--especially when a reference's word choice paints a negative, less than stellar picture of the…

  7. How Can I Deal with My Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Cuts? How Can I Deal With My Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Deal With My Asthma? Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Tips en español ¿Cómo puedo afrontar mi asma? Asthma is more common these days than it used ...

  8. Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienes, Zoltan; Longuet-Higgins, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The dominant theory of what people can learn implicitly is that they learn chunks of adjacent elements in sequences. A type of musical grammar that goes beyond specifying allowable chunks is provided by serialist or 12-tone music. The rules constitute operations over variables and could not be appreciated as such by a system that can only chunk…

  9. How Parents Can Promote School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofany, Vincent L.

    1982-01-01

    The president of the National Safety Council suggests ways that parents can promote school bus safety, with emphasis on preventing accidents outside the bus. Parents can explain safety rules to their children and work with their parent teacher associations and school administrators to plan and enforce safety regulations. (PP)

  10. Seasonal issues can chill powerplant profits

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-07-01

    Profitable operation requires minimizing the seasonal constraints imposed by weather. This article describes how forward-thinking operators review their plans for winterization and hot-weather operation--before the thermometer darts toward either extreme. new cooling towers (CTs) are no longer oversized, leaving little room for fouling that can shoot up in hot weather. Also, powerplants are no longer being designed with surplus heat exchangers and redundant pumps--features that can help a plant get through extreme temperatures. And at a growing list of plants, the CTs are eliminated altogether, in favor of air-cooled (AC) condensers--which can have their own trouble holding condenser vacuum when the outdoor thermometer skyrockets; and, like their CT cousins, can suffer serious failures if improperly operated in winter`s freeze. Although design margins are being stretched thin, seasoned operations and maintenance (O and M) teams can minimize the constraints imposed by mother nature.

  11. Advanced CAN (Controller Area Network) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, D.J.

    2000-03-17

    The CAN interface cards that are currently in use are PCMCIA based and use a microprocessor and CAN chip that are no longer in production. The long-term support of the SGT CAN interface is of concern due to this issue along with performance inadequacies and technical support. The CAN bus is at the heart of the SGT trailer. If the CAN bus in the SGT trailer cannot be maintained adequately, then the trailer itself cannot be maintained adequately. These concerns led to the need for a CRADA to help develop a new product that would be called the ''Gryphon'' CAN tool. FM and T provided manufacturing expertise along with design criteria to ensure SGT compatibility and long-term support. FM and T also provided resources for software support. Dearborn provided software and hardware design expertise to implement the necessary requirements. Both partners worked around heavy internal workloads to support completion of the project. This CRADA establishes a US source for an item that is very critical to support the SGT project. The Dearborn Group had the same goal to provide a US alternative to German suppliers. The Dearborn Group was also interested in developing a CAN product that has performance characteristics that place the Gryphon in a class by itself. This enhanced product not only meets and exceeds SGT requirements; it has opened up options that were not even considered before the project began. The cost of the product is also less than the European options.

  12. Can pollination niches facilitate plant coexistence?

    PubMed

    Pauw, Anton

    2013-01-01

    The question of why there are so many plant species needs two kinds of answer: an explanation for the origin of plant species, and an explanation for how they can coexist. Pollinators are often implicated in the origin of plant species because adaptation to different modes of pollination can drive divergence in floral traits and bring about reproductive isolation. However, very few studies have attempted to answer the next question: 'Can plant species that differ only in their mode of pollination coexist?' Fragmentary evidence supports the idea that intraspecific competition for pollination resources can limit population growth rate, thus allowing the coexistence of species that use different pollinators, or the same pollinators at different times. PMID:22951227

  13. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  14. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate cancer early detection What tests can detect prostate cancer early? The tests discussed below are used to ... also found in the blood. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter ( ...

  15. Kids with Mild Asthma Can Take Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160475.html Kids With Mild Asthma Can Take Acetaminophen: Study Finding counters past research ... 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Acetaminophen does not worsen asthma symptoms in young children, a new study finds. ...

  16. Can't sleep? Try these tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000853.htm Can’t sleep? Try these tips To use the sharing features ... time. But if it happens often, lack of sleep can affect your health and make it hard ...

  17. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... OTC) drugs. back to top Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  18. Parents Can Help Children Learn Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashlock, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities that can be shared by parents and children at home. Guidelines for parents and activity descriptions are included. Activities are associated with all parts of the house, yard, playground, and neighborhood. (KR)

  19. Stuttering: You Can Help Ease the Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferullo, Robert J.

    1980-01-01

    This article, directed to the classroom teacher, provides background information on stuttering and suggests ways that the teacher can alleviate the stuttering child's anxiety and restore his confidence in his ability to communicate effectively. (Author/SJL)

  20. Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160354.html Depression Can Stalk Families Through Generations People whose parents, ... News) -- People whose parents and grandparents suffered from depression are at much higher risk of developing the ...

  1. Energy Retrofits Can Ease the Budget Squeeze.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordeen, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Computer-based building management systems can cut the energy costs of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in school buildings. Administrators are advised on how to choose the best system. (MLF)

  2. Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159458.html Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help Study finds ... News) -- The unemployed may find help for their job search in an unexpected place -- a therapist's office. ...

  3. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  4. Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160574.html Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC Know the signs of extreme response to ... treated long before it causes severe illness or death, U.S. health officials report. Sepsis, or septicemia, occurs ...

  5. Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer Can pancreatic cancer be found early? Pancreatic cancer is hard to ... Testing: What You Need to Know . Testing for pancreatic cancer in people at high risk For people in ...

  6. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  7. [CanMEDS 2015: better doctors?].

    PubMed

    Borleffs, J C C; Mourits, M J E; Scheele, F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the CanMEDS model, which forms the basis for competency-based learning in both undergraduate and postgraduate training, has been renewed by the introduction of CanMEDS 2015. The most prominent change is the emphasis on leadership skills, which is also reflected by the name change for the role of 'manager' to 'leader'. The addition of milestones provides clearly defined targets for learning and assessment, which facilitates the monitoring of the progression in competence. Furthermore, CanMEDS 2015 strongly focusses on the overall coherence of the separate competencies. CanMEDS, designed as a model that helps to train young doctors to become good doctors, also helps us - the trainers - to become better doctors ourselves. PMID:27438391

  8. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer Can ovarian cancer be found early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  9. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce your risk of booze- ... This includes brisk walking, bicycling, ballroom dancing and gardening. Exercising up to 300 minutes weekly results in ...

  10. Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159082.html Asthma Symptoms Can Bloom in Springtime Follow your care ... 27, 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma symptoms increase in spring, making it especially important ...

  11. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atherosclerosis Be Prevented or Delayed? Taking action to control ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  12. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents ... healthy and happy. There are simple ways to prevent most falls. "Injuries from falls are a major ...

  13. What Can I Do For You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training and Development Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Walt Disney has proved that, with the "Disney Way," motivators can aid in overcoming apathy and minimum productivity. These motivators help the employees maintain pride in his or her organization. (BP)

  14. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can ... diagnosis is important. Studies have shown that early detection and treatment are the best way to control ...

  15. Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight: You Can Do It, Too Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about how he did it, and what he does to maintain his weight. ...

  16. Biogeochemistry: Soil carbon in a beer can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.

    2015-10-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter could be an important positive feedback to climate change. Geochemical properties of soils can help determine what fraction of soil carbon may be protected from climate-induced decomposition.

  17. What Can I Do About Smell Loss?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... To diagnose smell disorders, there's a number of tests that are being done both in your physician's ... that can help to diagnose disorders. Narrator: Another test, an endoscopy, lets the doctor look in the ...

  18. Awards and Incentives Can Help Speed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomgren, George W.; Thiss, Thomas N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes efforts in the banking industry to combine the reward elements of incentive programs with training activities. Concludes that incentive programs can be combined effectively with learning activities so that training is reinforced and learned behavior is also practiced. (WL)

  19. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help? This fact sheet ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that that normally ...

  20. Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma Can multiple myeloma be found early? It’s difficult to diagnose multiple myeloma early. Often, multiple myeloma causes no symptoms until it reaches an ...

  1. How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... some take a second look. Studies show that religion and faith can help to promote good health ... surgery who received strength and comfort from their religion were three times more likely to survive than ...

  2. Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159115.html Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar: Studies Pay attention to air quality, researchers ... with increased risk of developing dangerous high blood pressure. The findings stem from a review of 17 ...

  3. Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160136.html Vision Trouble Can Dim Life's Prospects But it's not ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with vision problems may face a higher risk of unemployment, ...

  4. Frisbees, Can Lids, and Gyroscopic Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, H. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Provides an explanation for the observed motion of frisbees, can lids, "clay pidgeons," and flat stones when these objects are thrown through the air. Explanation focuses on forces (gravity and air), torque, and gyroscopic precession. (JN)

  5. How Can I Lose Weight Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Muscle burns more calories than fat. So adding strength training to your exercise routine can help you reach ... good, well-balanced fitness routine includes aerobic workouts, strength training, and flexibility exercises. Forgive yourself. So you were ...

  6. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of {le}20 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} swipable and {le}500 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product.

  7. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-12-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  8. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  9. Can respiratory physiology predict thermal niches?

    PubMed

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Marshall, David J; Pörtner, Hans-O; Terblanche, John S; White, Craig R; Giomi, Folco

    2016-02-01

    Predicting species responses to global warming is the holy grail of climate change science. As temperature directly affects physiological rates, it is clear that a mechanistic understanding of species vulnerability should be grounded in organismal physiology. Here, we review what respiratory physiology can offer the field of thermal ecology, showcasing different perspectives on how respiratory physiology can help explain thermal niches. In water, maintaining adequate oxygen delivery to fuel the higher metabolic rates under warming conditions can become the weakest link, setting thermal tolerance limits. This has repercussions for growth and scaling of metabolic rate. On land, water loss is more likely to become problematic as long as O2 delivery and pH balance can be maintained, potentially constraining species in their normal activity. Therefore, high temperatures need not be lethal, but can still affect the energy intake of an animal, with concomitant consequences for long-term fitness. While respiratory challenges and adaptive responses are diverse, there are clear recurring elements such as oxygen uptake, CO2 excretion, and water homeostasis. We show that respiratory physiology has much to offer the field of thermal ecology and call for an integrative, multivariate view incorporating respiratory challenges, thermal responses, and energetic consequences. Fruitful areas for future research are highlighted. PMID:26333058

  10. Can proton pump inhibitors accentuate skin aging?

    PubMed

    Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Jowkar, Farideh

    2010-02-01

    Skin aging has long been important to human beings and in recent years this field has received tremendous attention by both researchers and the general population. Cutaneous aging includes two distinct phenomena, intrinsic aging and photoaging, and is characterized mainly by the loss of collagen fibers from dermis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed gastric acid-reducing agents that are usually consumed for long periods in some conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We suggest that PPIs can accentuate skin aging by two mechanisms. First, through increasing intralysosomal PH, PPIs can suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) processing and consequently decrease its secretion. Second, through inhibiting MNK, a P-type ATPase with steady-state localization at the trans-Golgi network, PPIs can hamper copper transport and consequently curb lysyl oxidase activity. PMID:20470945

  11. Love number can be hard to measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The waveform phase for a neutron star binary can be split into point-particle terms and finite-size terms (characterized by the Love number) that account for equation-of-state effects. The latter first enter at fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) order (i.e., proportional to the tenth power of the orbital velocity), but the former are only known completely to 3.5PN order, with higher-order terms only known to leading order in the mass ratio. We here find that not including point-particle terms at 4PN order to leading and first order in the mass ratio in the template model can severely deteriorate our ability to measure the equation of state. This problem can be solved if one uses numerical waveforms once their own systematic errors are under control.

  12. Global change: What you can do

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Hearings before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation are presented on simple things that a person can do to reduce threats to the global environment. Specific threats addressed include greenhouse warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and other effects of pollution and global changes in marine ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, and human health. It is noted that even small steps, such as more double-sided photocopying, can save trees; that maintaining a second home wastes resources; and that several books written by one witness describe other things one can do to save the Earth. The Federal Government is urged to set an example and to pass appropriate legislation to encourage conservation and reduce pollution.

  13. Combustion air can become a problem

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Improper air combustion in a well-sealed house can result in an inadequate supply of oxygen and dangerous or fatal carbon monoxide levels. An opening for outside combustion air can prevent ''air starvation'' and if properly located and sized, can save energy by improving the furnace efficiency. This opening will also keep cold outside air from entering when the furnace is not in use, and prevent a blockage when in use, if properly designed. Possible indicators of inadequate combustion air in oil-fueled homes are: chimney smoke is black-colored, fuel smell in house, soot accumulation, popping, banging, or late ignition in the furnace. In natural gas-fueled homes: excessive moisture collecting on windows and walls, frequent headaches, burning feeling in nose and eyes. (JMT)

  14. Schwarzschild Black Holes can Wear Scalar Wigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  15. Global monopoles can change Universe's topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-05-01

    If the Universe undergoes a phase transition, at which global monopoles are created or destroyed, topology of its spatial sections can change. More specifically, by making use of Myers' theorem, we show that, after a transition in which global monopoles form, spatial sections of a spatially flat, infinite Universe becomes finite and closed. This implies that global monopoles can change the topology of Universe's spatial sections (from infinite and open to finite and closed). Global monopoles cannot alter the topology of the space-time manifold.

