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Sample records for rat forced swimming

  1. Right-but not left-paw use in female rats provides advantage in forced swim tests.

    PubMed

    Soyman, Efe; Tunckol, Elcin; Lacin, Emre; Canbeyli, Resit

    2015-10-15

    Left- and right-pawed adult female Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming on two consecutive days. Compared to the right-pawed group, left- pawed rats displayed significantly increased immobility from the first to the second swim test and remained significantly more immobile in the second swim test. Both groups performed similarly in spatial learning in the Morris water maze suggesting that left- pawed rats are differentially and specifically susceptible to depressogenic treatment. PMID:26213334

  2. Onion peel water extracts enhance immune status in forced swimming rat model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-A; Han, Sang-Jun; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Dong-Woo; Oh, Gi-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Onion peel contains a high concentration of quercetin and other flavonoids. In this study, the potential immune-enhancing effects of an onion peel water extract (OPE) supplement were investigated by the rat forced swimming test. OPE was prepared using hot water. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a pellet diet for 1 week and were then randomly divided into six groups: normal control (NC), forced swimming control (FSC), positive control (quercetin 20 mg/kg), and three groups administered 4, 20, or 100 mg/kg of OPE. Oral drug administration was conducted daily for 4 weeks. All rats, except those of NC group, were forced to swim in water and were considered exhausted when they failed to rise to the water surface to breathe within a 7-s period. Blood lymphocyte counts, immune organ weights, histopathological analysis, and serum interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-12 levels were determined. OPE-treated rats consumed more food and had an increased thymic cortex to medulla ratio than that observed in FSC group rats (P<0.05). The area of the white pulp in the spleens of OPE-treated group rats was increased compared with that in FSC group rats (P<0.05). Furthermore, blood lymphocyte numbers and IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12 concentrations were significantly higher in OPE-fed groups than in FSC group (P<0.05). These results suggest that an OPE supplement can improve the immune status by increasing the number of immune-related cells and specific cytokine levels. PMID:25628726

  3. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  4. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  5. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and neurochemical kinetics in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Cordero, Andrey; Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Cuenca-Berger, Patricia; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime

    2014-04-10

    Individual differences in the forced swimming test (FST) could be associated with differential temporal dynamics of gene expression and neurotransmitter activity. We tested juvenile male rats in the FST and classified the animals into those with low and high immobility according to the amount of immobility time recorded in FST. These groups and a control group which did not undergo the FST were sacrificed either 1, 6 or 24 h after the test. We analyzed the expression of the CRF, CRFR1, BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens as well as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA and glutamine in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. Animals with low immobility showed significant reductions of BDNF expression across time points in both the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens when compared with non-swim control. Moreover, rats with high immobility only showed a significant decrease of BDNF expression in the prefrontal cortex 6h after the FST. Regarding neurotransmitters, only accumbal dopamine turnover and hippocampal glutamate content showed an effect of individual differences (i.e. animals with low and high immobility), whereas nearly all parameters showed significant differences across time points. Correlational analyses suggest that immobility in the FST, probably reflecting despair, is related to prefrontal cortical BDNF and to the kinetics observed in several other neurochemical parameters. Taken together, our results suggest that individual differences observed in depression-like behavior can be associated not only with changes in the concentrations of key neurochemical factors but also with differential time courses of such factors. PMID:24518862

  6. Effect of Vitamin C on Male Fertility in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Stress

    PubMed Central

    BB, Ghongane; BB, Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. Recently, oxidative stress has become the focus of interest as a potential cause of male infertility. Normally, equilibrium exists between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant scavenging activities in the male reproductive organs. The ascorbic acid is a known antioxidant present in the testis with the precise role of protecting the latter from the oxidative damage. It also contributes to the support of spermatogensis at least in part through its capacity to maintain antioxidant in an active state. Materials and Methods: Group1: Normal Control animal received Distilled water, Group 2: Positive control (Only Stress), Group 3: Normal rats received an intermediate dose of Vitamin C (20mg/kg/day), Group 4: Stress + Low dose Vitamin C (10mg/kg/day), Group 5: Stress+ Intermediate dose Vitamin C (20mg/kg/day), Group 6: High dose Vitamin C (30mg/kg/day). On 16th day effect of stress on body weight, Reproductive organ weight, sperm parameters, and hormonal assay was studied. Results: In the present context, in stress group the sperm count, motility, testicular weight declined significantly. The intermediate dose and high dose of vitamin C showed significantly increased effect on the sperm count and motility. Conclusion: Various physiological changes produced force swimming indicates that swimming is an effective model for producing stress in albino rats. The results suggest that Vitamin C supplementation improves the stress induced reproductive infertility due to both their testosterone increase effect and their antioxidant effect. PMID:25177581

  7. (+)-Methamphetamine Increases Corticosterone in Plasma and BDNF in Brain More Than Forced Swim or Isolation in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    GRACE, CURTIS E.; SCHAEFER, TORI L.; HERRING, NICOLE R.; SKELTON, MATTHEW R.; McCREA, ANNE E.; VORHEES, CHARLES V.; WILLIAMS, MICHAEL T.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Methamphetamine (MA) administered on postnatal days (P) 11–15 (four times/day) results in increased corticosterone that overlaps the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP; P2–14) and leads to later learning and memory deficits. Elevated corticosterone during the SHRP results in neurotrophin changes and long-term effects on learning. We determined whether two known stressors could mimic the effects of MA [10 (mg/kg)/dose] administration in neonatal rats. Stressors were four 15-min sessions of forced swim or isolation (confinement in forced swim tubes without water). Saline and weighed-only controls were included and all five treatments were represented within each litter. Corticosterone in plasma and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in neostriatum and hippocampus were examined after one or four treatments on P11 or P15 (0.5, 1.75, 6.5, or 24 h after first dose). MA increased corticosterone and BDNF; forced swim and isolation also increased corticosterone, but to a lesser extent than MA, and neither stressor increased BDNF. NGF was unaffected by saline treatment, but there was a minor reduction in NGF in the forced swim group compared with the weighed-only group. The data show that MA is more potent at releasing corticosterone and increasing BDNF than short-term, repeated episodes of forced swim or isolation. The possible relationship between these changes and the long-term cognitive effects of developmental MA administration are discussed. PMID:17992688

  8. Effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction on exercise endurance capacity and oxidative stress in forced swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2009-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming rats. Rats fed on isocaloric diet were orally given 25 (TRF-25) and 50 (TRF-50) mg/kg of TRF, or 25 mg/kg D-alpha-tocopherol (T-25) whilst the control group received only the vehicle for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo swimming endurance tests, with measurements taken of various biochemical parameters, including blood glucose, lactate and urea nitrogen, glycogen, total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and protein carbonyl. Results showed that the TRF-treated animals (268.0 +/- 24.1 min for TRF-25 and 332.5 +/- 24.3 min for TRF-50) swam significantly longer than the control (135.5 +/- 32.9 min) and T-25-treated (154.1 +/- 36.4 min) animals, whereas there was no difference in the performance between the T-25 and control groups. The TRF-treated rats also showed significantly higher concentrations of liver glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as of muscle glycogen and SOD than the control and the T-25-treated animals, but lower levels in blood lactate, plasma and liver TBARS, and liver and muscle protein carbonyl. Taken together, these results suggest that TRF is able to improve the physiological condition and reduce the exercise-induced oxidative stress in forced swimming rats. PMID:19705143

  9. Rodent models of depression: forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Castagné, Vincent; Moser, Paul; Roux, Sylvain; Porsolt, Roger D

    2011-04-01

    The development of antidepressants requires simple rodent behavioral tests for initial screening before undertaking more complex preclinical tests and clinical evaluation. Presented in the unit are two widely used screening tests used for antidepressants, the forced swim (also termed behavioral despair) test in the rat and mouse, and the tail suspension test in the mouse. These tests have good predictive validity and allow rapid and economical detection of substances with potential antidepressant-like activity. The behavioral despair and the tail suspension tests are based on the same principle: measurement of the duration of immobility when rodents are exposed to an inescapable situation. The majority of clinically used antidepressants decrease the duration of immobility. Antidepressants also increase the latency to immobility, and this additional measure can increase the sensitivity of the behavioral despair test in the mouse for certain classes of antidepressant. Testing of new substances in the behavioral despair and tail suspension tests allows a simple assessment of their potential antidepressant activity by the measurement of their effect on immobility. PMID:21462162

  10. Prior cold water swim stress alters immobility in the forced swim test and associated activation of serotonergic neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Drugan, R C; Hibl, P T; Kelly, K J; Dady, K F; Hale, M W; Lowry, C A

    2013-12-01

    Prior adverse experience alters behavioral responses to subsequent stressors. For example, exposure to a brief swim increases immobility in a subsequent swim test 24h later. In order to determine if qualitative differences (e.g. 19°C versus 25°C) in an initial stressor (15-min swim) impact behavioral, physiological, and associated neural responses in a 5-min, 25°C swim test 24h later, rats were surgically implanted with biotelemetry devices 1 week prior to experimentation then randomly assigned to one of six conditions (Day 1 (15 min)/Day 2 (5 min)): (1) home cage (HC)/HC, (2) HC/25°C swim, (3) 19°C swim/HC, (4) 19°C swim/25°C swim, (5) 25°C swim/HC, (6) 25°C swim/25°C swim. Core body temperature (Tb) was measured on Days 1 and 2 using biotelemetry; behavior was measured on Day 2. Rats were transcardially perfused with fixative 2h following the onset of the swim on Day 2 for analysis of c-Fos expression in midbrain serotonergic neurons. Cold water (19°C) swim on Day 1 reduced Tb, compared to both 25°C swim and HC groups on Day 1, and, relative to rats exposed to HC conditions on Day 1, reduced the hypothermic response to the 25°C swim on Day 2. The 19°C swim on Day 1, relative to HC exposure on Day 1, increased immobility during the 5-min swim on Day 2. Also, 19°C swim, relative to HC conditions, on Day 1 reduced swim (25°C)-induced increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal and interfascicular parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus. These results suggest that exposure to a 5-min 19°C cold water swim, but not exposure to a 5-min 25°C swim alters physiological, behavioral and serotonergic responses to a subsequent stressor. PMID:23999122

  11. Effects of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and ACTH-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Kouhei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Miyaoka, Junya; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Asanuma, Masato; Sendo, Toshiaki; Gomita, Yutaka

    2009-07-01

    The dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole has clinically been proven to improve depression or treatment-resistant depression. However, the involvement of the dopamine receptor system on the effect of pramipexole on depression remains unclear. We examined the influence of pramipexole on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in normal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of dopamine receptors in this effect. Additionally, the mechanism by which pramipexole acts in this model was explored specifically in relation to the site of action through the use of microinjections into the intramedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Pramipexole (0.3-1 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. This effect was blocked by L-741,626, a D2 receptor antagonist, and nafadotride, a D3 receptor antagonist, in normal rats. Furthermore, infusions of pramipexole into the intranucleus accumbens, but not the medial prefrontal cortex, decreased the immobility of normal and ACTH-treated rats during the forced swim test. Taken together, the results of these experiments suggested that pramipexole, administered into the intranucleus accumbens rather than the medial prefrontal cortex, exerted an antidepressant-like effect on ACTH-treated rats via the dopaminergic system. The immobility-decreasing effect of pramipexole may be mediated by dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. PMID:19274453

  12. Changes in hippocampal gene expression by 7-nitroindazole in rats submitted to forced swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F R; Oliveira, A M; Dinarte, A R; Pinheiro, D G; Greene, L J; Silva, W A; Joca, S R; Guimarães, F S

    2012-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that has been related to the pathophysiology of major depression disorder. Increased plasma NO levels have been reported in depressed and suicidal patients. Inhibition of neuronial nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), on the other hand, induces antidepressant effects in clinical and pre-clinical trials. The mechanisms responsible for the antidepressant-like effects of nNOS inhibitors, however, are not completely understood. In this study, genomic and proteomic analyses were used to investigate the effects of the preferential nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) on changes in global gene and protein expression in the hippocampus of rats submitted to forced swimming test (FST). Chronic treatment (14 days, i.p.) with imipramine (15 mg/kg daily) or 7-NI (60 mg/kg daily) significantly reduced immobility in the FST. Saturation curves for Serial analysis of gene expression libraries showed that the hippocampus of animals submitted to FST presented a lower number of expressed genes compared to non-FST stressed groups. Imipramine, but not 7-NI, reverted this effect. GeneGo analyses revealed that genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis and survival controlled by HTR1A signaling and cytoskeleton remodeling controlled by Rho GTPases were significantly changed by FST. 7-NI prevented this effect. In addition, 7-NI treatment changed the expression of genes related to transcription in the cAMP response element-binding pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that changes in oxidative stress and neuroplastic processes could be involved in the antidepressant-like effects induced by nNOS inhibition. PMID:22142142

  13. Effect of intraperitoneal selenium administration on liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    PubMed

    Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel; Kilic, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    There are a few of studies examining how selenium, which is known to reduce oxidative damage in exercise, influences glucose metabolism and exhaustion in physical activity. The present study aims to examine how selenium administration affects liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study included 32 Sprague-Dawley type male rats, which were equally allocated to four groups: Group 1, general control; Group 2; selenium-supplemented control (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite); Group 3, swimming control; Group 4, selenium-supplemented swimming (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite). Liver tissue samples collected from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. From the tissue samples buried into paraffin, 5-µm cross-sections were obtained using a microtome, put on a microscope slide, and stained with PAS. Stained preparations were assessed using a Nikon Eclipse E400 light microscope. All images obtained with the light microscope were transferred to a PC and evaluated using Clemex PE 3.5 image analysis software. The highest liver glycogen levels were found in groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). The levels in group 4 were lower than those in groups 1 and 2 but higher than the levels in group 3 (p < 0.05). The lowest liver glycogen levels were obtained in group 3 (p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that liver glycogen levels that decrease in acute swimming exercise can be restored by selenium administration. It can be argued that physiological doses of selenium administration can contribute to performance. PMID:20340052

  14. The swim force as a body force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  15. Behavior in the forced swim test and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus in young rats after 2-week zinc deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Kan, Fumika; Kawamura, Mika; Oku, Naoto; Takeda, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal behavior in zinc deficiency and its cause are poorly understood. In the present paper, behavior in the forced swim test and neurochemical changes in the brain associated with its behavior were studied focused on abnormal corticosterone secretion in zinc deficiency. The effect of chronic corticosterone treatment was also studied. Immobility time in the forced swim test was increased in young rats fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks, as well as corticosterone (40mg/kg/dayx14 days)-treated control rats. The basal Ca(2+) levels in the hippocampus, which were determined by fluo-4FF, AM, were increased in both brain slices from zinc-deficient and corticosterone-treated rats. Serum glucose level was decreased in zinc deficiency and hippocampal glucose metabolism, which is determined by [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose uptake, was elevated. Hippocampal ATP level was not decreased, whereas, the concentrations of glutamate, GABA and glutamine in the hippocampus, unlike the whole brain, were decreased in zinc deficiency. However, the decrease in these amino acids was restored by adrenalectomy prior to zinc deficiency. These results suggest that glucose is insufficient for the synthesis of amino acids in the hippocampus of zinc-deficient rats. It is likely that the neurochemical and metabolic changes in the hippocampus, which may be associated with abnormal corticosterone secretion, is the base of abnormal behavior associated with neuropsychological symptoms in zinc deficiency. PMID:19463882

  16. Swimming-based pica in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that voluntary or forced running in activity wheels yields pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats (Nakajima, 2016; Nakajima and Katayama, 2014). The present study provides experimental evidence that a single 40-min session of swimming in water also generates pica in rats, while showering rats with water does not produce such behavior. Because kaolin intake has been regarded as a measure of nausea in rats, this finding suggests that swimming activity, as well as voluntary or forced running, induces nausea in rats. PMID:27370361

  17. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression. PMID:26154768

  18. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences. PMID:25988529

  19. Low-level laser therapy attenuates creatine kinase levels and apoptosis during forced swimming in rats.

    PubMed

    Sussai, Daniela Aparecida; Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de; Dourado, Doroty Mesquita; Belchior, Ana Carulina Guimarães; dos Reis, Filipe Abdalla; Pereira, Daniel Martins

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that high-intensity physical exercise can cause damage to skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle soreness, fatigue, inflammatory processes and cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) levels and cell apoptosis. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups: group 1 (control), resistance swimming; group 2 (LLLT), resistance swimming with LLLT. They were subjected to a single application of indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) laser immediately following the exercise for 40 s at an output power of 100 mW, wavelength 660 nm and 133.3 J/cm(2). The groups were subdivided according to sample collection time: 24 h and 48 h. CK was measured before and both 24 h and 48 h after the test. Samples of the gastrocnemius muscle were processed to determine the presence of apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. (There was a significant difference in CK levels between groups (P < 0.0001) as well as between the 24 h and 48 h levels in the control group, whereas there was no significant intra-group difference in the LLLT group at the same evaluation times. In the LLLT group there were 66.3 +/- 13.2 apoptotic cells after 24 h and 39.0 +/- 6.8 apoptotic cells after 48 h. The results suggest that LLLT influences the metabolic profile of animals subjected to fatigue by lowering serum levels of CK. This demonstrates that LLLT can act as a preventive tool against cell apoptosis experienced during high-intensity physical exercise. PMID:19554361

  20. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex and Betaine in the Forced Swimming Test in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Lee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Tae Hee; Shim, Insop

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and betaine (BT) on immobility and neurochemical change in the forced swimming test (FST) in the rat. LRC, BT or fluoxentine was administered intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats three times (1, 5 and 23.5 h) before the FST. To investigate antidepressant-like effect, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of rats. LRC (100 mg/kg) and BT (30, 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST. LRC (100 mg/kg) significantly increased both 5-HT and NE levels in the hypothalamus of rats exposed to FST. BT (100 mg/kg) significantly increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that improvement in the behavioral changes after LRC and BT administration may be mediated by elevation of 5-HT level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, indicating a possible antidepressant-like activity. The present results suggest that the efficacy of LRC and BT in an animal model of depression may provide anti-depressant effects in human, which remains to be determined. PMID:24009863

  1. Synergistic effect of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists and antidepressant drugs in the forced swimming test in rats.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Maj, Jerzy; Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-06-01

    In spite of intensive research, the problem of treating antidepressant-resistant depressive patients has not yet been solved. The authors previously reported that combined administration of imipramine and the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test in rats to a much greater extent than either treatment alone. The present paper investigates the possibility of synergistic interactions between three antidepressants (imipramine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine) with three uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists (amantadine, memantine and neramexane). Most combinations resulted in synergistic (hyperadditive) antidepressive-like effects in the forced swim test. Most interesting was the observation that fluoxetine, which was inactive when given alone, showed a positive effect when combined with amantadine (10 and 20 mg/kg), memantine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) or neramexane (2.5 and 5 mg/kg). The specificity of these observations is supported by control open field studies, which demonstrated no significant increase, or even a decrease in general locomotion after coadministration of the compounds. The present results suggest that the combination of traditional antidepressant drugs and NMDA receptor antagonists may produce enhanced antidepressive effects, and this is of particular relevance for antidepressant-resistant patients. PMID:12128003

  2. Repeated forced swim stress has additive effects in anxiety behavior and in cathecolamine levels of adult rats exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Habr, Soraya F; Macrini, Daclé J; Florio, Jorge C; Bernardi, Maria M

    2014-01-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM) is a type II pyrethroid insecticide that elicits autonomic and neuroendocrine responses that indicate high levels of stress, presumably caused by the neurotoxic effect of the insecticide. This study investigated the effect of DTM exposure (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and an additional stress induced in the forced swim test (FST) in behavioral tasks related to anxiety, serum corticosterone levels, and striatal neurotransmitter levels. Open field behavior and social interaction were evaluated after DTM administration (10 mg kg(-1), p.o). DTM per se reduced rearing frequency in the open field, but no alterations in locomotion frequency or immobility duration were detected. Stress increased immobility duration compared with non-stressed animals. DTM reduced social interaction and increased corticosterone levels, and these effects were enhanced in stressed animals. Mainly stress affected dopaminergic and serotoninergic activity. In anxiety behavior and in both neurotransmitters and metabolites levels it was observed an additive effect of stress in DTM treated rat data. These results indicate that DTM enhanced the anxiogenic responses and stress had an additive effect over the DTM stress. The neurochemical data did not indicate an interaction between stress and DTM exposure. The present results maybe important for implementing pyrethroid insecticide safety standards. PMID:25444720

  3. Effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylentetrazol-induced epileptic behaviors in infant and prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Loghman; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. Many reports have shown an interaction between morphine- and stress-induced behavioral changes in adult rats. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic behaviors was investigated in rat offspring to address effect of the interaction between morphine and stress. Pregnant rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, the rats were placed in 25 °C water on 17-19 days of pregnancy. In the morphine/saline group, the rats received morphine/saline on the same days. In the morphine/saline-stressed group, they were exposed to stress and received morphine/saline simultaneously. On postnatal day 15 (P15), blood samples were collected to determine corticosterone (COS) level. On P15 and P25, PTZ was injected to the rest of pups to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were individually observed. Latency of tonic-colonic seizures decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increasing in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15. Duration of tonic-colonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to stressed-morphine and control-saline rats on P15, but not P25. COS levels increased in stressed-saline group but decreased in control-morphine group compared to control-saline rats. Body weight was significantly higher in morphine groups than saline treated rats. Prenatal exposure to forced-swim stress potentiated PTZ-induced seizure in the offspring rats. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on body weight, COS levels, and epileptic behaviors. PMID:24464467

  4. Social isolation in adolescence alters behaviors in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests in female but not in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Suzie; Flashner, Bess; Chiu, Melissa; ver Hoeve, Elizabeth; Luz, Sandra; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2012-01-18

    Social interactions in rodents are rewarding and motivating and social isolation is aversive. Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of the social environment in adolescence has long-term effects on social interactions, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress reactivity. In previous work we showed that adolescent isolation produced increased reactivity to acute and to repeated stress in female rats, whereas lower corticosterone responses to acute stress and decreased anxiety-related behavior were noted in isolated males. These results indicate a sex specific impact on the effects of social stress in adolescence. However, little is known about whether social isolation impacts behaviors related to affect and whether it does so differently in male and female rats. The present study investigated the impact of adolescent social isolation from day 30-50 of age in male and female Sprague Dawley rats on behavior in the forced swim test at the end of adolescence and in adulthood and on behavior in the sucrose preference test in adulthood. Adult female rats that were isolated in adolescence exhibited increased climbing on the first and second day of the forced swim test and showed an increased preference for sucrose compared to adult females that were group-housed in adolescence. There were no effects in male rats. The results indicate that social isolation in adolescence produces a stable and active behavioral phenotype in adult female rats. PMID:21907226

  5. Tipepidine, a non-narcotic antitussive, exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats, which is known as a treatment-resistant depression model, and we studied the pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of tipepidine. Male Wistar rats (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study. Tipepidine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was blocked by a catecholamine-depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (300mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a serotonin-depleting agent, p-chlorophenylalanine. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was also blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02mg/kg, s.c.) and an adrenaline α2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.). In microdialysis technique, tipepidine (40mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular dopamine level of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats, and that the effect of tipepidine is mediated by the stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors and adrenaline α2 receptors. The results also suggest that an increase in the extracellular dopamine level in the NAc may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine in ACTH-treated rats. PMID:26738969

  6. Comparison of time-dependent effects of (+)-methamphetamine or forced swim on monoamines, corticosterone, glucose, creatine, and creatinine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Tang, Peter H; Skelton, Matthew R; Lucot, James P; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2008-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use is a worldwide problem. Abusers can have cognitive deficits, monoamine reductions, and altered magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings. Animal models have been used to investigate some of these effects, however many of these experiments have not examined the impact of MA on the stress response. For example, numerous studies have demonstrated (+)-MA-induced neurotoxicity and monoamine reductions, however the effects of MA on other markers that may play a role in neurotoxicity or cell energetics such as glucose, corticosterone, and/or creatine have received less attention. In this experiment, the effects of a neurotoxic regimen of (+)-MA (4 doses at 2 h intervals) on brain monoamines, neostriatal GFAP, plasma corticosterone, creatinine, and glucose, and brain and muscle creatine were evaluated 1, 7, 24, and 72 h after the first dose. In order to compare MA's effects with stress, animals were subjected to a forced swim test in a temporal pattern similar to MA administration [i.e., (30 min/session) 4 times at 2 h intervals]. Results MA increased corticosterone from 1–72 h with a peak 1 h after the first treatment, whereas glucose was only increased 1 h post-treatment. Neostriatal and hippocampal monoamines were decreased at 7, 24, and 72 h, with a concurrent increase in GFAP at 72 h. There was no effect of MA on regional brain creatine, however plasma creatinine was increased during the first 24 h and decreased by 72 h. As with MA treatment, forced swim increased corticosterone more than MA initially. Unlike MA, forced swim reduced creatine in the cerebellum with no change in other brain regions while plasma creatinine was decreased at 1 and 7 h. Glucose in plasma was decreased at 7 h. Conclusion Both MA and forced swim increase demand on energy substrates but in different ways, and MA has persistent effects on corticosterone that are not attributable to stress alone. PMID:18513404

  7. The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Qi; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Luo, Zhi-Pu; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2002-05-01

    The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg), similar to clinically effective antidepressant drug desipramine (5-10 mg/kg), significantly reduced response rate and efficiency ratio while at the same time increasing reinforcement rate. In the forced swimming test in mice, the plant extract (50 mg/kg), like the effect of desipramine (20 mg/kg), also elicited a significant reduction in the duration of immobility. A tendency to this phenomenon could be seen at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the plant extract, in the effective doses for the forced swimming test, had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice. These findings provide further support for the conclusion that M. officinalis extract possesses the antidepressant effect. PMID:11900767

  8. Mechanism of synergistic action following co-treatment with pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline in the forced swimming test in rats.

    PubMed

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of combined treatment of male Wistar rats with pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline in the forced swimming test. The obtained results showed that co-treatment with pramipexole (0.1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or sertraline (5 mg/kg) (in doses inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swimming test. Sulpiride (a dopamine D(2/3) receptor antagonist) and WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), either being ineffective in the forced swimming test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline. However, SCH 23390 (a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) only partly did not alter the effect of pramipexole given jointly with antidepressant drugs; on the other hand, S 33084 (a dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist) only partly decreased (in a statistically insignificant manner) that effect. Moreover, progesterone and BD 1047 (a sigma(1) receptor antagonist) counteracted the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of pramipexole and sertraline (but not pramipexole and fluoxetine). In that test, active behavior did not reflect the increases in general activity, since combined administration of pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline failed to enhance the locomotor activity of rats. None of the tested drugs (SCH 23390, sulpiride, S 33084, WAY 100635, BD 1047 and progesterone) - alone or in combination with pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline - changed locomotor activity. The results described in the present paper indicate that co-administration of pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline may induce a more pronounced antidepressive activity than does treatment with pramipexole alone, and that in addition to other mechanisms, dopamine D(2/3) and 5-HT(1A) receptors may contribute to the antidepressant-like activity of pramipexole and fluoxetine or sertraline in the forced swimming test in rats

  9. Effect of dielectrophoretic force on swimming bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Phu; Marcos

    2015-07-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been applied widely in bacterial manipulation such as separating, concentrating, and focusing. Previous studies primarily focused on the collective effects of DEP force on the bacterial population. However, the influence of DEP force on the swimming of a single bacterium had not been investigated. In this study, we present a model to analyze the effect of DEP force on a swimming helically flagellated bacterium, particularly on its swimming direction and velocity. We consider a simple DEP force that acts along the X-direction, and its strength as well as direction varies with the X- and Y-positions. Resistive force theory is employed to compute the hydrodynamic force on the bacterium's flagellar bundle, and the effects of both DEP force and rotational diffusion on the swimming of the bacterium are simultaneously taken into consideration using the Fokker-Planck equation. We show the mechanism of how DEP force alters the orientation and velocity of the bacterium. In most cases, the DEP force dominantly influences the orientation of the swimming bacterium; however, when the DEP force strongly varies along the Y-direction, the rotational diffusion is also responsible for determining the bacterium's reorientation. More interestingly, the variance of DEP force along the Y-direction causes the bacterium to experience a translational velocity perpendicular to its primary axis, and this phenomenon could be utilized to focus the bacteria. Finally, we show the feasibility of applying our findings to achieve bacterial focusing. PMID:25785901

  10. Cerebral metabolic changes in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming studied by ex vivo high resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Xia; Wang, Yaqiang; Gao, Hongchang; Pan, Wen-Ju; Xiang, Yun; Huang, Mingming; Lei, Hao

    2008-11-01

    Many previous in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have shown that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with perturbations of cerebral metabolism of neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, we investigated the changes of cerebral metabolism in a depression-like rat model of chronic forced swimming stress (CFSS). The aims are to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CFSS treatment, and to further establish the face and predictive validity of the CFSS model. The results showed that, relative to control, the CFSS rats had significantly reduced Glu, taurine and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels in the PFC, and significantly reduced N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) level, Glu level and Glu/GABA ratio in the hippocampus. Taking together, these results suggest that CFSS treatment can induce region-specific changes in the metabolism of Glu. The CFSS model might be used to study antidepressants specifically targeting the central glutamatergic system. PMID:18473166

  11. Forced swim test: What about females?

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Katerina; Mikail, Hudu G; Kafetzopoulos, Vasilios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Dalla, Christina

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies screening for novel antidepressants, male and female animals should be used. However, in a widely used antidepressant test, the forced swim test (FST), sex differences between males and females are not consistent. These discrepancies may discourage the inclusion of females in FST studies. In order to overcome this problem and provide a detailed insight regarding the use of female animals in the FST, we designed the following experiment and we performed a thorough analysis of the relevant literature. Male and female Wistar adult rats were subjected to the FST and sertraline was used as an antidepressant in two doses (10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 3 injections in 24 h). Rodents were subjected in the two FST sessions during all possible combinations of the estrous cycle stages. We found that females exhibited higher levels of immobility than males and this sex difference was alleviated following antidepressant treatment. Sertraline at both doses enhanced swimming in both sexes, but females appeared more responsive to lower sertraline doses regarding immobility levels. Surprisingly, the high sertraline dose enhanced climbing particularly in proestrous and diestrous. Marked sex differences were also observed in the frequency of head swinging, with females exhibiting lower counts than males. Conclusively, when screening for new antidepressants, it is recommended to use standard FST procedures and if possible to include females in all phases of the cycle. Using only one dose of an investigational drug in females in certain phases of the cycle could result to false negative results. PMID:25839894

  12. Water spray-induced grooming is negatively correlated with depressive behavior in the forced swimming test in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Noboru; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Masuda, Akira; Aou, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    Rodents show grooming, a typical self-care behavior, under stress and non-stress conditions. Previous studies revealed that grooming under stress conditions such as the open-field test (OFT) or the elevated plus-maze test (EPM) is associated with anxiety, but the roles of grooming under non-stress conditions are not well understood. Here, we examined spray-induced grooming as a model of grooming under a non-stress condition to investigate the relationship between this grooming and depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test, and we compared spray-induced grooming with OFT- and EPM-induced grooming. The main finding was that the duration of spray-induced grooming, but not that of OFT/EPM-induced grooming, was negatively correlated with the duration of immobility in the FST, an index of depression-like behavior. The results suggest that spray-induced grooming is functionally different from the grooming in the OFT and EPM and is related to reduction of depressive behavior. PMID:26586000

  13. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency Does Not Alter the Effects of Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment on Central Serotonin Turnover or Behavior in the Forced Swim Test in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lipton, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) for 30 d (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic

  15. Ultrasonic vocalizations during intermittent swim stress forecasts resilience in subsequent forced swim and spatial learning tests.