  16. What Can Vampires Teach Us about Immunology?

    PubMed

    Schneider, David S

    2016-04-01

    Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits. PMID:26968492

  17. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-24

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations. PMID:23002734

  18. How Many Conformations Can a Protein Remember?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas M.; Ball, Robin C.

    2001-11-01

    We show that a protein can be trained to recognize multiple conformations, analogous to an associative memory, and provide capacity calculations based on energy fluctuations and information theory. Unlike the linear capacity of a Hopfield network, the number of conformations which can be remembered by a protein sequence depends on the size of the amino acid alphabet as lnA, independent of protein length. This admits the possibility of certain proteins, such as prions, evolving to fold to independent stable conformations, as well as novel possibilities for protein and heteropolymer design.

  19. Can evolution be directional without being teleological?

    PubMed

    McGhee, George R

    2016-08-01

    Convergent evolution reveals to us that the number of possibilities available for contingent events is limited, that historically contingent evolution is constrained to occur within a finite number of limited pathways, and that contingent evolution is thus probabilistic and predictable. That is, the phenomenon of convergence proves that truly contingent evolutionary processes can repeatedly produce the same, or very similar, organic designs in nature and that evolution is directional in these cases. For this reason it is argued in this paper that evolution can be directional without being teleological, and that the dichotomy that evolution must either be directionless and unpredictable or directional and predetermined (teleological) is false. PMID:26754619

  20. Payroll: A Headache You Can Cure!

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita J; Mattern, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Payroll is not only an expense for your practice; it can be a headache for you or your practice manager. Payroll is also a major scope of audit procedures. Don't rely on the word of anyone else that your taxes were processed and remitted. Demand to see proof. By outsourcing your human resources and payroll functions to one company, you can free up valuable time to concentrate on your area of expertise, leaving the administrative hassles to the staffing firm. PMID:26856025

  1. When can preheating affect the CMB?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2002-05-01

    We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.

  2. Genetics can improve fertility by 15 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good herd reproductive management practices are important but genetics can also help improve herd fertility. USDA’s Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory began genetic evaluations for fertility in 2003 using the trait daughter pregnancy rate (DPR). DPR is defined as the percentage of non-pregnant...

  3. Intelligence Is Dynamic and Can Be Taught

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present evidence that intelligence is dynamic and can be taught. The author reviews empirical studies, theoretical frameworks, qualitative research, and conceptual frameworks. Author employed several databases in a wide review of academic literature. There are many competing and complementary theories of…

  4. Cataloging the Net: Can We Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    1998-01-01

    Discusses possibilities for cataloging Internet resources and the role that the library profession can play. Topics include the Dublin Core metadata; public library projects (Michigan Electronic Library "MEL" and Librarians' Index to the Internet "LII"); academic library projects (INFOMINE, Scout Report); commercial sites (Yahoo, LookSmart,…

  5. How Solar Energy Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iker, Sam

    1978-01-01

    The future of solar heated homes looks bright. The increase in availability of solar hardware and information along with tax credits point to an increase in both solar water and space heating. Solar systems can add to the value of a house. (BB)

  6. Can We Get Students To Listen?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjisian, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how music educators can address Content Standard 6 of the National Standards for Music Education that concentrates on teaching students to listen, analyze, and describe music. Provides six approaches that help students access new pieces of music through listening, such as responding enactively to musical cues and focusing on cultural…

  7. Can Online Peer Assessment Be Trusted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzidi, L'hadi; Jaillet, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The excessive workload generated by the assessment of exam papers in large classes and the need to give feedback in time often constitute a rather heavy burden for teachers. The online peer assessment can contribute to reduce this workload and, possibly, to improve learning quality by assigning the assessment task to students. However, this raises…

  8. How Can We Best Produce Courseware?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchens, Howard

    Several models exist for production methods that can be used in the development of instructional materials for use in television- or computer-based instructional programs. These models include the established audiovisual industry that currently produces educational films and similar materials; consortia of educational institutions sharing in the…

  9. CAN OPTICAL SENSORS REDUCE FIELD N LOSSES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many corn production fields, variable-rate N applications can optimize production and minimize off-field N losses. Variability in N fertilizer need is a function of both year-to-year climate differences (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and point-to-point soil differences (e.g., mineralizat...

  10. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    PubMed

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    MedlinePlus

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  12. Can the US afford a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Establishing a lunar base will require steady funding for a decade or two. The question addressed here is whether such a large space project is affordable at this time. The relevant facts and methodology are presented so that the reader may formulate independent answers. It is shown that a permanent lunar base can be financed without increasing NASA's historical budgetary trends.

  13. How Can I Get It All Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Dana; Trierweiler, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    Between holiday concerts and grades due, finding perfect presents and the rush to fit in required lessons, the few weeks before break can seem like a season of suffering rather than a season of cheer. In this article, the authors present several time-saving solutions for shortening a teacher's December to-do list.

  14. How Boards Can Improve Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Alexander

    Effective school board leadership based on involvement and example can effectively enhance teacher performance. The first of five strategies presented to encourage maximum performance is the "Science of Teaching Program," allowing staff members, in a six-day seminar format, the opportunity to be exposed to a framework for making wise professional…

  15. What Can Teachers Learn from Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    After many years as a high school mathematics teacher, administrator, university professor, and philosopher of education, the author's inclination in answering this question (what can teachers learn from research?) is to say, "not much." If one is looking for a recipe-like answer to questions about how to teach fractions, reading, spelling, or…

  16. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... to talk to your doctor. Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart - You know you should be more physically active. But are you confused, concerned, or just can't get started? This guide uses science-based information to help adults develop a safe ...

  17. Understanding How the Arts Can Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magsamen, Susan H.; Battro, Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the arts can enhance learning has long been discussed and debated among educators, students, parents, artists, art historians, and philosophers. Many anecdotal examples reference the value and benefits of the arts in a range of fields and learning domains. Emerging methodologies in the brain sciences have added new perspectives…

  18. How mobile technology can improve healthcare.

    PubMed

    Drayton, Kathryn

    This article reports the key findings of the national Mobile Health Worker Project. The project involved services across a variety of locations and the results provide a clear picture of how mobile devices could benefit health professionals and the care that can be offered to patients. PMID:23596769

  19. How big can a black hole grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    I show that there is a physical limit to the mass of a black hole, above which it cannot grow through luminous accretion of gas, and so cannot appear as a quasar or active galactic nucleus (AGN). The limit is Mmax ≃ 5 × 1010 M⊙ for typical parameters, but can reach Mmax ≃ 2.7 × 1011 M⊙ in extreme cases (e.g. maximal prograde spin). The largest black hole masses so far found are close to but below the limit. The Eddington luminosity ≃6.5 × 1048 erg s-1 corresponding to Mmax is remarkably close to the largest AGN bolometric luminosity so far observed. The mass and luminosity limits both rely on a reasonable but currently untestable hypothesis about AGN disc formation, so future observations of extreme supermassive black hole masses can therefore probe fundamental disc physics. Black holes can in principle grow their masses above Mmax by non-luminous means such as mergers with other holes, but cannot become luminous accretors again. They might nevertheless be detectable in other ways, for example through gravitational lensing. I show further that black holes with masses ˜Mmax can probably grow above the values specified by the black-hole-host-galaxy scaling relations, in agreement with observation.

  20. Being All that We Can Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Harold R.

    2005-01-01

    The author's career path can best be described as "unconventional" or "non-traditional" for a senior student affairs administrator. Being a first-generation college graduate, the author's focus was on what he characterizes as a "clear cut career path" for a Myers Briggs Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ): management and banking. In this…

  1. What We Can Learn from the Suits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses what colleges and universities can learn from Uncle Sam and corporate America when it comes to designing secure networks and ensuring privacy. After all, schools face many of the same privacy and information security challenges seen in the business and government sectors. The fact of the matter is, in the age of cyber crime…

  2. Online health information - what can you trust?

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, you may look it up on the Internet. You can find accurate health information on many sites. But, you are also likely ... Food and Drug Administration. How to Evaluate Health Information on the Internet. Updated September 25, 2013. www.fda.gov/Drugs/ ...

  3. What Can Be Learnt from Teaching Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machura, Ludmila

    While it is commonly assumed that teaching children is unrelated to teaching at the advanced level, the two kinds of teaching are closely related and mutually effective. The experience of teaching young learners can benefit the instruction of college students of English as a second language. In both cases, providing motivation is a challenge.…

  4. "I Can't Keep Them Safe!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    A Minnesota shooting shows how gaining students' trust and sharing information can mean the difference between life and death. A 16-year-old previously expelled for bringing a shotgun to school threatened firearm violence. Thanks to students' tips, the boy was intercepted (after wounding an officer) and taken into custody. (MLH)

  5. Computer Review Can Cut HVAC Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized review of construction bidding documents, usually done by a consulting engineer, can reveal how much money it will cost to operate various alternative types of HVAC equipment over a school's lifetime. The review should include a computerized load calculation, energy systems flow diagram, control system analysis, and a computerized…

  6. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open, transfer..., is not more than 20 percent of the net weight, and the container is closed under conditions...

  7. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open, transfer..., is not more than 20 percent of the net weight, and the container is closed under conditions...

  8. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  9. Can Neighbor Attributes Predict School Absences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the neighborhood context, particularly for urban youth, can influence a range of outcomes. This study makes contributions to the field by examining how the neighborhood context directly relates to missing school. To do so, this study employs a large-scale, longitudinal data set of multilevel observations for entire…

  10. Can Distributional Approximations Give Exact Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some mathematical activities and investigations for the classroom or the lecture theatre can appear rather contrived. This cannot, however, be levelled at the idea given here, since it is based on a perfectly sensible question concerning distributional approximations that was posed by an undergraduate student. Out of this simple question, and…

  11. Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS Sites Bookstore ACS CAN Shop Cancer Atlas Global Health Finish the Fight Press Room Mobile Site Help Site Map Privacy Accessibility Terms of Use State Fundraising Notices Site Comments Better Business Bureau Health On The Net National Health Council © ...

  12. For Professors, "Friending" Can Be Fraught

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    People connect on Facebook by asking to "friend" one another. A typical user lists at least 100 such connections, while newbies are informed, "You don't have any friends yet." A humbling statement. It might make one want to find some. But friending students can be even dicier than befriending them. In the real world, casual professors may ask…

  13. Can Testing Immunize Memories against Interference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Testing typically enhances subsequent recall of tested material. In contrast, it has been proposed that consolidated memories can be destabilized when reactivated and then need to be reconsolidated in order to persist. Learning new material immediately after reactivation may disrupt reconsolidation. We investigated whether the well-known benefits…

  14. Helicopter Parents Can Be a Good Thing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…

  15. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  16. Teaching Science. The Soup-Can Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents classroom science activities to illustrate concepts of inertia, linear momentum, and friction. Students or teachers conduct races down a slope, using cans containing soups varying in mass, mass distribution, and viscosity. Students predict outcomes, compare speeds, and identify variables affecting the results. (KDFB)

  17. Can Cognitive Theory Help Us Teach Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert L.; Lochhead, Jack

    The idea that cognitive science can provide useful guidance to the teaching of physics has been met by some with skepticism. One argument is that the current understanding of cognition is too crude to be helpful; another, that any scientific approach to education stifles the art of teaching. Some feel that art and science need not be incompatible.…

  18. Can Intelligence Be Taught? Fastback 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas G.; Poling, Donald R.

    This booklet cites evidence indicating that intelligence can be trained, given a physiologically normal student and an intensely persistant tutor. Methodologies for increasing mental efficiency have in common the principle of coordination of physical and mental processes, whether achieved by simple relaxation training, brain polarization, or…

  19. Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158341.html Simple Steps Can Keep Lawn Mowing Safe Before cutting the grass, review these safety tips To use ...