    PubMed

    Drugan, Robert C; Warner, Timothy A; Papallo, Tristan A; Castracane, Laura L; Stafford, Nathaniel P

    2014-02-01

    The examination of stress resilience has substantially increased in recent years. However, current paradigms require multiple behavioral procedures, which themselves may serve as secondary stressors. Therefore, a novel predictor of stress resilience is needed to advance the field. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been observed as a behavioral correlate of stress in various rodent species. It was recently reported that rats that emitted ultrasonic vocalizations during intermittent swim stress (ISS) later showed resilience when tested on an instrumental swim escape test. In the current study, we extend this earlier observation on two additional behavioral endpoints. Rats were subjected to ISS, and USVs were recorded. Twenty-four hours later, behavioral performance was evaluated in either the forced swim test or Morris water maze. Rats that emitted ultrasonic vocalizations were resilient to the effects of ISS as indicated by performance similar to controls on both measures. These results extend the original findings that ISS-induced USVs are associated with resilience and are related to subsequent aversively motivated behavior. Such a non-invasive forecast of stress responsivity will allow future work to utilize USVs to examine the neural correlates of initial stress resistance/resilience, thereby eliminating potential confounds of further behavioral testing. Future studies can utilize USVs to target potentially unappreciated neural systems to provide novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment-resistant depression. PMID:24475493

  16. Influence of acute or chronic administration of ovarian hormones on the effects of desipramine in the forced swim test in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aparna; Frazer, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Gender may influence antidepressant (AD) treatment outcome. In order to address this pre-clinically, the potential effects of ovarian hormones on AD treatment in ovariectomized female rats were investigated. Objectives In the first study, the effect of acute administration of estrogen and progesterone on the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine (DMI), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), was investigated in the forced swimming test (FST). In the second study, the effect of chronic administration of these hormones on the effects of chronically administered DMI was investigated. Results In the acute study, the hormones blocked the effects of DMI in the FST as demonstrated by the absence of either a reduction in immobility or an increase in climbing behavior in animals treated with DMI in combination with the hormones. Concentration-response experiments on hippocampal synaptosomes revealed no changes in the Km or Bmax for uptake of 3H-NE in hormone-treated rats. In the chronic study, the antidepressant-like effects of DMI in the FST were not blocked by chronic administration of hormones. Interestingly, the hormones affected the serum concentrations of DMI. These levels were significantly higher in animals receiving 10 or 15 mg/kg/day in hormone-treated rats as compared to those with placebo. Conclusions Acute administration of hormones blocked the effects of DMI (given three times over 24 h) in the FST. However, chronic administration of these hormones failed to block the effects of chronically administered DMI (at a dose that produces clinically relevant serum concentrations). PMID:24590054

  17. The anti-immobility effect of hyperoside on the forced swimming test in rats is mediated by the D2-like receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Juliana Schulte; Stolz, Eveline Dischkaln; Betti, Andresa Heemann; Stein, Ana Cristina; Schripsema, Jan; Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2011-03-01

    The crude extracts of HYPERICUM species native to South Brazil showed analgesic and antidepressant-like effects in rodents. The chemical characterization of these species revealed that they are rich in flavonoids and phloroglucinol derivatives. In the present study a detailed investigation was performed on the activities of hyperoside (HYP), a common flavonoid in the genus HYPERICUM. Hyperoside was obtained from the aerial parts of H. CAPRIFOLIATUM by chromatographic procedures. Mice treated with single doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p.) did not present signs of toxicity or weight loss. At 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p. the mice exploratory behavior in the open field test was reduced. At 20 mg/kg i. p. the pentobarbital sleeping time increased, but not the sleeping latency. No activity was found on the hot-plate (10 and 20 mg/kg i.p.) or in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (20 and 40 mg/kg p.o.). Nevertheless, an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in mice and rats was observed (HYP 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p. in mice; HYP 1.8 mg/kg/day p.o. in rats). The antidepressant-like effect in rats was prevented by the administration of sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.) a D2 antagonist. In conclusion, hyperoside was found to present a depressor effect on the central nervous system as well as an antidepressant-like effect in rodents which is, at least in part, mediated by the dopaminergic system. PMID:20945276

  18. Forced swim stress but not exogenous corticosterone could induce the reinstatement of extinguished morphine conditioned place preference in rats: involvement of glucocorticoid receptors in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sara; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Yazdi-Ravandi, Saeid; Hesam, Soghra; Azizi, Pegah; Razavi, Yasaman; Haghparast, Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Addiction is a common psychiatric disease and stress has an important role in the drug seeking and relapse behaviors. The involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the effects of stress on reward pathway is discussed in several studies. In this study, we tried to find out the involvement of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the BLA in stress-induced reinstatement of extinguished morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. The CPP paradigm was done in adult male Wistar rats weighing 220-320 g, and conditioning score and locomotor activity were recorded by Ethovision software. Animals received effective dose of morphine (5mg/kg) daily, during the 3-day conditioning phase. In extinction phase, rats were put in the CPP box for 30 min a day for 8 days. After extinction, animals were injected by corticosterone (10 m/kg) or exposed to forced swim stress (FSS) 10 min before subcutaneous administration of ineffective dose of morphine (0.5mg/kg) in order to reinstate the extinguished morphine-CPP. To block the glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA, after stereotaxic surgery and placing two cannulae in this area bilaterally, animals received GR antagonist mifepristone (RU38486; 0.3, 3 and 30 ng/0.3 μl DMSO per side) prior to exposure to FSS then each animal received ineffective dose of morphine (0.5mg/kg) as drug-induced reinstatement. The results revealed that physical stress (FSS) but not exogenous corticosterone can significantly induce reinstatement of extinguished morphine-CPP, and intra-BLA mifepristone prevents the stress-induced reinstatement. It can be proposed that stress partially exerts its effect on the reward pathway via glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA. PMID:24508237

  19. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  20. Chronic forced swim stress produces subsensitivity to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Peck, J A; Dilsaver, S C; McGee, M

    1991-03-01

    Twice daily injections of saline reduce the thermic response to nicotine in the rat. The authors hypothesized that this was due to the stress of twice-daily handling and injection. However, the injection of saline is not a classic stressor. The hypothesis that stress blunts thermic responsiveness to nicotine was, therefore, tested using a classic form of chronic inescapable stress. Rats (n = 12) were subjected to a 14-day, twice daily course of inescapable cold water swim stress using a repeated measures design. Thermic responsiveness of nicotine was measured at baseline and every 7 days thereafter for 49 days. The mean response to nicotine (1.0 mg/kg IP) differed significantly across time, F(7,88) = 10.6, p less than 0.0001. Mean thermic responsiveness (+/- SEM) decreased from -0.75 +/- 0.09 at baseline to -0.41 +/- 0.18 degrees C (54.7% of baseline) following 14 days of forced swim stress. This change was not significant. However, the thermic response to nicotine was -0.14 +/- 0.13 degrees C (p less than 0.05), +0.55 +/- 0.12 degrees C (p less than 0.05), and +0.04 +/- 0.11 degrees C (p less than 0.05) 7, 14, and 21 days following the discontinuation of forced swim stress. The mean response did not differ from baseline 28 days following the last session of forced swim stress. The data suggest that in the recovery phase the animals ceased to be sensitive to nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that a chronic stressor can produce subsensitivity to nicotine. PMID:2068187

  1. Estimating propulsive forces--sink or swim?

    PubMed

    Lauder, M A; Dabnichki, P

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of hydrodynamic force estimation in swimming as calculated by the quasi-static approach. To achieve this a full-scale mechanical arm was developed, built and tested. The mechanical arm, covered with a prosthetic shell and driven at the shoulder was used to simulate a single plane underwater rotation at four elbow configurations. A computer program controlled the shoulder movement to achieve a replicable angular velocity profile for each arm movement. A strain gauge system was used to directly measure the generated arm torque. Repeated trials were conducted at fixed elbow angles of 110 degrees, 135 degrees, 160 degrees and 180 degrees. All trials were filmed using a three-dimensional underwater set-up. Each trial was digitised at 25 Hz and the hydrodynamic drag force profile of the hand calculated using the quasi-static procedure. From these data, the estimated shoulder torque was calculated and compared to the direct measurement of shoulder torque from the mechanical arm. The results showed that the arm produced a repeatable movement through the water. The shoulder torque profiles using the direct measure (the arm) and the indirect measures (quasi-static approach) differed considerably. The quasi-static approach appears not to accurately reflect the hydrodynamic force profile generated by the arm movement in swimming. Furthermore, it seems that the swimmer's hand contribution is overstated in up to date studies. It is essential that the propulsive mechanisms in swimming be further investigated if factors underpinning an optimal technique are to be established. PMID:16045915

  2. Resistive force theory for sand swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Maladen, Ryan; Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We discuss a resistive force theoryfootnotetextMaladen et. al, Science, 325, 314, 2009 that predicts the ratio of forward speed to wave speed (wave efficiency, η) of the sandfish lizard as it swims in granular media of varying volume fraction φ using a sinusoidal traveling wave body motion. In experiment η 0.5 independent of φ and is intermediate between η 0.2 for low Re Newtonian fluid undulatory swimmers like nematodes and η 0.9 for undulatory locomotion on a deformable surface. To predict η in granular media, we developed a resistive force model which balances thrust and drag force over the animal profile. We approximate the drag forces by measuring the force on a cylinder (a ``segment'' of the sandfish) oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. The model correctly predicts that η is independent of φ because the ratio of thrust to drag is independent of φ. The thrust component of the drag force is relatively larger in granular media than in low Re fluids, which explains why η in frictional granular media is greater than in viscous fluids.

  3. Resistive force theory for sand swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Maladen, Ryan; Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We discuss a resistive force theory footnotetextMaladen et. al, Science, 325, 314, 2009 that predicts the ratio of forward speed to wave speed (wave efficiency, η) of the sandfish lizard as it swims in granular media of varying volume fraction φ using a sinusoidal traveling wave body motion. In experiment η 0.5 independent of φ and is intermediate between η 0.2 for low Re Newtonian fluid undulatory swimmers like nematodes and η 0.9 for undulatory locomotion on a deformable surface. To predict η in granular media, we developed a resistive force model which balances thrust and drag force over the animal profile. We approximate the drag forces by measuring the force on a cylinder (a ``segment'' of the sandfish) oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. The model correctly predicts that η is independent of φ because the ratio of thrust to drag is independent of φ. The thrust component of the drag force is relatively larger in granular media than in low Re fluids, which explains why η in frictional granular media is greater than in viscous fluids.

  4. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  5. Open-Space Forced Swim Model of Depression for Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Eric A.; Lin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes a simplified method for inducing a chronic depression-like state in mice that is based on the repeated open-space forced swim method for rats originally developed by Sun and Alkon (2003). The method consists of swimming mice daily in lukewarm water (32-34°C) in rat tub cages 24 × 43 × 23 cm w × h × l, for 15 min/day for 4 days, and thereafter once per week. This procedure produces a progressive decrease in distance swum and a concomitant increase in immobility (floating) in about 70 percent of the mice (Swiss Webster males), both of which persist unaltered for weeks and generalize to other tests of depression (tail suspension). The model has predictive, face and construct validity in that it is responsive to chronic antidepressants and coping responses but not to anxiolytics or antipsychotics, represents an inescapable stress that produces generalized passivity, and is accompanied by changes in neural activity and brain cell proliferation that are characteristic of depression and believed to contribute to the disorder. It is less effective in producing anhedonia than other models probably because it is less stressful. The model has a number of advantages over previous methods in that it utilizes very mild stress, is short in duration, is easily standardized, requires only a video camera and either a manual or automatic behavioral scoring system to measure immobility and distance swum, and can be readily used for time course studies of onset of drug action. Moreover, since it utilizes a greater swimming area than the traditional (Porsolt) method it can be used to study interactions of depressive behavior with behavioral flexibility and perseveration. Finally, its use of mice makes it readily amenable to genetic and molecular analyses. PMID:21207368

  6. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    2008-02-15

    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.

  7. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  8. Enhanced anti-immobility effects of Sanggenon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba combined with the α2-antagonist yohimbine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Lee, Changho; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether Sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of Morus alba, exhibited enhanced anti-immobility activity with the addition of the α2-antagonist yohimbine in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) treatment in rats reduced the immobility time, and pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of fluoxetine at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg. Similarly, Sanggenon G significantly decreased the immobility time, reducing immobility by a maximum of 43.9 % when treated at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of Sanggenon G at 5 and 10 mg/kg. Our findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of Sanggenon G could be facilitated by concomitant use of the α2-antagonist. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of Sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression. PMID:26899239

  9. Swimming exercise attenuates psychological dependence and voluntary methamphetamine consumption in methamphetamine withdrawn rats

    PubMed Central

    Damghani, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Fadaei, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study evaluated the effect of swimming exercise during spontaneous methamphetamine (METH) withdrawal on the anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and voluntary METH consumption in METH-dependent rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly administered with bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) over a period of 14 days. Exercised rats were submitted to swimming sessions (45 min/day, five days per week, for 14 days) during spontaneous METH-withdrawal. Then, all animals were tested for the assessment of anxiety by using the elevated plus-maze (EPM), the grooming behaviors (OCD), and depression using forced swimming test (FST) and voluntary METH consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm for the assessment of craving. Results: The results showed that the swimmer METH-withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries and a reduction of immobility and grooming behaviors compared with the sedentary METH groups. Also, voluntary METH consumption was less in the swimmer METH-withdrawn rats than the sedentary METH groups throughout 5–8 days. Conclusion: This study showed that regular swimming exercise reduced voluntary METH consumption in animal models of craving by reducing anxiety, OCD, and depression in the METH-withdrawn rats. Thus, physical training may be ameliorating some of the withdrawal behavioral consequences of METH. PMID:27482339

  10. Reversal of myo-inositol metabolic level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to forced swimming test following desipramine treatment: an in vivo localized (1)H-MRS study at 4.7 T.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Young; Choi, Chi-Bong; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Kim, Hwi-Yool; Hong, Kwan-Soo; Lee, Chul-Hyun; Choe, Bo-Young

    2010-12-01

    The forced swimming test (FST) is a useful paradigm that is relatively quick and simple to perform and has been utilized to predict antidepressant activity based on learned helplessness as a model of depression. To date, few studies have used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to assess antidepressant effects in rats. The purpose of this study was to assess desipramine (DMI) effects on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of the rats, which were randomly assigned to three groups (control, n=10; FST+saline, n=10; FST+DMI, n=10), using single-voxel localization technique. All (1)H-MRS experiments were performed on a Bruker 4.7-T scanner with 400 mm bore magnet, allowing for acquisition of in vivo (1)H point-resolved spectroscopy spectra (TR/TE=3000/30 ms, number of data points=2048, NEX=512, voxel volume=27 μl, scan time=25 min). Proton metabolites were quantified automatically using LCModel software and were expressed as ratios to total creatine (Cr+PCr). Major target metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), glutamate+glutamine (Glu+Gln), glycerophosphorylcholine+phosphorylcholine (GPC+PCho), myo-inositol (mIns) and taurine (Tau) were successfully quantified with Cramer-Rao lower boundary ≤10%. There were significantly higher mIns/(Cr+PCr) and mIns/(NAA+NAAG) ratios in the FST+saline group compared to the control group. In the FST+DMI group, both mIns/(Cr+PCr) and mIns/(NAA+NAAG) ratios were significantly decreased to the level similar to those in the control group. No other metabolite ratios were significantly different among the three groups. Our findings suggest a possible role of altered mIns level within the left DLPFC of the rat model for depression. PMID:20817439

  11. Swimming as a Model of Task-Specific Locomotor Retraining After Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, David S. K.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Brown, Edward H.; Enzmann, Gaby; Angeli, Claudia; Quesada, Peter M.; Burke, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Background The authors have shown that rats can be retrained to swim after a moderately severe thoracic spinal cord contusion. They also found that improvements in body position and hindlimb activity occurred rapidly over the first 2 weeks of training, reaching a plateau by week 4. Overground walking was not influenced by swim training, suggesting that swimming may be a task-specific model of locomotor retraining. Objective To provide a quantitative description of hindlimb movements of uninjured adult rats during swimming, and then after injury and retraining. Methods The authors used a novel and streamlined kinematic assessment of swimming in which each limb is described in 2 dimensions, as 3 segments and 2 angles. Results The kinematics of uninjured rats do not change over 4 weeks of daily swimming, suggesting that acclimatization does not involve refinements in hindlimb movement. After spinal cord injury, retraining involved increases in hindlimb excursion and improved limb position, but the velocity of the movements remained slow. Conclusion These data suggest that the activity pattern of swimming is hardwired in the rat spinal cord. After spinal cord injury, repetition is sufficient to bring about significant improvements in the pattern of hindlimb movement but does not improve the forces generated, leaving the animals with persistent deficits. These data support the concept that force (load) and pattern generation (recruitment) are independent and may have to be managed together with respect to postinjury rehabilitation. PMID:19270266

  12. A Forced Damped Oscillation Framework for Undulatory Swimming Provides New Insights into How Propulsion Arises in Active and Passive Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Griffith, Boyce E.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue in locomotion is to understand how muscle forcing produces apparently complex deformation kinematics leading to movement of animals like undulatory swimmers. The question of whether complicated muscle forcing is required to create the observed deformation kinematics is central to the understanding of how animals control movement. In this work, a forced damped oscillation framework is applied to a chain-link model for undulatory swimming to understand how forcing leads to deformation and movement. A unified understanding of swimming, caused by muscle contractions (“active” swimming) or by forces imparted by the surrounding fluid (“passive” swimming), is obtained. We show that the forcing triggers the first few deformation modes of the body, which in turn cause the translational motion. We show that relatively simple forcing patterns can trigger seemingly complex deformation kinematics that lead to movement. For given muscle activation, the forcing frequency relative to the natural frequency of the damped oscillator is important for the emergent deformation characteristics of the body. The proposed approach also leads to a qualitative understanding of optimal deformation kinematics for fast swimming. These results, based on a chain-link model of swimming, are confirmed by fully resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Prior results from the literature on the optimal value of stiffness for maximum speed are explained. PMID:23785272

  13. Orchiectomy modifies the antidepressant-like response of nicotine in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Limón-Morales, O; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that nicotine (NIC) exhibits antidepressant-like effects. In addition, it has been suggested that sexual hormones participate in the antidepressant actions of antidepressives. The present study was designed to analyze the effect of orchiectomy and the supplementation of testosterone propionate (TP) or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on the antidepressant properties of NIC using the forced swimming test (FST), as well as to determine possible changes in the FST during different time periods after orchiectomy. In order to evaluate the influences of orchiectomy on the effects of NIC, the study first evaluated the effects of different time periods on orchiectomized rats (15, 21, 30, 45 and 60 days) that were subjected to the FST. Then, different doses of NIC (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 mg/kg, sc) were administered for 14 days to both intact and orchiectomized rats (after 21 day) which were then also subjected to the FST. Finally, the influence of the TP or E(2) supplementation on the antidepressant-like effect of NIC on orchiectomized rats (after 21 days) was also analyzed. Results reveal that orchiectomy significantly increased immobility behavior and decreased swimming and climbing up to 60 days after castration. In contrast, NIC decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming in intact rats; whereas orchiectomy suppressed this antidepressant effect of NIC. Only with E(2) supplementation was it possible to restore the sensitivity of the castrated rats to NIC. These results suggest that E(2) was able to facilitate the antidepressant response of NIC in orchiectomized rats. PMID:20709090

  14. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development. PMID:12890550

  15. Intensity of swimming exercise influences aortic reactivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Brito, A.F.; Silva, A.S.; Souza, I.L.L.; Pereira, J.C.; da Silva, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is known to cause a vasodilatory response; however, the correlation between the vasorelaxant response and different training intensities has not been investigated. Therefore, this study evaluated the vascular reactivity and lipid peroxidation after different intensities of swimming exercise in rats. Male Wistar rats (aged 8 weeks; 250-300 g) underwent forced swimming for 1 h whilst tied to loads of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8% of their body weight, respectively (groups G3, G4, G5, G6 and G8, respectively; n=5 each). Immediately after the test, the aorta was removed and suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative relaxation in response to acetylcholine (10−12-10−4 M) and contraction in response to phenylephrine (10−12-10−5 M) were measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by determining malondialdehyde concentration. The percentages of aorta relaxation were significantly higher in G3 (7.9±0.20), G4 (7.8±0.29), and G5 (7.9±0.21), compared to the control group (7.2±0.04), while relaxation in the G6 (7.4±0.25) and G8 (7.0±0.06) groups was similar to the control group. In contrast, the percentage of contraction was significantly higher in G6 (8.8 ±0.1) and G8 (9.7±0.29) compared to the control (7.1±0.1), G3 (7.3±0.2), G4 (7.2±0.1) and G5 (7.2±0.2%) groups. Lipid peroxidation levels in the aorta were similar to control levels in G3, G4 and G5, but higher in G6 and G8, and significantly higher in G8 (one-way ANOVA). These results indicate a reduction in vasorelaxing activity and an increase in contractile activity in rat aortas after high-intensity exercise, followed by an increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:26397974

  16. Swimming-Induced Taste Aversion and Its Prevention by a Prior History of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2004-01-01

    In two experiments, the evidence showed that 20 min of forced swimming by rats caused aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. When one of two taste solutions (sodium saccharin or sodium chloride, counterbalanced across rats) was paired with swimming and the other was not, the rats' intakes of these two solutions showed less…

  17. The Relationship Between Propulsive Force in Tethered Swimming and 200-m Front Crawl Performance.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karini B; Bento, Paulo C B; Pereira, Gleber; Rodacki, André L F

    2016-09-01

    Santos, KB, Bento, PCB, Pereira, G, and Rodacki, ALF. The relationship between propulsive force in tethered swimming and 200-m front crawl performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2500-2507, 2016-The aims of this study were to determine whether propulsive force (peak force, mean force, impulse, and rate of force development) and stroke rate change during 2 minutes of front crawl tethered swimming and to correlate them with the stroke rate and swimming velocity in 200-m front crawl swimming. Twenty-one swimmers (21.6 ± 4.8 years, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, 71.7 ± 8.1 kg), with 200-m front crawl swimming performance equivalent to 78% of the world record (140.4 ± 10.1 seconds), were assessed during 2 minutes of maximal front crawl tethered swimming (propulsive forces and stroke rate) and 200-m front crawl swimming (stroke rate and clean velocity). Propulsive forces decreased between the beginning and the middle instants (∼20%; p ≤ 0.05) but remained stable between the middle and the end instants (∼6%; p > 0.05). The peak force was positively correlated with the clean velocity in the 200-m front crawl swimming (mean r = 0.61; p < 0.02). The stroke rates of the tethered swimming and 200-m front crawl swimming were positively correlated (r = 45; p≤ 0.01) at the middle instant. Therefore, the propulsive force and stroke rate changed throughout the 2 minutes of tethered swimming, and the peak force is the best propulsive force variable tested that correlated with 200-m front crawl swimming performance. PMID:24531436

  18. Drag force and jet propulsion investigation of a swimming squid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Mahdi; Bahadır Olcay, Ali; Gokçen, Gökhan; Heperkan, Hasan A.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, CAD model of a squid was obtained by taking computer tomography images of a real squid. The model later placed into a computational domain to calculate drag force and performance of jet propulsion. The drag study was performed on the CAD model so that drag force subjected to real squid was revealed at squid's different swimming speeds and comparison has been made with other underwater creatures (e.g., a dolphin, sea lion and penguin). The drag coefficient (referenced to total wetted surface area) of squid is 0.0042 at Reynolds number 1.6x106 that is a %4.5 difference from Gentoo penguin. Besides, jet flow of squid was simulated to observe the flow region generated in the 2D domain utilizing dynamic mesh method to mimic the movement of squid's mantle cavity.

  19. Antidepressant-like effect of centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive caramiphen in a forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Miki, Risa; Shima, Eriko; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2010-09-13

    Recently, we reported that a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive (cough suppressant drug), tipepidine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in rats. Because pharmacological properties of tipepidine apparently differ from those of typical antidepressants developed to date, we speculated that caramiphen, another centrally acting antitussive, has an antidepressant-like effect. That effect of caramiphen was studied in rats using the forced swimming test. Caramiphen at 20 and 40mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced immobility. At 40mg/kg i.p., it increased climbing behavior. Even at 40mg/kg, this drug had no effect on locomotor activity. Results suggest that a centrally acting antitussive possessing inhibition of GIRK channels has an antidepressant-like effect. PMID:20621160

  20. AMPA Receptor–mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang-Ti; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Jou, Ming-Jia; Wei, I-Hua; Huang, Chih-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR–mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights – A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian

  1. Swimming Activity Prevents the Unloading Induced Loss of Bone Mass, Architecture, and Strength in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Falcai, Maurício J.; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; de Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Volpon, Jose B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether swimming activity associated with a three-week period of hypoactivity could prevent the deleterious effects of disuse on the tibias of tail-suspended rats. Forty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (HS) permanently hindlimb suspension rats; (HS + Swim) rats submitted to unloading interrupted by swimming exercise; (HS + WB) hindlimb suspension rats with interruption for regular weight bearing for the same length of time as the HS+Swim rats; (Control) control rats that were allowed regular cage activities; and (Control + Swim) control rats that underwent swimming exercise. At the end of the experiment, bone mineral density, bone strength, and trabecular quantification were analyzed. The hindlimb-suspended rats exhibited bone quality loss (significant decrease in BMD, bone strength, and deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone architecture; decrease in BV/TV, TbN, TbTh, ConnD, CtV, and CtTh; and increase in TbSp) when compared to control rats. In contrast, trained rats showed a significant increase of 43% in bone mass, 29% in bone strength, 58% in trabecular thickness, 85% in bone volume, 27% in trabeculae number, and 30% in cortical volume, when compared to the hindlimb-suspended rats. We conclude that swimming activity not only ameliorates but also fully prevents the deleterious effects on bone quality in osteopenic rats. PMID:26090414

  2. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  3. Calcium metabolism in bone and teeth of rats during exposure to restriction of motor activity and to swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Charapakhin, K P; Kuznetsov, N A; Kakurin, V J

    1999-06-01

    The effects of motor activity restriction for 90 days (hypokinesia, HK) and swimming training (T) on calcium metabolism in rat bones and teeth were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: untrained vivarium control rats (UVCR), untrained hypokinetic rats (UHKR), trained hypokinetic rats (THKR) and trained vivarium control rats (TVCR). Hypokinesia was obtained keeping the animals for 90 days in small individual cages which restricted their movements in all directions without hindering food and water intakes. Rats of THKR and TVCR were forced to swim for 15 to 90 minutes everyday. On the 1st, 7th, 15th day of a prehypokinetic period and on the 5th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 60th and 90th day of the hypokinetic period, six rats of each group were decapitated. Radioactive calcium was injected to the animals 70 days before autopsy. Calcium and phosphorus in serum, bones (molars, incisors, upper and lower jaws, parietal, scapular, clavicle, pelvic and tibial bones) and in the respective ash residues were measured. Body and bone weights, and radioactive calcium were also determined. Under prolonged exposure to HK (THKR and UHKR groups), bone weights and bone and ash Ca and P concentrations decreased, whereas serum Ca and P and 45Ca resorption increased, in comparison to the respective values in the UVCR and TVCR groups. Swimming exercise apparently did not modify calcium metabolism in the hypokinetic or control rats. PMID:10517263

  4. Measurement of swimming force generation during flagella regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukich, John N.; Shaban, Mona; Clodfelter, Catherine; Bernd, Karen

    2007-11-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been at the forefront of many studies investigating the establishment and function of flagella in facilitating cellular motility. Previously we reported an intriguing pattern during flagella regeneration in which increases in force do not always correspond with increase in flagella length. That work made direct measurement of maximum flagellar swimming force by measuring the cell's ability to escape from an optical trap (optical tweezers). Here, we report on optimization and automation of the force measurement using power spectral density calibration of the trap and distance of periodic displacement from the trap center. This process yields an average value for the swimming force. The intriguing pattern described for maximum swimming force is also evident in the average swimming force data, suggesting that the phenomenon reflects a change in flagella functionality during regeneration.