  20. What Musicianship Can Teach Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the processes involved in making, listening to and creating music can teach us about the processes of research. These processes include form, rhythm, harmony, timbre, melody and polyphony. A second set of ideas addresses ways of doing (which, following Dewey, are inevitably ways of becoming) in interviews, observations and…

  1. Can Library Use Enhance Intercultural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the questions to what extent educational research addresses library use in education and how the library can contribute to intercultural education. The focus is primarily on elementary education in Europe. Analysis of research publications was based on searches for peer-reviewed journals in international databases, literary…

  2. Hospitals can attract women through education.

    PubMed

    Rynne, S J

    1987-09-01

    Hospitals are responding to women's demands for information about healthcare by instituting educational programs specifically for women. To plan such programs, the first step is to establish the major goal--whether to attract new market segments or to better serve existing users of services. It is possible to accomplish both, but they may require different approaches in terms of the program's location, time, presenters, topics, and promotion. In addition to attracting an audience, these programs also can build an image and promote utilization of services. Women who hear or read of the programs will get the impression the hospital cares and is enlightened about women. Targeted segments can be established by factors such as age, geography, and employment status, and programs can be set up to meet the specific needs of each segment. The program planners must resist the urge to tell women what the planners want them to know; instead, planners should learn what the women want to know. The programs also should rely on research that deals specifically with women, instead of information applicable to all people, since that information is usually based on the study of men only. Once the program has been presented, its effectiveness can be measured through random telephone or mail surveys to determine whether the target market has been reached. PMID:10283485

  3. You Can Start Your Own School!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers, fueled by their passion, classroom experience, and entrepreneurial verve, decide to start their own schools. With the needs of children driving their every decision, teachers can create successful schools where students thrive. In this article, teachers who established their own schools--from public charters to private…

  4. CanCore: Metadata for Learning Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Roberts, Anthony; Fisher, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses reusable digital learning resources or objects in distance education and training. Focuses on the pivotal role of metadata and issues relating to classification, description, and meaning, specifically issues of semantics; and describes the CanCore Learning Object Metadata Application Profile. (Author/LRW)

  5. Programmed Instruction CAN Teach Children To Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Edward A.

    1974-01-01

    The great hope for permanent change in the below-norms reading performance of children lies in accomplishing the task of bringing first graders above national norms and holding them there as they move up the grades. Some form of programed learning can accomplish these goals. (Author)

  6. Laughter really can be the best medicine.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel

    2014-04-15

    Many nurses are reluctant to use humour with patients, possibly because they lack the confidence to take a risk in using it or because they believe it is unprofessional. Used well, however, humour can help build a valuable therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient. PMID:24712607

  7. You Can Lose What You Never Had

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2016-01-01

    An often-used idiom states: "you can't lose what you never had." Yet contrary to this expression, it "is" possible to lose what you never had--at least when special education support is concerned. In Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, special education exists as a codified system. An ever-changing nexus of discourses and…

  8. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as KR-20 coefficients and…

  9. Extendible column can be stowed on drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtz, G. M.; Howard, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Column formed from a series of segments held together by an internal spring or cable can be coiled on a drum or extended into a rigid structure. This storable coil is useful in boring for soil samples and supporting electrical and optical sensors.

  10. Drummer Syndrome: How Can It Be Cured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distefano, Don

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidelines to assist band directors in teaching beginning drummers. Includes auditioning prospective drummers and using an instructional method that has mallet and snare drum techniques taught concurrently in one book. Observes that by devoting time and effort to percussionist players, directors can eliminate "drummer syndrome" from their…

  11. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer–resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism. PMID:24068354

  12. How Can We Improve School Safety Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Ron Avi; Guerra, Nancy; Van Acker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this article consider how education researchers can improve school violence and school safety research by (a) examining gaps in theoretical, conceptual, and basic research on the phenomena of school violence; (b) reviewing key issues in the design and evaluation of evidence-based practices to prevent school violence; and (c)…

  13. Literacy Matters: Strategies Every Teacher Can Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Scores of children across the country do not read with comprehension, and literacy has become a national priority. This book defines and reviews 15 practical literacy approaches that teachers can use across all content areas and grade levels to help students develop essential literacy skills. This user-friendly resource provides strategies for…

  14. Yes, small firms can commercialize photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Carl W.

    1997-01-01

    Small young companies can commercialize photonics. Many are already doing so and may more are getting started with a small government subsidy from Small Business Innovation Research. Capital is gushing, even begging for good investment opportunities, for companies ready to commit themselves to commercial success.

  15. Working Together, We Can Defeat Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathway, we can identify those patients who might benefit from that particular intervention. Also, we are moving from an era in which imagery is no longer simply enabling us to see a lump on a chest X-ray or a mass on a CT scan, but enabling us to visualize—using molecular imaging— ...

  16. How Physical Design Can Influence Copyright Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Most school librarians do not think of copyright compliance and facilities planning in the same breath. Yet the design of space--physical and virtual--can discourage or promote compliance, or even help police it. Placement of and access to equipment, traffic patterns, signage, and student workspace all may influence copyright-compliance behavior…

  17. Safety Tips: Peroxides Can Be Treacherous.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C.

    1984-01-01

    Peroxides are unstable, shock-, thermal-, and friction-sensitive compounds whose sensitivity increases with concentration. In addition, peroxides can form in aging organic solvents and stored alkali metals. Cautions related to storage, use, and disposal of peroxides in the secondary school chemistry laboratory are discussed. (JN)

  18. Can We Learn Calculus from a Jerk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Paula L.; Bardzell, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes an interdisciplinary undergraduate research project involving experimental physics and calculus and illustrates how mathematics was used to finesse incomplete experimental information and maximize physical quantity known as jerk. Describes how calculus can be applied in the "real world" where functions are not always given by nice…

  19. Can Public Education Coexist with Participatory Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,…

  20. Credit Traps Can Hurt Your Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Tom, Ed.; Sandlin, Jenny, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document, which was written for adult educators in Georgia, offers instructional plans and practical strategies for helping students in adult literacy, adult basic education (ABE), General Educational Development, and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs understand the credit traps that can hurt them. The document begins with a…

  1. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  2. Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

  3. How Leaders Can Enrich the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honaker, Connie J.

    2004-01-01

    Principals are the leaders of their schools, they are responsible for both student and professional learning. With thought, organization, and communication, welcoming and assisting beginning teachers as they enter their new profession can be done efficiently and effectively. An administrator who not only understands the difficult induction year,…

  4. How Learning Environments Can Stimulate Student Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Huang, Yinghsiu; Chen, Sheng-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an array of environmental factors that can stimulate imagination and explore how these factors manifest in different design phases. The participants of this study were students in the field of educational technology from four universities across Taiwan. The instructional design process was divided into…

  5. Coping with Cancer. Can Exercise Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; Jones, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    Exercise can positively affect a broad range of quality of life parameters in people with cancer. The general exercise prescription is moderate-intensity exercise 3-5 days per week. Conditions that warrant prescription modification include fatigue during treatment, acute or chronic physical impairments, and presence of bone cancer. Research…

  6. Can Placement Tests Inform Instructional Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anthony B.; Weir, Cyril J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of placement tests are typically narrowly concerned with their validation as instruments for the efficient grouping of students. They rarely explore the assumption that placement test content can be related to classroom tasks and so inform instructional decisions. This study focuses on a trial version of the Global Placement Test (GPT), a…

  7. Cyberbullying: Six Things Administrators Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Kate D.; Bynum, Yvette P.

    2014-01-01

    Blogging, social networks, e-mails, instant messaging, and web-forums are different ways that today's technologically savvy culture can communicate with others all across the world. Although beneficial, some have used these popular online forms of communication to harm others, thus termed cyberbullying. The purpose of this paper is to define…

  8. Assessment Can Support Reasoning and Sense Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suurtam, Christine

    2012-01-01

    "Reasoning and sense making should occur in every classroom every day," states "Focus in High School Mathematics: Reasoning and Sense Making" (NCTM 2009, p. 5). As this book suggests, reasoning can take many forms, including explorations and conjectures as well as explanations and justifications of student thinking. Sense making, on the other…

  9. Can chatter between microbes prevent cholera?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica A; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Xavier, Karina B

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the global rise in antibiotic resistance requires new therapies against infectious microbes. A recent microbiome study identified commensal gut bacteria that reduce colonisation by the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This antagonistic interaction might be mediated by quorum sensing, suggesting that these natural microbe-microbe interactions can help prevent infectious disease. PMID:25468792

  10. Clean Pools Can Still Pose Health Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... faster." The findings were published recently in the Journal Environmental Science & Technology . So, how can one swim safely this ... director, Florida Department of Health; April 28, 2016, Journal Environmental Science & Technology HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights ...

  11. Yes, a Catholic College Can Exist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, James F.

    2008-01-01

    In his essay, "Can a Catholic College Exist Today?" the new Assumption College President Francesco C. Cesareo offers a manifesto of his way of governing a Catholic institution "in the midst of pluralism" (The New England Journal of Higher Education, Fall 2007). Cesareo extols adherence to a single Catholic intellectual tradition and insists that…

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk factors, signs, treatments, and ways to prevent P.A.D. Risk Factors for P.A.D. Some conditions and habits raise your ... risk, can help save your life. Signs of P.A.D. At least half the people with ...

  13. "What Can I Do with This Degree?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartel, Max

    2015-01-01

    As long as the question of what recent graduates can do with their degree is being asked, the need for comprehensive and trustworthy data will exist. Between the White House College Scorecard, the Rubio-Wyden-Warner Student Right to Know Before You Go Act, the USDOE's Title IV Federal Student Aid Programs: Gainful Employment in a Recognized…

  14. How streamlining telecommunications can cut IT expense.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Greg

    2016-02-01

    Hospitals and health systems can save IT expenses by implementing more efficient processes in accordance with the principles of effective telecommunications expense management. This approach involves three primary steps: Inventory of existing infrastructure. Charge verification. Optimization of rates and design for continual improvement. PMID:26999980

  15. Can Sex Education Delay Early Sexual Debut?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…

  16. Now Johnny CAN Learn To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsted, Joy

    "Now Johnny CAN Learn to Read" is an easy-to-read book intended for anyone involved in helping others learn to read. An initial section of the book focuses on how to make reading a socially stimulating, successful activity. In this section, viewpoints are shared from a child and a parent, and a reading specialist tells of the successes which…

  17. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vascular in structure, dark in color because of retained blood, and granular in form. Canned tuna is.... (iii) Dark. This color designation includes all tuna darker than Munsell value 5.3. (iv) Blended. This... dark tuna. The color designation for blended tuna is determined in accordance with paragraph (a)(7)...

  18. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vascular in structure, dark in color because of retained blood, and granular in form. Canned tuna is.... (iii) Dark. This color designation includes all tuna darker than Munsell value 5.3. (iv) Blended. This... dark tuna. The color designation for blended tuna is determined in accordance with paragraph (a)(7)...

  19. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vascular in structure, dark in color because of retained blood, and granular in form. Canned tuna is.... (iii) Dark. This color designation includes all tuna darker than Munsell value 5.3. (iv) Blended. This... dark tuna. The color designation for blended tuna is determined in accordance with paragraph (a)(7)...

  20. Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns

    2010-11-01

    Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.

  1. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  2. Managing the Music Classroom You Can!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCombe, Joseph S.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on how preservice teachers can develop their classroom management skills. Explains that teachers must improve their personal delivery style, knowledge, and accurate presentation skills. Addresses how to minimize off task behavior, time management, and meeting student needs. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  3. Synergism among crops can help weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till practices have improved soil health by increasing soil organic matter levels and enhancing microbial community diversity. An ancillary consequence of this change in soil functioning is some crops can synergistically improve resource-use-efficiency of following crops. This improved growth e...

  4. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  5. Can Student Surveys Measure Teaching Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Primary and secondary school students spend hundreds more hours in each classroom than any observer ever will. But, until now, school improvement efforts have seldom sought systematic student feedback at the classroom level. One impediment has been the doubt that students can provide valid and reliable responses about the quality of the teaching…

  6. Can We Teach Parenting in Our Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2014-01-01

    The quality of parenting is a crucial factor in children's school success, and yet the schools teach almost nothing about parenting. This essay suggests ways in which we can teach about parenting without risking indoctrination or adding special courses.

  7. Can Economic Development Programs Be Evaluated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Bingham, Richard D.