  5. Role of serotonin 1A receptors in the median raphe nucleus on the behavioral consequences of forced swim stress.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P V G; Trovo, M C; Tokumoto, A M; Pereira, A C; Padovan, C M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the intense research on the neurobiology of stress, the role of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors still remains to be elucidated. In the hippocampus, post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors activation induces anxiolytic effects in animals previously exposed to stressful situations. However, little is known about somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors in the median raphe nucleus (MRN). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1A receptors located in the MRN in rats exposed to forced swim stress. After recovering from surgery, rats were forced to swim for 15 min in a cylinder. Intra-MRN injections of saline, 8-OH-DPAT (3 nmol/0.2 µL) and/or WAY-100635 (0.3 nmol/0.2 µL) were performed immediately before or after pre-exposure or 24 h later (immediately before test). Non-stressed rats received the same treatment 24 h or 10 min before test. Our data showed that 8-OH-DPAT increased latency to display immobility while decreasing time spent immobile in almost all experimental conditions. These effects were not prevented by previous treatment with WAY-100635. No effects of different treatments were described in non-stressed animals. Taken together, our data suggest that in addition to activation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT7 receptors may also be involved in the behavioural consequences of exposure to swim stress. PMID:24162801

  6. Automated analysis of antidepressants' effect in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Morozova, Maryana V; Kulikov, Viktor A; Kirichuk, Valeri S; Popova, Nina K

    2010-08-15

    The forced swim test (FST) is a commonly used procedure of preclinical screening of drugs for the antidepressant activity. It has high predictive validity for a large group of antidepressant drugs blocking serotonin and noradrenaline reuptakes and improvement of immobility time evaluation in the FST is an important problem of preclinical psychopharmacology. Here a new automated version of the FST was developed. This version includes 4 inventions: (1) transmitted lighting instead of reflected lighting, (2) mouse silhouette tracking, (3) automated choice of immobility threshold and (4) the permutation test of drug's effect. Experiment was carried out on adult males of C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mouse strains. The mice were treated with tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.). Mouse was placed in water tank, its movements were recorded by a rater and the silhouette alterations were automatically tracked. The sequence of silhouette alterations was scanned for immobility bouts with a threshold algorithm. Threshold was gradually altered and the value which maximized the difference between control and treated groups was chosen. The immobility values obtained with the procedure were compared with the permutation test. The data obtained with this procedure did not differ from those obtained by the rater. Imipramine dose dependently attenuated immobility time in C57BL/6 mice without any effect on BALB/c mice. The new procedure has been implemented in the EthoStudio software. It provides an objective automated evaluation of immobility time in the FST. PMID:20566352

  7. Differential severity of anxiogenic effects resulting from a brief swim or underwater trauma in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L T; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2012-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown a link between early-life adversity and severity of adulthood responses to a traumatic stress event (post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD). Despite a need for basic research, few rodent models are available to test the lasting impacts of early-life traumatic stressors. Underwater trauma (UWT) has been used previously to model traumatic stress; however, effects of this procedure have only been characterized in adulthood. Susceptibility of younger animals to physiological or psychological damage from a forced submersion procedure is unknown. A procedure involving swimming may be a stressful stimulus outside of the underwater component of the experience, as well. The acute effects of a 1-minute sham exposure (empty water tank), swim-only, and UWT (40s swim followed by 20s underwater) were compared in adolescent rats at postnatal day 37. No effects on blood oxygenation or lung tissue were observed. Stepwise decreases in open arm behavior were observed on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in swim-only rats, while UWT rats showed an immediate, lasting decrease in open arm behavior. UWT rats showed a significant decrease in basal corticosterone one week after trauma. These results show that while water immersion is a stressor, UWT causes a distinct syndrome of traumatic stress response in adolescent rats. PMID:22584043

  8. Biomechanical and structural parameters of tendons in rats subjected to swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, M A; Santos de Lira, K D; Coutinho, M P G; de Mesquita, G N; Novaes, K A; da Silva, R T B; de Brito Nascimento, A K; Inácio Teixeira, M F H B; Moraes, S R A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of swimming exercise, without overloading, on the biomechanical parameters of the calcaneal tendon of rats. 27 male Wistar rats (70 days) were distributed randomly into 2 groups, Control Group (CG; n=15) with restricted movements inside the cage and Swimming Group (SG; n=12), subjected to exercise training in a tank with a water temperature of 30±1°C, for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. All animals were kept in a reversed light/dark cycle of 12 h with access to food and water ad libitum. After that, they were anesthetized and had their calcaneus tendons collected from their left rear paws. The tendon was submitted to a mechanical test on a conventional test machine. From the stress vs. strain curve, the biomechanical data were analyzed. For the statistical analysis, the Student-T test was used (p<0.05). Of the variables examined, the maximum tension (p=0.009), maximum force (p=0.03), energy of deformation/tendon cross sectional area (p=0.017) and elastic modulus of the tendon (p=0.013) showed positive outcomes in SG. There was no difference in the other parameters. The results indicate that the swimming exercise training, without overloading, was an important stimulus for improving the biomechanical parameters and structural properties of the calcaneal tendon. PMID:23740340

  9. Biphasic response of cardiodynamic adaptations to swimming exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic Tosic, Jelica T; Jakovljevic, Vladimir Lj; Zivkovic, Vladimir V; Srejovic, Ivan M; Valdevit, Zoran J; Radovanovic, Dragan S; Djuric, Dragan M; Ahmetovic, Zlatko K; Peric, Dusan B; Cankovic, Marija B; Jovanovic, Maja S; Djordjevic, Dusica Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of research was to assess exercise-induced changes in mechanics of hearts isolated from rats, as well as time-course of those changes. Wistar rats (n = 42) were divided into control, moderately trained (swimming 1 hour, 5 days a week for 9 or 12 weeks) and strenuously trained (swimming 2, 3 and 4 times a day for an hour in weeks 10, 11 and 12, respectively) groups. After sacrificing, hearts (weight: 1480.82 ± 145.38 mg) were isolated and perfused on a Langendorff apparatus. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was gradually increased (from 40 to 120 cm H(2)O) in order to establish coronary autoregulation. Parameters of cardiac contractility were recorded: maximum and minimum rate of change of pressure in the left ventricle (dp/dt max and dp/dt min), systolic and diastolic left ventricular pressure (SLVP and DLVP), heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF). Nine weeks of moderate exercise induced slight depression of coronary function (decrease of dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP and DLVP), while 3 additional weeks of moderate training improved hearts function, but not to the extent that the strenuous training program did. The results of our study add evidence about beneficial effects of regular moderate exercise on heart, and furthermore, show that exercising frequently, if the intensity stays within moderate range, may not have detrimental effects on cardiodynamics. PMID:25816361

  10. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  11. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  12. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Methods: Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Conclusion: Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases. PMID:25152028

  13. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs. PMID:19010319

  14. Effect of swimming on the production of aldosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Chih-Yung; Wang, Paulus S; Jian, Cai-Yun; Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chen, Yi-An; Wang, Kai-Lee; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Guei-Jane; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the aldosterone secretion. Both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are shown to be correlated with aldosterone production during exercise, but the mechanism is still unclear. In an in vivo study, male rats were catheterized via right jugular vein (RJV), and divided into four groups namely water immersion, swimming, lactate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) and pyruvate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) groups. Each group was treated for 10 min. Blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min from RJV after administration. In an in vitro study, rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were challenged by lactate (1-10 mM) in the presence or absence of Ang II (10(-8) M) for 60 min. The levels of aldosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting assay. After exercise and lactate infusion, plasma levels of aldosterone and lactate were significantly higher than those in the control group. Swimming for 10 min significantly increased the plasma Ang II levels in male rats. Administration of lactate plus Ang II significantly increased aldosterone production and enhanced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in ZG cells. These results demonstrated that acute exercise led to the increase of both aldosterone and Ang II secretion, which is associated with lactate action on ZG cells and might be dependent on the activity of renin-angiotensin system. PMID:25289701

  15. Effect of Swimming on the Production of Aldosterone in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Paulus S.; Jian, Cai-Yun; Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chen, Yi-An; Wang, Kai-Lee; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Guei-Jane; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the aldosterone secretion. Both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are shown to be correlated with aldosterone production during exercise, but the mechanism is still unclear. In an in vivo study, male rats were catheterized via right jugular vein (RJV), and divided into four groups namely water immersion, swimming, lactate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) and pyruvate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) groups. Each group was treated for 10 min. Blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min from RJV after administration. In an in vitro study, rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were challenged by lactate (1–10 mM) in the presence or absence of Ang II (10−8 M) for 60 min. The levels of aldosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting assay. After exercise and lactate infusion, plasma levels of aldosterone and lactate were significantly higher than those in the control group. Swimming for 10 min significantly increased the plasma Ang II levels in male rats. Administration of lactate plus Ang II significantly increased aldosterone production and enhanced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in ZG cells. These results demonstrated that acute exercise led to the increase of both aldosterone and Ang II secretion, which is associated with lactate action on ZG cells and might be dependent on the activity of renin-angiotensin system. PMID:25289701

  16. Force-free swimming of a model helical flagellum in viscoelastic fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Powers, Thomas R.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    We precisely measure the force-free swimming speed of a rotating helix in viscous and viscoelastic fluids. The fluids are highly viscous to replicate the low Reynolds number environment of microorganisms. The helix, a macroscopic scale model for the bacterial flagellar filament, is rigid and rotated at a constant rate while simultaneously translated along its axis. By adjusting the translation speed to make the net hydrodynamic force vanish, we measure the force-free swimming speed as a function of helix rotation rate, helix geometry, and fluid properties. We compare our measurements of the force-free swimming speed of a helix in a high-molecular weight silicone oil with predictions for the swimming speed in a Newtonian fluid, calculated using slender-body theories and a boundary-element method. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment in the Newtonian case verifies the high accuracy of our experiments. For the viscoelastic fluid, we use a polymer solution of polyisobutylene dissolved in polybutene. This solution is a Boger fluid, a viscoselastic fluid with a shear-rate-independent viscosity. The elasticity is dominated by a single relaxation time. When the relaxation time is short compared to the rotation period, the viscoelastic swimming speed is close to the viscous swimming speed. As the relaxation time increases, the viscoelastic swimming speed increases relative to the viscous speed, reaching a peak when the relaxation time is comparable to the rotation period. As the relaxation time is further increased, the viscoelastic swimming speed decreases and eventually falls below the viscous swimming speed. PMID:22106263

  17. Swim therapy reduces mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction nerve injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Fox, Lyle E.; Cheng, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Neuropathic pain is common and often difficult to treat because it generally does not respond well to the currently available pain medications or nerve blocks. Recent studies in both humans and animals have suggested that exercise may induce a transient analgesia and reduce acute pain in normal healthy individuals. We examined whether swim therapy could alleviate neuropathic pain in rats. Design Rats were trained to swim over a two week period in warm water. After the rats were trained, neuropathic pain was induced by constricting the right sciatic nerve and regular swimming was resumed. The sensitivity of each hind paw was monitored using the Hargreaves test and von Frey test to evaluate the withdrawal response thresholds to heat and touch. Results The paw ipsilateral to the nerve ligation expressed pain-like behaviors including thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Regular swim therapy sessions significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Swim therapy had little effect on the withdrawal thresholds for the contralateral paw. In addition, swim therapy alone did not alter the thermal or mechanical thresholds of normal rats. Conclusions The results suggest that regular exercise, including swim therapy, may be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain caused by nerve injuries. This study, showing that swim therapy reduces neuropathic pain behavior in rats, provides a scientific rationale for clinicians to test the efficacy of exercise in the management of neuropathic pain. It may prove to be a safe and cost-effective therapy in a variety of neuropathic pain states. PMID:23438327

  18. Effect of acute imipramine administration on the pattern of forced swim-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Satoru; Motomura, Keisuke; Ohashi, Ayako; Hiraoka, Kentaro; Miura, Tomofumi; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-08-26

    The forced swim test (FST) has been widely used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressant drugs. Despite considerable differences in the protocol, equivalence of the FST for rats and mice has been rarely questioned. Previous research on the FST for rats revealed that repeated administration of antidepressant drugs attenuates the c-Fos response to swim stress in the hypothalamus and limbic regions. However, few studies have made similar investigations using the FST for mice. In the present study, we explored the mouse brain through immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos after acute administration of imipramine or saline with or without a subsequent swim session. Imipramine enhanced the c-Fos density in regions of the central extended amygdala, while forced swim stress increased c-Fos expression in some hypothalamic (the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus and dorsomedial nucleus) and brain stem regions, which is consistent with previous reports. In contrast to previous literature with rats, swim stress brought a significant increase in c-Fos expression in the lateral septal nucleus and some other regions in the hypothalamus (the intermediate hypothalamic area, the paraventricular and arcuate nucleus) only in the imipramine-pretreated group, which has not been observed previously. In the arcuate nucleus, double immunostaining revealed that c-Fos was rarely co-expressed with proopiomelanocortin or tyrosine hydroxylase regardless of imipramine treatment. The present results suggest that the activation of several regions in the lateral septum and the hypothalamus underlies antidepressant-like effect in the mouse FST. PMID:27373591

  19. Estimation of hand forces and propelling efficiency during front crawl swimming with hand paddles.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Vezos, Nikolaos; Kasimatis, Panagiotis; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Mavromatis, Giorgos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible modifications caused by hand paddles in the relative contribution of the lift and drag forces of the hand and in the propelling efficiency, during front crawl swimming. Eight female swimmers swam 25 m with maximal intensity without paddles, with small (116 cm(2)) and with large paddles (268 cm(2)). Four cameras operating at 60 Hz were used to record the images and the Ariel Performance Analysis System was used for the digitisation. The results showed that, although during swimming with hand paddles the hand's velocity decreased, the greater propulsive area of the hand paddle caused an increase in the drag, lift, resultant and effective forces of the hand. However, the relative contribution of lift and drag forces on swimming propulsion was not modified, nor was the direction of the resultant force. Hand paddles also increased the propelling efficiency, the stroke length and the swimming velocity, mainly because of the larger propulsive areas of the hand in comparison with free swimming. However, the significant decrease of the stroke rate, might argue the effectiveness of hand paddle training, particularly when large paddles are used in front crawl swimming. PMID:17706655

  20. A biomechanical review of the techniques used to estimate or measure resistive forces in swimming.

    PubMed

    Sacilotto, Gina B D; Ball, Nick; Mason, Bruce R

    2014-02-01

    Resistive or drag forces encountered during free swimming greatly influence the swim performance of elite competitive swimmers. The benefits in understanding the factors which affect the drag encountered will enhance performance within the sport. However, the current techniques used to experimentally measure or estimate drag values are questioned for their consistency, therefore limiting investigations in these factors. This paper aims to further understand how the resistive forces in swimming are measured and calculated. All techniques outlined demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses in the overall assessment of free swimming. By reviewing all techniques in this area, the reader should be able to select which one is best depending on what researchers want to gain from the testing. PMID:24676518

  1. Interactions between internal forces, body stiffness, and fluid environment in a neuromechanical model of lamprey swimming

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D.; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L.; Cohen, Avis H.; Fauci, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed. PMID:21037110

  2. Clarification of Unsteady Fluid Forces Acting on Limbs in Swimming Using an Underwater Robot Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Takahashi, Akemi

    The objective of this study was to clarify the unsteady characteristics of the fluid force acting on limbs during swimming. For this objective, an underwater robot arm, which has five degrees-of-freedom in order to perform the various complicated limb motions during swimming, was developed. In the previous study, an experiment to measure the unsteady fluid force was conducted for four swimming strokes of the upper and lower limbs. In this paper, the unsteady fluid force model was firstly formulated. Second, the simulation of experimental conditions was conducted. Two fluid force coefficients, which are the parameters in the fluid force model, were identified using optimizing calculation, so that the discrepancies of the forces and moments between the experiment and simulation were minimized. In addition, fluid force models which are dependant only on the limbs’ shapes were determined. Good agreement between the experiment and simulation with the determined fluid force model indicated the validity of the determined model. The identified fluid model will be useful for mechanical analyses of various swimming motions in future studies.

  3. Oxidative Stress Status and Placental Implications in Diabetic Rats Undergoing Swimming Exercise After Embryonic Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Ribeiro, Viviane Maria; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical exercise on fetal development during pregnancy remain unclear. The aim was to analyze maternal oxidative stress status and the placental morphometry to relate to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from diabetic female rats submitted to swimming program after embryonic implantation. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups (11 animals/group): control—nondiabetic sedentary rats, control exercised—nondiabetic exercised rats, diabetic—diabetic sedentary rats, and diabetic exercised—diabetic exercised rats. A swimming program was used as an exercise model. At the end of pregnancy, the maternal oxidative stress status, placental morphology, and fetal weight were analyzed. The swimming program was not efficient to reduce the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. This fact impaired placental development, resulting in altered blood flow and energy reserves, which contributed to a deficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen for the fetal development, leading to IUGR. PMID:25361551

  4. Simultaneous impairment of passive avoidance learning and nociception in rats following chronic swim stress

    PubMed Central

    Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Parsania, Shahrnaz; Golchin, Leila; Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Abareghi, Fatemeh; Kermani, Moein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress can alter response to nociception. Under certain circumstances stress enhances nociception, a phenomenon which is called stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). While nociception has been studied in this paradigm, possible alterations occurring in passive avoidance (PA) learning after exposing rats to this type of stress has not been studied before. Materials and Methods: In the current study, we evaluated the effect of chronic swim stress (FS) or sham swim (SS) on nociception in both spinal (tail-flick) and supraspinal (53.5°C hot-pate) levels. Furthermore, PA task was performed to see whether chronic swim stress changes PA learning or not. Mobility of rats and anxiety-like behavior were assessed using open-field test (OFT). Results: Supraspinal pain response was altered by swim stress (hot-plate test). PA learning was impaired by swim stress, rats in SS group did not show such impairments. Rats in the FS group showed increased mobility (rearing, velocity, total distant moved (TDM) and decreased anxiety-like behavior (time spent in center and grooming) compared to SS rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the simultaneous impairment of PA and nociception under chronic swim stress, whether this is simply a co-occurrence or not is of special interest. This finding may implicate a possible role for limbic structures, though this hypothesis should be studied by experimental lesions in different areas of rat brain to assess their possible role in the pathophysiology of SIH. PMID:27308265

  5. Effect of swimming exercise on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yong-In; Sone, Teruki; Ohnaru, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kensuke; Fukunaga, Masao

    2015-11-01

    Swimming is generally considered ineffective for increasing bone mass in humans, at least compared with weight-bearing sports. However, swimming exercise has sometimes been shown to have a strong positive effect on bone mass in small animals. This study investigated the effects of swimming on bone mass, strength, and microarchitecture in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX or sham operations were performed on 18-wk-old female Fisher 344 rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham sedentary (Sham-CON), sham swimming exercised (Sham-SWI), OVX sedentary (OVX-CON), and OVX swimming exercised (OVX-SWI). Rats in exercise groups performed swimming in a water bath for 60 min/day, 5 days/wk, for 12 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) in right femurs was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three-dimensional trabecular architecture at the distal femoral metaphysis was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Geometrical properties of diaphyseal cortical bone were evaluated in the midfemoral region using μCT. The biomechanical properties of femurs were analyzed using three-point bending. Femoral BMD was significantly decreased following ovariectomy. This change was suppressed by swimming. Trabecular bone thickness, number, and connectivity were decreased by ovariectomy, whereas structure model index (i.e., ratio of rod-like to plate-like trabeculae) increased. These changes were also suppressed by swimming exercise. Femurs displayed greater cortical width and maximum load in SWI groups than in CON groups. Together, these results demonstrate that swimming exercise drastically alleviated both OVX-induced decreases in bone mass and mechanical strength and the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture in rat models of osteoporosis. PMID:26338454

  6. Clarification of Unsteady Fluid Forces Acting on Limbs in Swimming Using an Underwater Robot Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Takahashi, Akemi

    The objective of this study was to clarify the unsteady characteristics of the fluid forces acting on limbs during swimming. For this objective, an underwater robot arm was developed in this paper. The robot arm has five degrees-of-freedom in order to perform the various complicated limb motions during swimming. In addition, by changing the hand replica into the foot one, the robot also can perform the lower limb motions. The joint torques and the resultant thrust can be measured by the force sensors attached to the robot. In a circulating water tank, an experiment to measure the fluid forces was conducted for four swimming strokes of the upper and lower limbs. From the experiment, it was found that even the slight difference of the fluid forces between slightly different swimming motions can be quantified by the developed experimental system. In addition, it was suggested that ‘nipping’ the water by both lower limbs during the kick of the breaststroke almost does not affect thrust generation. The developed experimental system with the robot arm is useful not only for measuring the unsteady fluid forces, but also for flow visualization in future studies.

  7. Variability in Measurement of Swimming Forces: A Meta-Analysis of Passive and Active Drag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havriluk, Rod

    2007-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify sources of true and error variance in measuring swimming drag force to draw valid conclusions about performance factor effects. Passive drag studies were grouped according to methodological differences: tow line in pool, tow line in flume, and carriage in tow tank. Active drag studies were grouped according to…

  8. Performance Level Differences in Swimming: A Meta-Analysis of Passive Drag Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havriluk, Rod

    2005-01-01

    The streamline is a basic position for competitive swimming starts mid turns and has been used in many studies on resistive forces. However, there is a wide yahweh, of theoretical interpretations in these studies, leading to diverse and questionable conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine performance level differences in the…

  9. Modulation of Different Phases of Formalin Test by Force Swim Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Azhdari-Zarmehri, Hassan; Mosavi, Faeze; Haghdoost-Yazdi, Hashem; Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The formalin test is the most accepted chemical test for evaluation of nociception. It requires the injection of an adequate amount of formalin into the surface of the hindpaw. Formalin test consists of phase 1 (0–7 min) and phase 2 (15–60) in which the animal shows painful behaviors. These phases are separated with a quiet phase named interphase, in which the nociceptive responses are decreased or completely disappeared. Methods: The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of swim stress at different heights of water on different phases of the formalin test in male rats. Results: Swim stress decreased nociceptive behaviors in first phase and prolonged interphase or delayed the start of second phase in a water height dependent manner. Swim stress in 25 and 50cm completely abolished the nociceptive behaviors in phase 1. Discussion: The present results showed different pain modulation during different phases of the formalin test and elucidated the impact of swim stress on duration of interphase. Interphase considered as an inactive period, but a recent research has shown that active inhibitory mechanisms are involved in the modulation of pain during this period. Therefore, swim stress may be considered as a useful tool for study of the basic inhibitory mechanisms underlying attenuation of nociceptive behaviors between phase 1 and 2 of the formalin test. PMID:27284395

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil during a forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Ko, Hsiang-Kai; Huang, Brian E T-G; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST. PMID:24651157

  11. Ventral tegmental area cholinergic mechanisms mediate behavioral responses in the forced swim test

    PubMed Central

    Addy, N.A.; Nunes, E.J.; Wickham, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed a causal link between ventral tegmental area (VTA) phasic dopamine (DA) activity and pro-depressive and antidepressant-like behavioral responses in rodent models of depression. Cholinergic activity in the VTA has been demonstrated to regulate phasic DA activity, but the role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in depression-related behavior is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA cholinergic activity altered behavioral responding in the forced swim test (FST) in rats. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats received systemic or VTA-specific administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (systemic; 0.06 or 0.125 mg/kg, intra-cranial; 1 or 2 μg/side), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24 μg/side), or the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30 μg/side), prior to the FST test session. In control experiments, locomotor activity was also examined following systemic and intra-cranial administration of cholinergic drugs. Physostigmine administration, either systemically or directly into the VTA, significantly increased immobility time in FST, whereas physostigmine infusion into a dorsal control site did not alter immobility time. In contrast, VTA infusion of either scopolamine or mecamylamine decreased immobility time, consistent with an antidepressant-like effect. Finally, the VTA physostigmine-induced increase in immobility was blocked by co-administration with scopolamine, but unaltered by co-administration with mecamylamine. These data show that enhancing VTA cholinergic tone and blocking VTA AChRs has opposing effects in FST. Together, the findings provide evidence for a role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in behavioral responses in FST. PMID:25865152

  12. Ventral tegmental area cholinergic mechanisms mediate behavioral responses in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Addy, N A; Nunes, E J; Wickham, R J

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies revealed a causal link between ventral tegmental area (VTA) phasic dopamine (DA) activity and pro-depressive and antidepressant-like behavioral responses in rodent models of depression. Cholinergic activity in the VTA has been demonstrated to regulate phasic DA activity, but the role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in depression-related behavior is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA cholinergic activity altered behavioral responding in the forced swim test (FST) in rats. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats received systemic or VTA-specific administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (systemic; 0.06 or 0.125mg/kg, intra-cranial; 1 or 2μg/side), the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antagonist scopolamine (2.4 or 24μg/side), or the nicotinic AChR antagonist mecamylamine (3 or 30μg/side), prior to the FST test session. In control experiments, locomotor activity was also examined following systemic and intra-cranial administration of cholinergic drugs. Physostigmine administration, either systemically or directly into the VTA, significantly increased immobility time in FST, whereas physostigmine infusion into a dorsal control site did not alter immobility time. In contrast, VTA infusion of either scopolamine or mecamylamine decreased immobility time, consistent with an antidepressant-like effect. Finally, the VTA physostigmine-induced increase in immobility was blocked by co-administration with scopolamine, but unaltered by co-administration with mecamylamine. These data show that enhancing VTA cholinergic tone and blocking VTA AChRs has opposing effects in FST. Together, the findings provide evidence for a role of VTA cholinergic mechanisms in behavioral responses in FST. PMID:25865152

  13. Effects of CoQ10 supplementation and swimming training on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Okudan, N; Revan, S; Balci, S S; Belviranli, M; Pepe, H; Gökbel, H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of swimming training and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. The study was carried out with 4-month-old young adult male Wistar rats. Sixty four rats were divided mainly into two groups: trained and control. Each group was further divided into four subgroups: rest, exhausted, rest with CoQ10, exhausted with CoQ10. The training program consisted of swimming one hour each day, five days a week, for six weeks. At the end of sixth week, rats in exhausted exercise group were forced to swim until exhaustion and then they were immediately sacrificed, while rats in rest group were sacrificed at rest. Training alone or in combination with CoQ10 supplementation reduced to increasing MDA levels due to exhaustive exercise in rat heart (p<0.05). The trained-rest with CoQ10 group showed lower 8-OHdG levels than the control-rest with CoQ10 group. Exhaustive exercise effect was significant on SOD activity. Exhaustive exercise increased GSH levels in control groups while decreased GSH levels in training groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that CoQ10 supplementation combined with training may inhibit lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in the heart tissue. Also, it can be said that SOD activity and GSH levels were not influenced by CoQ10 supplementation (Fig. 4, Tab. 1, Ref. 69). PMID:22794511

  14. Effects of neonatal exposure to paint thinner on the development of swimming in rats.

    PubMed

    Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Salas, M

    1980-01-01

    Rats were exposed to paint thinner twice a day for a period of 10 minutes on Days 1 through 30 of postnatal life. The subsequent effects upon physical development, swimming ability and escape latency from water were evaluated. Maturation of swimming behavior and general physical development were delayed about 2-4 days in the experimental animals compared with non-exposed littermate controls. The results of these experiments suggest that exposure to this organic solvent during the early postnatal period interferes with the development of the cortico-subcortical neural structures underlying swimming and locomotion. PMID:7442917

  15. Effects of crude oil and swimming behavior and survival in the rice rat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, J.L.; Esher, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Oil slicks in laboratory test chambers inhibited swimming behavior of rice rats, and reduced survival at low temperature. Predisposition to enter the water and swim was greatly reduced at both high (200 ml/m2 water surface) and low (20 ml/m2) concentrations of oil. Survival was significantly affected only at high concentrations. The results may be of value in predicting the impact of oil spills on the mammal community of coastal marshes.

  16. A vorticity-free approach to wake-based swimming/flying force estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, John O.; Peng, Jifeng

    2006-11-01

    Traditional wake-based analyses of animal swimming and flying depend largely on knowledge of the vorticity field, which can be difficult or impossible to incorporate in the context of unsteady fluid-structure interactions. This talk will describe the development and application of a technique for estimating swimming/flying forces that does not require measurement of the vorticity field. The method is based on the identification of Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the wake, whose dynamics are governed by the theory for deformable bodies in potential flow (Peng and Dabiri, J. Exp. Biol. 2007). This paradigm for the analysis of unsteady fluid-structure interactions is integrated with existing DPIV measurement techniques to analyze medusan (jellyfish) swimming and the dynamics of the bluegill sunfish pectoral fin.

  17. Effects of ginsenosides-Rb1 on exercise-induced oxidative stress in forced swimming mice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Bo; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Ouyang, Jiangqiong; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fleshy root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) is one of the most well-known and valued herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenosides are considered mainly responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ginsenoside-Rb1 (G-Rb1) on swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in male mice. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 animals were randomly divided into four groups, with twelve mice in each group. The first, second and third groups were designed as G-Rb1 treatment groups, got 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg bodyweight of G-Rb1, respectively. The fourth group was designed as the control group, got physiologic saline. The mice were intragastrically administered once daily for 4 weeks. The weight-loaded forced swimming test was conducted on the final day of experimentation. Then the exhaustive swimming time, blood lactate, serum creatine kinase (CK), malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes in liver of mice were measured. Results: The results showed that G-Rb1 could prolong the exhaustive swimming time and improve exercise endurance capacity of mice, as well as accelerate the clearance of blood lactate and decrease serum CK activities. Meanwhile, G-Rb1 could decrease MDA contents and increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities in liver of mice. Conclusions: The study suggested that G-Rb1 possessed protective effects on swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. PMID:25422546

  18. Skin-friction drag analysis from the forced convection modeling in simplified underwater swimming.

    PubMed

    Polidori, G; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Mai, T H; Lodini, A

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with skin-friction drag analysis in underwater swimming. Although lower than profile drag, skin-friction drag remains significant and is the second and only other contribution to total drag in the case of underwater swimming. The question arises whether varying the thermal gradient between the underwater swimmer and the pool water may modify the surface shear stress distribution and the resulting skin-friction drag acting on a swimmer's body. As far as the authors are aware, such a question has not previously been addressed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of this thermal gradient by using the integral formalism applied to the forced convection theory. From a simplified model in a range of pool temperatures (20-30 degrees C) it was demonstrated that, whatever the swimming speeds, a 5.3% reduction in the skin-friction drag would occur with increasing average boundary-layer temperature provided that the flow remained laminar. However, as the majority of the flow is actually turbulent, a turbulent flow analysis leads to the major conclusion that friction drag is a function of underwater speed, leading to a possible 1.5% reduction for fast swimming speeds above 1m/s. Furthermore, simple correlations between the surface shear stress and resulting skin-friction drag are derived in terms of the boundary-layer temperature, which may be readily used in underwater swimming situations. PMID:16153653

  19. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Mes, Daan; Kusters, Kasper; Roques, Jonathan A C; Flik, Gert; Kloet, Kees; Blonk, Robbert J W

    2014-01-01

    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (U opt in m s(-1) or body lengths s(-1), BL s(-1)) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at U opt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. U opt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145, 206, and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: (1) 0.70 m s(-1) or 4.83 BL s(-1), (2) 0.82 m s(-1) or 3.25 BL s(-1), and (3) 0.85 m s(-1) or 2.73 BL s(-1). Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of U opt (BL s(-1)) = 234.07(BL)(-0.779) (R (2) = 0.9909) was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s(-1) ("swimmers") or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow ("resters") in a newly designed 3600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor), were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n = 23) showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n = 23). As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR) for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31%) in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min(-1), respectively, under anesthesia). Thus, growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments. PMID:25620933

  20. Forced sustained swimming exercise at optimal speed enhances growth of juvenile yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    PubMed Central

    Palstra, Arjan P.; Mes, Daan; Kusters, Kasper; Roques, Jonathan A. C.; Flik, Gert; Kloet, Kees; Blonk, Robbert J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Swimming exercise at optimal speed may optimize growth performance of yellowtail kingfish in a recirculating aquaculture system. Therefore, optimal swimming speeds (Uopt in m s−1 or body lengths s−1, BL s−1) were assessed and then applied to determine the effects of long-term forced and sustained swimming at Uopt on growth performance of juvenile yellowtail kingfish. Uopt was quantified in Blazka-type swim-tunnels for 145, 206, and 311 mm juveniles resulting in values of: (1) 0.70 m s−1 or 4.83 BL s−1, (2) 0.82 m s−1 or 3.25 BL s−1, and (3) 0.85 m s−1 or 2.73 BL s−1. Combined with literature data from larger fish, a relation of Uopt (BL s−1) = 234.07(BL)−0.779 (R2 = 0.9909) was established for this species. Yellowtail kingfish, either forced to perform sustained swimming exercise at an optimal speed of 2.46 BL s−1 (“swimmers”) or allowed to perform spontaneous activity at low water flow (“resters”) in a newly designed 3600 L oval flume (with flow created by an impeller driven by an electric motor), were then compared. At the start of the experiment, ten fish were sampled representing the initial condition. After 18 days, swimmers (n = 23) showed a 92% greater increase in BL and 46% greater increase in BW as compared to resters (n = 23). As both groups were fed equal rations, feed conversion ratio (FCR) for swimmers was 1.21 vs. 1.74 for resters. Doppler ultrasound imaging showed a statistically significant higher blood flow (31%) in the ventral aorta of swimmers vs. resters (44 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 3 mL min−1, respectively, under anesthesia). Thus, growth performance can be rapidly improved by optimal swimming, without larger feed investments. PMID:25620933

  1. Long lasting increase in nociceptive threshold induced in mice by forced swimming: involvement of an endorphinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Suaudeau, C; Costentin, J

    2000-05-01

    Mice submitted to forced swimming session(s) displayed a long lasting modification in their nociceptive threshold, assessed through their jump latency from a hot plate (55 degrees C). Thus two forced swimming sessions (6 min each, 8h apart), in water at 33 degrees C, increased by about 50% the jump latency when the hot plate test was performed 14 hours, 3 days or 6 days thereafter. The water temperature (16 degrees C vs 33 degrees C) had no critical influence in this respect. To be clearly effective (at 33 degrees C) the swimming session had to be performed twice (when performed only once it was irregularly effective); it apparently culminated for a 6 min duration, since its effectiveness was not significantly increased by extending the swimming time to 12 min or 18 min. Performing 2 forced swimming sessions (6 min each, 8h apart), 5 consecutive days, resulted in a suppression of the increase in jump latency in the hot plate test. The two forced swimming episodes-induced analgesia was prevented by the s.c. administration of diazepam (from 0.125 mg/kg) or morphine (from 5 mg/kg) or scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before each forced swimming episode. Morphine (7.5 mg/kg) was uneffective to prevent the induction of two forced swimming episodes-induced analgesia when it was administered immediately after each forced swimming session. Finally this analgesia was dose dependently reversed by naloxone (ID(50) = 0.14 mg/kg, s.c., 30 min before the hot plate test). It is hypothesized that the handling of mice immediately before the hot plate test induces the remembrance of the stress induced by previous forced swimming episodes, triggering a fear reaction which increases the nociceptive threshold. PMID:10938583

  2. High molecular mass proteomics analyses of left ventricle from rats subjected to differential swimming training

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Regular exercises are commonly described as an important factor in health improvement, being directly related to contractile force development in cardiac cells. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG) and three training groups (TG’s), with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. In order to evaluate the links between swimming exercise intensity and cardiac adaptation by using high molecular mass proteomics, isogenic Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (CG) and three training groups (TG’s), with low, moderate and high intensity of exercises. Results Findings here reported demonstrated clear morphologic alterations, significant cellular injury and increased energy supplies at high exercise intensities. α-MyHC, as well proteins associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were shown to be improved. α-MyHC expression increase 1.2 fold in high intensity training group when compared with control group. α-MyHC was also evaluated by real-time PCR showing a clear expression correlation with protein synthesis data increase in 8.48 fold in high intensity training group. Other myofibrillar protein, troponin , appear only in high intensity group, corroborating the cellular injury data. High molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase, involved in metabolic pathways also demonstrate increase expression, respectily 1.5 and 1.3 fold, in response to high intensity exercise. Conclusions High intensity exercise demonstrated an increase expression in some high molecular masses myofibrilar proteins, α-MyHC and troponin. Furthermore this intensity also lead a significant increase of other high molecular masses proteins such as MRS2 and NADH dehydrogenase in comparison to low and moderate intensities. However, high intensity exercise also represented a

  3. Swimming and running through sand: resistive force theory in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Resistive force theory (RFT) is often used to analyze the movement of microscopic organisms swimming in fluids. In RFT, a body is partitioned into infinitesimal segments, each of which generates thrust and experiences drag. Linear superposition of forces from elements over the body allows prediction of swimming kinematics and kinetics. While RFT does not always show quantitative agreement with experimental measurements in fluids [e.g. Rodenborn et al., PNAS, 2013], we show that it quantitatively models the locomotion of animals and robots that move on and within dry granular media. RFT shows excellent agreement when the medium is slightly polydisperse, in the regime where frictional forces dominate material inertial forces, and when locomotion can be approximated as confined to a plane. Within a given plane (horizontal or vertical) relationships that govern the force versus orientation of an elemental intruder are functionally independent of the granular medium. We use RFT to explain features of locomotion-these include muscle activation patterns during sand-swimming by the sandfish lizard and optimum limb shape for legged robot walking. Work supported by NSF and ARL.

  4. A sensitive and reliable test instrument to assess swimming in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Åkesson, Elisabet; Holmberg, Lena; Sundström, Erik

    2015-09-15

    For clinical translation of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) research, evaluation of animal SCI models should include several sensorimotor functions. Validated and reliable assessment tools should be applicable to a wide range of injury severity. The BBB scale is the most widely used test instrument, but similar to most others it is used to assess open field ambulation. We have developed an assessment tool for swimming in rats with SCI, with high discriminative power and sensitivity to functional recovery after mild and severe injuries, without need for advanced test equipment. We studied various parameters of swimming in four groups of rats with thoracic SCI of different severity and a control group, for 8 weeks after surgery. Six parameters were combined in a multiple item scale, the Karolinska Institutet Swim Assessment Tool (KSAT). KSAT scores for all SCI groups showed consistent functional improvement after injury, and significant differences between the five experimental groups. The internal consistency, the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability were very high. The KSAT score was highly correlated to the cross-section area of white matter spared at the injury epicenter. Importantly, even after 8 weeks of recovery the KSAT score reliably discriminated normal animals from those inflicted by the mildest injury, and also displayed the recovery of the most severely injured rats. We conclude that this swim scale is an efficient and reliable tool to assess motor activity during swimming, and an important addition to the methods available for evaluating rat models of SCI. PMID:25986406

  5. Administration of orexin receptor 1 antagonist into the rostral ventromedial medulla increased swim stress-induced antinociception in rat

    PubMed Central

    Soliemani, Neda; Moslem, Alireza; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Azhdari-Zarmehri, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Intracerebroventricular injection of orexin-A (hypocretin-1) antagonist has been shown to inhibit stress-induced analgesia. However the locations of central sites that may mediate these effects have not been totally demonstrated. This study was performed to investigate the role of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) orexin receptor 1 in stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Materials and Methods: Forced swim stress in water was employed to adult male rats (200-250 g). Nociceptive responses were measured by formalin test (50 µl injection of formalin 2% subcutaneously into hind paw) and, pain related behaviors were monitored for 90 min following intra-microinjection of SB-334867 (orexin receptor 1 antagonist) into RVM. Results: Exposure to swimming stress test after administration of SB-334867 into RVM significantly reduces the formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in phase1, interphase, and phase 2 in rats. Conclusion: The result demonstrated the involvement of OXR1 in antinociceptive behaviors induced by swim stress in RVM. PMID:27403261

  6. Using Magnetic Forces to Probe the Gravi-response of Swimming Paramecium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    Paramecium Caudatum, a single celled ciliate, alters its swimming behavior when subjected to different gravity environments (e.g. centrifugation and micro-gravity). To dissect the mechanisms behind this gravi-response and that of other biological systems, we are developing the use of magnetic body forces as a means of creating a rapidly tunable, simulated variable gravity environment. Since biological materials are weakly diamagnetic, we must subject them to intense inhomogeneous magnetic fields with characteristic field-field gradient products on the order of 16 T^2/cm. We will describe experiments on Paramecium Caudatum in which we adjust their net buoyancy with magnetic forces and measure the resulting changes in their swimming behavior.

  7. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercise on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Unsal, Cengiz; Uner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Cömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  8. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Swimming Exercise on Rats with Experimental Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Ünsal, Cengiz; Üner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Çömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  9. Post-activation Potentiation in Propulsive Force after Specific Swimming Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A C; Barroso, R; Andries, O

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether a conditioning activity (8×12.5 m with 2.5 min-interval using both hand paddles and parachute) induced post-activation potentiation in swimming propulsive force and whether a swimmer's force level affected a post-activation potentiation response. 8 competitive swimmers (5 males and 3 females, age: 18.4±1.3 years; IPS=796±56) performed a 10 s maximum tethered swimming test 8 and 4 min before (the highest value was considered as PRE), and 2.5 and 6.5 min after (POST1 and POST2, respectively) the conditioning activity. Rate of force development was not affected, but peak force in POST1 (p=0.02) and impulse in both POST1 (p=0.007) and POST2 (p=0.004) were reduced. Possibly the conditioning activity induced greater fatigue than post-activation potentiation benefits. For instance, the number of repetitions might have been excessive, and rest intervals between the conditioning activity and POST1 and POST2 were possibly too short. There were positive correlations between PRE peak force and changes in peak force and rate of force development. Although conditioning activity was detrimental, positive correlations suggest that weaker swimmers experience a deterioration of performance more than the stronger ones. This conditioning activity is not recommended for swimmers with the current competitive level before a competitive event. PMID:26667922

  10. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848

  11. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, E R; Molendijk, M L

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848

  12. Acute effect of front crawl sprint resisted swimming on the propulsive forces of the hand.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Aggeloussis, Nikolaos; Mavridis, Georgios; Boli, Alexia; Kasimatis, Panagiotis; Vezos, Nikolaos; Toubekis, Argyris; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Mavrommatis, Georgios

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of sprint resisted front crawl swimming on the propulsive forces of the hand. Eight female swimmers swam 25 m with maximal intensity, with and without added resistance. A bowl with a capacity of 2.2, 4 and 6 L was used as low, moderate and high added resistance, respectively. The underwater motion of the swimmer's right hand was recorded using 4 cameras (60 Hz) and the digitization was undertaken using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that the velocity of the hand, the pitch and the sweepback angles of the hand, as well as the magnitude and the relative contribution of the drag and lift forces were not significantly modified and thus the magnitude of the resultant force did not change. Moreover, the magnitude of the effective force, as well as the angle formed between the resultant force and the axis of the swimming propulsion were not significantly affected. Thus, it could be concluded that resistance added as in this study did not alter the pattern of the propulsive hand forces associated with front crawl sprinting. PMID:22813753

  13. Hesperidin associated with continuous and interval swimming improved biochemical and oxidative biomarkers in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Citrus flavonoids, such as hesperidin, have shown therapeutic properties that improve hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and decrease blood serum lipids and inflammation. The current investigation studied the effects of hesperidin supplementation associated with continuous and interval swimming on the biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), and oxidative stress markers (TBARS and DPPH) in rats. Methods The animals (n = 60) were randomly divided in six groups: negative (C) and positive control (CH) for hesperidin supplementation, and continuous or interval swimming without (CS and IS) or with hesperidin supplementation (CSH and ISH). Hesperidin was given by gavage for four weeks (100 mg/kg body mass) before the exercise. Continuous swimming was performed for 50 min with loads from 5% to 8 % of body weight from the first to fourth week, while interval swimming training was performed for 50 min in sessions of 1 min of swimming followed by 2 min of resting, carrying loads from 10% to 15, 20 and 25% from the first to fourth week. At the end of the experiment, blood serum samples were draw to perform analysis of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglycerides. Oxidative biomarkers were evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and antioxidant capacity assay (DPPH) of the blood serum. Results There was a continuous decline of serum glucose from C (100%) > CH (97%) > CS (94%) > CSH (91%, p < .05), IS (87%, p < .05) > ISH (80%, p < .05), showing a combined beneficial effect of hesperidin and swimming. Also, continuous or intermittent swimming with hesperidin supplementation lowered total cholesterol (-16%, p < .05), LDL-C (-50%, p < 0.05) and triglycerides (-19%, p < 0.05), and increased HDL-C (48%, p < .05). Furthermore, hesperidin enhanced the antioxidant capacity on the continuous swimming group (183%, p < .05) and lowered the lipid peroxidation on the interval swimming

  14. Granular resistive force theory explains the neuromechanical phase lag during sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Sharpe, Sarah; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Undulatory locomotion is a common gait used by a diversity of animals in a range of environments. This mode of locomotion is characterized by the propagation of a traveling wave of body bending, which propels the animal in the opposite direction of the wave. Previous studies of undulatory locomotion in fluids, on land, and even within sand revealed that the wave of muscle activation progresses faster than the traveling wave of curvature. This leads to an increasing phase lag between activation and curvature at more posterior segments, known as the neuromechanical phase lag. In this study, we compare biological measurements of phase lag during the sand-swimming of the sandfish lizard to predictions of a simple model of undulatory swimming that consists of prescribed kinematics and granular resistive forces. The neuromechanical phase lag measured using electromyography (EMG) quantitatively matches the predicted phase lag between the local body curvature and torque exerted by granular resistive forces. Two effects are responsible for the phase lag in this system: the yaw motion of the body and different integration length over a traveling force pattern for different positions along the body.

  15. Effect of crocin on oxidative stress in recovery from single bout of swimming exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Altinoz, Eyup; Ozmen, Tarık; Oner, Zulal; Elbe, Hulya; Erdemli, Mehmet E; Bag, Harika G

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise could cause muscle and tissue damage due to increase in the formation of free oxygen radicals during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of crocin on parameters associated with oxidative stress in recovery from acute swimming exercise in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups; Normal Control (NC: untreated and did not swim), Crocin Control (CC: received crocin and did not swim), Exercise-1 (Exe-1: untreated and swam), Exercise-24 (Exe-24: untreated and swam), Exercise-48 (Exe-48: untreated and swam), Exercise+Crocin-1 (Exe-Cro-1: received crocin and swam), Exercise+Crocin-24 (Exe-Cro-24: received crocin and swam), Exercise+Crocin-48 (Exe-Cro-48: received crocin and swam). AST, ALP, LDH, CK, XO enzymes levels increased after swimming in untreated and crocin-treated groups, but there was a less increase in crocin-treated groups. The highest MDA levels in serum were determined in Exe-1 compared with all other groups. There was significant difference between control and exercise groups in MDA level (p = 0.033). In contrast, there was significant difference between control and exercise groups in GSH level (p < 0.001). In addition, crocin given to swimming rats significantly increased GSH levels (p < 0.05) and decreased MDA levels when compared with untreated exercise groups. In conclusion, crocin is able to protect liver and skeletal muscle tissue against exercise-induced oxidative damage by preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:26001290

  16. Effects of rotational side preferences on immobile behavior of normal mice in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that side preferences in spontaneous rotational behavior are determinant of differences in vulnerability to the effects of the learned helplessness paradigm. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of side preferences of rotational behavior in another animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Immobility was also investigated upon repeated testing sessions and in interaction with sex. Swiss mice (69 males and 73 females) were submitted to three sessions (test time = 5 min) of forced swimming. Immobile and turning behaviors were measured for each session and within each testing session. Consistency of laterality was defined considering the persistence of the same side turning preference in the three sessions. In general, there was an increase in immobility as test progressed and upon repeated testing sessions. Marked interindividual differences in mice immobile behavior were observed when consistency of laterality was considered. Consistent-right-turners presented greater immobility in the first session and better test-retest reliability, indicating that for this group, the adoption of immobile behavior was faster and more reliable over time. Immobility was higher for side-consistent males than for side-consistent females in the first session. This difference became even greater when consistent-right-turner males were compared to consistent-left-turner females. These results reinforce the idea that side preferences of spontaneous rotational behavior may account for interindividual differences in animal models of depression. PMID:11853109

  17. Effect of swimming session duration and repetition on metabolic markers in rats.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Barros, M M; Farias-Silva, E; Grassi-Kassisse, D M; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of metabolites in male rats subjected to 50-60 min of swimming on three protocols: group A, a single 50 min swimming session; group B, one session a day for three days (5 min on day 1, 15 min on day 2 and 30 min on day 3); and group C, one session a day for 5 days, with increasing duration from 5 min on day 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min on consecutive days. The interval between sessions was 24 h. Measurements were made after the last swimming session. Controls did not swim. The glycogen content of liver and gastrocnemius and soleus muscle was depleted in the three groups that swam, but blood glucose concentration was significantly increased only in group B. Serum lactate concentrations were greater than the controls in groups A and B. There were significant increases in serum free fatty acid concentrations in all groups that swam. The increases in plasma free fatty acids may have resulted from lipolysis stimulated by endogenous catecholamines in groups A and C, since basal lipolysis measured in vitro was unchanged by swimming. The large increase in basal lipolysis in group B may have contributed to the rise in plasma free fatty acids. Adipocytes from rats in groups A and B were supersensitive to epinephrine, whereas those from group C were not. We conclude that the metabolic alterations were less pronounced after the last of five swimming sessions over 5 days than after a single session, even though session duration and the contribution of the physical component were similar. Glucose mobilization, but probably not utilization, was similar in the three groups that swam. The mechanisms of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue differed, depending on the stress paradigm. The metabolic changes in groups A and B indicated that three daily swimming sessions were insufficient to cause adaptation. The results contrast with previous findings for foot-shock stress, which leads to sensitization rather than adaptation in response

  18. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  19. Prior swimming exercise favors muscle recovery in adult female rats after joint immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Ana Claudia; Ramos, Douglas Massoni; Gomes de Oliveira, Luana; Alberto da Silva, Carlos; Pertille, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise on immobilization and subsequent recovery of white gastrocnemius (WG) and soleus (SOL) muscles of female rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty, 8-month-old, female Wistar rats were randomly and evenly allocated to six groups: sedentary (S); immobilized sedentary (IS); immobilized/rehabilitated sedentary (IRS); trained (T); immobilized trained (IT); and immobilized/rehabilitated trained (IRT). For four months, T, IT and IRT group animals performed swimming exercise (three sessions per week, 60 minutes per session), while S, IS and IRS groups animals remained housed in cages. After this period, the left hindlimb of the animals from the IS, IRS, IT and IRT groups was immobilized for five days, with the ankle at 90°. After removal of the orthosis, animals from the IRS and IRT groups followed a rehabilitation program based on swimming (five sessions per week, 60 minutes per session) for two weeks. [Results] Immobilization significantly reduced the cross-sectional area of the white gastrocnemius muscle; no changes were observed in the soleus muscles of the trained animals. Transforming growth factor-β1 protein levels were similar among the trained groups. [Conclusion] Prior swimming prevents hypotrophy of the soleus muscle after immobilization, and protein levels reflected the adaptive capacity of the skeletal muscle. PMID:27512267

  20. Enhancement of the anti-immobility action of antidepressants by risperidone in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of antidepressants (ADs) belonging to different pharmacological groups and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. The antidepressants: citalopram, fluvoxamine, sertraline, reboxetine, milnacipran (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Co-treatment with reboxetine or milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a lower dose of 0.05 mg/kg or with sertraline, reboxetine (5 and 10 mg/kg), citalopram, fluvoxamine, milnacipran (10 mg/kg) and risperidone in a higher dose of 0.1 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. WAY100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited the effects induced by co-administration of ADs and risperidone. Active behavior in the forced swimming test was not a consequence of an increased general activity, since the combined treatment with ADs and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that a low dose of risperidone enhances the activity of ADs in an animal model of depression, and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play a role in these effects. PMID:22358101

  1. The cardiovascular and endocrine responses to voluntary and forced diving in trained and untrained rats

    PubMed Central

    DiNovo, Karyn. M.; Connolly, Tiffanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian diving response, consisting of apnea, bradycardia, and increased total peripheral resistance, can be modified by conscious awareness, fear, and anticipation. We wondered whether swim and dive training in rats would 1) affect the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and forced diving, and 2) whether this training would reduce or eliminate any stress due to diving. Results indicate Sprague-Dawley rats have a substantial diving response. Immediately upon submersion, heart rate (HR) decreased by 78%, from 453 ± 12 to 101 ± 8 beats per minute (bpm), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 25%, from 143 ± 1 to 107 ± 5 mmHg. Approximately 4.5 s after submergence, MAP had increased to a maximum 174 ± 3 mmHg. Blood corticosterone levels indicate trained rats find diving no more stressful than being held by a human, while untrained rats find swimming and diving very stressful. Forced diving is stressful to both trained and untrained rats. The magnitude of bradycardia was similar during both voluntary and forced diving, while the increase in MAP was greater during forced diving. The diving response of laboratory rats, therefore, appears to be dissimilar from that of other animals, as most birds and mammals show intensification of diving bradycardia during forced diving compared with voluntary diving. Rats may exhibit an accentuated antagonism between the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, such that in the autonomic control of HR, parasympathetic activity overpowers sympathetic activity. Additionally, laboratory rats may lack the ability to modify the degree of parasympathetic outflow to the heart during an intense cardiorespiratory response (i.e., the diving response). PMID:19923359

  2. The synchronizing research on structure of microcirculation and dynamic changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in the rat endbrain after exhaustive swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qiongjia; Li, He; Xiong, Ruo-Hong; Su, Quan-Sheng; Tan, Jin; Dai, Yi; Xu, Ming

    2003-12-01

    The changes of microconfiguration and dynamic changes of monoamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine(DA), in the rat endbrain after exhaustive swimming were observed in order to provide objective reference for evaluation of exercise central fatigue. Thirty-six male SD rates were divided randomly into 4 groups: group control (G1); group immediate after exhaustive swimming (G2); group 24 hours after exhaustive swimming (G3) and group 48 hours after exhaustive swimming (G4), 9 in each group. After adaptive swimming for 4 days, rats in G2, G3 and G4 took loaded swimming in ratio of 5 g for every 100g body weight (5%) till exhaustion. After decapitation, the endbrains of the rats in each group were taken for ordinary electron microscopic observation of change of microcofiguration and measurement of contents of 5-HT, NE and DA by fluorometric photometer. The ultrastructure of the endbrain cortex in G2 had apparent changes. In G3, improvement of ultrastructure of microcirculation in endbrain were observed; In G4, structure of microcirculation almost recovered to normal level. The level of 5-HT and NE in the endbrain of exhaustive swimming rat increased significantly, up to the highest in G3 (24h). It was therefore demonstrated that the configuration change of microcirculation and change of 5-HT and NE contents in rat endbrain after exhaustive exercise were synchronous and that the recovery of the configuration change of microcirculation was faster than change of 5-HT and NE contents, the ultrastructure change of microcirculation being reversible. These results indicate that the improvement of microcirculation in endbrain can help promote recovery of sporting central fatigue.

  3. Effects of dietary restriction or swimming on lymphocytes and macrophages functionality from old rats.

    PubMed

    Meneguello-Coutinho, Marcela; Caperuto, Erico; Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Chamusca, Grabriela; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; Navalta, James Wilfred; Wasinski, Frederick; Cavaglieri, Claudia Regina; Prestes, Jonato; Costa Rosa, Luis Fernando Bicudo Pereira; Bacurau, Reury Frank

    2014-01-01

    Although aging compromises the functionality of macrophages (MΦ) and lymphocytes (LY), and dietary restriction (DR) and exercise partially counterbalance immunosenescence, it is unknown what effects of both strategies have on the functionality of these immune cells. Rats were randomly distributed into adult control (AD), older group (OLD), older submitted to 50% of DR (DR) and older submitted to swimming (EX) (n = 10 in each group). The function of immune cells (proliferative index, phagocytic capacity and H₂O₂ production), the weight and protein content of lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen), plasma glutamine concentration, interleukins (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6) and, immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) were analysed. There was an increase of 74% in body weight in aged animals as compared with the AD group, while body weight reduced 19% in the DR as compared with the OLD group. Swimming training stimulated MΦ phagocytosis, while the EX group presented a decrease of the proliferative capacity of LY from the mesenteric lymph nodes (44% and 62%, respectively), when stimulated with ConA and LPS as compared with the old rats. These data demonstrated that DR and exercise affects differentially MΦ and LY function. PMID:24206426

  4. Enhancement of immobility in a forced swimming test by subacute or repeated treatment with phencyclidine: a new model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Y.; Yamada, K.; Furukawa, H.; Nabeshima, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Immobility induced by forced swimming is well known as an animal model of depression. To develop an animal model for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, in particular the depressive symptoms, the effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on immobility in the forced swimming test was investigated in mice, since PCP produces such negative symptoms in humans. 2. Repeated treatment with PCP (10 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c., once a day for 14 days) prolonged the immobility time in the forced swimming test 24 h after the final injection compared with saline treatment; the effect was not obtained by single or 5 treatments with PCP (10 mg kg-1, s.c.), or by repeated treatment with methamphetamine (0.5 and 1 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c., once a day for 14 days). 3. The enhancing effect of PCP (10 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c.) on the immobility persisted for at least 21 days after the withdrawal of the drug. 4. Haloperidol (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1, p.o.), ritanserin (3 and 10 mg kg-1, p.o.), risperidone (0.1-1 mg kg-1, p.o.), and clozapine (3 and 10 mg kg-1, p.o.) failed to attenuate the immobility induced by the forced swimming in mice repeatedly treated with saline when the drugs were administered 1 h before the forced swimming test. However, ritanserin (30 mg kg-1) and clozapine (30 mg kg-1) did attenuate this immobility. 5. The enhancing effect of PCP on the immobility was attenuated by ritanserin (3 and 10 mg kg-1, p.o.), risperidone (0.3 mg kg-1, p.o.), and clozapine (3 and 10 mg kg-1, p.o.), whereas haloperidol (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1, p.o.) had no effect. 6. These results suggest that the enhancement of immobility in the forced swimming test brought about by repeated PCP treatment could be used as a model of the negative symptoms, particularly the depression, of schizophrenia. This effect of PCP appeared to be mediated, at least in part, via 5-HT2A receptors. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8581295

  5. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  6. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  7. No evidence for a bioenergetic advantage from forced swimming in rainbow trout under a restrictive feeding regime.

    PubMed

    Skov, Peter V; Lund, Ivar; Pargana, Alexandre M

    2015-01-01

    Sustained swimming at moderate speeds is considered beneficial in terms of the productive performance of salmonids, but the causative mechanisms have yet to be unequivocally established. In the present study, the effects of moderate exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout were assessed during a 15 week growth experiment, in which fish were reared at three different current speeds: 1 BL s(-1), 0.5 BL s(-1) and still water (≈ 0 BL s(-1)). Randomly selected groups of 100 fish were distributed among twelve 600 L tanks and maintained on a restricted diet regime. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated from weight and length measurements every 3 weeks. Routine metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every hour as rate of oxygen consumption in the tanks, and was positively correlated with swimming speed. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion rates showed a tendency to decrease with increasing swimming speeds, yet neither they nor the resulting nitrogen quotients (NQ) indicated that swimming significantly reduced the fraction of dietary protein used to fuel metabolism. Energetic budgets revealed a positive correlation between energy expenditure and the current speed at which fish were reared, fish that were forced to swim and were fed restrictively consequentially had poorer growth and feed utilization. The results show that for rainbow trout, water current can negatively affect growth despite promoting minor positive changes in substrate utilization. We hypothesize that this may be the result of either a limited dietary energy supply from diet restriction being insufficient for both covering the extra costs of swimming and supporting enhanced growth. PMID:25705195

  8. No evidence for a bioenergetic advantage from forced swimming in rainbow trout under a restrictive feeding regime

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Peter V.; Lund, Ivar; Pargana, Alexandre M.

    2015-01-01

    Sustained swimming at moderate speeds is considered beneficial in terms of the productive performance of salmonids, but the causative mechanisms have yet to be unequivocally established. In the present study, the effects of moderate exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout were assessed during a 15 week growth experiment, in which fish were reared at three different current speeds: 1 BL s−1, 0.5 BL s−1 and still water (≈ 0 BL s−1). Randomly selected groups of 100 fish were distributed among twelve 600 L tanks and maintained on a restricted diet regime. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated from weight and length measurements every 3 weeks. Routine metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every hour as rate of oxygen consumption in the tanks, and was positively correlated with swimming speed. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion rates showed a tendency to decrease with increasing swimming speeds, yet neither they nor the resulting nitrogen quotients (NQ) indicated that swimming significantly reduced the fraction of dietary protein used to fuel metabolism. Energetic budgets revealed a positive correlation between energy expenditure and the current speed at which fish were reared, fish that were forced to swim and were fed restrictively consequentially had poorer growth and feed utilization. The results show that for rainbow trout, water current can negatively affect growth despite promoting minor positive changes in substrate utilization. We hypothesize that this may be the result of either a limited dietary energy supply from diet restriction being insufficient for both covering the extra costs of swimming and supporting enhanced growth. PMID:25705195

  9. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Osanloo, Naser; Najafi-Abedi, Akram; Jafari, Fatemeh; Javid, Farshid; Pirpiran, Mohsen; Memar Jafari, Mohammad-Reza; Mousavi Khosravi, Seyed Ali; Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mohammad; Ranjbaran, Mina; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. Methods: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20–25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus. Results: Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control. Conclusion: The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals’ activity. PMID:27563412

  10. Effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Terada, Shin; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2004-02-01

    We previously reported that high-intensity exercise training significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity, a marker of oxidative enzyme, in rat skeletal muscle to a level equaling that attained after low-intensity prolonged exercise training (Terada et al., J Appl Physiol 90: 2019-2024, 2001). Since mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes are often increased simultaneously, we assessed the effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming training on FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 to 4 weeks old) were assigned to a 10-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT), or sedentary control conditions. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20 s swimming sessions with a weight equivalent to 14-16% of their body weight. Between the exercise sessions, a 10 s pause was allowed. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day in two 3 h sessions separated by 45 min of rest. CS activity in the triceps muscle of rats in the HIT and LIT groups was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 36 and 39%, respectively. Furthermore, 3-beta hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, an important enzyme in the FAO pathway in skeletal muscle, was higher in the two training groups than in the control rats (HIT: 100%, LIT: 88%). No significant difference in HAD activity was observed between the two training groups. In conclusion, the present investigation demonstrated that high-intensity intermittent swimming training elevated FAO enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle to a level similar to that attained after 6 h of low-intensity prolonged swimming exercise training. PMID:15040848

  11. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test. PMID:27037827

  12. Antidepressant-like effects of L-theanine in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cui; Gou, Lingshan; Liu, Yi; Yin, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Genguang; Zhuang, Xuemei

    2011-11-01

    L-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), an amino acid component of green tea, has been shown to reduce mental and physical stress, and to improve memory function. In this study, the antidepressant effect of L-theanine was investigated in mice using the forced swim test, tail suspension test, open-field test and reserpine test. L-theanine produced an antidepressant-like effect, since the administration of L-theanine at doses of 1, 4 and 20 mg/kg for 10 successive days significantly reduced the immobility time in both the forced swim test and tail suspension test, compared with the control group, without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. Moreover, L-theanine significantly antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis and hypothermia. Taken together, these results indicate that L-theanine possessed an antidepressant-like effect in mice, which may be mediated by the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter system. PMID:21425373

  13. Effect of swimming on myostatin expression in white and red gastrocnemius muscle and in cardiac muscle of rats.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, Antonios; Bozzo, Cyrille; Cacciani, Nicola; Caliaro, Francesca; Reggiani, Carlo; Mascarello, Francesco; Patruno, Marco

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that swimming training might impact differentially myostatin expression in skeletal muscles, depending on fibre type composition, and in cardiac muscle of rats. Myostatin expression was analysed by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the red deep portion (mainly composed of slow and type II A fibres) and in the superficial, white portion (composed of fast type II X and II B fibres) of the gastrocnemius muscle in adult male Wistar rats: (i) subjected to two consecutive swimming bouts for 3 h; (ii) subjected to intensive swimming training for 4 weeks; and (iii) sedentary control rats. Myostatin mRNA content was in all cases higher in white than in red muscles. Two bouts of swimming did not alter myostatin expression, whereas swimming training for 4 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of myostatin mRNA contents, significant both in white and red muscles but more pronounced in white muscles. Western blot did not detect any change in the amount of myostatin protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that, in control rats, myostatin was localized in presumptive satellite cells of a few muscle fibres. After training, the number of myostatin-positive spots decreased significantly. Myostatin mRNA content in cardiac muscle was lower than in skeletal muscle and was significantly increased by swimming training. In conclusion, the results obtained showed that intense training caused a decreased expression of myostatin mRNA in white and red skeletal muscles but an increase in cardiac muscle. PMID:16873457

  14. Effect of physical training on metabolic responses of pregnant rats submitted to swimming under thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Osório, Rodrigo Alexis; Pereira, Rafael; Christofani, Junia Scarlatelli; Russo, Adriana Kowalesky; Machado, Marco; Ribeiro, Wellington; da Cruz Piçarro, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pre-pregnancy physical training on metabolic responses and its effects on offspring. METHODS: Three groups of rats (n = 7 in each group): sedentary pregnant rats (PS), exercised during pregnancy (PE) and pregnant rats trained before and during pregnancy (PT) were compared. They were separated into three subgroups regarding water temperature: 28°C, 35°C or 39°C. Plasma triglycerides and glucose levels, weight gain during pregnancy and rectal temperature pre and post exercise (swim), as well as the offspring size and weight were analysed. RESULTS: Rectal temperature post exercise was lower than pre exercise at 28°C and 35°C, and higher at 39°C. Weight gain was lower at 39°C for the PT group and at 35°C for the PT and PE groups compared to the PS group. Plasma glucose, at 28°C and 39°C for PS and PE groups, was higher than those obtained at 35°C, while triglycerides were lower. For trained rats, plasma glucose and triglycerides were similar at all water temperatures. Trained rats presented lower triglyceride values at 35°C, and higher triglyceride values at 39°C compared to PS group. Glucose presented inverse results. None of the groups presented fetal reabsorption. However, in the PS group, the offspring presented lower weight gain at 28°C than at 35°C and 39°C. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that pre-pregnancy physical training induces steady values of triglycerides and glucose during exercise at all water temperatures. PMID:21772888

  15. Alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine protects intensive swimming exercise-mediated germ-cell depletion, pro-oxidant generation, and alteration of steroidogenesis in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuladip; Dutta, Ananya; Chakraborty, Pratip; Manna, Indranil; Firdaus, Syed Benazir; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Chakravarty, Baidyanath

    2014-09-01

    Prolonged and strenuous exercise has been proposed as a possible source of male-factor infertility. Forced intensive swimming has also been identified as one source of a dysfunctional male reproduction system. The present study evaluated the possible protective role of α-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intensive swimming-induced germ-cell depletion in adult male rats. Forced exhaustive swimming of 1 hr/day, 6 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in epididymal sperm; testicular androgenic enzyme activities; and plasma and intra-testicular testosterone; and produced different types of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Conversely, plasma corticosterone levels and sperm-head abnormalities increased. Western-blot analysis showed a considerable decrease in testicular StAR protein expression whereas reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis showed no significant change in cytochrome P450scc (Cyp11a1) gene expression. Significant (P < 0.05) elevation in testicular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content versus reduction in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and caspase-3 activities along with a depletion in the glutathione pool, mitochondrial membrane potential (▵ψm ), and intracellular ATP generation. A considerable level of DNA damage in testicular spermatogenic cells were also noted following forced extensive swimming. Alpha-lipoic acid and NAC supplementation prevented the swimming-induced testicular spermatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by lowering ROS generation. We therefore conclude that intensive forced swimming causes germ-cell depletion through the generation of ROS and depletion of steroidogenesis in the testis, which can be protected by the co-administration of α-lipoic acid and NAC. PMID:25104294

  16. Arterial gas embolism in a Special Forces combat dive student during free-swimming ascent training: A case study.

    PubMed

    Surrett, Gerald W; Vaughan, William M

    2015-01-01

    Free-swimming ascent is taught to military divers and submariners as a self-rescue technique in the event of an emergency or a planned covert surfacing technique. Although this technique is infrequently used, it is considered a high-risk training event due to the risk and subsequent high morbidity and mortality of pulmonary barotrauma from pulmonary over-inflation injury. This case study will illustrate an example of a pulmonary overinflation injury and arterial gas embolism in an Army Special Forces Combat Diver who had no violation of technique while conducting a 50 foot free-swimming ascent to training standards and under the supervision of experienced Dive Supervisors. Additionally, the issue of allowing such individuals to return to diving is discussed. PMID:26094292

  17. Analysis of the swimming activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using photonic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Han; Chang, Bo-Jui; Huang, Ying-Jung; Fan, Chia-Chieh; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long

    2005-08-01

    Swimming activity of flagella is a main factor of the motility of bacteria. Flagella expressed on the surface of bacterial species serve as a primary means of motility including swimming. We propose to use optical tweezers to analyze the swimming activity of bacteria. The sample bacteria in the work is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and it is a gram-negative bacterium and often causes leading to burn wound infections, urinary-tract infections, and pneumonia. The single polar flagellum of P. aeruginosa has been demonstrated to be important virulence and colonization factor of this opportunistic pathogen. We demonstrate a gene to regulate the bacterial swimming activity in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by biological method. However, the change of flagellar morphology was not observed by electron microscopy analysis, suggesting that the gene regulates the flagellar rotation that could not be detected by biological method. PFM exhibits a spatial resolution of a few nanometers to detect the relative position of the probe at an acquisition rate over 1 MHz. By binding a probe such as a bead or a quantum dot on the flagella, we expect the rotation of the probe due to the flagella could be detected. It is expected that the study of the swimming activity of P. aeruginosa provide potent method for the pathogenic role of the flagella in P. aeruginosa.