    The question of whether economic development programs can be evaluated seems simple, but the answer is not simple because of the nature of evaluation. Determining a program's effectiveness requires the evaluator to distinguish changes due to the program from changes due to nonprogram factors. The evaluator must focus on outcomes caused by the…

  8. "All Children Can Learn": Facts and Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald; Bainbridge, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Some advocates of "all children can learn" downplay the need for adequate resources and child-friendly public policy. Educators' heroic efforts alone are insufficient. Other destructive fallacies include the principal as sole instructional leader and exception-based, uniform standards. The effective-schools movement has become too…

  9. Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…

  10. Can the dead be brought into disrepute?

    PubMed

    Masterton, Malin; Hansson, Mats G; Höglund, Anna T; Helgesson, Gert

    2007-01-01

    Queen Christina of Sweden was unconventional in her time, leading to hypotheses on her gender and possible hermaphroditic nature. If genetic analysis can substantiate the latter claim, could this bring the queen into disrepute 300 years after her death? Joan C. Callahan has argued that if a reputation changes, this constitutes a change only in the group of people changing their views and not in the person whose reputation it is. Is this so? This paper analyses what constitutes change and draws out the implications to the reputation of the dead. It is argued that a reputation is a relational property which can go through changes. The change is "real" for the group changing their views on Queen Christina and of a Cambridge kind for the long dead queen herself. Cambridge changes result in new properties being acquired, some of which can be of significance. Although the dead cannot go through any non-relational changes, it is possible for the dead to change properties through Cambridge changes. In this sense changes in reputation do affect the dead, and thus Queen Christina can acquire a new property, in this case possibly a worse reputation. PMID:17549606

  11. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer. PMID:23720533

  12. Girls Can! Community Coalitions Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.

    It is possible that the materials presented in this manual were used in implementing community action projects supported by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. These projects, part of the Girls Can! initiative, were intended to address the disparity between the educational experiences of girls and boys in…

  13. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it more robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.

  14. FBL Outer Can Welder Acquisition Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-01-16

    The Outer Can Welder Data Acquisition Software (OCWDAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After Hanford OCWDAS software was the starting point for the new version developed for FB-Line. New graphical display formats and features were added to this software to make it moremore » robust and operator friendly. Several hardware changes were also made at this time and the software was modified to accommodate these as well. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, such as the bagless transfer system in FB-Line, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. The OCWDAS improves this technology by digitizing the weld data which allows for automation of the analysis process. The OCWDAS performs the necessary functions to perform the data acquisition functions during the 3013 Outer Can Welding Process. It is important to monitor the critical weld parameters, current and voltage, during a weld as they can be used to set acceptance criteria for weld acceptance. The software monitors and records the weld current, voltage, and RPM data. It also records the absolute position of the weld head during the weld process from a quadrature encoder. Digital handshaking between the AMI Welding unit and the OCWDAS ensure that both systems are operational and ready prior to the weld initiation taking place.« less

  15. What can biologists say about galaxy evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Choler, Philippe; Douzery, Emmanuel

    2003-04-01

    It is possible to borrow from a topic of biology called phylogenetic systematics, concepts and tools for a logical and objective classification of galaxies. It is based on observable properties of objects characters either qualitative (like morphology) or quantitative (like luminosity, mass or spectrum). Distance analysis can readily be performed using a method called phenetics and based on characters. But the most promising approach is cladistics. It makes use of characters that can exist in at least two states, one being ancestral and the other one derived. Objects are gathered depending on the derived states they share. We illustrate a first application of this method to astrophysics, that we name astrocladistics, with dwarf galaxies from the Local Group.

  16. Can 250 fusions per muon be achieved

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons ( ) in reactions such as: + d + t + n + . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle ( ) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon.

  17. Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )

    1993-08-30

    The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.

  18. When Can Social Media Lead Financial Markets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-02-01

    Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes.

  19. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lewis A K; Baskett, Marissa L

    2015-12-01

    The goals of ecosystem-based management (EBM) include protecting ecological resilience, the magnitude of a perturbation that a community can withstand and remain in a given state. As a tool to achieve this goal, no-take marine reserves may enhance resilience by protecting source populations or reduce it by concentrating fishing in harvested areas. Here, we test whether spatial management with marine reserves can increase ecological resilience compared to non-spatial (conventional) management using a dynamic model of a simplified fish community with structured predation and competition that causes alternative stable states. Relative to non-spatial management, reserves increase the resilience of the desired (predator-dominated) equilibrium state in both stochastic and deterministic environments, especially under intensive fishing. As a result, spatial management also increases the feasibility of restoring degraded (competitor-dominated) systems, particularly if combined with culling of competitors or stock enhancement of adult predators. PMID:26423326

  20. Chimpanzees strategically manipulate what others can see.

    PubMed

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Humans often strategically manipulate the informational access of others to their own advantage. Although chimpanzees know what others can and cannot see, it is unclear whether they can strategically manipulate others' visual access. In this study, chimpanzees were given the opportunity to save food for themselves by concealing it from a human competitor and also to get more food for themselves by revealing it to a human cooperator. When knowing that a competitor was approaching, chimpanzees kept more food hidden (left it covered) than when expecting a cooperator to approach. When the experimenter was already at the location of the hidden food, they actively revealed less food to the competitor than to the cooperator. They did not actively hide food (cover up food in the open) from the competitor, however. Chimpanzees thus strategically manipulated what another could see in order to maximize their payoffs and showed their ability to plan for future situations. PMID:25964096

  1. Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?

    PubMed Central

    Dollens, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and biocomputation. I trace computation and botanic simulations back to Alan Turing's little-known 1950s Morphogenetic drawings, reaction-diffusion algorithms, and pioneering artificial intelligence (AI) in order to establish bioarchitecture's generative point of origin. I ask provocatively, Can buildings think? as a question echoing Turing's own, "Can machines think?" PMID:26478784

  2. Can electronic stability control replace studded tyres?

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-12-01

    Based on recent studies, this paper examines whether an increased use of electronic stability control can replace studded tyres. A re-analysis of a study that evaluated the effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway is presented. It is found that if all cars have electronic stability control, the use of studded tyres can be reduced to about 15 percent before any increase in the number of accidents occurs. Even if studded tyres were eliminated entirely, any increase in the number of accidents is likely to be considerably smaller than it would have been if electronic stability control had never been invented. PMID:26436487

  3. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories.

  4. When can social media lead financial markets?

    PubMed

    Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-01-01

    Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes. PMID:24572909

  5. Can Technology Improve the Quality of Colonoscopy?

    PubMed

    Thirumurthi, Selvi; Ross, William A; Raju, Gottumukkala S

    2016-07-01

    In order for screening colonoscopy to be an effective tool in reducing colon cancer incidence, exams must be performed in a high-quality manner. Quality metrics have been presented by gastroenterology societies and now include higher adenoma detection rate targets than in the past. In many cases, the quality of colonoscopy can often be improved with simple low-cost interventions such as improved procedure technique, implementing split-dose bowel prep, and monitoring individuals' performances. Emerging technology has expanded our field of view and image quality during colonoscopy. We will critically review several technological advances in the context of quality metrics and discuss if technology can really improve the quality of colonoscopy. PMID:27255334

  6. Macroscopically local correlations can violate information causality.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Although quantum mechanics is a very successful theory, its foundations are still a subject of intense debate. One of the main problems is that quantum mechanics is based on abstract mathematical axioms, rather than on physical principles. Quantum information theory has recently provided new ideas from which one could obtain physical axioms constraining the resulting statistics one can obtain in experiments. Information causality (IC) and macroscopic locality (ML) are two principles recently proposed to solve this problem. However, none of them were proven to define the set of correlations one can observe. In this study, we show an extension of IC and study its consequences. It is shown that the two above-mentioned principles are inequivalent: if the correlations allowed by nature were the ones satisfying ML, IC would be violated. This gives more confidence in IC as a physical principle, defining the possible correlation allowed by nature. PMID:21266986

  7. The pursuit of happiness can be lonely.

    PubMed

    Mauss, Iris B; Savino, Nicole S; Anderson, Craig L; Weisbuch, Max; Tamir, Maya; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2012-10-01

    Few things seem more natural and functional than wanting to be happy. We suggest that, counter to this intuition, valuing happiness may have some surprising negative consequences. Specifically, because striving for personal gains can damage connections with others and because happiness is usually defined in terms of personal positive feelings (a personal gain) in western contexts, striving for happiness might damage people's connections with others and make them lonely. In 2 studies, we provide support for this hypothesis. Study 1 suggests that the more people value happiness, the lonelier they feel on a daily basis (assessed over 2 weeks with diaries). Study 2 provides an experimental manipulation of valuing happiness and demonstrates that inducing people to value happiness leads to relatively greater loneliness, as measured by self-reports and a hormonal index (progesterone). In each study, key potential confounds, such as positive and negative affect, were ruled out. These findings suggest that wanting to be happy can make people lonely. PMID:21910542

  8. Can An Evolutionary Process Create English Text?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2008-10-29

    Critics of the conventional theory of biological evolution have asserted that while natural processes might result in some limited diversity, nothing fundamentally new can arise from 'random' evolution. In response, biologists such as Richard Dawkins have demonstrated that a computer program can generate a specific short phrase via evolution-like iterations starting with random gibberish. While such demonstrations are intriguing, they are flawed in that they have a fixed, pre-specified future target, whereas in real biological evolution there is no fixed future target, but only a complicated 'fitness landscape'. In this study, a significantly more sophisticated evolutionary scheme is employed to produce text segments reminiscent of a Charles Dickens novel. The aggregate size of these segments is larger than the computer program and the input Dickens text, even when comparing compressed data (as a measure of information content).

  9. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories. PMID:26627125

  10. Can thyroid dysfunction explicate severe menopausal symptoms?

    PubMed

    Badawy, A; State, O; Sherief, S

    2007-07-01

    Many of the menopausal manifestations look like those accredited to thyroid hyperfunction or hypofunction. Can thyroid dysfunction explicate severe menopausal symptoms? The study comprised 350 women with different menopausal symptoms. All women had serum TSH, T3 and free T4 estimated. Women with thyroid dysfunction were appropriately treated and other women were treated with ERT. The study showed that 21 women (6%) had hypothyroidism and 18 (5.1%) had hyperthyroidism. Marked improvement in the menopausal-like symptoms occurred after treatment of the thyroid dysfunction. Elderly women with severe or resistant menopausal symptoms can be offered TSH, T3 and T4 assays to rule out the thyroid disturbances before attempting hormone replacement therapy. PMID:17701801

  11. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases. PMID:23860945

  12. Methylglyoxal can modify GAPDH activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyon Jae; Howell, Scott K; Sanford, Rebecca J; Beisswenger, Paul J

    2005-06-01

    The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) can play an important role in regulating multiple upstream pathways relating to the development of diabetic complications. GAPDH can be modified by a number of metabolic factors, including oxidative and glycation products. To study the effect of glycation on GAPDH we have measured GAPDH structure and activity after exposure of the enzyme to the potent alpha dicarbonyl sugar methylglyoxal (MG). Rabbit GAPDH was incubated with 10-1000 microM MG for 96 hours, and enzyme activity was measured at intervals by a spectrophotometric assay. Isoelectric focusing of purified and cellular GAPDH was performed with a PROTEAN IEF system and the bands visualized by Western blotting. The mass of glycated and native GAPDH was determined by MALDI with a Applied Biosystems Voyager System 6235. GAPDH activity (at 96 h) was decreased by 20% with 1.0 micromolar MG and showed progressively greater suppression of activity with increasing concentrations up to 1 mM, where activity was decreased by 97%. Reduction in GAPDH activity was rapidly decreasing by 69.2% by two hours with 1 mM MG. IEF showed an isoelectric point (IEP) of 8.5 for native GAPDH, while measurable changes were seen with modification by MG levels of 1 mM (IEP 7.5) and 50 microM (IEP 8.0). With MALDI, GAPDH mass increased from 36.012 kDa to 37.071 after exposure to 50 microM MG and to 40.625 following 1 mM MG. This indicates addition of 12.75 and 55.6 MG residues, respectively, to GAPDH. GAPDH can be modified by methylglyoxal intracellular concentrations close to those previously observed in vivo, with measurable changes in isoelectric point and mass. These modifications can lead to decreased enzyme activity, suggesting that conditions associated with elevated intracellular MG could modify GAPDH activity in vivo. PMID:16037232

  13. Can You Find the Rat Holes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Using its rock abrasion tool, otherwise known as 'Rat,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dotted the slope of 'Endurance Crater' with dimples that give scientists a glimpse into its layered geologic history. This image from the rover's navigation camera, taken on sol 169 (July 15, 2004), highlights the prolific work of the robotic 'rodent.' How many Rat holes can you identify? You will be able to check your answer against an image to be posted soon with all the holes identified.

  14. Can Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In quiescent environments (microgravity, capillary tubes, gels) formation of a depletion zone is to be expected, due either to limited sedimentation, density driven convection or a combination of both. The formation of a depletion zone can: Modify solution supersaturation near crystal; Give rise to impurity partitioning. It is conjectured that both supersaturation and impurity partitioning affect protein crystal quality and size. Further detailed investigations on various proteins are needed to assess above hypothesis.

  15. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  16. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  17. Can a macroscopic gyroscope feel torsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeger, W. R.; Yasskin, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate that for a large class of Lagrangian-based torsion theories a macroscopic gyroscope is insensitive to the torsion field: there can be no coupling of the torsion to the gyroscope's angular momentum of rotation. To detect torsion a polarized system with a net elementary particle spin is needed. These conclusions are evident from the conservation laws, which form the basis for deriving the equations of motion.