  18. Time to exhaustion at anaerobic threshold in swimming rats: metabolic investigation.

    PubMed

    Beck, W F; De Araujo, G G; Menezes Scariot, P P; Masselli dos Reis, I G; Gobatto, C A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the time to exhaustion (tlim) for swimming exercise at anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity in rats and to analyze metabolic consequences on serum and tissues levels. Eighteen rats were divided in control (CG) and exercised (EG) groups, being the former submitted to tlim. We analyzed the glycogen content of liver and ten skeletal muscles, as well as serum parameters. Parametric statistic was used with significance level at p < 0.05. The tlim, which was correspondent to 114.37 ± 36.23 min, promoted significant decrease in blood glucose (42.99 %; p < 0.01) and an increase in free fatty acids (167.12 %; p < 0.01) when EG was compared to CG. We did not find differences in albumin, total protein uric acid and creatinine between groups. The proposed exercise at individualized AT intensity promoted severe glycogen depletion for all tissues (mean of 78.05 % for all muscles and 89 % for liver). With substantial control of exercise intensity, our study establishes a useful rodent model that can be further explored, contributing to the advancement on knowledge and better understanding of exhaustion mechanisms. PMID:25573727

  19. Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on Acute Stress Responses in Mice Subjected to Forced Swim and Anoxic Tests

    PubMed Central

    Aluko, Oritoke M.; Umukoro, Solomon; Annafi, Olajide S.; Adewole, Folashade A.; Omorogbe, Osarume

    2015-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is an anti-stress hormone released by plants in response to external stressors and aids adaptation to stress. In this study, we evaluated the anti-stress activity of MJ using the forced swim endurance test (FSET) and anoxic tolerance test in mice. Male Swiss mice were given MJ (25–100 mg/kg, i.p) 30 min before the FSET and anoxic test were carried out. The first occurrence of immobility, duration of immobility, time spent in active swimming, and latency to exhaustion were assessed in the FSET. The onset to anoxic convulsion was measured in the anoxic tolerance test. MJ significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the first occurrence of immobility and shortened the period of immobility, which indicates anti-stress property. MJ also increased the time spent in active swimming and prolonged the latency to exhaustion, which further suggests anti-stress activity. In addition, it also exhibited anti-stress property as evidenced by prolonged latency to first appearance of anoxic convulsions. The results of this study suggest that MJ demonstrated anti-stress activity and may be useful as an energizer in times of body weakness or exhaustion. Although more studies are necessary before concluding on how MJ exerts its anti-stress activity, the present data suggest an action similar to adaptogens in boosting energy and resilience in the face of stress. PMID:26839844

  20. Ketamine-enhanced immobility in forced swim test: a possible animal model for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Adzu, Bulus; Yahaya, Tijani A; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2012-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and highly complex psychiatric disorder characterised by cognitive dysfunctions, negative and positive symptoms. The major challenge in schizophrenia research is lack of suitable animal models that mimic the core behavioural aspects and symptoms of this devastating psychiatric disorder. In this study, we used classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs to examine the predictive validity of ketamine-enhanced immobility in forced swim test (FST) as a possible animal model for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We also evaluated the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the ketamine-enhanced immobility in FST. Repeated administration of a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine (30 mg kg(-1), i.p., daily for 5 days) enhanced the duration of immobility in FST 24 h after the final injection. The effect, which persisted for at least 21 days after withdrawal of the drug, was neither observed by single treatment with ketamine (30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) nor repeated treatment with amphetamine (1 and 2 mg kg(-1) i.p., daily for 5 days). The enhancing effects of ketamine (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p.) on the duration of immobility in the FST were attenuated by clozapine (1, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) i.p.), risperidone (0.25 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and paroxetine (1 and 5 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Haloperidol (0.25 and 0.50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p.) failed to attenuate the ketamine-enhanced immobility in the FST. The repeated ketamine administration neither affects locomotor activity nor motor coordination in rats under the same treatment conditions with the FST, suggesting that the effects of ketamine on the duration of immobility in this study was neither due to motor dysfunction nor peripheral neuromuscular blockade. Our results suggest that repeated treatment with subanaesthetic doses of ketamine enhance the duration of immobility in FST, which might be a useful animal model for the negative symptoms (particularly the depressive features) of

  1. Chronic aerobic swimming exercise promotes functional and morphological changes in rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Araujo, Layanne Cabral; de Souza, Iara Leão Luna; Vasconcelos, Luiz Henrique César; de Freitas Brito, Aline; Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella; de Andrade Cavalcante, Fabiana; da Silva, Bagnólia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the gastrointestinal (GI) effects promoted by the physical exercise. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of swimming exercise on the contractile reactivity, lipid peroxidation and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and groups exercised for two (EX2), four (EX4), six (EX6) or eight (EX8) weeks, 5 days/week. Animals were killed; the ileum was removed and suspended in organ baths where the isotonic contractions were recorded. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by MDA (malondialdehyde) measurement with TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) assay and morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 63.1±3.9 (EX2), 48.8±3.8 (EX4), 19.4±1.8 (EX6) and 59.4±2.8% (EX8). Similarly, cumulative concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine hydrochloride (CCh) were attenuated, as the Emax values were changed from 100% (SED) to 74.1±5.4 (EX2), 75.9±5.2 (EX4) and 62.9±4.6 (EX6), but not in the EX8 (89.7±3.4%). However, CCh potency was increased in this latter, as the EC50 was altered from 1.0±0.1×10−6 (SED) to 2.1±0.4×10−7 (EX8). MDA concentration was altered only in EX4 (44.3±4.4) compared with SED (20.6±3.6 μmol/l). Circular layer was reduced in SED when compared with the exercised groups. Conversely, longitudinal layer was increased. In conclusion, chronic swimming exercise reduces the ileum contraction, equilibrates the oxidative damage and promotes changes in tissue size to establish an adaptation to the exercise. PMID:26424698

  2. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, S.; van Manen, K.; Marcroft, T. A.; Alfaro, M. E.; Stamhuis, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral reef territories. Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace. Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared with more generalized fish morphologies. Secondly, the current theory of course stabilization owing to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilizing moments were found consistently. This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilizing moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting. PMID:25505133

  3. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, S; van Manen, K; Marcroft, T A; Alfaro, M E; Stamhuis, E J

    2015-02-01

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral reef territories. Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace. Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared with more generalized fish morphologies. Secondly, the current theory of course stabilization owing to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilizing moments were found consistently. This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilizing moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting. PMID:25505133

  4. Chelidonic acid evokes antidepressant-like effect through the up-regulation of BDNF in forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Na-Rae; Jang, Jae-Bum; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-08-01

    Depression is usually accompanied by neuro-inflammatory reactions. Chelidonic acid, in particular, has shown anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant effects of chelidonic acid and to discuss the potential mechanisms of a forced swimming test. Chelidonic acid was administered orally once a day for 14 days. On the 14th day, chelidonic acid resulted in a significant decrease in immobility time during the forced swimming test without alteration of locomotor activity, in an open field test. Chelidonic acid also increased the number of nissl bodies in the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hippocampus were up-regulated by the administration of chelidonic acid. Chelidonic acid administration significantly increased the mRNA expression of hippocampal estrogen receptor-β. The levels of hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were effectively attenuated by the administration of chelidonic acid. In addition, chelidonic acid significantly increased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), dopamine, and norepinephrine compared with those levels for the mice that were administered distilled water in the hippocampus. These results suggest that chelidonic acid might serve as a new therapeutic strategy for the regulation of depression associated with inflammation. PMID:27037280

  5. Forces and shapes as determinants of micro-swimming: effect on synchronisation and the utilisation of drag.

    PubMed

    Pande, Jayant; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2015-03-28

    In this analytical study we demonstrate the richness of behaviour exhibited by bead-spring micro-swimmers, both in terms of known yet not fully explained effects such as synchronisation, and hitherto undiscovered phenomena such as the existence of two transport regimes where the swimmer shape has fundamentally different effects on the velocity. For this purpose we employ a micro-swimmer model composed of three arbitrarily-shaped rigid beads connected linearly by two springs. By analysing this swimmer in terms of the forces on the different beads, we determine the optimal kinematic parameters for sinusoidal driving, and also explain the pusher/puller nature of the swimmer. Moreover, we show that the phase difference between the swimmer's arms automatically attains values which maximise the swimming speed for a large region of the parameter space. Apart from this, we determine precisely the optimal bead shapes that maximise the velocity when the beads are constrained to be ellipsoids of a constant volume or surface area. On doing so, we discover the surprising existence of the aforementioned transport regimes in micro-swimming, where the motion is dominated by either a reduction of the drag force opposing the beads, or by the hydrodynamic interaction amongst them. Under some conditions, these regimes lead to counter-intuitive effects such as the most streamlined shapes forming locally the slowest swimmers. PMID:25675985

  6. Quantifying stroke coordination during the breathing action in front-crawl swimming using an instantaneous net drag force profile.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Danielle P; Sayers, Mark G L; Burkett, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    This study used both an instantaneous net drag force profile and a symmetry timing to evaluate the effect of the breathing action on stroke coordination. Twenty elite swimmers completed a total of six randomised front-crawl towing trials: (i) three breathing trials and (ii) three non-breathing trials. The net drag force was measured using an assisted towing device mounted upon a Kistler force platform, and this equipment towed the swimmer at a constant speed. The net drag force profile was used to create a stroke symmetry index for each swimming trial. Analysis using the symmetry indices identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical instantaneous net drag force stroke profile in both the breathing and non-breathing conditions, despite no significant differences in the time from finger-tip entry to finger-tip exit. Within the breathing condition, the faster swimmers compared to the slower swimmers demonstrated a lesser percentage of overlap between stroke phases on their breathing stroke side. During the non-breathing condition, the faster participants compared to the slower swimmers recorded a reduction in the percentage of overlap between stroke phases and less duration in the underwater stroke on their breathing stroke side. This study identified that the majority of participants demonstrated an asymmetrical net drag force profile within both conditions; however, asymmetry was less prevalent when examining with only the timing symmetry index. PMID:24861056

  7. Finasteride administration potentiates the disruption of prepulse inhibition induced by forced swim stress.

    PubMed

    Pallarès, M; Llidó, A; Mòdol, L; Vallée, M; Darbra, S

    2015-08-01

    Acute stress has been demonstrated to alter sensory gating processes, measured by the prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI). It is well known that brain and plasma levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) increase after acute environmental stress, fact that has been considered a homeostatic mechanism in restoring normal function following stress. Thus, it is of great interest to study the contribution of stress-altered plasma ALLO levels on PPI function. For this purpose, animals were injected with finasteride, an ALLO synthesis inhibitor, and submitted to swim stress before PPI testing. In order to obtain ALLO plasma levels, a separate set of animals that followed the same experimental procedure was used. We hypothesize that the blockade of ALLO production in response to stress can increase the stress-induced PPI disruption. In accordance with other authors, our results indicate that acute swim stress disrupted the normal PPI evolution (increase) related to the increase in prepulse intensities, and also decreased PPI at the highest prepulse intensity level (15 db above background). Finasteride potentiated the PPI decrease induced by swim stress in the intermediate prepulse intensity (10 db above background). As expected, plasma ALLO levels were increased in stressed animals and this increase was neutralized by prior finasteride administration. These results indicate that the neutralization of the physiological plasma ALLO levels increase after acute stress potentiates stress-induced PPI disruption. This data suggests that alterations in homeostatic ALLO synthesis mechanism may be linked to some neuropsychiatric disorders related to stress, such as anxiety/depression disorders. PMID:25913832

  8. Effects of high-intensity swimming training on GLUT-4 and glucose transport activity in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Terada, S; Yokozeki, T; Kawanaka, K; Ogawa, K; Higuchi, M; Ezaki, O; Tabata, I

    2001-06-01

    This study was performed to assess the effects of short-term, extremely high-intensity intermittent exercise training on the GLUT-4 content of rat skeletal muscle. Three- to four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with an initial body weight ranging from 45 to 55 g were used for this study. These rats were randomly assigned to an 8-day period of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIT), relatively high-intensity intermittent prolonged exercise training (RHT), or low-intensity prolonged exercise training (LIT). Age-matched sedentary rats were used as a control. In the HIT group, the rats repeated fourteen 20-s swimming bouts with a weight equivalent to 14, 15, and 16% of body weight for the first 2, the next 4, and the last 2 days, respectively. Between exercise bouts, a 10-s pause was allowed. RHT consisted of five 17-min swimming bouts with a 3-min rest between bouts. During the first bout, the rat swam without weight, whereas during the following four bouts, the rat was attached to a weight equivalent to 4 and 5% of its body weight for the first 5 days and the following 3 days, respectively. Rats in the LIT group swam 6 h/day for 8 days in two 3-h bouts separated by 45 min of rest. In the first experiment, the HIT, LIT, and control rats were compared. GLUT-4 content in the epitrochlearis muscle in the HIT and LIT groups after training was significantly higher than that in the control rats by 83 and 91%, respectively. Furthermore, glucose transport activity, stimulated maximally by both insulin (2 mU/ml) (HIT: 48%, LIT: 75%) and contractions (25 10-s tetani) (HIT: 55%, LIT: 69%), was higher in the training groups than in the control rats. However, no significant differences in GLUT-4 content or in maximal glucose transport activity in response to both insulin and contractions were observed between the two training groups. The second experiment demonstrated that GLUT-4 content after HIT did not differ from that after RHT (66% higher in trained rats than

  9. Six week swimming followed by acute uptakes of ginsenoside Rg1 may affect aerobic capacity of SD rats

    PubMed Central

    Haam, Saebom; Park, Hyon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of six-weeks of endurance swim training and short-term intake of Rg1 on the expression of related proteins as well as improvement of aerobic exercise capacity in 8-week-old male SD rats. [Methods] The groups were divided into placebo (NP, n=6), Rg1 (NRG, n=6), exercise+placebo (EP, n=7), and exercise+Rg1 (ERG, n=7). On completion of the 6-week swimming exercise, Rg1-intake groups were treated with acute uptakes (3 times within 24hrs) of Rg1. After the treatment, all groups were subjected to a swim to exhaustion test, and then the mass of muscle tissue, mRNA expression level and activity of citrate synthase (CS) were analyzed on plantaris. [Results] There were no differences in the effect of 6-week swimming exercise and short-term intake of Rg1 on body weight and muscle mass between groups. Although the CS mRNA expression was elevated in the exercise group and combined treatment group, there was no significant difference in CS activity. Acute uptakes of Rg1 did not affect swimming time to exhaustion, but it was increased by 235% and 314% by the 6-weeks of exercise and combined treatment of exercise and Rg1, respectively, which suggests that the combined treatment increased the effect on the capacity of aerobic exercise. [Conclusion] Based on these results, it was confirmed that even a short-term treatment of Rg1 can give an additive effect for improvement of exercise function, and additional studies are needed for the mechanisms and modes of its working. PMID:27274464

  10. Swimming Training Modulates Nitric Oxide-Glutamate Interaction in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla in Normotensive Conscious Rats.

    PubMed

    Raquel, Hiviny de A; Masson, Gustavo S; Barna, Barbara Falquetto; Zanluqui, Nágela G; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Michelini, Lisete C; Martins-Pinge, Marli C

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of swimming training on nitric oxide (NO) modulation to glutamate microinjection within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in conscious freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to exercise training (Tr) by swimming or kept sedentary (Sed) for 4 weeks. After the last training session, RVLM guide cannulas and arterial/venous catheters were chronically implanted. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex control of HR (loading/unloading of baroreceptors) were recorded in conscious rats at rest. Pressor response to L-glutamate in the RVLM was compared before and after blockade of local nitric oxide (NO) production. In other Tr and Sed groups, brain was harvested for gene (qRT-PCR) and protein (immunohistochemistry) expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and measurement of NO content (nitrite assay) within the RVLM. Trained rats exhibited resting bradycardia (average reduction of 9%), increased baroreflex gain (Tr: -4.41 ± 0.5 vs. Sed: -2.42 ± 0.31 b/min/mmHg), and unchanged resting MAP. The pressor response to glutamate was smaller in the Tr group (32 ± 4 vs. 53 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05); this difference disappeared after RVLM pretreatment with carboxy-PTIO (NO scavenger), Nw-Propyl-L-Arginine and L-NAME (NOS inhibitors). eNOS immunoreactivity observed mainly in RVLM capillaries was higher in Tr, but eNOS gene expression was reduced. nNOS gene and protein expression was slightly reduced (-29 and -9%, respectively, P > 0.05). Also, RVLM NO levels were significantly reduced in Tr (-63% vs. Sed). After microinjection of a NO-donor, the attenuated pressor response of L-glutamate in Tr group was restored. Data indicate that swimming training by decreasing RVLM NO availability and glutamatergic neurotransmission to locally administered glutamate may contribute to decreased sympathetic activity in trained subjects. PMID:27378935

  11. Swimming Training Modulates Nitric Oxide-Glutamate Interaction in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla in Normotensive Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raquel, Hiviny de A.; Masson, Gustavo S.; Barna, Barbara Falquetto; Zanluqui, Nágela G.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Michelini, Lisete C.; Martins-Pinge, Marli C.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of swimming training on nitric oxide (NO) modulation to glutamate microinjection within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in conscious freely moving rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to exercise training (Tr) by swimming or kept sedentary (Sed) for 4 weeks. After the last training session, RVLM guide cannulas and arterial/venous catheters were chronically implanted. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex control of HR (loading/unloading of baroreceptors) were recorded in conscious rats at rest. Pressor response to L-glutamate in the RVLM was compared before and after blockade of local nitric oxide (NO) production. In other Tr and Sed groups, brain was harvested for gene (qRT-PCR) and protein (immunohistochemistry) expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and measurement of NO content (nitrite assay) within the RVLM. Trained rats exhibited resting bradycardia (average reduction of 9%), increased baroreflex gain (Tr: −4.41 ± 0.5 vs. Sed: −2.42 ± 0.31 b/min/mmHg), and unchanged resting MAP. The pressor response to glutamate was smaller in the Tr group (32 ± 4 vs. 53 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05); this difference disappeared after RVLM pretreatment with carboxy-PTIO (NO scavenger), Nw-Propyl-L-Arginine and L-NAME (NOS inhibitors). eNOS immunoreactivity observed mainly in RVLM capillaries was higher in Tr, but eNOS gene expression was reduced. nNOS gene and protein expression was slightly reduced (−29 and −9%, respectively, P > 0.05). Also, RVLM NO levels were significantly reduced in Tr (−63% vs. Sed). After microinjection of a NO-donor, the attenuated pressor response of L-glutamate in Tr group was restored. Data indicate that swimming training by decreasing RVLM NO availability and glutamatergic neurotransmission to locally administered glutamate may contribute to decreased sympathetic activity in trained subjects. PMID:27378935

  12. Swimming improves high-fat induced insulin resistance by regulating lipid and energy metabolism and the insulin pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, An; Wang, Chao; Ren, Luping; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the preventive and therapeutic effects of swimming on insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: i) the control (Con) group fed a control diet; ii) the high-fat (HF) group fed a high-fat diet; iii) the treatment (ST) group fed a high-fat diet and trained with swimming from the 4th week; and iv) the prevention (SP) group fed a high-fat diet and trained with swimming from the 1st week of the experiment. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was used to evaluate the insulin sensitivity of the rats. The ultrastructure of the liver cells was observed by electron microscopy. Hepatic lipid accumulation was observed by Oil Red O staining. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of proteins related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and insulin signaling transduction. After 8 weeks of feeding, compared with the Con group, the glucose infusion rate (GIR) was significantly decreased; a significant lipid accumulation was observed in the liver, while the ultrastructure of the liver cells was damaged in the HF group. Proteins related to lipid metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle, including FAT and FABP were upregulated, while CPT1 and PPAR levels were downregulated in the HF group. The levels of the energy-metabolism-related molecules, AMPKα2, PGC1α, PGC1β and MFN2 were downregulated in skeletal muscle in the HF group. The expression levels of insulin signaling transduction molecules, INSR, IRS1, PI3K/p85, AKT2 and GLUT4, as well as the phosphorylation levels of INSR, IRS1, PI3K/p85 and AKT2 were lower in skeletal muscles in the HF rats. Compared with HF group, the GIR levels were significantly increased in the ST and SP groups. Lipid accumulation and damage to the ultrastructure of the liver cells were improved in both groups. The expression of molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver and skeletal

  13. The effect of high-intensity intermittent swimming on post-exercise glycogen supercompensation in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akiko; Koshinaka, Keiichi; Abe, Natsuki; Morifuji, Masashi; Koga, Jinichiro; Kawasaki, Emi; Kawanaka, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    A single bout of prolonged endurance exercise stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscles, leading to post-exercise muscle glycogen supercompensation if sufficient carbohydrate is provided after the cessation of exercise. Although we recently found that short-term sprint interval exercise also stimulates muscle glucose transport, the effect of this type of exercise on glycogen supercompensation is uncertain. Therefore, we compared the extent of muscle glycogen accumulation in response to carbohydrate feeding following sprint interval exercise with that following endurance exercise. In this study, 16-h-fasted rats underwent a bout of high-intensity intermittent swimming (HIS) as a model of sprint interval exercise or low-intensity prolonged swimming (LIS) as a model of endurance exercise. During HIS, the rats swam for eight 20-s sessions while burdened with a weight equal to 18% of their body weight. The LIS rats swam with no load for 3 h. The exercised rats were then refed for 4, 8, 12, or 16 h. Glycogen levels were almost depleted in the epitrochlearis muscles of HIS- or LIS-exercised rats immediately after the cessation of exercise. A rapid increase in muscle glycogen levels occurred during 4 h of refeeding, and glycogen levels had peaked at the end of 8 h of refeeding in each group of exercised refed rats. The peak glycogen levels during refeeding were not different between HIS- and LIS-exercised refed rats. Furthermore, although a large accumulation of muscle glycogen in response to carbohydrate refeeding is known to be associated with decreased insulin responsiveness of glucose transport, and despite the fact that muscle glycogen supercompensation was observed in the muscles of our exercised rats at the end of 4 h of refeeding, insulin responsiveness was not decreased in the muscles of either HIS- or LIS-exercised refed rats compared with non-exercised fasted control rats at this time point. These results suggest that sprint interval exercise

  14. The Impacts of Swimming Exercise on Hippocampal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Rui-Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  15. Expression of the Mir-133 and Bcl-2 could be affected by swimming training in the heart of ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Parisa; Alihemmati, Alireza; NourAzar, Alireza; Yousefi, Hadi; Mortazavi, Safieh; Ahmadiasl, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The beneficial and more potent role of exercise to prevent heart apoptosis in ovariectomized rats has been known. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of swimming training on cardiac expression of Bcl-2, and Mir-133 levels and glycogen changes in the myocyte. Materials and Methods: Forty animals were separated into four groups as control, sham, ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomized group with 8 weeks swimming training (OVX.E). Training effects were evaluated by measuring lipid profiles, Bcl-2 and Mir-133 expression levels in the cardiac tissue. Grafts were analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for Bcl-2 mRNA and Mir-133 and by Western blot for Bcl-2 protein. Results: Ovariectomy down-regulated Bcl-2 and Mir-133 expression levels in the cardiac tissue, and swimming training up-regulated their expression significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that regular exercise as a physical replacement therapy could prevent and improve the effects of estrogen deficiency in the cardia. PMID:27279981

  16. The impacts of swimming exercise on hippocampal expression of neurotrophic factors in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei; Dang, Rui-Li; Li, Huan-De; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zhu, Wen-Ye; Xue, Ying; Tang, Mi-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Depression is associated with stress-induced neural atrophy in limbic brain regions, whereas exercise has antidepressant effects as well as increasing hippocampal synaptic plasticity by strengthening neurogenesis, metabolism, and vascular function. A key mechanism mediating these broad benefits of exercise on the brain is induction of neurotrophic factors, which instruct downstream structural and functional changes. To systematically evaluate the potential neurotrophic factors that were involved in the antidepressive effects of exercise, in this study, we assessed the effects of swimming exercise on hippocampal mRNA expression of several classes of the growth factors (BDNF, GDNF, NGF, NT-3, FGF2, VEGF, and IGF-1) and peptides (VGF and NPY) in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Our study demonstrated that the swimming training paradigm significantly induced the expression of BDNF and BDNF-regulated peptides (VGF and NPY) and restored their stress-induced downregulation. Additionally, the exercise protocol also increased the antiapoptotic Bcl-xl expression and normalized the CUMS mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax mRNA level. Overall, our data suggest that swimming exercise has antidepressant effects, increasing the resistance to the neural damage caused by CUMS, and both BDNF and its downstream neurotrophic peptides may exert a major function in the exercise related adaptive processes to CUMS. PMID:25477997

  17. Swim Training Improves HOMA-IR in Type 2 Diabetes Induced by High Fat Diet and Low Dose of Streptozotocin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Rafigheh; Ghadiri Soufi, Farhad; Somi, Mohammad hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mirzaie Bavil, Fariba; Naderi, Roya; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Insulin resistance plays a key role in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of swim training on insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): sedentary control (Con), sedentary diabetic (Dia), swim trained control (Exe) and swim trained diabetic (Dia+Exe) rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and a low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p). In trained groups, one week after the induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks. At the end of training, fasting blood sugar (FBS), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting/basal insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, insulin resistance index, homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG,) total cholesterol (TCh), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in blood were measured. Results: Swimming significantly improved OGTT (P<0.01) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). Swim training also significantly decreased FBS (p<0.01), fasting/basal insulin (P<0.01), HbA1C (p<0.01), TG (P<0.05), and TCh (P<0.05) levels. It also significantly increased HDL (p<0.05) level. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that swim training improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes caused by high fat diet in male rats. PMID:26504760

  18. Energetics of locomotion by the Australian water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster): a comparison of swimming and running in a semi-aquatic mammal.

    PubMed

    Fish, F E; Baudinette, R V

    1999-02-01

    Semi-aquatic mammals occupy a precarious evolutionary position, having to function in both aquatic and terrestrial environments without specializing in locomotor performance in either environment. To examine possible energetic constraints on semi-aquatic mammals, we compared rates of oxygen consumption for the Australian water rat (Hydromys chrysogaster) using different locomotor behaviors: swimming and running. Aquatic locomotion was investigated as animals swam in a water flume at several speeds, whereas water rats were run on a treadmill to measure metabolic effort during terrestrial locomotion. Water rats swam at the surface using alternate pelvic paddling and locomoted on the treadmill using gaits that included walk, trot and half-bound. Water rats were able to run at twice their maximum swimming velocity. Swimming metabolic rate increased with velocity in a pattern similar to the 'humps' and 'hollows' for wave drag experienced by bodies moving at the water surface. Metabolic rate increased linearly during running. Over equivalent velocities, the metabolic rate for running was 13-40 % greater than for swimming. The minimum cost of transport for swimming (2.61 J N-1 m-1) was equivalent to values for other semi-aquatic mammals. The lowest cost for running (2.08 J N-1 m-1) was 20 % lower than for swimming. When compared with specialists at the extremes of the terrestrial-aquatic continuum, the energetic costs of locomoting either in water or on land were high for the semi-aquatic Hydromys chrysogaster. However, the relative costs for H. chrysogaster were lower than when an aquatic specialist attempts to move on land or a terrestrial specialist attempts to swim. PMID:9914144

  19. Rutin, a Flavonoid and Principal Component of Saussurea Involucrata, Attenuates Physical Fatigue in a Forced Swimming Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kang-Yi; Yu, Chao Yuan; Chen, Yue-Wen; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Chen, Chun-Ting; Wu, Hsueh-Fu; Chen, Yi-Lin Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antifatigue effects of rutin, a flavonoid extracted from the ethyl acetate extract of S. involucrata. Mice were subjected to a weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) on alternate days for 3 wk. Rutin was administered orally to the mice for 7 days in dosages of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight, and several biomarkers of physical fatigue were evaluated: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). On Day 7, the rutin-treated mice had a 3-fold longer exhaustive swimming time than the control mice, as well as significantly reduced blood LA concentrations. The 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight rutin-supplemented groups displayed 11.2%, 22.5%, and 37.7% reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, respectively, in brain and muscle tissues compared with the control exercised group. Our results indicated that the administration of rutin protected the mice against the depletion of SOD and GPx activities significantly. Following 7 days of rutin treatment, we sacrificed the mice and analyzed their soleus muscle and brain for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA expression. We observed that rutin treatment increased PGC-1α and SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression. The changes in these markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with increased maximal endurance capacity. The application of 2D gel electrophoresis to analyze the rutin-responsive protein profiles in the WFST mouse brain further revealed the upregulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1, myelin basic protein, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha, and TPI, indicating that rutin might inhibit anxiety through the upregulation of the expression of anxiety-associated proteins. Western blot analysis of MAPK expression further confirmed the antianxiety effects

  20. The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Heena; Frey, Julietta U

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window ("behavioral LTP-reinforcement"). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2-min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey (2003) J Neurosci 23:7281-7287; Korz and Frey (2005) J Neurosci 25:7393-7400; Ahmed et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26:3951-3958; Sajikumar et al., (2007) J Physiol 584.2:389-400) so far. We have reinvestigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2-min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively. PMID:23836535

  1. [Maternal methyl-containing dietary supplementation alters the ability to learn in adult rats in swimming Morris test].

    PubMed

    Pliusnina, I Z; Os'kina, I N; Shchepina, O A; Prasolova, L A; Trut, L N

    2006-01-01

    Maternal choline diet influences the spatial learning processes. In this work, the learning ability of adult progeny of mothers who had received methyl diet enriched with choline and betain during pregnancy and lactation was studied in Morris test. The introduction of the diet to pregnant rats resulted in an increase in the time of search for invisible platform and time of swimming near the pool walls in offsprings, which meant a worsening of their learning ability. It was also found that change in platform searching strategy was not associated with an increase in anxiety of male rats. Possible involvement of maternal methyl diet in the change of expression of genes which control development of the nervous system is discussed. PMID:16869262

  2. Similar effects of cocaine and immobilization stress on the levels of heat-shock proteins and stress-activated protein kinases in the rat hippocampus, and on swimming behaviors: the contribution of dopamine and benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K; Muso, E; Shiota, K; Hayashi, T

    2003-11-01

    Cocaine (COC) has been reported to cause effects similar to physiological stressors in the brain neuroendocrinal system, including heat-shock protein (HSP) expression, although these effects have not been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated (4 days) treatments with cocaine hydrochloride (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and 10 min immobilization stress (IM) on the distribution of HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) (SAPKalpha, SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) immunoreactive nerve cells (positive cells) in the rat hippocampus. The swimming behaviors of the rats in the forced swimming test were also examined. In both COC and IM groups, an early enhancement (5 h time point) of hippocampal HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HSC70) and SAPK (SAPKbeta, SAPKgamma) positive cells was observed, whereas a recovery (SAPKs) or attenuation (HSP60 and HSC70) was observed at the 24 h time point. In both groups, a depression of the swimming behaviors (attenuation in the activity counts and time until immobility) below the control level was observed at the 5 h point, but a recovery was observed at the 24 h time point. At the 48 h time point, all parameters returned to the control level. These alterations in the levels of HSPs and SAPKs, and the swimming behaviors were similar to those observed in the stress (IM) group, and were characteristic in that all of these alterations were attenuated by the benzodiazepine inverse agonist, Ro 15-4513 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), which was not observed in the groups treated with another stressor-like drug (bicuculline). PMID:14557723

  3. Investigation of flow mechanism of a robotic fish swimming by using flow visualization synchronized with hydrodynamic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu

    When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode (φ = - 75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1 - H1 and S2 - H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two antisymmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.

  4. Investigation of flow mechanism of a robotic fish swimming by using flow visualization synchronized with hydrodynamic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu

    2007-11-01

    When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode ( φ = -75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1-H1 and S2-H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two anti-symmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.

  5. A computational fluid dynamics analysis of hydrodynamic force acting on a swimmer's hand in a swimming competition.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yohei; Hino, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    A stroke-analysis system based on a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has been developed to evaluate the hydrodynamic forces acting on a swimmer's hand. Using the present stroke-analysis system, a stroke technique of top swimmers can be recognized with regard to the hydrodynamic forces. The developed analysis system takes into account the effect of a transient stroke motion including acceleration and a curved stroke path without using assumptions such as a quasi-static approach. An unsteady Navier-Stokes solver based on an unstructured grid method is employed as the CFD method to calculate a viscous flow around a swimmer's hand which can cope with the complicated geometry of hands. The CFD method is validated by comparison with experiments in steady-state and transient conditions. Following the validations, a stroke-analysis system is proposed, in which a hand moves in accordance with a stroke path measured by synchronized video cameras, and the fluid forces acting on the hand are computed with the CFD method. As a demonstration of the stroke-analysis system, two world class swimmers' strokes in a race of 200 m freestyle are analyzed. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the hands of the top swimmers are computed, and the comparison of two swimmers shows that the stroke of the faster swimmer, who advanced at 1.84 m·s(-1) during the stroke-analysis, generated larger thrust with higher thrust efficiency than that of the slower swimmer, who advanced at 1.75 m·s(-1). The applicability of the present stroke analysis system has been proved through this analysis. Key PointsThe stroke-analysis system using CFD technique has been established.The stroke path and the hand orientation are obtained from a swimming competition with two synchronized underwater video camera, and used for the input data to the CFD analysis.The hydrodynamic force acting on the swimmer's hand and thrust efficiency are analyzed, and the stroke technique can be evaluated. PMID:24421727

  6. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Hydrodynamic Force Acting on a Swimmer’S Hand in a Swimming Competition

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yohei; Hino, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    A stroke-analysis system based on a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has been developed to evaluate the hydrodynamic forces acting on a swimmer’s hand. Using the present stroke-analysis system, a stroke technique of top swimmers can be recognized with regard to the hydrodynamic forces. The developed analysis system takes into account the effect of a transient stroke motion including acceleration and a curved stroke path without using assumptions such as a quasi-static approach. An unsteady Navier-Stokes solver based on an unstructured grid method is employed as the CFD method to calculate a viscous flow around a swimmer’s hand which can cope with the complicated geometry of hands. The CFD method is validated by comparison with experiments in steady-state and transient conditions. Following the validations, a stroke-analysis system is proposed, in which a hand moves in accordance with a stroke path measured by synchronized video cameras, and the fluid forces acting on the hand are computed with the CFD method. As a demonstration of the stroke-analysis system, two world class swimmers’ strokes in a race of 200 m freestyle are analyzed. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the hands of the top swimmers are computed, and the comparison of two swimmers shows that the stroke of the faster swimmer, who advanced at 1.84 m·s-1 during the stroke-analysis, generated larger thrust with higher thrust efficiency than that of the slower swimmer, who advanced at 1.75 m·s-1. The applicability of the present stroke analysis system has been proved through this analysis. Key Points The stroke-analysis system using CFD technique has been established. The stroke path and the hand orientation are obtained from a swimming competition with two synchronized underwater video camera, and used for the input data to the CFD analysis. The hydrodynamic force acting on the swimmer’s hand and thrust efficiency are analyzed, and the stroke technique can be evaluated. PMID

  7. The effect of forced swim stress on morphine sensitization: Involvement of D1/D2-like dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Charmchi, Elham; Zendehdel, Morteza; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an essential role in morphine sensitization and suppression of pain. Repeated exposure to stress and morphine increases dopamine release in the NAc and may lead to morphine sensitization. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of forced swim stress (FSS), as a predominantly physical stressor and morphine on the development of morphine sensitization; focusing on the function of D1/D2-like dopamine receptors in the NAc in morphine sensitization. Eighty-five adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the NAc and various doses of SCH-23390 (0.125, 0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) as a D1 receptor antagonist and sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) as a D2 receptor antagonist were microinjected into the NAc, during a sensitization period of 3days, 5min before the induction of FSS. After 10min, animals received subcutaneous morphine injection (1mg/kg). The procedure was followed by 5days free of antagonist, morphine and stress; thereafter on the 9th day, the nociceptive response was evaluated by tail-flick test. The results revealed that the microinjection of sulpiride (at 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) or SCH-23390 (at 0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl/NAc) prior to FSS and morphine disrupts the antinociceptive effects of morphine and morphine sensitization. Our findings suggest that FSS can potentiate the effect of morphine and causes morphine sensitization which induces antinociception. PMID:27235796

  8. Effects of MK-886, a 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor, and 5-lipoxygenase deficiency on the forced swimming behavior of mice.

    PubMed

    Uz, Tolga; Dimitrijevic, Nikola; Imbesi, Marta; Manev, Hari; Manev, Radmila

    2008-05-01

    A common biological pathway may contribute to the comorbidity of atherosclerosis and depression. Increased activity of the enzymatic 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5LO) pathway is a contributing factor in atherosclerosis and a 5-LOX inhibitor, MK-886, is beneficial in animal models of atherosclerosis. In the brain, MK-886 increases phosphorylation of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1, and the increased phosphorylation of this receptor has been associated with antidepressant treatment. In this work, we evaluated the behavioral effects of MK-886 in an automated assay of mouse forced swimming, which identifies antidepressant activity as increased climbing behavior and/or decreased rest time. Whereas a single injection of MK-886 (3 and 10 mg/kg) did not affect forced swimming behaviors assayed 30 min later, six daily injections of 3 mg/kg MK-886 slightly increased climbing and significantly reduced rest time in wild-type mice but not in 5-LOX-deficient mice. A diet delivery of MK-886, 4 micro/(100 mg(body-weight)day), required 3 weeks to affect forced swimming; it increased climbing behavior. Climbing behavior was also increased in naive 5-LOX-deficient mice compared to naive wild-type controls. These results suggest that 5-LOX inhibition and deficiency may be associated with antidepressant activity. Increased climbing in a forced swimming assay is a typical outcome of antidepressants that increase noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity. Interestingly, 5-LOX deficiency and MK-886 treatment have been shown to be capable of increasing the behavioral effects of a noradrenaline/dopamine-potentiating drug, cocaine. Future research is needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:18403121

  9. Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.

    PubMed

    Teległów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Jaśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Głodzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced. PMID:22195477

  10. Swimming exercise changes hemodynamic responses evoked by blockade of excitatory amino receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Cristiana A; Schoorlemmer, Gerhardus H M; Lazari, Maria de Fátima M; Giannocco, Gisele; Lopes, Oswaldo U; Colombari, Eduardo; Sato, Monica A

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training reduces sympathetic activity in hypertensive humans and rats. We hypothesized that the swimming exercise would change the neurotransmission in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a key region involved in sympathetic outflow, and hemodynamic control in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Bilateral injections of kynurenic acid (KYN) were carried out in the RVLM in sedentary- (S-) or exercised- (E-) SHR and WKY rats submitted to swimming for 6 weeks. Rats were α-chloralose anesthetized and artificially ventilated, with Doppler flow probes around the lower abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery. Injections into the RVLM were made before and after i.v. L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor). Injections of KYN into the RVLM elicited a major vasodilation in the hindlimb more than in the mesenteric artery in E-SHR compared to S-SHR, but similar decrease in arterial pressure was observed in both groups. Injections of KYN into the RVLM after i.v. L-NAME attenuated the hindlimb vasodilation evoked by KYN and increased the mesenteric vasodilation in E-SHR. Swimming exercise can enhance the hindlimb vasodilation mediated by peripheral NO release, reducing the activation of neurons with EAA receptors in the RVLM in SHR. PMID:24696852

  11. Protective effects of forced exercise against methylphenidate-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment in rat

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Larijani, Setare Farokhi; Khajehamedi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH), a neural stimulant, can cause damages to brain; the chronic neurochemical and behavioral effects of MPH remain unclear. Exercise lowers stress and anxiety and can act as non-pharmacologic neuroprotective agent. In this study protective effects of exercise in MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment were investigated. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group 1 served as negative control, received normal saline (0.2 ml/rat) for 21 days, group 2 and 3 (as positive controls) received MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 4 and 5 concurrently were treated with MPH (10 and 20 mg/kg) and forced exercise for 21 days. On day 21, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT), Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) were used to investigate the level of anxiety and depression in animals. In addition between 17th and 21th days, Morris Water Maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the effect of MPH on spatial learning and memory. Results: MPH-treated animals indicated a reflective depression and anxiety in a dose-dependent manner in FST, EPM and TST which were significantly different from the control group and also can significantly attenuate the motor activity and anxiety in OFT. Forced exercise by treadmill can attenuate MPH-induced anxiety, depression and motor activity alteration in OFT. MPH also can disturb learning and memory in MWM and forced exercise can neutralize this effect of MPH. Conclusion: We conclude that forced exercise can be protective in brain against MPH-induced anxiety, depression and cognition alteration. PMID:26322282

  12. Antidepressant-like effects of Sanyuansan in the mouse forced swim test, tail suspension test, and chronic mild stress model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; You, Zi-Li; Zhao, Qiu-Ying; Peng, Cheng; He, Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Natural products have been widely reported as effective therapeutic alternatives for treatment of depression. Sanyuansan is a compound recipe composed of ginseng total saponins, fish oil, and valeriana. The aims of this study were to validate whether Sanyuansan has antidepressant-like effects through acute behavioral tests including the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity test, and chronic mild stress (CMS) mice model of depression. C57BL/6 mice were given oral administration of 30 mg/kg imipramine, Sanyuansan, and saline, respectively. The acute behavioral tests including the TST, FST, and locomotor activity test were done after the administration of drugs for consecutively three times (24 hours, 1 hour, and 0.5 hour prior to the tests). Furthermore, the sucrose preference and the serum corticosterone level of mice in the CMS model were examined. Sanyuansan only at 900 mg/kg markedly reduced immobility time in the TST compared with the saline-treated group of mice. Sanyuansan at doses of 225 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility time of mice in the FST. Sanyuansan reversed the CMS-induced anhedonia and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition, our results showed that neither imipramine nor Sanyuansan at any dosage increased spontaneous motor activity. These results suggested that Sanyuansan induced significant antidepressant-like effects in mice in both acute and chronic animal models, which seemed unlikely to be attributed to an increase in locomotor activities of mice, and had no sedative-like effects. PMID:26709221

  13. Analysis of swimming motions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallenstein, J.; Huston, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of swimming motion with specific attention given to the flutter kick, the breast-stroke kick, and the breast stroke. The analysis is completely theoretical. It employs a mathematical model of the human body consisting of frustrums of elliptical cones. Dynamical equations are written for this model including both viscous and inertia forces. These equations are then applied with approximated swimming strokes and solved numerically using a digital computer. The procedure is to specify the input of the swimming motion. The computer solution then provides the output displacement, velocity, and rotation or body roll of the swimmer.

  14. Caffeine enhances the antidepressant-like activity of common antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wróbel, Andrzej; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world which exerts its activity on central nervous system through adenosine receptors. Worrying data indicate that excessive caffeine intake applies to patients suffering from mental disorders, including depression. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of caffeine on animals' behavior in forced swim test (FST) as well as the effect of caffeine (5 mg/kg) on the activity of six typical antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), desipramine (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), paroxetine (0.5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg), and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Locomotor activity was estimated to verify and exclude false-positive/negative results. In order to assess the influence of caffeine on the levels of antidepressant drugs studied, their concentrations were determined in murine serum and brains using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that caffeine at a dose of 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST, and it was not related to changes in locomotor activity in the animals. Caffeine at a dose of 5 mg/kg potentiated the activity of all antidepressants, and the observed effects were not due to the increase in locomotor activity in the animals. The interactions between caffeine and desipramine, fluoxetine, escitalopram, and reboxetine were exclusively of pharmacodynamic character, because caffeine did not cause any changes in the concentrations of these drugs neither in blood serum nor in brain tissue. As a result of joint administration of caffeine and paroxetine, an increase in the antidepressant drug concentrations in serum was observed. No such change was noticed in the brain tissue. A decrease in the antidepressant drug concentrations in brain was observed in the case of imipramine administered together with caffeine. Therefore, it can be assumed that the interactions caffeine-paroxetine and caffeine-imipramine occur at least in

  15. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects. PMID:23770339

  16. Inhibitory effects of forced swim stress and corticosterone on the acquisition but not expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference: involvement of glucocorticoid receptor in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Karimi, Sara; Azizi, Pegah; Yazdi-Ravandi, Saeid; Hesam, Soghra; Haghparast, Abbas

    2013-09-01

    Addiction is a common chronic psychiatric disease which represents a global problem and stress has an important role to increase drug addiction and relapse. In the present study, we investigated the effects of physical stress and exogenous corticosterone on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Also, we tried to find out the role of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) of basolateral amygdala (BLA) in this regard. In the CPP paradigm, conditioning score and locomotion activity were recorded by Ethovision software. Male adult rats received forced swim stress (FSS) as a physical stress or corticosterone (10 mg/kg; ip) as a dominant stress hormone in rodents, 10min before morphine injection (5 mg/kg; sc) during three conditioning days (acquisition) or just prior to CPP test in the post-conditioning day (expression). In FSS procedure, animals were forced to swim for 6 min in cylinder filled with water (24-27 °C). To evaluate the role of glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA, different doses of mifepristone (RU38486) as a GR antagonist were injected into the BLA (0.3, 3 and 30 ng/side) during 3-day conditioning phase before FSS or injection of corticosterone in morphine-CPP paradigm. The results showed that FSS and corticosterone reduce the acquisition but not expression of morphine-induced CPP. Moreover, blockade of GRs in the BLA could diminish the inhibitory effects of FSS or corticosterone on the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP. It seems that stress exerts its effect on reward pathway via glucocorticoid receptors in the BLA. PMID:23800381

  17. Effects of aspirin on immobile behavior and endocrine and immune changes in the forced swimming test: comparison to fluoxetine and imipramine.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xi-ting; Shao, Feng; Xie, Xi; Chen, Lin; Wang, Weiwen

    2014-09-01

    Aspirin (ASP) is the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the world. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that ASP may also exert psychoactive effects. It remains unclear whether ASP has antidepressant-like activity, and any molecular mechanisms underlying such activity have yet to be elucidated. Using the forced swimming test (FST), a well-established animal model of depression widely used to screen potential antidepressants in rodents, we investigated the effects of subacute treatment with ASP (0, 6, 12, 25, and 50mg/kg, i.p.) on immobility in the FST, and on FST-induced changes in endocrine and immune parameters in rats, in comparison to the clinical antidepressants imipramine (IMI) and fluoxetine (FLU). Serum levels of corticosterone, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ASP dose-dependently decreased immobility in the FST, without altering the locomotor activity in the open-field test. The inhibitory effects of higher doses (25 and 50mg/kg) of ASP on immobility were similar to that of FLU and IMI at a dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, IL-6, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were significantly increased after the FST exposure. IMI, but not FLU and ASP at any dose tested, significantly attenuated corticosterone responses in the FST. Both FLU and IMI treatment reduced the increase of IL-6 and TNF-α levels following the FST exposure. ASP dose-dependently decreased FST-induced increase of cytokine levels, as manifested by significantly stronger effects on IL-6 and TNF-α levels at higher doses (25 and 50mg/kg) than the lowest dose of ASP (6 mg/kg). In all, these results indicate that ASP treatment dose-dependently decreased the immobility time and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the FST, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of ASP might be involved in the antidepressant-like effect

  18. Age-related responses of right ventricle in swim-trained rats: changes in lactate and pyruvate contents and lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Anitha, V; Asha Devi, S

    1996-09-18

    Age related changes in carbohydrate substrates such as, glucose, glycogen, pyruvic acid and lactic acid and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzyme profile were evaluated in the right ventricle (RV) of swim-trained rats of 6- (adult), 12- (middle-aged) and 18- (old) months-of-age. Moderate hypertrophy was seen in the heart and RV in response to training in all age groups with the 12 months exhibiting a significant increase. While resting levels of pyruvate and glucose in the RV showed small elevations in adult and middle-aged rats, lactic acid showed reductions in all ages. Glycogen supercompensation was seen in the RV of trained animals. These age-related alterations in RV were associated with decreases in blood lactic acid and glucose in the trained rats belonging to all ages. Total protein of the RV decreased with age and exercise increased the content. Total LDH and M4-LDH activities decreased with age. However, training increased their activities in all ages. These changes in the RV suggests that swimming activity produces adaptations (e.g. increased LDH and M4) in all age groups. Considering the degree of adaptations, it can be suggested that adult and middle-aged are suitable for initiating swim-training programs, but not in old age. PMID:8869911

  19. Antidepressant-like activity of liposomal formulation containing nimodipine treatment in the tail suspension test, forced swim test and MAOB activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lina Clara Gayoso E Almendra Ibiapina; Rolim, Hercília Maria Lins; Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that intracellular calcium ion dysfunction may be an etiological factor in affective illness. Nimodipine (NMD) is a Ca(2+) channel blocker that has been extensively investigated for therapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In this work, we have evaluated the antidepressant-like activity of nimodipine encapsulated into liposomes (NMD-Lipo) in mice through tail suspension and forced swim assays, as well as MAOB activity. During the tail suspension test, the administration of NMD-Lipo at 0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg was able to promote a reduction in the immobility time of animals greater than the positive control (imipramine). In the forced swim test, the immobility time of mice treated with NMD-Lipo was reduced. This reduction was significantly greater than that found in the animals treated with imipramine and paroxetine. This may suggest that NMD-Lipo provides more antidepressant-like activity than in positive controls. The groups that received a combination of liposomal NMD and antidepressant drugs showed lower immobility time than the groups, which were treated only with imipramine or paroxetine. The mice treated with the combination of NMD-Lipo and reserpine presented an increase in the time of immobility compared with animals treated only with NMD-Lipo. There was a significant decrease in MAOB activity in animals treated with NMD-Lipo compared with untreated animals. The results of the tail suspension test, forced swim test and MAOB activity suggested that the antidepressant activity of NMD-Lipo may be related to an increase in the cerebral monoamine concentrations. PMID:27270234

  20. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P.; Borah, M.; Das, S.

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th. Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:26600847

  1. A diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promote neuroprotection, reduced cell apoptosis and glial cell activation in the hypothalamus of old rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation. PMID:27215802

  2. Proteomic and Carbonylation Profile Analysis of Rat Skeletal Muscles following Acute Swimming Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pietrovito, Laura; Fiaschi, Tania; Bini, Luca; Esposito, Fabio; Marini, Marina; Abruzzo, Provvidenza Maria; Gulisano, Massimo; Modesti, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE) on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is one of the most common oxidative modifications of proteins and a marker of oxidative stress. In fact, several studies suggest that physical activity and the consequent increase in oxygen consumption can lead to increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production, hence the interest in examining the impact of RONS on skeletal muscle proteins following ASE. Results indicate that protein expression is unaffected by ASE in both muscle types. Unexpectedly, the protein carbonylation level was reduced following ASE. In particular, the analysis found 31 and 5 spots, in Soleus and EDL muscles respectively, whose carbonylation is reduced after ASE. Lipid peroxidation levels in Soleus were markedly reduced as well. Most of the decarbonylated proteins are involved either in the regulation of muscle contractions or in the regulation of energy metabolism. A number of hypotheses may be advanced to account for such results, which will be addressed in future studies. PMID:23967250

  3. [THE INFLUENCE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN RATS AFTER SWIMMING STRESS].

    PubMed

    Solin, A V; Lyashev, Yu D

    2015-08-01

    It was established in experiments on rats, that injection of opioid peptides DAGO (a selective igonist of opioid mu-receptors), DSLET (a selective agonist of opioid delta-receptors) or dynorpiin A (1-13) (a selective agonist of opioid kappa-receptors) decreased the stress-induced activatin of lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and plasma. A selective agonist of opioid mu-receptors) AGO manifested the most expressed activity. The using of investigating peptides caused the increase of superoxiddismutase activity in liver tissue. The reinforcement of catalase activity was )bserved in DSLET or dynorphin A (1-13). DAGO decreased its activity. The peptide effects of lifferent directions oncatalase activity in plasma were established. These effects can be explained y the stress-limiting action of peptides in entire organism, the peculiarities of opioid receptors spreading in liver tissue and by the influence of preceded load with non-complete oxidized sub stances after intensive swimming on the opioid receptor affinity. PMID:26591588

  4. Effects of maximum intensity aerobic swimming exercise until exhaustion at different times of day on the hematological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were: a) to analyze the time of day effect on the aerobic capacity and time to exhaustion at aerobic capacity intensity (TE), and b) to analyze the physiological impact of handling and exercise testing during the light and dark periods, based on hematological parameters. Eighty rats were randomly divided into two control groups (C12 and C20) and two exercise groups (E12 and E20), assessed at 12:00 h (C12 and E12) or 20:00 h (C20 and E20). The lactate minimum intensity (LMi) was measured and after 48 h the exercise groups were subjected to a bout of swimming until exhaustion at LMi (TE). The TE was 1.30 ± 0.51 h for the E12 group and 1.81 ± 0.77 h for the E20 group (p = 0.03). The time of day effect was significant for all white blood cell counts (12:00 h > 20:00 h). Chronic handling and performing exercise tests at 12:00 h (light period) resulted in an increased WBC counts and decreased exercise tolerance. The favorable time of day for aerobic capacity and performance assessment and hematological parameters was at 20:00 h (dark period), which is associated with the wakefulness period of the assessed animals. PMID:24013943

  5. Effects of Chronic Swimming Training and Oestrogen Therapy on Coronary Vascular Reactivity and Expression of Antioxidant Enzymes in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Claudio, Erick R. G.; Endlich, Patrick W.; Santos, Roger L.; Moysés, Margareth R.; Bissoli, Nazaré S.; Gouvêa, Sônia A.; Silva, Josiane F.; Lemos, Virginia S.; Abreu, Glaucia R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of swimming training (SW) and oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on coronary vascular reactivity and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in ovariectomized rats. Animals were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham (SH), ovariectomized (OVX), ovariectomized with E2 (OE2), ovariectomized with exercise (OSW), and ovariectomized with E2 plus exercise (OE2+SW). The SW protocol (5×/week, 60 min/day) and/or ERT were conducted for 8 weeks; the vasodilator response to bradykinin was analysed (Langendorff Method), and the expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and 2, catalase) and eNOS and iNOS were evaluated by Western blotting. SW and ERT improved the vasodilator response to the highest dose of bradykinin (1000 ng). However, in the OSW group, this response was improved at 100, 300 and 1000 ng when compared to OVX (p<0,05). The SOD-1 expression was increased in all treated/trained groups compared to the OVX group (p<0,05), and catalase expression increased in the OSW group only. In the trained group, eNOS increased vs. OE2, and iNOS decreased vs. SHAM (p<0,05). SW may represent an alternative to ERT by improving coronary vasodilation, most likely by increasing antioxidant enzyme and eNOS expression and augmenting NO bioavailability. PMID:23755145

  6. Mouse strain differences in immobility and sensitivity to fluvoxamine and desipramine in the forced swimming test: analysis of serotonin and noradrenaline transporter binding.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yumi; Kajiwara, Yoshinobu; Hirano, Kazufumi; Yamada, Shizuo; Tagawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Jun

    2008-09-11

    Strain differences in immobility time in the forced swimming test were investigated in five strains of mice, namely, ICR, ddY, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice. There were significant strain differences. The immobility times of ICR, ddY and C57BL/6 mice were longer than those of DBA/2 and BALB/c mice. Immobility times were not significantly related to locomotor activity in these strains. There were also differences in sensitivity to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine. In ICR, ddY and C57BL/6 mice, fluvoxamine did not affect immobility time, while it reduced the immobility time of DBA/2 and BALB/c mice dose-dependently. The noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine decreased immobility time in all strains of mice. Serotonin (5-HT) transporter binding in the brains of all five strains of mice was also investigated. Analysis of 5-HT transporter binding revealed significant strain differences, being lower in DBA/2 and BALB/c mice than in other strains of mice. The amount of 5-HT transporter binding was correlated to baseline immobility time. However, there was no significant relation between noradrenaline transporter binding and immobility time. These results suggest that the duration of baseline immobility depends on the levels of 5-HT transporter binding, leading to apparent strain differences in immobility time in the forced swimming test. Furthermore, differences in 5-HT transporter binding may cause variations in responses to fluvoxamine. PMID:18655786

  7. Melatonin Reduces Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Changes Induced by Stanozolol in Rats Exposed to Swimming Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa dos Santos, Gustavo; Machado Rodrigues, Marcelo José; Gonçalves, Estela Maria; Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are nominated for clinical use to promote protein synthesis in many therapeutic conditions. However, the indiscriminate use of AAS is related to hazardous cardiac disturbances and oxidative stress. We designed a study to investigate whether prolonged treatment with high doses of stanozolol modifies the activities of some antioxidant enzymes in the heart in sedentary and trained rats and whether this treatment causes alterations of cardiovascular parameters. In addition, the effectiveness of melatonin as an antioxidant and as a modulator of the cardiovascular side effects of stanozolol (STA) treatment was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: sedentary (S), stanozolol sedentary (SS), stanozolol-melatonin sedentary (SMS), trained (T), stanozolol trained (ST) and stanozolol-melatonin trained (SMT). The stanozolol-treatment rats received 5 mg.kg−1 by subcutaneous injection before each exercise session (5 d.wk−1, i.e., 25 mg.kg−1.wk−1), while control groups received only saline solution injection. The melatonin-treatment groups received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (10 mg.kg−1), 5 d.wk−1 for 6 wk. Electrocardiography, blood pressure and antioxidant enzyme activity measurements were performed at the end of the experimental period for cardiac function and molecular assessment. Results: This is the first time that the in vivo effects of melatonin treatment on stanozolol-induced cardiovascular side effects have been studied. Stanozolol induced bradycardia and significantly increased cardiac superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Trained stanozolol-treated rats experienced an increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight, and they developed left cardiac axis deviation. Although melatonin did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy in exercised stanozolol-treated animals, it maintained blood pressure and cardiac catalase activity, and it

  8. Aortic wall proteomic analysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats with a blood pressure decrease induced by 6-week load-free swimming

    PubMed Central

    FENG, HONG; LI, HAIYING; ZHANG, DERONG; ZHAO, YUNGANG; JIANG, NING; ZHAO, XIAOLING; ZHANG, YU; TAN, JUNZHEN; FANG, WEN; ZHANG, YONG; LIU, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Decreased arterial compliance is one of the earliest detectable manifestations of adverse structural and functional changes within the vessel wall in hypertension. The proteomic approach is a powerful technique to analyze a complex mixture of proteins in various settings. Physical activity level was negatively associated with blood pressure. Sixteen 4-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 16 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i) SHR exercise group, ii) SHR rest group, iii) WKY exercise group and iv) WKY rest group. In the SHR and WKY exercise groups, rats were treated with a 6-week load-free swimming protocol (1 h/day, 5 days/week). The blood pressure of the rats was tested by the CODATM2 single non-invasive blood pressure measurement appliance. After the 6-week swimming protocol, the total aorta excluding abdominal aorta was extracted. The proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified via LC-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. After 6-week load-free swimming, blood pressure decreased in the SHRs. Compared with sedentary SHRs, 11 spots on the 2D-gel showed a significant difference in exercised SHRs. Nine of these were chosen for further identification. There were 5 upregulated proteins (long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, heat shock protein β-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit α, actin, α cardiac muscle 1 preprotein and calmodulin isoform 2) and 4 downregulated proteins (adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, tubulin β-2C chain, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor and mimecan). Proteomics is an effective method to identify the target proteins of exercise intervention for hypertension. PMID:26405545

  9. Effects of swim training on liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats fed a low-fat or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake. PMID:22957766

  10. Enhancement of antidepressant-like activity by joint administration of imipramine and magnesium in the forced swim test: Behavioral and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kedzierska, Ewa; Wyska, Elzbieta; Librowski, Tadeusz; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    The effect of joint administration of imipramine (IMI) and magnesium (Mg) on antidepressant-like activity was studied in mice using forced swim test (FST). Mg doses ineffective per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) given jointly with IMI also at ineffective doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) resulted in a potent reduction in the immobility time. Since these combined treatments did not influence locomotor activity, the antidepressant-like activity was not due to non-specific behavioral activation. Moreover, we estimated the effect of joint administration of magnesium and IMI in FST on serum and brain magnesium, IMI and its active metabolite desipramine (DMI) concentrations in mice. Swim stress (mice subjected to FST) increased the magnesium concentration in serum and decreased it in the brain compared to naive animals. Moreover administration of IMI increased (normalized) magnesium brain concentration, without influence on the serum level. Joint administration of IMI and magnesium did not influence magnesium (compared with FST) or IMI and DMI (compared with IMI treatment alone) concentrations in both examined tissues. The present data demonstrated an enhancement of the antidepressant-like effect by joint administration of IMI and magnesium in the FST, and further indicate the particular role of magnesium in the antidepressant action. Since there was no increase in IMI, DMI or magnesium concentration after joint administration of magnesium and IMI, the data suggest that pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interaction between magnesium and IMI is accountable for behavioral effect in the FST. PMID:15936065

  11. The involvement of NMDA receptor/NO/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant like effects of baclofen in mouse force swimming test.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Zolfaghari, Samira; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-26

    In the current study, the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the antidepressant-like effects of baclofen was evaluated by using animal model in forced swimming test. Followed by an open field test for the evaluation of locomotor activity, the immobility time for mice in force swimming test was recorded. Only the last four min was analyzed. Administration of Baclofen (0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility interval in the FST. Prior administration of l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p.,) a nitric oxide synthase substrate or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.) a phosphodiesterase 5 into mice suppressed the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen (1mg/kg, i.p.).Co-treatment of 7-nitroindazole (50mg/kg, i.p.,) an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p.,) a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) an NMDA receptor antagonist with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared to the drugs when used alone. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg) or l-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time however, simultaneous administration of these two agents in same dose with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), minimized the immobility time in the FST. Thus, our results support the role of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-NO-GMP pathway in the antidepressant-like action of baclofen. PMID:26679225

  12. Dopamine D2/D3 but not dopamine D1 receptors are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Zhuo R; Ou, Bao C; Wang, Ya Q; Tan, Zhou B; Deng, Chang M; Gao, Yi Y; Tang, Ming; So, Ji H; Mu, Yang L; Zhang, Lan Q

    2015-02-15

    Major depressive disorder is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses. The traditional antidepressants often take several weeks, even months, to obtain clinical effects. However, recent clinical studies have shown that ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects within 2h and are long-lasting. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dopaminergic system was involved in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. The acute administration of ketamine (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), the more selective NMDA antagonist, also exerted rapid antidepressant-like effects. In contrast, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test after 30 min administration. Notably, pretreatment with haloperidol (0.15 mg/kg, a nonselective dopamine D2/D3 antagonist), but not SCH23390 (0.04 and 0.1 mg/kg, a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), significantly prevented the effects of ketamine or MK-801. Moreover, the administration of sub-effective dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) in combination with pramipexole (0.3 mg/kg, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist) exerted antidepressant-like effects compared with each drug alone. In conclusion, our results indicated that the dopamine D2/D3 receptors, but not D1 receptors, are involved in the rapid antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. PMID:25449845

  13. Association between gravitational force and tissue metabolism in periparturient rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzewska, E. I.; Maple, R.; Lintault, L.; Wade, C.; Baer, L.; Ronca, A.; Plaut, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, interest in mammalian reproduction and offspring survival in altered gravity has been growing. Because successful lactation is critical for mammalian neonate survival, we have been studying the effect of gravity metabolism. We have shown an exponential relationship between glucose metabolic rate in mammary tissue of periparturient rats and an increase in gravity load. In this study we showed that changes in mammary metabolic rate due to gravity force were accompanied by a decrease in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and by a reduced size of adipocytes. We assume that these changes are likely due to changes in prolactin or leptin levels related to altered gravity load.