  18. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe? PMID:14634633

  19. How language choice can affect HCAI prevention.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mark

    The financial and human costs of healthcare-associated infections have prompted many local and national policies/guidelines aimed at controlling or preventing infection. However, the language used in the discourse of this are of practice tends to lack objectivity and may make unachievable demands of staff. This article explores how such language can negatively affect staff behaviour and drive poor practice underground. PMID:27089754

  20. Why can we see visible light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    Visible light constitutes only a very narrow part of the wide electromagnetic spectrum. This article outlines several reasons why the human eye can see only within this limited range. Solar emissions and low absorption in the atmosphere are determining causes, but not the only ones. The energy of chemical bonds, the optical properties of matter, black body emissions and the wave character of light cause further limitations, all of which have a remarkable congruence.

  1. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  2. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  3. Leasing can add flexibility to asset management.

    PubMed

    Conbeer, G P

    1990-07-01

    Better management of high-technology assets begins with an understanding of a healthcare organization's goals and the equipment it needs to meet them. Under the right conditions, leasing can shift economic and technological risks of equipment obsolescence from healthcare organizations to leasing companies. Steps involved in a leasing decision include reviewing a hospital's equipment acquisition plans; conducting cost-benefit analyses, determining useful and product lives of desired equipment; and watching the market for potential technology changes. PMID:10145276

  4. EAGLE can do Efficient LTL Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We briefly present a rule-based framework, called EAGLE, that has been shown to be capable of defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. In this paper we show how EAGLE can do linear temporal logic (LTL) monitoring in an efficient way. We give an upper bound on the space and time complexity of this monitoring.

  5. Breathing hospital air can make you sick.

    PubMed

    Brownson, K

    1999-12-01

    Indoor air quality has deteriorated so much since the 1970s oil shortage and subsequent energy-efficient construction of buildings that people are becoming seriously ill by just breathing the indoor air. This is a problem with all industrial buildings and hospital staff are at particular risk. There are various things that hospital managers from different departments can do to make the air safe for staff and patients to breathe. PMID:10787631

  6. What can we learn from Plausible Values?

    PubMed

    Marsman, Maarten; Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo; Glas, Cees

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that the marginal distribution of plausible values is a consistent estimator of the true latent variable distribution, and, furthermore, that convergence is monotone in an embedding in which the number of items tends to infinity. We use this result to clarify some of the misconceptions that exist about plausible values, and also show how they can be used in the analyses of educational surveys. PMID:27052959

  7. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan

    2013-05-29

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  8. Saltwater injection systems can tolerate higher velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.M. )

    1993-07-12

    The API erosional velocity limit is overly conservative for saltwater injection systems constructed from corrosion-resistant material and containing no solids in the water. Under such conditions and providing that pressure drop is not of concern, a flow velocity of 50 fps can be safely used without concern for erosion. The paper discusses the selection of flow velocity, the API criterion, velocity limits, and a calculation example.

  9. Dissatisfied utility customers can be opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, S.

    1995-12-01

    While many utility companies boast about surveys showing high customer satisfaction, they might do well to switch their focus to working with dissatisfied customers. From a marketing perspective, the best opportunities are with those customers who are dissatisfied. By viewing customer problems as marketing and sales opportunities, utilities can reach customers when they are most willing to take action. The paper illustrates this principle by examples.

  10. Can Spiritual Care be TAUGHT via Simulation?

    PubMed

    Blesch, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are challenged to find meaningful methods to teach spirituality throughout the curriculum. Simulation is one teaching strategy that offers real-life situations in a less threatening environment. This article offers a simulation of a client in spiritual distress and describes student responses using the Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation (SBAR) tool. Simulation can be used to help students develop critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills for spiritual care. PMID:26548176

  11. What can we do about it?

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1994-02-15

    The requirements for intercept have been defined. Most can be met with existing technology. Them are significant uncertainties in coupling efficiency and fragmentation limits. The best approach depends on warning, NEO size and composition, and cost. Optimal defenses generally involve both detection and defense. They are effective to large diameters and justify expenditures on the order of $50-100M/yr. Flyby and landing precursor experiments are scientifically justified. Coupling and deflection experiments are also needed and feasible.

  12. Health care philanthropies: how communities can participate.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    When a nonprofit hospital or health plan converts to for-profit status, the value of its assets endows a charitable foundation. As a result, billions of health care dollars are being shifted into new philanthropic institutions with an explicit mission to "improve the health of the community." But this issue of States of Health argues that mission can only be accomplished if consumers are involved significantly in the conversion process. PMID:11503873

  13. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  14. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  15. Can PDT be potentiated by immunotherapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Chaplin, David J.

    1993-03-01

    Two principal aspects of interlinkage of the immune system with photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment are discussed in detail: (1) participation of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) in tumor localization of photosensitizers, and (2) induction of an inflammatory immune response by phototoxic effects in endothelial cells, TAM and other cells in the tumor, leading to necrosis of the tumor tissue. It is illustrated how Photofrin levels in TAM, and consequently in the tumor as a whole, can be altered (increased or decreased) by specific agents that stimulate or impair physiological processes in TAM. It is suggested that the selectivity of tumor localization of some photosensitizers can be augmented by TAM targeted immunotherapy with agents that enhance the rate of tumor infiltration of these cells and stimulate their phagocytic activity. Preliminary results of ongoing studies suggest that PDT induces a massive infiltration of immune cells into the treated tumor. It is hypothesized that by combining PDT with an appropriate type of immunotherapy the immune reaction can be potentiated and directed against the surviving tumor cells. As as an example, it is shown that much better control of SCCVII tumor is achieved by combining PDT with the treatment by the immunoactivator SPG compared to PDT alone.

  16. Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Selmecki, Anna; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Richmond, Phillip A.; Guillet, Marie; Shoresh, Noam; Sorenson, Amber; De, Subhajyoti; Kishony, Roy; Michor, Franziska; Dowell, Robin; Pellman, David

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood1–4. Polyploidy, usually whole genome duplication (WGD), is proposed to alter the rate of evolutionary adaptation. This could occur through complex effects on the frequency or fitness of beneficial mutations 2,5–7. For example, in diverse cell types and organisms, immediately after a WGD, newly formed polyploids missegregate chromosomes and undergo genetic instability8–13. The instability following WGDs is thought to provide adaptive mutations in microorganisms13,14 and can promote tumorigenesis in mammalian cells11,15. Polyploidy may also affect adaptation independent of beneficial mutations through ploidy-specific changes in cell physiology16. Here, we performed in vitro evolution experiments to directly test whether polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. Compared to haploids and diploids, tetraploids underwent significantly faster adaptation. Mathematical modeling suggested that rapid adaptation of tetraploids was driven by higher rates of beneficial mutations with stronger fitness effects, which was supported by whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic analyses of evolved clones. Chromosome aneuploidy, concerted chromosome loss, and point mutations all provided large fitness gains. We identified several mutations whose beneficial effects were manifest specifically in the tetraploid strains. Together, these results provide direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25731168

  17. Rose odor can innately counteract predator odor.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Mutsumi; Imada, Masato; Murakami, Toyotaka; Aizawa, Shin; Sato, Takaaki

    2011-03-24

    When animals smell a predator odor such as 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), even if it is a novel substance, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated, causing stress-like behaviors. Although the medial part of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (mBST) is known to be involved in this process, the mechanism remains unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether there is any odor that can counteract the predator odor, even when the odorants are novel substances for the animals. In this study, we assessed whether rose odor can counteract by counting the number of activated neurons in mice brain following the presentation of rose odor with or without TMT for 30 min. The number of activated cells in the mBST and in the ventrorostral part of the anterior piriform cortex (APC) was significantly reduced by a mixture of TMT and rose odor; however, no significant differences were noted in the dorsal part of the APC and in the olfactory bulb (OB) following TMT presentation with or without rose odor. The results suggest that rose odor may counteract the TMT-induced stress response in the OB and/or APC and suppress the neural circuit to the mBST. It also indicates that there are some odors that can innately counteract predator odor, even when they have not been experienced before. PMID:21266167

  18. Hyperthermia: How Can It Be Used?

    PubMed

    Behrouzkia, Zhaleh; Joveini, Zahra; Keshavarzi, Behnaz; Eyvazzadeh, Nazila; Aghdam, Reza Zohdi

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthermia (HT) is a method used to treat tumors by increasing the temperature of the cells. The treatment can be applied in combination with other verified cancer treatments using several different procedures. We sought to present an overview of the different HT tumor treatment, recent advances in the field, and combinational treatment sequences and outcomes. We used a computer-aided search to identify articles that contained the keywords hyperthermia, cancer treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, nanoparticle, and cisplatin. There are three types of HT treatment, which each need the use of applicators that are in contact with or in the proximity of the patient for the purpose of heating. Heating can be achieved using different types of energy (including microwaves, radio waves, and ultrasound). However, the source of energy will depend on the cancer type and location. The temperature used will also vary. HT is rarely used alone, and can be combined with other cancer treatments. When used in combination with other treatments, improved survival rates have been observed. However, despite in vitro and in vivo studies that support the use of concurrent hypothermia treatments, contradictory results suggest there is a need for more studies to identify other hidden effects of HT. PMID:27168918

  19. How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A

    2004-04-20

    I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K{sub eff}, for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors.

  20. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-05-03

    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system`s fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system`s design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv.

  1. Semantic generation can cause episodic forgetting.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2002-07-01

    The repeated retrieval of a subset of previously learned items can cause forgetting of the nonretrieved items. The study reported here investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting generalizes to a situation in which the retrieved and nonretrieved items are not part of the same experiential episode and task. Subjects learned an item list that they had to recall later in the experiment. In a separate intermediate phase, they repeatedly generated related items from semantic memory, or were presented the same items intact for study. Only the semantic generation of items, and not their presentation for study, induced forgetting of the initially learned items. This result indicates that, first, semantic generation can cause recall-specific episodic forgetting and, second, retrieval-induced forgetting can occur even if the retrieved and nonretrieved items belong to different experiential episodes and tasks. Connections of the present results to other memory phenomena, such as part-set cuing and the generation effect, social cognition, and eyewitness memory, are discussed. PMID:12137139

  2. Aneurysm strength can decrease under calcification.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Konstantin Y; Aboudi, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of vessels in the vascular system that are prone to rupture. Prediction of the aneurysm rupture is a challenging and unsolved problem. Various factors can lead to the aneurysm rupture and, in the present study, we examine the effect of calcification on the aneurysm strength by using micromechanical modeling. The calcified tissue is considered as a composite material in which hard calcium particles are embedded in a hyperelastic soft matrix. Three experimentally calibrated constitutive models incorporating a failure description are used for the matrix representation. Two constitutive models describe the aneurysmal arterial wall and the third one - the intraluminal thrombus. The stiffness and strength of the calcified tissue are simulated in uniaxial tension under the varying amount of calcification, i.e. the relative volume of the hard inclusion within the periodic unit cell. In addition, the triaxiality of the stress state, which can be a trigger for the cavitation instability, is tracked. Results of the micromechanical simulation show an increase of the stiffness and a possible decrease of the strength of the calcified tissue as compared to the non-calcified one. The obtained results suggest that calcification (i.e. the presence of hard particles) can significantly affect the stiffness and strength of soft tissue. The development of refined experimental techniques that will allow for the accurate quantitative assessment of calcification is desirable. PMID:26717251

  3. Hyperthermia: How Can It Be Used?

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzkia, Zhaleh; Joveini, Zahra; Keshavarzi, Behnaz; Eyvazzadeh, Nazila; Aghdam, Reza Zohdi

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia (HT) is a method used to treat tumors by increasing the temperature of the cells. The treatment can be applied in combination with other verified cancer treatments using several different procedures. We sought to present an overview of the different HT tumor treatment, recent advances in the field, and combinational treatment sequences and outcomes. We used a computer-aided search to identify articles that contained the keywords hyperthermia, cancer treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, nanoparticle, and cisplatin. There are three types of HT treatment, which each need the use of applicators that are in contact with or in the proximity of the patient for the purpose of heating. Heating can be achieved using different types of energy (including microwaves, radio waves, and ultrasound). However, the source of energy will depend on the cancer type and location. The temperature used will also vary. HT is rarely used alone, and can be combined with other cancer treatments. When used in combination with other treatments, improved survival rates have been observed. However, despite in vitro and in vivo studies that support the use of concurrent hypothermia treatments, contradictory results suggest there is a need for more studies to identify other hidden effects of HT. PMID:27168918

  4. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational. PMID:25772207

  5. Can natural selection favour altruism between species?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A

    2013-09-01

    Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species. PMID:23848844

  6. Byproducts can make coal plants green

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, B.