  14. Secondary Structure of Rat and Human Amylin across Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  15. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin wasmore » determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states

  16. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  17. Secondary Structure of Rat and Human Amylin across Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi-Cheng; de Pablo, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  18. A lack of α1A-adrenergic receptor-mediated antidepressant-like effects of S-(+)-niguldipine and B8805-033 in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Grzegorz; Roman, Adam; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Marta; Nalepa, Irena

    2016-06-01

    The α1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs), which belong to a G protein-coupled receptor family, consist of three highly homologous subtypes known as α1A-ARs, α1B-ARs, and α1D-ARs. Our previous findings suggested that α1A-ARs are an important target for imipramine and electroconvulsive therapy. The current study sought to evaluate whether S-(+)-niguldipine and B8805-033, two selective antagonists of α1A-ARs, can evoke antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test in rats. Both compounds were administered at three time points (24, 5, and 1 h before testing), and the effects of three doses (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) of each compound were investigated. S-(+)-Niguldipine produced no antidepressant-like effects other than a 14% reduction in immobility time at the highest dose. Although B8805-033 at a dose of 2 mg/kg did not influence the rats' behavior, higher B8805-033 doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) produced significant reductions in immobility time (approximately 42 and 44% vs. controls, respectively; P<0.01). However, this effect was abolished by the concomitant administration of WAY100135, a serotonin receptor antagonist, suggesting that the observed antidepressant-like effects of B8805-033 are unrelated to α1A-ARs. Nevertheless, given the current dearth of selective α1A-AR agonists, the question of whether this particular subtype could be involved in antidepressant therapy mechanisms remains unresolved. PMID:26588212

  19. Protective effect of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive swimming-induced testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders in mature male rats.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Pravat K; Manna, Indranil; Ghosh, Prasanta; Singh, Narendra; Khetan, Ramawatar P; Ray, Binoy R

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the ameliorative potential of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate on intensive-swimming-induced testicular disorders, 48 Wistar male rats (age, 4 months; mass, 146.2 +/- 3.6 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: the unexercised-control group (n = 12); the exercised group (n = 12); the control supplemented group (n = 12); and the exercised supplemented group (n = 12). For 10 weeks, the exercised rats underwent a protocol that consisted of 4 h.d-1 swimming, for 6 d.week-1; the control rats did not exercise. For 10 weeks, both the supplemented groups received an oral daily dose of a combination of sodium selenite and zinc sulfate (6 and 3 mg.kg body mass-1, respectively). After 10 weeks, a significant reduction (p < 0.05) was seen in rats in the exercised group, compared with rats in both control groups, in paired testicular masses; in epididymal sperm count; in testicular Delta5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17beta-HSD; in plasma levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin; in the numbers of preleptotine spermatocytes, midpachytene spermatocytes, and stage 7 spermatids of the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle; and in fertility performance. As well, a significant increase (p < 0.05) was seen in the exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma corticosterone levels and in testicular content of malondialdehyde and catalase activity. At the same time, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the exercised group, compared with both control groups, in plasma concentrations of zinc and selenium; in the testicular content of glutathione (GSH), the glutathione and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) ratio, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol; and in testicular activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in the testes. No significant changes were seen in the number of spermatogonia-A from the stage VII seminiferous epithelium cycle or

  20. Anti-fatigue and vasoprotective effects of quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose on oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by endurance swimming in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin; Liu, Hua-Liang; Fang, Jie; Yu, Chen-Huan; Xiong, Yao-Kang; Yuan, Ke

    2014-06-01

    Chronic fatigue accumulation increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease while the treatment of antioxidants could prevent this development. We have previously shown that quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (QG), a flavonoid isolated from tonic herb Okra, possesses anti-oxidative properties. In the present study, the protective effects of QG were evaluated in a rat model of load-induced endurance swimming. Oral administration of QG at the doses of 25-75mg/kg could significantly improve the endurance capability of rats to fatigue along with decrease serum lactic acid and blood urea nitrogen levels were decreased. Moreover, QG could alleviate vascular impairments, enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuate the levels of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α). The results indicated that QG had anti-fatigue and vasoprotective effects and represented a potential agent for the treatment of aortic pathology involved with fatigue- and related syndrome. PMID:24685824

  1. Swimming Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  2. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  3. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  4. Swimming training attenuates the morphological reorganization of the myocardium and local inflammation in the left ventricle of growing rats with untreated experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Edson; Natali, Antônio José; da Silva, Márcia Ferreira; Gomes, Gilton de Jesus; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Toledo, Marileila Marques; Drummond, Filipe Rios; Ramos, Regiane Maria Soares; Dos Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Maldonado, Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with cardiac remodeling, myocardial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, and reduced cardiac adiponectin in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Alternatively, physical exercise is an important strategy for the management of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the influence of low-intensity swimming training in cardiac cytokines, structural remodeling, and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in growing rats with untreated experimental DM. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=14, per group): sedentary control (SC), exercised control (EC), sedentary diabetic (SD), and exercised diabetic (ED). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Animals from exercised groups swam (5 days/week, 90 min/day, loading up to 5% body weight around the animal's chest) for 8 weeks. The left ventricle (LV) was removed for molecular, morphological, and cardiomyocyte mechanical analysis. Diabetic animals presented cardiac remodeling with myocardial histoarchitectural disorganization, fibrosis, and necrosis. The capillary density was lower in diabetic animals. LV cardiomyocytes from diabetic animals exhibited more prolonged time to the peak of contraction and time to half relaxation than those from control animals. The cardiac levels of interleukin 10, nitric oxide, and total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were significantly decreased in diabetic animals. Exercise training reduced the level of TNF-α, increased capillary density, and attenuated the histopathological parameters assessed in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the cardiac structural remodeling coexists with reduced levels of total and HMW adiponectin, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte contractility dysfunction in experimental DM. More important, low-intensity swimming training attenuates part of these pathological changes, indicating the beneficial role for exercise in untreated T1DM. PMID:26896925

  5. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p <0.01) and the LLLT and exercise group (p <0.05). The results indicate that the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx were higher and statistically significant (p <0.05) in the LLLT/exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT. PMID:26861983

  6. Swimming Pools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Housing and Local Government, London (England).

    Technical and engineering data are set forth on the design and construction of swimming pools. Consideration is given to site selection, pool construction, the comparative merits of combining open air and enclosed pools, and alternative uses of the pool. Guidelines are presented regarding--(1) pool size and use, (2) locker and changing rooms, (3)…

  7. Orthodontic force decreases the eruption rate of rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Drevensek, M; Volk, J; Sprogar, S; Drevensek, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a force applied in an antero-posterior direction would adequately reduce incisor eruption. This is needed to achieve a constant direction of force which is one of the demands for a good model for studying orthodontic tooth movement. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 11-12 weeks were divided into two equal groups: in the appliance group, a superelastic closed coil spring (25 cN) was placed between the upper left first molar and the incisors. The control group consisted of animals without an appliance. In both groups, cuts were created on the labial surfaces of the upper and lower incisors. The distance from the gingival reference point to the midpoint of the cut was measured for 10 days at 2 day intervals. Upper incisor inclination was determined as the distance from the most mesial point of the upper left first molar to the incisal edge of the ipsilateral incisor on days 0 and 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post- test to estimate reliability. The eruption rates of the maxillary incisors in the appliance group were significantly decreased when compared with the control group during the whole experiment. In the appliance group, the eruption rates of the mandibular incisors were decreased more than those of the maxillary incisors (P<0.01). There was no difference in incisor inclination between the appliance and control groups on day 10 (P=0.81). The applied force of 25 cN in an antero-posterior direction diminished incisor eruption to a level which enabled a constant direction of orthodontic force for 10 days. PMID:19073954

  8. Atomic force microscopy analysis of rat pulmonary surfactant films.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiujun; Keating, Eleonora; Tadayyon, Seyed; Possmayer, Fred; Zuo, Yi Y; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2011-10-01

    Pulmonary surfactant facilitates breathing by forming a surface tension reducing film at the air-liquid interface of the alveoli. The objective was to characterize the structure of surfactant films using endogenous rat surfactant. Solid-support surfactant films, at different surface pressures, were obtained using a Langmuir balance and were analyzed using atomic force microscopy. The results showed a lipid film structure with three distinct phases: liquid expanded, liquid ordered and liquid condensed. The area covered by the liquid condensed domains increased as surface pressure increased. The presence of liquid ordered phase within these structures correlated with the cholesterol content. At a surface pressure of 50 mN/m, stacks of bilayers appeared. Several structural details of these films differ from previous observations made with goat and exogenous surfactants. Overall, the data indicate that surfactant films demonstrate phase separation at low surface pressures and multilayer formation at higher pressure, features likely important for normal surfactant function. PMID:21704443

  9. The swimming of animalcules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    2006-06-01

    Animalcules can swim in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number and low Stokes number by moving their body parts in a periodic coherent fashion. The swimming motion is analyzed in a simple model of beads subject to periodic one-body forces. In the model the animalcule is held together by reactive two-body forces. The nonlinear equations of Stokesian dynamics are formulated on the basis of the Oseen tensor. Under suitable conditions the solution of the equations of motion has a limit cycle character. The limit cycle is analyzed for small amplitude motion in the framework of a bilinear theory. The linearized equations of motion are solved analytically for longitudinal and transverse modes of motion for a linear trimer, and expressions are derived for the swimming velocity and the mean dissipation to second order in the force amplitude. The results of the bilinear theory are compared to numerical solution of the nonlinear equations of motion. A similar comparison is made for chains of twelve beads.

  10. Effects of ketamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior using the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Rotimi Adegbenga; Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Adeyemi, Oluwole Isaac

    2014-04-30

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine on fluoxetine-induced antidepressant behavior using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. In order to understand the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine, different groups of mice (n=10) were administered with acute ketamine (3mg/kg, i.p.), acute NMDA (75mg/kg and 150mg/kg, i.p.) and a 21-day chronic ketamine (15mg/kg, i.p./day) were administered prior to the administration of fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p.) in the mice. Antidepressant related behavior (immobility score) was measured using the forced swimming test. The results showed that the acute ketamine and fluoxetine alone treatments elicited a significant (p<0.05) reduction in immobility score compared with saline control. Furthermore, pre-treatment with acute ketamine significantly enhanced by the fluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. In contrast, pre-treatment with NMDA (150mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) reversed fluoxetine-induced decrease in immobility score. On the other hand, chronic administration of ketamine significantly elicited an increase in immobility score as well as reversed the reduction induced by fluoxetine. Similarly, NMDA administration at both 75mg/kg and 150mg/kg increased immobility score in chronically administered ketamine groups. Furthermore, chronic administration of ketamine, followed by NMDA (75mg/kg) and fluoxetine significantly elevated the immobility score when compared with the group that received NMDA and fluoxetine but not chronically treated with ketamine. It can be suggested) that facilitation of NMDA transmission blocked fluoxetine-induced reduction in immobility score, while down-regulation of NMDA transmission is associated with increase in fluoxetine-induced antidepressant-related behavior in mice. Down-regulation of the NMDA transmission is proposed as an essential component of mechanism of suppression of depression related behaviors by

  11. Desipramine attenuates forced swim test-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice: an in vivo(1)H-MRS study at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Yun-Jung; Kim, Hyeonjin; Lee, Do-Wan; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Choi, Chi-Bong; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2010-08-12

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral paradigm that is predicative of antidepressant activity in rodents. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of desipramine (DMI) pretreatment on behavioral and regional neurochemical responses in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of mice exposed to the FST using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). An ultra short echo stimulated echo acquisition (STEAM) localization sequence (TR/TM/TE=5000/20/2.2ms) was used to measure in vivo proton spectra from the left DLPFC (voxel volume: 7microl) and hippocampus (6microl) of C57BL/6 mice at 9.4T and acquired proton spectra post-processed offline with LCModel. The FST induced significant increase of glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mIns) concentrations in the left DLPFC and hippocampus, respectively. In addition, creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr) concentrations in the left DLPFC were significantly decreased as compared to control. The metabolic alterations induced by the FST were reverted to level similar to control by acute DMI administration. Our results suggest that glutamatergic activity and glial cell dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression and that modulation of synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations represents a potential target for antidepressant drug development. PMID:20542016

  12. Antidepressant-like activity of resveratrol treatment in the forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice: the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of ERK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Gu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueer; Xie, Kai; Luan, Qinsong; Wan, Nianqing; Zhang, Qun; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Dexiang

    2013-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities. There is only limited information about the antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol. The present study assessed whether resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg, i.p., 21days) has an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and examined what its molecular targets might be. The results showed that resveratrol administration produced antidepressant-like effects in mice, evidenced by the reduced immobility time in the FST and TST, while it had no effect on the locomotor activity in the open field test. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels, which had been elevated by the FST and TST. Moreover, resveratrol increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. All of these antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol were essentially similar to those observed with the clinical antidepressant, fluoxetine. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol in the FST and TST are mediated, at least in part, by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, BDNF and ERK phosphorylation expression in the brain region of mice. PMID:24125781

  13. Antidepressant-like effect of Hoodia gordonii in a forced swimming test in mice: evidence for involvement of the monoaminergic system

    PubMed Central

    Citó, M.C.O.; Silva, M.I.G.; Santos, L.K.X.; Fernandes, M.L.; Melo, F.H.C.; Aguiar, J.A.C.; Lopes, I.S.; Sousa, P.B.; Vasconcelos, S.M.M.; Macêdo, D.S.; Sousa, F.C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii is a plant species used traditionally in southern Africa to suppress appetite. Recently, it has been associated with a significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate in women, suggesting sympathomimetic activity. The present study investigated the possible antidepressant-like effects of acute and repeated (15 days) administration of H. gordonii extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, po) to mice exposed to a forced swimming test (FST). Neurochemical analysis of brain monoamines was also carried out to determine the involvement of the monoaminergic system on these effects. Acute administration of H. gordonii decreased the immobility of mice in the FST without accompanying changes in general activity in the open-field test during acute treatment, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. The anti-immobility effect of H. gordonii was prevented by pretreatment of mice with PCPA [an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis], NAN-190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (a 5-HT3A antagonist), prazosin (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (a D1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and sulpiride (a D2 receptor antagonist). A significant increase in 5-HT levels in the striatum was detected after acute administration, while 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly elevated after chronic treatment. Results indicated that H. gordonii possesses antidepressant-like activity in the FST by altering the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25493384

  14. Antidepressant-like effect of Hoodia gordonii in a forced swimming test in mice: evidence for involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Citó, M C O; Silva, M I G; Santos, L K X; Fernandes, M L; Melo, F H C; Aguiar, J A C; Lopes, I S; Sousa, P B; Vasconcelos, S M M; Macêdo, D S; Sousa, F C F

    2015-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii is a plant species used traditionally in southern Africa to suppress appetite. Recently, it has been associated with a significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate in women, suggesting sympathomimetic activity. The present study investigated the possible antidepressant-like effects of acute and repeated (15 days) administration of H. gordonii extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, po) to mice exposed to a forced swimming test (FST). Neurochemical analysis of brain monoamines was also carried out to determine the involvement of the monoaminergic system on these effects. Acute administration of H. gordonii decreased the immobility of mice in the FST without accompanying changes in general activity in the open-field test during acute treatment, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. The anti-immobility effect of H. gordonii was prevented by pretreatment of mice with PCPA [an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis], NAN-190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (a 5-HT3A antagonist), prazosin (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (a D1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and sulpiride (a D2 receptor antagonist). A significant increase in 5-HT levels in the striatum was detected after acute administration, while 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly elevated after chronic treatment. Results indicated that H. gordonii possesses antidepressant-like activity in the FST by altering the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25493384

  15. Antidepressant-like effect of Hoodia gordonii in a forced swimming test in mice: evidence for involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Citó, M C O; Silva, M I G; Santos, L K X; Fernandes, M L; Melo, F H C; Aguiar, J A C; Lopes, I S; Sousa, P B; Vasconcelos, S M M; Macêdo, D S; Sousa, F C F

    2014-11-01

    Hoodia gordonii is a plant species used traditionally in southern Africa to suppress appetite. Recently, it has been associated with a significant increase in blood pressure and pulse rate in women, suggesting sympathomimetic activity. The present study investigated the possible antidepressant-like effects of acute and repeated (15 days) administration of H. gordonii extract (25 and 50 mg/kg, po) to mice exposed to a forced swimming test (FST). Neurochemical analysis of brain monoamines was also carried out to determine the involvement of the monoaminergic system on these effects. Acute administration of H. gordonii decreased the immobility of mice in the FST without accompanying changes in general activity in the open-field test during acute treatment, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. The anti-immobility effect of H. gordonii was prevented by pretreatment of mice with PCPA [an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis], NAN-190 (a 5-HT1A antagonist), ritanserin (a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist), ondansetron (a 5-HT3A antagonist), prazosin (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (a D1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and sulpiride (a D2 receptor antagonist). A significant increase in 5-HT levels in the striatum was detected after acute administration, while 5-HT, norepinephrine and dopamine were significantly elevated after chronic treatment. Results indicated that H. gordonii possesses antidepressant-like activity in the FST by altering the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25387571

  16. The development of swimming power

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Giorgio; Leban, Bruno; Paderi, Maurizio; Padulo, Johnny; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Pau, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Summary Purpose: the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the transfer strength training method on swimming power. Methods: twenty male swimmers “master“ were randomly allocated to strength (n= 10, ST) and swimming training (n=10, SW) groups. Both groups performed six-weeks training based on swimming training for SW and strength training which consisted in a weight training session immediately followed by the maximum swimming velocity. The performance in both groups was assessed by Maximal-Mechanical-External-Power (MMEP) before and after the six-weeks period, using a custom ergometer that provided force, velocity, and power measurement in water. Results: a significant increased MMEP in ST group (5.73% with p< 0.05) was obtained by an increased strength (11.70% with p< 0.05) and a decreased velocity (4.99% with p> 0.05). Conversely, in the SW group there was a decreased in MMEP (7.31%; p< 0.05), force and velocity (4.16%, and 3.45; respectively p> 0.05). Conclusion: this study showed that the transfer training method, based on combination of weight training (in dry condition) immediately followed by fast swim (in water) significantly improves swimming-power in master. PMID:25767781

  17. Swimming Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his experience as an 11-year-old swimmer and shares the lessons he learned as a member of the swim team. In his experience as one of the slowest team members, he discovered that slow and steady does not win the race, and when the focus is only on achievement, one loses the value of failure. As an adult, he…

  18. Unsteady swimming of small organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2012-11-01

    Small planktonic organisms ubiquitously display unsteady or impulsive motion to attack a prey or escape a predator in natural environments. Despite this, the role of unsteady hydrodynamic forces such as history and added mass forces on the low Reynolds number propulsion of small organisms is poorly understood. In this paper, we derive the fundamental equation of motion for an organism swimming by the means of surface distortion in a nonuniform flow at a low Reynolds number regime. We show that the history and added mass forces, that where traditionally neglected in the literature for small swimming organisms, cannot be neglected as the Stokes number increases above unity. For example, these unsteady inertial forces are of the same order as quasi-steady Stokes forces for Paramecium. Finally, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. This work is supported by NSF grant CBET-1066545.

  19. Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Alves, S; Gundlah, C; Rocha, B; Birzin, E T; Cai, S-J; Flick, R; Hayes, E; Ho, K; Warrier, S; Pai, L; Yudkovitz, J; Fleischer, R; Colwell, L; Li, S; Wilkinson, H; Schaeffer, J; Wilkening, R; Mattingly, E; Hammond, M; Rohrer, S P

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the uterus, mammary gland, and skeleton. ERβ, however, modulates estrogen signaling in the ovary, the immune system, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and hypothalamus, and there is some evidence that ERβ can regulate ERα activity. Moreover, ERβ knockout studies and receptor distribution analyses in the CNS suggest that this receptor may play a role in the modulation of mood and cognition. In recent years several ERβ-specific compounds (selective estrogen receptor beta modulators; SERM-beta) have become available, and research suggests potential utility of these compounds in menopausal symptom relief, breast cancer prevention, diseases that have an inflammatory component, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as modulation of mood, and anxiety. Here we demonstrate an antidepressant-like effect obtained using two SERM-beta compounds, SERM-beta1 and SERM-beta2. These compounds exhibit full agonist activity at ERβ in a cell based estrogen response element (ERE) transactivation assay. SERM-beta1 and 2 are non-proliferative with respect to breast as determined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-based assay and non-proliferative in the uterus as determined by assessing the effects of SERM-beta compounds on immature rat uterine weight and murine uterine weight. In vivo SERM-beta1 and 2 are brain penetrant and display dose dependent efficacy in the murine dorsal raphe assays for induction of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and progesterone receptor protein. These compounds show activity in the murine forced swim test and promote hippocampal neurogenesis acutely in rats. Taken

  20. Repeated measurements of respiratory mechanics in developing rats utilizing a forced oscillation technique.

    PubMed

    Heulitt, Mark J; Jones, Stacie M; Holt, Shirley J; Thurman, Tracy L; Jo, Chan-Hee; Simpson, Pippa M

    2008-09-01

    The ability to successfully intubate the trachea of rats repeatedly over time, recover them, and perform repeated measures of changes in respiratory mechanics is important. The authors performed experiments utilizing 2 groups of rats at various ages in their development. Rats in the single-measurement group were studied at 1 age only. Rats in the repeated-measurement group were studied at each age point over time. Measurements of respiratory mechanics were made utilizing a forced-oscillation technique. We found no differences in respiratory mechanics between the 2 groups. Our results demonstrate that developing rats can be studied longitudinally to illustrate maturational changes in respiratory mechanics. PMID:18716927

  1. Involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 antagonists in mouse forced swimming test and tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) antagonists such as ondansetron and tropisetron exert positive behavioral effects in animal models of depression. Due to the ionotropic nature of 5-HT3 and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, plus their contribution to the pathophysiology of depression, we investigated the possible role of NMDA receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in male mice. In order to evaluate the animals' behavior in response to different treatments, we performed open-field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail-suspension test (TST), which are considered as valid tasks for measuring locomotor activity and depressive-like behaviors in mice. Our data revealed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of tropisetron (5, 10, and 30mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.01, and 0.1μg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in FST and TST. Also, co-administration of subeffective doses of tropisetron (1mg/kg, i.p.) or ondansetron (0.001μg/kg, i.p.) with subeffective doses of NMDA receptor antagonists, ketamine (1mg/kg, i.p.), MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) and magnesium sulfate (10mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in a reduced immobility time both in FST and TST. The subeffective dose of NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist, 75mg/kg, i.p.) abolished the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists in FST and TST, further supporting the presumed interaction between 5-HT3 and NMDA receptors. These treatments did not affect the locomotor behavior of animals in OFT. Finally, the results of our study suggest that the positive effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on the coping behavior of mice in FST and TST are at least partly mediated through NMDA receptors participation. PMID:26604075

  2. NMDA-NO signaling in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus time-dependently modulates the behavioral responses to forced swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Cassiano R A F; Casarotto, Plínio C; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2016-07-01

    Hodological and genetic differences between dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) hippocampus may convey distinct behavioral roles. DH is responsible for mediating cognitive process, such as learning and memory, while VH modulates neuroendocrine and emotional-motivational responses to stress. Manipulating glutamatergic NMDA receptors and nitric oxide (NO) systems of the hippocampus induces important changes in behavioral responses to stress. Nevertheless, there is no study concerning functional differences between DH and VH in the modulation of behavioral responses induced by stress models predictive of antidepressant effects. Thus, this study showed that reversible blockade of the DH or VH of animals submitted to the forced swimming test (FST), by using cobalt chloride (calcium-dependent synaptic neurotransmission blocker), was not able to change immobility time. Afterwards, the NMDA-NO system was evaluated in the FST by means of intra-DH or intra-VH administration of NMDA receptor antagonist (AP7), NOS1 and sGC inhibitors (N-PLA and ODQ, respectively). Bilateral intra-DH injections after pretest or before test were able to induce antidepressant-like effects in the FST. On the other hand, bilateral VH administration of AP-7, N-PLA and ODQ induced antidepressant-like effects only when injected before the test. Administration of NO scavenger (C-PTIO) intra-DH, after pretest and before test, or intra-VH before test induced similar results. Increased NOS1 levels was associated to stress exposure in the DH. These results suggest that the glutamatergic-NO system of the DH and VH are both able to modulate behavioral responses in the FST, albeit with differential participation along time after stress exposure. PMID:27016428

  3. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. PMID:27225351

  4. Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, nicotine and scopolamine, in the depression-related responses using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results revealed that acute injection of oleamide (10 and 20 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor agonist, caused antidepressant-like effect in the FST, while AM 251 (0.25-3 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not provoke any effect in this test. Moreover, acute administration of both CB2 receptor agonist, JWH 133 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and CB2 receptor antagonist, AM 630 (0.5 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant action. Antidepressant effects of oleamide and JWH 133 were attenuated by acute injection of both non-effective dose of AM 251, as well as AM 630. Among the all CB compounds used, only the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg) with non-effective dose of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) caused an antidepressant effect. However, none of the CB receptor ligands, had influence on the antidepressant effects provoked by nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) injection. In turn, the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg); JWH (2 mg/kg) or AM 630 (2 mg/kg), but not of AM 251 (0.25 mg/kg), with non-effective dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant properties. Indeed, all of the CB compounds used, intensified the antidepressant-like effects induced by an acute injection of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg). Our results provide clear evidence that the endocannabinoid system participates in the depression-related behavior and through interactions with cholinergic system modulate these kind of responses. PMID:25660201

  5. Involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron in mice forced swimming test and tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Amini-Khoei, Hossien; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2016-06-01

    Antidepressant-like effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3 (5-HT3) antagonists including tropisetron and ondansetron have been previously demonstrated in the literature. It was reported that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors activate the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, which is involved in regulation of behavioral and emotional functions. In our study, treating animals with tropisetron (5, 10, and 30mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.01 and 0.1µg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in forced swimming test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST). Co-administration of subeffective doses of tropisetron (1mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.001µg/kg) with subeffective dose of l-NAME (10mg/kg, nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor) and 7-nitroindazole (25mg/kg, neural NOS inhibitor) exerted antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST, while aminoguanidine (50mg/kg, inducible NOS inhibitor) did not enhance the antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 antagonists. Besides, l-arginine (750mg/kg, NO precursor) and sildenafil (5mg/kg, phosphodiesterase inhibitor) suppressed the anti-immobility effect of 5-HT3 antagonists. None of the treatments altered the locomotor behavior of mice in open-field test. Also, hippocampal (but not cortical) nitrite level was significantly lower in tropisetron and ondansetron-treated mice compared with saline-injected mice. Also, co-administration of 7-nitroindazole with tropisetron or ondansetron caused a significant decrease in hippocampal nitrite levels. In conclusion, we suggest that antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron are partially mediated by modulation of NO-cGMP pathway. PMID:27001377

  6. Pharmacological evidence for the involvement of the NMDA receptor and nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of lamotrigine in the mouse forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Ahangari, Mohammad; Nikoui, Vahid; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Samira; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Chamanara, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reyhaneh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-08-01

    Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant agent that shows clinical antidepressant properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) synthesis in possible antidepressant-like effect of lamotrigine in forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of lamotrigine (10mg/kg) decreased the immobility time in the FST (P<0.01) without any effect on locomotor activity in the open-field test (OFT), while higher dose of lamotrigine (30mg/kg) reduced the immobility time in the FST (P<0.001) as well as the number of crossings in the OFT. Pretreatment of animals with NMDA (75mg/kg), l-arginine (750mg/kg, a substrate for nitric oxide synthase [NOS]) or sildenafil (5mg/kg, a phosphodiesterase [PDE] 5 inhibitor) reversed the antidepressant-like effect of lamotrigine (10mg/kg) in the FST. Injection of l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10mg/kg, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (30mg/kg, a neuronal NOS inhibitor), methylene blue (20mg/kg, an inhibitor of both NOS and soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]), or MK-801 (0.05mg/kg), ketamine (1mg/kg), and magnesium sulfate (10mg/kg) as NMDA receptor antagonists in combination with a sub-effective dose of lamotrigine (5mg/kg) diminished the immobility time of animals in the FST compared with either drug alone. None of the drugs produced significant effects on the locomotor activity in the OFT. Based on our findings, it is suggested that the antidepressant-like effect of lamotrigine might mediated through inhibition of either NMDA receptors or NO-cGMP synthesis. PMID:27470415

  7. Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of topiramate in mice forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Chamanara, Mohsen; Jazaeri, Farahnaz; Zolfaghari, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-04-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is an agent primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. Using mice model of forced swimming test (FST) the current study was basically aimed to investigate the influence of TPM on depression by inhibiting NMDA receptor and nitric oxide-cGMP production. When TPM was administered in a dose of 20 and 30 mg/kg by i.p. route it reduced the immobility time during FST. However this effect of TPM (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST was abolished when the mice were pretreated either with NMDA (75 mg/kg, i.p.), or l-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p. NO precursor), or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor). The immobility time in the FST was reduced after administration of L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p, a non-specific NOS inhibitor), 7-nitoinidazol (30 mg/kg, i.p. a nNOS inhibitor) or MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p, a NMDA receptor antagonist) in combination with a subeffective dose of TPM (10mg/kg, i.p.) as compared with single use of either drug. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) or L-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time. However, simultaneous administration of these two agents in the same doses with subeffective dose of TPM (10mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time during FST. None of these drugs were found to have a profound effect on the locomotor activity per se during the open field test. Taken together, our data demonstrates that TPM exhibit antidepressant-like effect which is accomplished either due to inhibition of NMDA receptors or NO-cGMP production. PMID:26988103

  8. Antidepressant-like effect of bis-eugenol in the mice forced swimming test: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Jeferson Falcão; Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; de Aquino Neto, Manuel Rufino; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; de Carvalho, Alyne Mara Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Patrícia Freire; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan Chavez; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2013-10-01

    Dehydrodieugenol, known as bis-eugenol, is a eugenol ortho dimer, and both compounds were able to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in previous studies. Furthermore, eugenol showed antidepressant-like effect; however, the biological actions of bis-eugenol on experimental models for screening antidepressant activity are still unknown. The present study investigated a possible antidepressant-like activity of bis-eugenol in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and the involvement in the monoaminergic system in this effect. In addition, a neurochemical analysis on brain monoamines of mice acutely treated with bis-eugenol was also conducted. Bis-eugenol decreased the immobility time in the FST and TST without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open field test at 10 mg/kg, i.p.. Nevertheless, it induced ambulation at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses. The anti-immobility effect of bis-eugenol (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for four consecutive days), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (15 μg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist) and sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). Monoamines analysis using high-performance liquid chromatograph revealed significant increase in the 5-HT, NE and DA levels in brain striatum. The present study indicates that bis-eugenol possesses antidepressant-like activity in FST and TST by altering dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic systems function. PMID:22827775

  9. The effect of swimming exercise and powdered-Salicornia herbacea L. ingestion on glucose metabolism in STZ-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Se Sil; Seo, Hyobin; Ryu, Sungpil; Kwon, Tae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of Salicornia herbacea L. powder ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods To achieve this objective, 35 Sprague-Dawley male rats were raised with feed mixed with Salicornia herbacia L. powder and given specific periods to swim for 5 weeks. There was no significant difference in the insulin increase rate while ingesting Salicornia herbacea L. powder and simultaneously exercising. Results Compared to the diabetes mellitus group, HOMA-IR was significantly decreased in the diabetes mellitus + exercise group, diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea group, and the diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea + exercise group. However, changes in blood glucose were significant in each group. Thus, for the result of GLUT-4 and GLUT-2, which are the glycose transporters of the liver and muscle, diabetes mellitus + exercise group, diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea group, and diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea + exercise group showed significantly higher expressions. The glycogen concentration of the liver and muscle was significantly increased in the diabetes mellitus + exercise group, diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea group, and diabetes mellitus + Salicornia herbacea + exercise group. Conclusion With the results above, it seems that taking Salicornia herbacea L. powder and exercise will help prevent various diabetic complications. Therefore, the findings of this study could justify Salicornia herbacea L. powder with its basal data of physiological activities and pharmacological components as a type of health functional food. PMID:26525167

  10. Swimming Eigenworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bussel, Frank; Khan, Zeina; Rahman, Mizanur; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    The nematode C. Elegans is a much studied organism, with a fully mapped genome, cell structure, and nervous system; however, aspects of its behavior have yet to be elucidated, particularly with respect to motility under various conditions. Recently the ``Eigenworm'' technique has emerged as a promising avenue of exploration: via principle component analysis it has been shown that the state space of a healthy crawling worm is low dimensional, in that its shape can be well described by a linear combination of just four eigenmodes. So far, use of this methodology with swimming worms has been somewhat tentative, though medical research such as drug screening is commonly done with nematodes in fluid environments e.g. well plates. Here we give initial results for healthy worms swimming in liquids of varying viscosity. The main result is that at the low viscosities (M9 buffer solution) the state space is even lower dimensional than that for the crawling worm, with only two significant eigenmodes; and that as viscosity increases so does the number of modes needed for an adequate shape description. As well, the shapes of the eigenmodes undergo significant transitions across the range of viscosities looked at.