    2007-07-15

    Co-locating ethanol plants at coal-burning sites, along with the use of biomass gasification to boost coal-fired plant output, can have positive economic and environmental benefits. Adding a biomass gasifier to an older coal-fired plant would inject gas with up to 10% of the fuel value in the coal and increase steam generation by the same amount. Sawdust can be injected as a reburn fuel without the need for gasification. A pre-scrubber would be added before the existing SO{sub 2} scrubber and waste heat from the boiler in the form of low-pressure steam would be sent to a co-located ethanol plant. This would lead to a decrease in emissions of NOx, mercury and SO{sub 2}, less mercury in the gypsum, a large greenhouse gas reduction, reduced net fuel cost, and revenue from hydrochloric acid by- product and from selling low-pressure steam to the ethanol plant. The Blue Flint Ethanol facility uses waste heat from Grand River Energy's 1,100 MW Coal Creek Station in South Jordan, Utah. The new generation of US ethanol plants is likely to use switchgrass and other cellulosic materials as feedstock. Straw and other forms of biomass have high chlorine content. PVC waste can be added to optimise the chlorine content of the scrubber. A chlorine pre-scrubber before the SO{sub 2} scrubber would capture HCl. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  7. Authigenic illite morphology: appearances can be deceiving

    SciTech Connect

    Cocker, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    Authigenic filamentous illite can severely reduce permeability despite relatively high porosities in sandstones. The effect of illite on rock properties is dependent on the illite's morphology. By combining careful core preservation, critical-point drying, and scanning electron microscopy examination, it can be shown that illite has various morphologies, both natural and artifactual . The native-state growth form of illite is filamentous into open, brine-filled pore space. If the illite grows as relatively thick filaments, its morphology is stable, unaltered by changes in liquid saturations or core drying. However, thin illite is delicate, and its filamentous form can be modified naturally and artificially, by the passage of interfaces between fluids. Hydrocarbons entering a reservoir modify the fiber distribution, giving rise to various illite textures. In a North Sea Brent reservoir, filaments are preserved in the water zone and in isolated water-saturated sandstones high in the oil zone, but in oil-saturated samples the illite is matted into flake and honeycomb forms. Many textures in the oil zone are similar to those of conventionally air-dried samples, which have artifactual illite morphologies. Without appropriate core preservation and critical-point drying, interpreting the textures as natural or artifactual is difficult - for example, some air-dried illite forms resemble those of smectite or detrital clays. Understanding the various illite morphologies is important for interpreting clay origins, core analysis, and potential productivity or injectivity of a formation.

  8. Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmecki, Anna M.; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Richmond, Phillip A.; Guillet, Marie; Shoresh, Noam; Sorenson, Amber L.; de, Subhajyoti; Kishony, Roy; Michor, Franziska; Dowell, Robin; Pellman, David

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood. Polyploidy, usually whole-genome duplication, is proposed to alter the rate of evolutionary adaptation. This could occur through complex effects on the frequency or fitness of beneficial mutations. For example, in diverse cell types and organisms, immediately after a whole-genome duplication, newly formed polyploids missegregate chromosomes and undergo genetic instability. The instability following whole-genome duplications is thought to provide adaptive mutations in microorganisms and can promote tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. Polyploidy may also affect adaptation independently of beneficial mutations through ploidy-specific changes in cell physiology. Here we perform in vitro evolution experiments to test directly whether polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. Compared with haploids and diploids, tetraploids undergo significantly faster adaptation. Mathematical modelling suggests that rapid adaptation of tetraploids is driven by higher rates of beneficial mutations with stronger fitness effects, which is supported by whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic analyses of evolved clones. Chromosome aneuploidy, concerted chromosome loss, and point mutations all provide large fitness gains. We identify several mutations whose beneficial effects are manifest specifically in the tetraploid strains. Together, these results provide direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation.

  9. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  10. What population studies can do for business.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines how specific skills essential to demography, the scientific study of human populations, can be useful in private and public sector planning. Over the past 2 decades, Australia's population has undergone profound transformations -- a shift to below replacement level fertility and a change in ethnic composition, to name a few. And these changes have reshaped the markets for goods, services, and labor. Because demography seeks to analyze and explain changes in the size, composition, and spatial distribution of people, this discipline requires certain skills that can be particularly valuable to both private and public sector planning. These skills include: 1) a sound knowledge of why and how populations change over time; 2) a wide range of concepts (the "cohort," for example) which allow demographers to analyze the dynamics of change in a population; 3) statistical techniques; and 4) life tables techniques. Having named the specific skills of demographers, the author identifies the areas of business and public administration where these skills can be most useful, areas that include the following: strategic long-term planning, marketing, market segmentation, small area analysis, household and family level analysis, projections and estimates, human resources analysis, and international population trends. Finally, the author discusses the implications of applied population analysis on the training of demographers in Australia, emphasizing the role of the Australian Population Association in improving the status of demography as an important planning tool. PMID:12343380

  11. Zeolites: Can they be synthesized by design

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.E. )

    1994-09-01

    Zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves are crystalline oxides that have high surface-to-volume ratios and are able to recognize, discriminate, and organize molecules with differences of < 1 [angstrom]. The close connection between the atomic structure and macroscopic properties of these materials has led to uses in molecular recognition. For example, zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves can reveal marvelous molecular recognition specificity and sensitivity that can be applied to catalysis, separations technology, and chemical sensing. Additionally, they can serve as hosts to organize guest atoms and molecules that endow composite materials with optoelectric and electrochemical properties. Because of the high level of structural control necessary to create high-performance materials with zeolites or zeolite-like molecular sieves, the design and synthesis of these solids with specific architectures and properties are highly desired. Although this lofty goal is still elusive, advances have been made to allow the serious consideration of designing molecular sieves. Here, the author covers two aspects of this ongoing effort. First, he discusses the feasibility of designing pore architectures through the use of organic structure-directing agents. Second, he explores the possibility of creating zeolites through ''Lego chemistry.''

  12. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  13. Rotating Stars Can Help Planets Become Habitable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    What characteristics must a terrestrial planet exhibit to have the potential to host life? Orbiting within the habitable zone of its host star is certainly a good start, but theres another important aspect: the planet has to have the right atmosphere. A recent study has determined how host stars can help their planets to lose initial, enormous gaseous envelopes and become more Earth-like.Collecting An EnvelopeWhen a terrestrial planet forms inside a gaseous protoplanetary disk, it can accumulate a significant envelope of hydrogen gas causing the planet to bear more similarity to a mini-Neptune than to Earth. Before the planet can become habitable, it must shed this enormous, primordial hydrogen envelope, so that an appropriate secondary atmosphere can form.So what determines whether a planet can get rid of its protoatmosphere? The dominant process for shedding a hydrogen atmosphere is thermal mass loss: as the planets upper atmosphere is heated by X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from the host star, the envelope evaporates.A Critical DependenceIn a recent study led by Colin Johnstone (University of Vienna), a team of scientists has developed models of this evaporation process for hydrogen planetary atmospheres. In particular, Johnstone and collaborators examine how the host stars initial rotation rate which strongly impacts the stars level of XUV activity affects the degree to which the planets hydrogen atmosphere is evaporated, and the rate at which the evaporation occurs.The authors findings can be illustrated with the example of an Earth-mass planet located in the habitable zone of a solar-mass star. In this case, the authors find four interesting regimes (shown in the plot to the right):Evolution of the hydrogen protoatmosphere of an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a solar-mass star. The four lettered cases describe different initial atmospheric masses. The three curves for each case describe the stellar rotation rate: slow (red

  14. The future of robotics can be ours.

    PubMed

    Eckberg, E

    1998-05-01

    As the use of robotic aides increases the possibility of telesurgery, the perioperative scope of practice could include using patients' homes or other nontraditional settings as surgical sites. Even mobile surgical vans could be used. To perform telesurgery, the health care industry actively must define the role of the health care professional with the patient who can make an incision and insert a laparoscope. This may create an opportune time to promote the RN first assistant (RNFA) role--a goal that will involve expanding our state nurse practice acts to allow RNFAs to perform various functions for true advanced practice in nontraditional settings. Additionally, it will mean defining what functions and personnel must be available in these new creative settings. Current experiments have focused on using nonlicensed assistants, which can lead to legal and moral concerns. Legal and moral concerns include not only appropriate personnel, but also patient privacy. In telesurgery, patient information would be transmitted over communication lines, possibly seriously jeopardizing patient privacy. Perioperative nurses must be vigilant regarding patient privacy and continue to be patient advocates. Additional concerns relate to the possible complications or emergencies that can occur in any procedure, such as bleeding, cardiac arrest, or malignant hyperthermia. As this field is being developed, these concerns must be addressed, and possible complications and emergencies must be prepared for. All patients deserve highly trained individuals to care for them. It is a concern that unlicensed personnel are being considered to manage these potentially serious situations. It is now more important than ever that perioperative nurses stay on top of technologic advances. One surgeon stated that perioperative nurses are at a point in history in which they can make a difference--a potentially lifesaving difference. Nurses will have to be comfortable with new technology, know when it is

  15. Can CMB Experiments Find Planet Nine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have identified signs of an unseen, distant ninth planet in our solar system. How might we find the elusive Planet Nine? A team of scientists suggests the key might be cosmology experiments.AHypothetical PlanetOrbits of six distant Kuiper-belt objects. Their clustered perihelia and orbital orientations suggest they may have been shepherded by a massive object, hypothesized to be Planet Nine. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]Early this year, a study was published that demonstrated that the clustered orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects (and several other features of our solar system) can be explained by the gravitational tug of a yet-undiscovered planet. This hypothetical Planet Nine is predicted to be a giant planet similar to Neptune or Uranus, with a mass of more than ~10 Earthmasses, currently orbiting ~700 AU away.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Nicolas Cowan (McGill University in Canada) has estimated the blackbody emission expected from Planet Nine. The team proposes how we might be able to search for this distant body using its heat signature.Heat from an Icy WorldCowan and collaborators first estimate Planet Nines effective temperature, based on the solar flux received at ~700 AU and assuming its internal heating is similar to Uranus or Neptune. They find that Planet Nines effective temperature would likely be an icy ~3050 K, corresponding to a blackbody peak at 50100 micrometers.Search space for Planet Nine. Based on its millimeter flux and annual parallax motion, several current and future cosmology experiments may be able to detect it. Experiments resolution ranges are shown with blue boxes. [Cowan et al. 2016]How can we detect an object withemission that peaks in this range? Intriguingly, cosmology experiments monitoring the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation are optimized for millimeter flux. At a wavelength of 1mm, Cowan and collaborators estimate that Planet Nine would have a very detectable flux level of ~30 mJy. The

  16. FBL Outer Can Welder Analysis Software

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Susan L.

    2003-04-21

    The Outer Can Welder Analysis Software (OCWAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After that development effort, SRS funded SRTC to develop a similar system for FB-Line for use with 3013 canister welding at SRS. More robust analysis routines and techniques were used with this new version as well as enhanced graphical representation of the data. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. To improve this process, another software package developed by SRTC, the OCW DAS, digitizes the weld data and stores the data in a file. The OCWAS automates the weld analysis process by analyzing the data obtained during the weld process. The OCWAS reads a data file that was previously collected using the OCW DAS software. The software will read the file and parse the data. The user is first prompted to enter the file name. The file is then opened and the operator name, canister identification, and Date/Time of Acquisition are read from the file and displayed on the screen. The binary weld data is then read from the file into an array until the end of the file is reached. The current, voltage, and position data are displayed on the screen in graphical format on the front panel. The weld power and resistance are calculated and are also displayed in graphical format on the front panel.

  17. Robots that can adapt like animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot `think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  18. FBL Outer Can Welder Analysis Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-21

    The Outer Can Welder Analysis Software (OCWAS) was originally developed by SRTC for use at Hanford to assist in the storage of their excess plutonium in the DOE standard 3013 containers until it can be properly dispositioned using one of the approved DOE methods. After that development effort, SRS funded SRTC to develop a similar system for FB-Line for use with 3013 canister welding at SRS. More robust analysis routines and techniques were used withmore » this new version as well as enhanced graphical representation of the data. During the welding process, critical weld parameters such as weld current and voltage, can give valuable information about the weld. In the past, weld data from the TIG welding process, has been monitored using strip chart recorders. The data from the weld process, recorded on the strip chart recorder traces, are reviewed to analyze the weld. To improve this process, another software package developed by SRTC, the OCW DAS, digitizes the weld data and stores the data in a file. The OCWAS automates the weld analysis process by analyzing the data obtained during the weld process. The OCWAS reads a data file that was previously collected using the OCW DAS software. The software will read the file and parse the data. The user is first prompted to enter the file name. The file is then opened and the operator name, canister identification, and Date/Time of Acquisition are read from the file and displayed on the screen. The binary weld data is then read from the file into an array until the end of the file is reached. The current, voltage, and position data are displayed on the screen in graphical format on the front panel. The weld power and resistance are calculated and are also displayed in graphical format on the front panel.« less

  19. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    PubMed

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  20. Wearing heavy iron clogs can inhibit vection.

    PubMed

    Seno, Takeharu; Abe, Keiga; Kiyokawa, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    Visually induced illusory self-motion perception is termed vection. We measured vection strength in participants wearing either wooden or iron clogs together with or without a weight-jacket (four conditions). We hypothesized that the heavier items would inhibit vection more because they make locomotion difficult. Results partially showed that the iron clogs could inhibit vection. We concluded that cognition of the fact that the heavier iron clogs made locomotion difficult might function as an inhibitor of vection, suggesting that cognition can alter vection strength. PMID:24800414

  1. CAN A SINGLE INJURY CAUSE CANCER?

    PubMed Central

    Hedge, Arden R.

    1959-01-01

    In the absence of positive evidence that a single injury can cause cancer, the tendency is growing to award compensation to persons (particularly employees) with cancers alleged to have originated in trauma, even cancers which are generally conceded to be congenital in origin. Experimental attempts to induce cancer through trauma have been unsuccessful or doubtful in result. War-wounded persons, boxers and railroad accident victims have no higher incidence of cancer than other groups. Physicians and others in a position to educate the public should strive to dispel the error that cancer following injury is demonstrably or even probably the cause. PMID:13618747

  2. Can we assure quality without stifling innovation?

    PubMed

    Miller, Linda

    2014-12-01

    The emergence of regenerative medicine raises new questions about the best ways to ensure the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapies for patients. The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) believes minimum requirements for cellular therapy for regenerative medicine will promote patient safety, protect the research environment, and aid in the swift advancement of regenerative therapies from bench to bedside. The standards development process has demonstrated that consensus on minimum requirements advances the field. FACT's accreditation process and newly established "Common Standards for Cellular Therapies" can help meet unmet needs in regenerative medicine that will drive commercialization of new cell therapies. PMID:25457966

  3. [Working as a sandblaster can cause silicosis].

    PubMed

    Schelde, Jacob; Authried, Georg; Madsen, Helle Dall; Perch, Michael; Sherson, David Lee

    2015-01-26

    Silicosis is a common occupational disease worldwide. It is caused by the inhalation of crystalline silicon dioxide, i.e. silica. Quartz is a common form of silica and occurs in sandstone and granite. Occupational exposure can occur e.g. in mining, quarrying and sandblasting. The inhaled silica triggers an inflammatory response when phagocytosed which eventually causes fibrosis. We present a 45-year-old male Danish sandblaster who developed silicosis, and due to rapid decline in lung function received a lung transplant with an excellent result. PMID:25612962

  4. WHAT CAN HISTORY DO FOR BIOETHICS?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This article details the relationship between history and bioethics. I argue that historians' reluctance to engage with bioethics rests on a misreading of the field as solely reducible to applied ethics, and overlooks previous enthusiasm for historical perspectives. I claim that seeing bioethics as its practitioners see it – as an interdisciplinary meeting ground – should encourage historians to collaborate in greater numbers. I conclude by outlining how bioethics might benefit from new histories of the field, and how historians can lend a fresh perspective to bioethical debates. PMID:22150828

  5. As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See (QTVR)

    This expansive view of the martian real estate surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is the first 360 degree, high-resolution color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The airbag marks, or footprints, seen in the soil trace the route by which Opportunity rolled to its final resting spot inside a small crater at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The exposed rock outcropping is a future target for further examination. This image mosaic consists of 225 individual frames.

  6. Can cosmic structure form without dark matter?

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Liguori, Michele

    2006-12-01

    One of the prime pieces of evidence for dark matter is the observation of large overdense regions in the Universe. To account for this observation, perturbations had to have grown since recombination by a factor greater than (1+z*) approximately 1180 where z* is the epoch of recombination. This enhanced growth does not happen in general relativity, and so dark matter is needed in the standard theory. We show here that enhanced growth can occur in alternatives to general relativity, in particular, in Bekenstein's relativistic version of modified Newtonian dynamics. PMID:17280192

  7. Can Primary Care Sleep Medicine Integration Work?

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Thomas D.; Herr, Adam; Thuras, Paul; Cook, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common in the veteran population. There is an increasing need for sleep medicine services in returning veterans. Primary care providers are uncomfortable diagnosing and treating sleep disorders. Patients often have to wait several days before they can be seen by a sleep clinician. This pilot project evaluated the feasibility of providing sleep medicine services to patients in a primary care setting. Primary care providers were involved in decision-making, resulting in improved satisfaction with sleep medicine services among primary care clinicians. PMID:25133050

  8. Can Two-Dimensional Boron Superconduct?

    PubMed

    Penev, Evgeni S; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2016-04-13

    Two-dimensional boron is expected to exhibit various structural polymorphs, all being metallic. Additionally, its small atomic mass suggests strong electron-phonon coupling, which in turn can enable superconducting behavior. Here we perform first-principles analysis of electronic structure, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon coupling of selected 2D boron polymorphs and show that the most stable structures predicted to feasibly form on a metal substrate should also exhibit intrinsic phonon-mediated superconductivity, with estimated critical temperature in the range of Tc ≈ 10-20 K. PMID:27003635

  9. Improved patient pathways can prevent overcrowding.

    PubMed

    Emeny, Russell; Vincent, Connolly

    2013-03-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a common problem throughout the western world. Not only does crowding create a miserable environment for patients, and to considerable stress and poor job satisfaction among staff, it can also lead EDs to breach the four-hour standard and other care quality indicators. In addition, crowding in EDs correlates with increases in patient mortality, rates of admission, lengths of inpatient stay and costs. This article argues that crowding is best tackled by the consistent application of eight principles, derived from various guidance, to emergency patient pathways, particularly those in acute settings. PMID:23586168

  10. Crisis management can leave residual effects.

    PubMed

    Margolis, G L; DeMuro, P R

    1991-10-01

    A healthcare organization that once suffered from poor financial performance may fail to correct recovery methods that can cause lingering legal and accounting problems. A crisis management style is prone to creating problems with an organization's debt structure, Medicare and Medicaid payment, tax issues, labor relations, licensing and accreditation, compliance with fraud and abuse rules, and accounting for charity care. After stabilizing a worrisome financial situation, a healthcare organization should conduct an internal audit to ensure that its legal and accounting practices remain above board. PMID:10145510

  11. Inventory to go: can stockless deliver efficiency?

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1991-11-01

    Influenced by the Japanese management concept of "just-in-time," healthcare organizations are looking to their departmental inventories for possible cost reductions. Some organizations have developed a materials management technique known as stockless inventory, in which much of the management of an organization's supplies is switched to an outside vendor. By eliminating its storeroom and many of the staffing needs that go along with it, a hospital with a stockless inventory program can realize significant cost savings. Whether these savings offset potentially large service fees is a question each hospital must decide on its own. PMID:10145526

  12. On being green: can flow chemistry help?

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-01

    The principles of Green Chemistry are important but challenging drivers for most modern synthesis programs. To meet these challenges new flow chemistry tools are proving to be very effective by providing improved heat/mass transfer opportunities, lower solvent usage, less waste generation, hazardous compound containment, and the possibility of a 24/7 working regime. This machine-assisted approach can be used to effect repetitive or routine scale-up steps or when combined with reagent and scavenger cartridges, to achieve multi-step synthesis of complex natural products and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:22711555

  13. Jaw thrust can deteriorate upper airway patency.

    PubMed

    von Ungern-Sternberg, B S; Erb, T O; Frei, F J

    2005-04-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a frequent problem in spontaneously breathing children undergoing anesthesia or sedation procedures. Failure to maintain a patent airway can rapidly result in severe hypoxemia, bradycardia, or asystole, as the oxygen demand of children is high and oxygen reserve is low. We present two children with cervical masses in whom upper airway obstruction exaggerated while the jaw thrust maneuver was applied during induction of anesthesia. This deterioration in airway patency was probably caused by medial displacement of the lateral tumorous tissues which narrowed the pharyngeal airway. PMID:15777312

  14. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: can hearts really break?

    PubMed

    Farris, Cindy; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise; Kanayama, Tiffanie

    2014-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), or broken-heart syndrome, is a form of cardiomyopathy (CM) that is significantly different from other common types. This form of CM occurs spontaneously and can be easily reversed. TCM is seen primarily in postmenopausal women with a recent stressful event. Patients with TCM often present with symptoms suggestive of a myocardial infarction. Home health-care and hospice clinicians interact frequently with caregivers and other family members who are living under stressful circumstances. It is important that home care clinicians be familiar with TCM and understand the relationship that may exist between stress, stressful events, triggers, and TCM. PMID:24978575

  15. Rotating black holes can have short bristles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-12-01

    The elegant 'no short hair' theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar 'clouds') in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein-Gordon-Kerr-Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses.

  16. Can Bohmian mechanics be made relativistic?

    PubMed

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward; Zanghì, Nino

    2014-02-01

    In relativistic space-time, Bohmian theories can be formulated by introducing a privileged foliation of space-time. The introduction of such a foliation-as extra absolute space-time structure-would seem to imply a clear violation of Lorentz invariance, and thus a conflict with fundamental relativity. Here, we consider the possibility that, instead of positing it as extra structure, the required foliation could be covariantly determined by the wave function. We argue that this allows for the formulation of Bohmian theories that seem to qualify as fundamentally Lorentz invariant. We conclude with some discussion of whether or not they might also qualify as fundamentally relativistic. PMID:24511259

  17. Conservation: can we live better on less

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.

    1981-02-01

    Americans are looking for more-efficient ways to live and conduct their business without lowering their living standard. New building designs, intensive gardening, new energy sources, and vanpooling are among the pioneering efforts. Conservation also requires innovative ways to raise capital to handle nontraditional projects. A new industry of house doctors audits the energy efficiency of buildings and creates more-conserving designs and materials. Other industries will develop renewable and synthetic energy sources. Reports of changing attitudes and a growing interest in decentralized energy management are signs that conservation can become a way of life. (DCK)

  18. Engineering plastics can cut fuel system cost

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    Examines the use of small nylon, acetal, and polyester resin parts in carbureted and continuous (throttle body) fuel injection (CFI) systems as well as port fuel injected (PFI) systems. Points out that conversions of larger castings offer car manufacturers more substantial cost savings. Reveals that heat-stabilized glass- and mineral-reinforced nylons can replace sand-cast and die-cast aluminium in injection systems. Concludes that 40% of the cost of a fuel system may be saved via maximum use of the capabilities of engineering plastic materials.

  19. How We Can Constrain Aerosol Type Globally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In addition to aerosol number concentration, aerosol size and composition are essential attributes needed to adequately represent aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) in models. As the nature of ACI varies enormously with environmental conditions, global-scale constraints on particle properties are indicated. And although advanced satellite remote-sensing instruments can provide categorical aerosol-type classification globally, detailed particle microphysical properties are unobtainable from space with currently available or planned technologies. For the foreseeable future, only in situ measurements can constrain particle properties at the level-of-detail required for ACI, as well as to reduce uncertainties in regional-to-global-scale direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). The limitation of in situ measurements for this application is sampling. However, there is a simplifying factor: for a given aerosol source, in a given season, particle microphysical properties tend to be repeatable, even if the amount varies from day-to-day and year-to-year, because the physical nature of the particles is determined primarily by the regional environment. So, if the PDFs of particle properties from major aerosol sources can be adequately characterized, they can be used to add the missing microphysical detail the better sampled satellite aerosol-type maps. This calls for Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterize Aerosol Air Masses (SAM-CAAM). We are defining a relatively modest and readily deployable, operational aircraft payload capable of measuring key aerosol absorption, scattering, and chemical properties in situ, and a program for characterizing statistically these properties for the major aerosol air mass types, at a level-of-detail unobtainable from space. It is aimed at: (1) enhancing satellite aerosol-type retrieval products with better aerosol climatology assumptions, and (2) improving the translation between satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties and

  20. Can treatment trial samples be representative?

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Jackie A.; Palmer, Robert L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    A catchment area-based sample of patients recruited for an eating disorder treatment trial was compared with patients from the same geographical area seen in the 12 months before and after the trial. The three samples were very similar. The research sample was representative of the usual clinic sample from which it had been selected and thus the results could be extrapolated with some confidence to other similar clinical settings. It is concluded that whilst treatment trials, by their very nature, have explicit and implicit inclusion and exclusion criteria with appropriate designs they can be usefully representative. PMID:19647815

  1. Canned pump having a high inertia flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Veronesi, L.; Raimondi, A.A.

    1989-12-12

    A canned pump is described which includes a motor, impeller, shaft, and high inertia flywheel mounted within a hermetically sealed casing. The flywheel comprises a heavy metal disk made preferably of a uranium alloy with a stainless steel shell sealably enclosing the heavy metal. The outside surfaces of the stainless steel comprise thrust runners and a journal for mating with, respectively, thrust bearing shoes and radial bearing segments. The bearings prevent vibration of the pump and, simultaneously, minimize power losses normally associated with the flywheel resulting from frictionally pumping surrounding fluid. 5 figs.

  2. Canned pump having a high inertia flywheel

    DOEpatents

    Veronesi, Luciano; Raimondi, ALbert A.

    1989-01-01

    A canned pump is described which includes a motor, impeller, shaft, and high inertia flywheel mounted within a hermetically sealed casing. The flywheel comprises a heavy metal disk made preferably of a uranium alloy with a stainless steel shell sealably enclosing the heavy metal. The outside surfaces of the stainless steel comprise thrust runners and a journal for mating with, respectively, thrust bearing shoes and radial bearing segments. The bearings prevent vibration of the pump and, simultaneously, minimize power losses normally associated with the flywheel resulting from frictionally pumping surrounding fluid.

  3. Perceptual learning can reverse subliminal priming effects.

    PubMed

    Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    Masked primes presented prior to a target can result in inverse priming (i.e., benefits on trials in which the prime and the target are mapped onto opposite responses). In five experiments, time-of-task effects on subliminal priming of motor responses were investigated. First, we replicated Klapp and Hinkley's (2002) finding that the priming effect is initially straight (i.e., it benefits congruent trials, in which the prime and targets are mapped onto the same response) or absent, and only later reverses (i.e., faster responses in incongruent than in congruent trials). We show that the presentation of the mask plays a crucial role in this reversal and that the reversal occurs later if the mask pattern is very complex. We suggest that perceptual learning improves the recognition of task-relevant features. Once recognized, these features can trigger the preparation of the alternative response and/or inhibit the prime-activated response. These findings support an active role of the mask in priming. PMID:17727109

  4. Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Antonietta; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Lorusso, Letizia; Secondulfo, Carmine; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT) can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the "fingers point" of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated) against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test) or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test). Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold. PMID:26236378

  5. Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Antonietta; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Lorusso, Letizia; Secondulfo, Carmine; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT) can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the “fingers point” of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated) against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test) or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test). Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold. PMID:26236378

  6. Music can elicit a visual motion aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2013-07-01

    Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to elicit an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation. PMID:23456973

  7. Can ILP Be Applied to Large Datasets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiroaki; Muggleton, Stephen

    There exist large data in science and business. Existing ILP systems cannot be applied effectively for data sets with 10000 data points. In this paper, we consider a technique which can be used to apply for more than 10000 data by simplifying it. Our approach is called Approximative Generalisation and can compress several data points into one example. In case that the original examples are mixture of positive and negative examples, the resulting example is ascribed in probability values representing proportion of positiveness. Our longer term aim is to apply on large Chess endgame database to allow well controlled evaluations of the technique. In this paper we start by choosing a simple game of Noughts and Crosses and we apply mini-max backup algorithm to obtain database of examples. These outcomes are compacted using our approach and empirical results show this has advantage both in accuracy and speed. In further work we hope to apply the approach to large database of both natural and artificial domains.

  8. Static network structure can stabilize human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of cooperation in network-structured populations has been a major focus of theoretical work in recent years. When players are embedded in fixed networks, cooperators are more likely to interact with, and benefit from, other cooperators. In theory, this clustering can foster cooperation on fixed networks under certain circumstances. Laboratory experiments with humans, however, have thus far found no evidence that fixed network structure actually promotes cooperation. Here, we provide such evidence and help to explain why others failed to find it. First, we show that static networks can lead to a stable high level of cooperation, outperforming well-mixed populations. We then systematically vary the benefit that cooperating provides to one's neighbors relative to the cost required to cooperate (b/c), as well as the average number of neighbors in the network (k). When b/c > k, we observe high and stable levels of cooperation. Conversely, when b/c ≤ k or players are randomly shuffled, cooperation decays. Our results are consistent with a quantitative evolutionary game theoretic prediction for when cooperation should succeed on networks and, for the first time to our knowledge, provide an experimental demonstration of the power of static network structure for stabilizing human cooperation. PMID:25404308

  9. How nanotechnology can enhance docetaxel therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Na

    2013-01-01

    Docetaxel has been recognized as one of the most efficient anticancer drugs over the past decade; however, its poor water solubility and systemic toxicity have greatly limited its clinical application. In recent decades, the emergence of nanotechnology has provided new drug delivery systems for docetaxel, which can improve its water solubility, minimize the side effects and increase the tumor-targeting distribution by passive or active targeting. This review focuses on the research progress in nanoformulations related to docetaxel delivery – such as polymer-based, lipid-based, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanocarriers, as well as inorganic nanoparticles – addressing their structures, characteristics, preparation, physicochemical properties, methods by which drugs are loaded into them, and their in vitro and in vivo efficacies. Further, the targeted ligands used in the docetaxel nanoformulations, such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, folic acid, transferrin, aptamers and hyaluronic acid, are described. The issues to overcome before docetaxel nanoformulations can be used in clinical and commercial applications are also discussed. PMID:23950643

  10. Measurement Can't Influence the Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pankaj

    2006-04-01

    Science does not govern the nature rather it has been laid to describe the various facts of the nature. This straightly leads us to state some ``categorical'' facts/clarification about the nature. 1) The speed of light (even in vacuum) has not the same constant value in each frame of reference. It encourages us to think uniformity of physical laws in all inertial frames, constancy of speed of light and/or Maxwellian laws of electromagnetism are incoherent. 2) All natural processes do have same consequences in all inertial frames of reference. It's only law of Physics which may have different-different forms depending on frames of reference. 3) Measurement can't influence the natural processes! Different measurements after all can be considered only as different rates of the happening of the nature. 4) Kinetic Energy of a particle is same in each inertial frame of reference and is ``truly'' defined by classical mechanics. The total energy of a particle is defined as Ei = K.E. + P.E. + Work done 5) Energy and entity of a particle are equivalent, i.e., they are just two modes of existence - in a particular sort of conditions we see a particle existing in forms of energy or with entity-features or in both. We strongly feel that the postulates of `Special Theory of Relativity' are totally wrong and only ``willful'' assumptions.

  11. Channelopathies can cause epilepsy in man.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic epilepsies, which account for up to 40% of all epilepsies, are mainly caused by genetic factors. Most idiopathic epilepsies are due to oligogenic or multifactorial rather than monogenetic inheritance. Nevertheless, most of what is known today about the molecular genetics of idiopathic epilepsies has been found by analysing large families with rare monogenetic forms of the disease. For the first time, gene defects can be linked to certain epilepsies. Mutations in the CHRNA4 or CHRNB subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor lead to familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, while defects in the voltage-gated potassium channels KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 have recently been found to cause benign familial neonatal convulsions. The voltage-gated sodium channel subunits SCN1B, SCN1A and SCN2A as well as the GABRG2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor are involved in the pathology of the newly described syndrome generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. These rare monogenetic epilepsies can serve as models for further genetic analysis of the common forms of idiopathic epilepsies. PMID:11888238

  12. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Schneider, V

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a space station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight. PMID:1915690

  13. Can the adult skeleton recover lost bone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1991-01-01

    The loss of bone mineral with aging and subsequent development of osteoporosis is a common problem in elderly women, and as life expectancy increases, in elderly men as well. Space flight also causes bone loss and could be a limiting factor for long duration missions, such as, a Mars expedition or extended occupation of a Space Station. Before effective countermeasures can be devised, a thorough knowledge of the extent, location, and rate of bone loss during weightlessness is needed from actual space flight data or ground-based disuse models. In addition, the rate and extent that these losses are reversed after return from space flight are of primary importance. Although the mechanisms are not likely to be the same in aging and space flight, there are common elements. For example, strategies developed to prevent disuse bone loss or to enhance the rate of recovery following space flight might have direct applicability to clinical medicine. For various reasons, little attention has been given to recovery of bone mass following space flight. As a prelude to the design of strategies to enhance recovery of bone, this paper reviews published literature related to bone recovery in the adult. We conclude that recovery can be expected, but the rate and extent will be individual and bone site dependent. The development of strategies to encourage or enhance bone formation following space flight may be as important as implementing countermeasures during flight.

  14. Drops can bounce from perfectly hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolinski, J. M.; Mahadevan, L.; Rubinstein, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Drops are well known to rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces and from liquid surfaces. Here, we show that drops can also rebound from a superhydrophilic solid surface such as an atomically smooth mica sheet. However, the coefficient of restitution CR associated with this process is significantly lower than that associated with rebound from superhydrophobic surfaces. A direct imaging method allows us to characterize the dynamics of the deformation of the drop in entering the vicinity of the surface. We find that drop bouncing occurs without the drop ever touching the solid and there is a nanometer-scale film of air that separates the liquid and solid, suggesting that shear in the air film is the dominant source of dissipation during rebound. Furthermore, we see that any discrete nanometer-height defects on an otherwise hydrophilic surface, such as treated glass, completely inhibits the bouncing of the drop, causing the liquid to wet the surface. Our study adds a new facet to the dynamics of droplet impact by emphasizing that the thin film of air can play a role not just in the context of splashing but also bouncing, while highlighting the role of rare surface defects in inhibiting this response.

  15. How can you capture cultural dynamics?

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparison is a critical method by which we can examine the interaction between culture and psychological processes. However, comparative methods tend to overlook cultural dynamics – the formation, maintenance, and transformation of cultures over time. The present article gives a brief overview of four different types of research designs that have been used to examine cultural dynamics in the literature: (1) cross-temporal methods that trace medium- to long-term changes in a culture; (2) cross-generational methods that explore medium-term implications of cultural transmission; (3) experimental simulation methods that investigate micro-level mechanisms of cultural dynamics; and (4) formal models and computer simulation methods often used to investigate long-term and macro-level implications of micro-level mechanisms. These methods differ in terms of level of analysis for which they are designed (micro vs. macro-level), scale of time for which they are typically used (short-, medium-, or long-term), and direction of inference (deductive vs. empirical method) that they imply. The paper describes examples of these methods, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and point to their complementarity in inquiries about cultural change. Because cultural dynamics research is about meaning over time, issues deriving from interpretation of meaning and temporal distance between researchers and objects of inquiry can pose threats to the validity of the research and its findings. The methodological question about hermeneutic circle is recalled and further inquiries are encouraged. PMID:25309476

  16. Coevolution can reverse predator-prey cycles.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-05-20

    A hallmark of Lotka-Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator-prey interactions, is that in predator-prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator-prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka-Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage-cholera, mink-muskrat, and gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator-prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator-prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

  17. How can single sensory neurons predict behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Pitkow, Xaq; Liu, Sheng; Angelaki, Dora E.; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Pouget, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Summary Single sensory neurons can be surprisingly predictive of behavior in discrimination tasks. We propose this is possible because sensory information extracted from neural populations is severely restricted, either by near-optimal decoding of a population with information-limiting correlations or suboptimal decoding that is blind to correlations. These have different consequences for choice correlations, the correlations between neural responses and behavioral choices. In the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei and the dorsal medial superior temporal area, we found that choice correlations during heading discrimination are consistent with near-optimal decoding of neuronal responses corrupted by information-limiting correlations. In the ventral intraparietal area, the choice correlations are also consistent with the presence of information-limiting correlations, but this area does not appear to influence behavior although the choice correlations are particularly large. These findings demonstrate how choice correlations can be used to assess the efficiency of the downstream read-out and detect the presence of information-limiting correlations. PMID:26182422

  18. What variables can influence clinical reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Ashoorion, Vahid; Liaghatdar, Mohammad Javad; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is one of the most important competencies that a physician should achieve. Many medical schools and licensing bodies try to predict it based on some general measures such as critical thinking, personality, and emotional intelligence. This study aimed at providing a model to design the relationship between the constructs. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine medical students participated in this study. A battery test devised that consist four parts: Clinical reasoning measures, personality NEO inventory, Bar-On EQ inventory, and California critical thinking questionnaire. All participants completed the tests. Correlation and multiple regression analysis consumed for data analysis. Results: There is low to moderate correlations between clinical reasoning and other variables. Emotional intelligence is the only variable that contributes clinical reasoning construct (r=0.17-0.34) (R2 chnage = 0.46, P Value = 0.000). Conclusion: Although, clinical reasoning can be considered as a kind of thinking, no significant correlation detected between it and other constructs. Emotional intelligence (and its subscales) is the only variable that can be used for clinical reasoning prediction. PMID:23853636

  19. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  20. Coevolution can reverse predator–prey cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Michael H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of Lotka–Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator–prey interactions, is that in predator–prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator–prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka–Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage–cholera, mink–muskrat, and gyrfalcon–rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator–prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator–prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689