  11. Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress and reproductive dysfunction in male wistar rats: protective role of alpha-tocopherol succinate.

    PubMed

    Manna, Indranil; Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Prabhat Kumar

    2004-04-01

    In the present study, 30 male rats (age 3 mos, Wt 128.6 +/- 3.7 g) were randomly divided into Control group (CG), Experimental group (EG), and Supplemented group (SG), 10 per group. An exercise protocol (3 hrs swimming per day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks) was followed in EG and SG, with no exercise in CG. In SG, alpha-tocopherol succinate was injected sub-cutaneously at a dose of 50 mg x kg(- 1) per body weight per day. After 4 weeks of exercise, significant diminutions (p < 0.05) were noted in somatic indices of testes and accessory sex organs; seminiferous tubuler diameter (STD); testicular (delta (5), 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase delta(5), 3 beta-HSD), 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) activities; plasma levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH); preleptotine spermatocytes (pLSc), mid-pachytene spermatocytes (mPSc), and Stage 7 spermatids (7 Sd); testicular alpha-tocopherol and glutathione (GSH) content; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities in EG when compared to CG. Moreover, a significant elevation (p < 0.05) in malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in testes of EG compared to CG. No significant alteration was noted in body weight among the groups. Co-administration of alpha-tocopherol succinate restored the above parameters. Intensive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress causes dysfunction in the male reproductive system, which can be protected by alpha-tocopherol succinate. PMID:15064426

  12. Synergistic antidepressant-like effects between a kappa opioid antagonist (LY2444296) and a delta opioid agonist (ADL5859) in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Tallarida, Ronald; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor antagonists and delta opioid (DOP) receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in animal tests and may be useful for treatment-resistant depression in humans. In this study, we examined whether the combination of a KOP receptor antagonist and a DOP receptor agonist would produce a better than additive effect (i.e. synergy). LY2444296 is a short-acting selective nonpeptide KOP receptor antagonist. ADL5859 is a selective nonpeptide DOP receptor agonist which does not produce seizures and EEG disturbances. Each compound and combinations of the two were examined in the forced swim test (FST) one h post injection, a screening test for antidepressant-like effect, in male adult C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Lab). LY2444296 [subcutaneous (s.c.) injection] at 10 and 30mg/kg, but not 3mg/kg, significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ADL5859 also reduced immobility time dose-dependently at doses of 3 and 10mg/kg, but not at 1mg/kg. An analysis was conducted using the method of Tallarida and Raffa (2010), which employed dose equivalence. The relative potency of the drugs was determined to be LY2444296: ADL5859=1:0.28, which was the dose ratio for combination studies. Six combinations of the two compounds were tested in mice at a fixed dose ratio. We found that LY2444296 and ADL5859 yielded significant synergistic effects for the antidepressant-like effect at the combined dose ranging from 3.84mg/kg to 9.0mg/kg. ADL5859 (10mg/kg), LY2444296 (30mg/kg) and their combined dose (3.84mg/kg) had no effects on locomotor activities. Since the two drugs have distinct pharmacological profiles, such a synergism will allow use of lower doses of both drugs to achieve desired antidepressant effects with fewer side effects. PMID:27044434

  13. Antidepressant effect of pramipexole in mice forced swimming test: A cross talk between dopamine receptor and NMDA/nitric oxide/cGMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Imran Khan, Muhammad; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-07-01

    Pramipexole is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist indicated for treating Parkinson disorder. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of pramipexole in forced swimming test (FST) in mice and the possible involvement of activation of D2 receptors and inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) on this effect. Intraperitoneal administration of pramipexole (1-3mg/kg) reduced the immobility time in the FST similar to fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p.). This effect of pramipexole (1mg/kg, i.p.) was ceased when mice were pretreated with haloperidol (0.15mg/kg, i.p,) and sulpiride (5mg/kg, i.p) as D2 receptor antagonists, NMDA (75mg/kg,i.p.), l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p., a substrate for nitric oxide synthase) or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p., a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor). The administration of MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p., a NMDA receptor antagonist) l-NG-Nitro arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10mg/kg, i.p., a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor), 7-nitroindazole (30mg/kg, i.p., a neuronal NOS inhibitor) and methylene blue (10mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of both NOS and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in combination with the sub-effective dose of pramipexole (0.3mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility. Altogether, our data suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of pramipexole is dependent on the activation of D2 receptor and inhibition of either NMDA receptors and/or NO-cGMP synthesis. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effect of pramipexole and reinforce the role of D2 receptors, NMDA receptors and l-arginine-NO-GMP pathway in the antidepressant mechanism of this agent. PMID:27261607

  14. Feeding and swimming of flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a dominant role for small planktonic flagellates and shapes their survival strategies. The high diversity of beat patterns and arrangements of appendages indicates different strategies balancing the trade-offs between the general goals, i.e., energy-efficient swimming, feeding, and predator avoidance. One type of flagellated algae that we observe, are haptophytes, which possess two flagella for flow creation and one so-called haptonema, a long, rigid structure fixed on the cell body, which is used for prey capture. We present videos and flow fields obtained using velocimetry methods around freely swimming haptophytes and other flagellates, which we compare to analytical results obtained from point force models. The observed and modelled flows are used to analyse how different morphologies and beat patterns relate to different feeding or swimming strategies, such as the capture mechanism in haptophytes. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR center of excellence supported by the Villum foundation.

  15. Attenuated Stress Response to Acute Restraint and Forced Swimming Stress in Arginine Vasopressin 1b Receptor Subtype (Avpr1b) Receptor Knockout Mice and Wild-Type Mice Treated with a Novel Avpr1b Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Roper, J A; Craighead, M; O’Carroll, A-M; Lolait, S J

    2010-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesised in the parvocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and released into the pituitary portal vessels acts on the 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) present in anterior pituitary corticotrophs to modulate the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is considered the major drive behind ACTH release; however, its action is augmented synergistically by AVP. To determine the extent of vasopressinergic influence in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint and forced swimming stress, we compared the stress hormone levels [plasma ACTH in both stressors and corticosterone (CORT) in restraint stress only] following acute stress in mutant Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice compared to their wild-type controls following the administration of a novel Avpr1b antagonist. Restraint and forced swimming stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH were significantly diminished in mice lacking a functional Avpr1b and in wild-type mice that had been pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. A corresponding decrease in plasma CORT levels was also observed in acute restraint-stressed knockout male mice, and in Avpr1b-antagonist-treated male wild-type mice. By contrast, plasma CORT levels were not reduced in acutely restraint-stressed female knockout animals, or in female wild-type animals pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. These results demonstrate that pharmacological antagonism or inactivation of Avpr1b causes a reduction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, particularly ACTH, to acute restraint and forced swimming stress, and show that Avpr1b knockout mice constitute a model by which to study the contribution of Avpr1b to the HPA axis response to acute stressors. PMID:20846299

  16. Swimming of bacteria under dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Ngoc Phu; Marcos, Marcos

    In this work, we present a model to predict the response of a swimming helically flagellated bacterium to a unidirectional dielectrophoretic (DEP) force with its strength varying linearly in space. We employ resistive force theory to compute the hydrodynamic force on the flagellar bundle, and the effects of DEP force and rotational diffusion are examined using the Fokker-Planck equation. The DEP force greatly contributes to the reorientation of the bacterium such that the bacterium's primary axis is aligned with the direction of the force. Interestingly, when the DEP strength varies perpendicularly to the direction of the force, the bacterium's primary axis is no longer aligned with the DEP force, which results in a translation of the bacterium perpendicular to its primary axis. Finally, we show the feasibility to utilize this phenomenon to achieve bacterial focusing. The full name of the second author is MARCOS.

  17. Swimming fluctuations of micro-organisms due to heterogeneous microstructure.

    PubMed

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Hyon, YunKyong; Fu, Henry C

    2014-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms in biological complex fluids may be greatly influenced by heterogeneous media and microstructure with length scales comparable to the organisms. A fundamental effect of swimming in a heterogeneous rather than homogeneous medium is that variations in local environments lead to swimming velocity fluctuations. Here we examine long-range hydrodynamic contributions to these fluctuations using a Najafi-Golestanian swimmer near spherical and filamentous obstacles. We find that forces on microstructures determine changes in swimming speed. For macroscopically isotropic networks, we also show how the variance of the fluctuations in swimming speeds are related to density and orientational correlations in the medium. PMID:25375607

  18. Swimming fluctuations of micro-organisms due to heterogeneous microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Hyon, YunKyong; Fu, Henry C.

    2014-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms in biological complex fluids may be greatly influenced by heterogeneous media and microstructure with length scales comparable to the organisms. A fundamental effect of swimming in a heterogeneous rather than homogeneous medium is that variations in local environments lead to swimming velocity fluctuations. Here we examine long-range hydrodynamic contributions to these fluctuations using a Najafi-Golestanian swimmer near spherical and filamentous obstacles. We find that forces on microstructures determine changes in swimming speed. For macroscopically isotropic networks, we also show how the variance of the fluctuations in swimming speeds are related to density and orientational correlations in the medium.

  19. Forced and voluntary exercise counteract insulin resistance in rats: the role of coping style.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Barf, R Paulien; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J W

    2012-06-01

    There are large individual differences in the success rates of exercise intervention programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in coping style may impact the success rates of these intervention programs. We tested insulin responses before and after voluntary wheel running in both passive (insulin resistant) Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) and proactive (insulin sensitive) Roman High Avoidance (RHA) rats using intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs). To control for a potential difference between voluntary and forced exercise, we also included RLA and RHA rats that were subjected to forced running. We found the following: 1) when given the opportunity to run voluntarily in a running wheel, passive RLA rats run more than proactively than RHA rats; 2) voluntary exercise leads to a normalization of insulin responses during an IVGTTs in RLA rats; and 3) there were no behavioral and physiological differences in efficacy between voluntary and forced running. We conclude that exercise, both forced and voluntary, is a successful lifestyle intervention for the treatment of hyperinsulinemia, especially in individuals with a passive coping style. PMID:22609426

  20. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  1. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePlus

    A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin infection. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium marinum . ... A swimming pool granuloma occurs when water containing Mycobacterium marinum bacteria enters a break in the skin. Signs of ...

  2. Reduction of spinal PGE2 concentrations prevents swim stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Coram; Fernandez, Ana Cristina; Cardenas, Ricardo; Suarez-Roca, Heberto

    2015-03-30

    We evaluated the association between spinal PGE2 and thermal hyperalgesia following repeated stress. Thermal nociception was determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats using the hot-plate test, before and after forced-swimming; non-conditioned rats served as controls. Animals were pretreated with ketoprofen or meloxicam, preferential COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors, respectively. After the second hot-plate test, we measured serum corticosterone (stress marker), and lumbar spinal PGE2 (neuroinflammation marker) under peripheral inflammation (1% formalin plantar injection). Stressed rats displayed response latencies 40% shorter and inflammatory spinal PGE2 levels 95% higher than controls. Pretreatment with ketoprofen or meloxicam prevented hyperalgesia and elevation of spinal PGE2, increasing the escape behavior time during forced swimming 95% respect to saline-treated rats. Corticosterone levels in stressed rats were 97% higher than controls; COX inhibitors reduced them by 84%. PGE2 could participate in stress-induced hyperalgesia, learned helplessness, and corticosterone production, supporting the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for persistent pain associated with chronic stress and depression. PMID:25703222

  3. Modeling of breaststroke swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmanov, S. P.; Chernous'ko, F. L.

    2014-02-01

    A mechanical system that models swimming using a pair of two-chain extremities is considered. The motion of the system under study is similar to swimming of a frog and some other animals, in which lower extremities play the main role. This type of motion is characteristic of competitive breaststroke swimming.

  4. Coexistence of twitch potentiation and tetanic force decline in rat hindlimb muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Lucinda L.; Enoka, Roger M.; Volz, Kathryn A.; Stuart, Douglas G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of whole-muscle fatigue on the isometric twitch was investigated in various hindlimb muscles of anesthetized rats, using an experimental protocol designed to assess the levels of fatigability in motor units. The results of EMG and force measurements revealed the existence of a linear relationship between fatigability and the magnitude of the twitch force following the fatigue test in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles.

  5. An integrative CFD model of lamprey swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; McMillen, Tyler; Fauci, Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Swimming due to sinusoidal body undulations is observed across the full spectrum of swimming organisms, from microscopic flagella to fish. These undulations are achieved due to internal force-generating mechanisms, which, in the case of lamprey are due to a wave of neural activation from head to tail which gives rise to a wave of muscle activation. These active forces are also mediated by passive structural forces. Here we present recent results on a computational model of a swimming lamprey that couples activation of discrete muscle segments, passive elastic forces, and a surrounding viscous, incompressible fluid. The fluid dynamics is modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations at appropriate Reynolds numbers, where the resulting flow field and vortex shedding may be measured.

  6. Mechanostimulation, electrostimulation and force measurement in an in vitro model of the isolated rat diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Caroline; Dassow, Constanze; Gamerdinger, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias; Sumkauskaite, Migle; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    In an in vitro model of the entire rat diaphragm, diaphragmatic contraction forces at defined preload levels were investigated. A total of 24 excised rat diaphragms were electrically stimulated inside a two-chamber strain-applicator. The resulting contraction forces were determined on eight adjusted preload levels via measuring the elicited pressure in the chamber below the diaphragm. Subsequently, diaphragms were exposed for 6 h to one of four treatments: (1) control, (2) cyclic mechanical stretch, (3) intermittent electrical stimulation or (4) combination of cyclic mechanical stretch and electrical stimulation. Diaphragmatic contraction force increased from 116 ± 21 mN at the lowest preload level to 775 ± 85 mN at the maximal preload level. After 6 h maximal muscle contraction forces were smallest after non-electrostimulated treatment (control: 81 ± 15 mN, mechanical deflection: 94 ± 12 mN) and largest after electrostimulation treatment (mere electrostimulation: 165 ± 20 mN, combined mechano- and electro-stimulation: 164 ± 14 mN). We conclude that our model allows force measurements on isolated rat diaphragms. Furthermore, we conclude that by intermediate electrical stimulation diaphragmatic force generation was better preserved than by mechanical stimulation. PMID:22033209

  7. Modulation of rat monocyte/macrophage innate functions by increasing intensities of swimming exercise is associated with heat shock protein status.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Cinthia Maria; Marques, Claudia Vieira; da Silva, Gustavo Stumpf; Heck, Thiago Gomes; de Oliveira Junior, Lino Pinto; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2016-10-01

    Moderate exercise positively impacts innate immune functions, bringing about a better resistance against infections and general immunosurveillance. Exercise of high workloads (i.e., high intensity and/or duration) such as elite marathon, on the other hand, may have detrimental effects over immune function, but neither how long nor how intense should be the exercise sessions to be deleterious is known, this being a matter of intense dispute. Exercise is, at the same time, one of the most powerful inducers of the 70 kDa family of heat shock proteins (HSPAs, formerly known as HSP70s), which are protein chaperones characterized by a marked anti-inflammatory potency, when located intracellularly (iHSPA), but may act as pro-inflammatory cytokines if in the extracellular space (eHSPA). The above observations led us to suppose that short-term exercise could impose long-lasting effects on macrophage function that should be related to the eHSPA-to-iHSPA ratio, viz. H-index. Sedentary adult male Wistar rats were then submitted to 20 min swimming sessions with an overload (as a percentage of body weight attached to the tail base) of either 2, 4, 6, or 8 %. Control animals were maintained at rest in shallow water. Monocyte/macrophage functions (phagocytic capacity, nitric oxide [NO], and hydrogen peroxide [H2O2]) were assessed just after and 12 h after exercise and compared with HSPA status and oxidative stress markers. The results showed that exercise increased phagocytosis and H2O2 immediately after the bouts in a workload-dependent way. This was accompanied by increased H-index but no alteration in the redox status. Enhanced phagocytic capacity persisted for up to 12 h, when a marked rise in NO production was also observed, but H-index resumes its control values, suggesting that immune alertness returned to basal levels. Of note was the detection of the cognate form of eHSPA (encoded by hspa8 gene and formerly known as HSP73) in the rat sera. In total, acute exercise

  8. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  9. Swimming of Paramecium in confined channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-02-01

    Many living organisms in nature have developed a few different swimming modes, presumably derived from hydrodynamic advantage. Paramecium is a ciliated protozoan covered by thousands of cilia with a few nanometers in diameter and tens of micro-meters in length and is able to exhibit both ballistic and meandering motions. First, we characterize ballistic swimming behaviors of ciliated microorganisms in glass capillaries of different diameters and explain the trajectories they trace out. We develop a theoretical model of an undulating sheet with a pressure gradient and discuss how it affects the swimming speed. Secondly, investigation into meandering swimmings within rectangular PDMS channels of dimension smaller than Paramecium length. We find that Paramecium executes a body-bend (an elastic buckling) using the cilia while it meanders. By considering an elastic beam model, we estimate and show the universal profile of forces it exerts on the walls. Finally, we discuss a few other locomotion of Paramecium in other extreme environments like gel.

  10. Interaction of two swimming Paramecia.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Hota, Masateru

    2006-11-01

    The interaction between two swimming Paramecium caudatum was investigated experimentally. Cell motion was restricted between flat plates, and avoiding and escape reactions were observed, as well as hydrodynamic interactions. The results showed that changes in direction between two swimming cells were induced mainly by hydrodynamic forces and that the biological reaction was a minor factor. Numerical simulations were also performed using a boundary element method. P. caudatum was modelled as a rigid spheroid with surface tangential velocity measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Hydrodynamic interactions observed in the experiment agreed well with the numerical simulations, so we can conclude that the present cell model is appropriate for describing the motion of P. caudatum. PMID:17079716

  11. Swimming bacteria at complex interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Diego; Lauga, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms such as bacteria often move in confined geometries. Such confinement can be caused by the presence of solid boundaries, free surfaces, or liquid interfaces. It is well established that confinement affects significantly locomotion, generating additional forces and torques on the bacteria. In the presence of a solid boundary (imposing a no-slip condition), microorganisms using helical propulsion undergo circular motion (clockwise in the case of E. coli). Conversely, close to a free (no-shear) surface the circular motion is reversed. However, realistic interfaces are complex, and experimental results do not always agree with theoretical predictions. In this work, we show, using analytical modeling, how different complex interfaces affect a nearby bacterium and modify its swimming kinematics. IUSTI UMR 7343, Polytech Marseille, France.

  12. Team swimming in ant spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Pearcy, Morgan; Delescaille, Noémie; Lybaert, Pascale; Aron, Serge

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate promiscuously, competition between ejaculates from different males to fertilize the ova is an important selective force shaping many aspects of male reproductive traits, such as sperm number, sperm length and sperm–sperm interactions. In eusocial Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants), males die shortly after mating and their reproductive success is ultimately limited by the amount of sperm stored in the queen's spermatheca. Multiple mating by queens is expected to impose intense selective pressure on males to optimize the transfer of sperm to the storage organ. Here, we report a remarkable case of cooperation between spermatozoa in the desert ant Cataglyphis savignyi. Males ejaculate bundles of 50–100 spermatozoa. Sperm bundles swim on average 51% faster than solitary sperm cells. Team swimming is expected to increase the amount of sperm stored in the queen spermatheca and, ultimately, enhance male posthumous fitness. PMID:24919705

  13. Antidepressant-like effect of Ilex paraguariensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Reis, Elizete De Moraes; Schreiner Neto, Francisco Waldomiro; Cattani, Vitória Berg; Peroza, Luis Ricardo; Busanello, Alcindo; Leal, Caroline Queiroz; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Lehmen, Tássia Fontana; Libardoni, Milena; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possible antidepressant-like effect of I. paraguariensis in rats. Rats were treated for four weeks with an aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis in drinking water, following the traditional preparation of this beverage. After the period of treatment, behavioral (elevated plus-maze, open field test, and forced swimming test) and biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation assay, thiol content, vitamin C levels, and monoamine oxidase activity) were evaluated. Animals were also analyzed on forced swimming test after 24 hours of I. paraguariensis intake. An additional group was injected with selegiline 24 hours and 30 minutes before forced swimming test as positive control. HPLC analysis revealed the profile of I. paraguariensis extract. I. paraguariensis reduced the immobility time on forced swimming test without significant changes in locomotor activity in the open field test. Any anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of I. paraguariensis was observed in rats through the elevated plus-maze test. The antidepressant-like effect of I. paraguariensis was not accompanied by inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase activity. There were no significant alterations on lipid peroxidation, thiol content, and vitamin C levels among the groups. In conclusion, aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis decreases the time of immobility in rats suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. PMID:24895633

  14. Swimming Orientation for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    Techniques which are designed to dispel fears and promote confident learning are offered to preschool swimming instructors. Safety, class organization, water games, and class activities are discussed. (IAH)

  15. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer’s chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and

  17. Biomechanical analysis of the swim-start: a review.

    PubMed

    Vantorre, Julien; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2014-05-01

    This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer's chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert), inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement), and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique). Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i) the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii) the time in transition (i.e., between gliding and leg

  18. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that

  19. Running induces nausea in rats: Kaolin intake generated by voluntary and forced wheel running.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted showing rats' pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) due to running in activity wheels. The amount of kaolin consumed was a positive function of the available time of voluntary running (20, 40, or 60 min), although this relationship was blunted by a descending (i.e., 60 → 40 → 20 min) test series of execution (Experiment 1). Pica was also generated by forced running in a motorized wheel for 60 min as a positive function of the speed of wheel rotations at 98, 185, or 365 m/h, independent of the order of execution (Experiment 2). Voluntary running generated more pica than did forced running at 80 m/h, although the distance travelled in the former condition was 27% lesser than that in the latter condition (Experiment 3). Because kaolin intake is regarded as a reliable measure of nausea in rats, these results show that wheel running, either voluntary or forced, induces nausea in rats. PMID:27191407

  20. Teaching Swimming Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabee, Jean G.

    A step-by-step sequential plan is offered for developing a successful competitive swimming season, including how to teach swimming strokes and organize practices. Various strokes are analyzed, and coaching check points are offered along with practice drills, helpful hints on proper body positioning, arm strokes, kicking patterns, breathing…

  1. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  2. Early postnatal handling and environmental enrichment improve the behavioral responses of 17-month-old 3xTg-AD and non-transgenic mice in the Forced Swim Test in a gender-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    Forced Swimming Test (FST) models behavioural despair in animals by loss of motivation to respond or the refusal to escape. The present study was aimed at characterizing genetic (genotype and gender) and environmental factors (age/stage of disease and rearing conditions: C, standard; H, early postnatal handling; EE, environmental enrichment consisting in physical exercise as well as social and object enrichment) that may modulate the poor behavioural and cognitive flexibility response we have recently described in 12-month-old male 3xTg-AD mice in the FST. The comprehensive analysis of the ethogram shown in the FST considered the intervals of the test (0-2 and 2-6min), all the elicited behavioural responses (immobility, swimming and climbing) and their features (total duration and frequency of episodes). The long persistence of behaviours found in 17-month-old (late-stages of disease) 3xTg-AD mice was comparable to that recently described in males at 12 months of age (beginning of advanced stages) but also suggested increased age-dependent frailty in both genotypes. The poor behavioral flexibility of 3xTg-AD mice to elicit the behavioural despair shown by the NTg mice, was also found in the female gender. Finally, the present work demonstrates that early-life interventions were able to improve the time and frequency of episodes of immobility, being more evident in the female gender of both old NTg and 3xTg-AD mice. Ontogenic modulation by early-postnatal handling resulted in a more effective long-term improvement of the elicited behaviours in the FST than that achieved by environmental enrichment. The results talk in favor of the beneficence of early-life interventions on ageing in both healthy and disease conditions. PMID:26431900

  3. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  4. Experimental hydrodynamics of swimming in fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytell, Eric Daniel

    2005-11-01

    The great diversity of fish body shapes suggests that they have adapted to different selective pressures. For many fishes, the pressures include hydrodynamic demands: swimming efficiently or accelerating rapidly, for instance. However, the hydrodynamic advantages or disadvantages to specific morphologies are poorly understood. In particular, eels have been considered inefficient swimmers, but they migrate long distances without feeding, a task that requires efficient swimming. This dissertation, therefore, begins with an examination of the swimming hydrodynamics of American eels, Anguilla rostrata, at steady swimming speeds from 0.5 to 2 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s -2. The final chapter examines the hydrodynamic effects of body shape directly by describing three-dimensional flow around swimming bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In all chapters, flow is quantified using digital particle image velocimetry, and simultaneous kinematics are measured from high-resolution digital video. The wake behind a swimming eel in the horizontal midline plane is described first. Rather than producing a wake with fluid jets angled backwards, like in fishes such as sunfish, eels have a wake with exclusively lateral jets. The lack of downstream momentum indicates that eels balance the axial forces of thrust and drag evenly over time and over their bodies, and therefore do not change axial fluid momentum. This even balance, present at all steady swimming speeds, is probably due to the relatively uniform body shape of eels. As eels accelerate, thrust exceeds drag, axial momentum increases, and the wake approaches that of other fishes. During steady swimming, though, the lack of axial momentum prevents direct efficiency estimation. The effect of body shape was examined directly by measuring flow in multiple transverse planes along the body of bluegill sunfish swimming at 1.2 L s-1. The dorsal and anal fin, neglected in many previous

  5. Locomotion Performance of Biomimetic Fish-like Swimming Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden P.; Valdivia Y Alvarado, Pablo; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2007-11-01

    The swimming performance of a biomimetic, fish-like swimming device, designed to exploit the natural dynamics of its compliant body to achieve locomotion, is studied experimentally. A theoretical model combines beam-bending stress analysis and unsteady hydrodynamic forcing with known material properties of the robot to reveal desired geometry distributions and actuation modes. Swimming kinematics and corresponding performance of the device are also predicted and tested for a carangiform prototype device in a quiescent tank of water. Experimental swimming tests show good agreement with the simplified theoretical models. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the wake behind the device are investigated using time-resolved particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) over a range of tail beat frequencies, from 1 to 4 Hz, to asses vortical wake patterns and hydrodynamic forces. PIV data are compared to theoretical model predictions. Reynolds numbers for the swimming device are between 2500 and 8500 based on body length.

  6. The biphasic force-velocity relationship in whole rat skeletal muscle in situ.

    PubMed

    Devrome, A N; MacIntosh, B R

    2007-06-01

    Edman has reported that the force-velocity relationship (FVR) departs from Hill's classic hyperbola near 0.80 of measured isometric force (J Physiol 404: 301-321, 1988). The purpose of this study was to investigate the biphasic nature of the FVR in the rested state and after some recovery from fatigue in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle in situ. Force-velocity characteristics were determined before and during recovery from fatigue induced by intermittent stimulation at 170 Hz for 100 ms each second for 6 min. Force-velocity data were obtained for isotonic contractions with 100 ms of 200-Hz stimulation, including several measurements with loads above 0.80 of measured isometric force. The force-velocity data obtained in this study were fit well by a double-hyperbolic equation. A departure from Hill's classic hyperbola was found at 0.88+/-0.01 of measured isometric force, which is higher than the approximately 0.80 reported by Edman et al. for isolated frog fibers. After 45 min of recovery, maximum shortening velocity was 86+/-2% of prefatigue, but neither curvature nor predicted isometric force was significantly different from prefatigue. The location of the departure from Hill's classic hyperbola was not different after this recovery from the fatiguing contractions. Including an isometric point in the data set will not yield the same values for maximal velocity and the degree of curvature as would be obtained using the double hyperbola approach. Data up to 0.88 of measured isometric force can be used to fit data to the Hill equation. PMID:17412793

  7. Effects of fluoxetine on memory under forced treadmill exercise conditions in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Jafary, Leila; Reisi, Parham; Naghsh, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies show inconsistent effects of forced exercise on cognitive processes. These differences are probably due to the stress of coercion in forced exercise. Because fluoxetine is used to treat complications caused by stress, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of fluoxetine on memory in rats under forced treadmill exercise. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups were the control, the control exercise, the fluoxetine, and the fluoxetine exercise. The exercise program was treadmill running at 22 m/min, 0° inclination for 50 min/day, 6 days/week, for 4 weeks. Fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) was injected 30 min before treadmill. Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning tests were used for evaluation of memory. Acquisition phase of both tests were performed before interventions and memory was evaluated 1-day and 1-week after the last session of exercise and treatments. Results: Our data showed that forced exercise impaired performance in passive avoidance learning test (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, 1-day and 1-week after the last session of exercise and treatments, respectively). Spatial memory was only impaired after 1-week in the exercise group. Fluoxetine improved spatial memory after 1-day in the control group. However, it had no significant effects on memory in the exercise group. Conclusion: The data correspond to the possibility that forced treadmill exercise can cause stress, and thereby cause damage to memory. The present results suggest that although fluoxetine may improve memory in intact rats but it cannot prevent damages that are caused by forced exercise. PMID:26645020

  8. Encoding of forelimb forces by corticospinal tract activity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Foulds, Richard A.; Adamovich, Sergei V.; Sahin, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    In search of a solution to the long standing problems encountered in traditional brain computer interfaces (BCI), the lateral descending tracts of the spinal cord present an alternative site for taping into the volitional motor signals. Due to the convergence of the cortical outputs into a final common pathway in the descending tracts of the spinal cord, neural interfaces with the spinal cord can potentially acquire signals richer with volitional information in a smaller anatomical region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of extracting motor control signals from the corticospinal tract (CST) of the rat spinal cord. Flexible substrate, multi-electrode arrays (MEA) were implanted in the CST of rats trained for a lever pressing task. This novel use of flexible substrate MEAs allowed recording of CST activity in behaving animals for up to three weeks with the current implantation technique. Time-frequency and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to the neural signals to reconstruct isometric forelimb forces. Computed regression coefficients were then used to predict isometric forces in additional trials. The correlation between measured and predicted forces in the vertical direction averaged across six animals was 0.67 and R2 value was 0.44. Force regression in the horizontal directions was less successful, possibly due to the small amplitude of forces. Neural signals above and near the high gamma band made the largest contributions to prediction of forces. The results of this study support the feasibility of a spinal cord computer interface (SCCI) for generation of command signals in paralyzed individuals. PMID:24847198

  9. Differential expression of caveolins and myosin heavy chains in response to forced exercise in rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sookyoung; Hong, Yunkyung; Lee, Youngjeon; Won, Jinyoung

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training can improve strength and lead to adaptations in the skeletal muscle and nervous systems. Skeletal muscles can develop into two types: fast and slow, depending on the expression pattern of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Previous studies reported that exercise altered the distribution of muscle fiber types. It is not currently known what changes in the expression of caveolins and types of muscle fiber occur in response to the intensity of exercise. This study determined the changes in expression of caveolins and MHC type after forced exercise in muscular and non-muscular tissues in rats. A control (Con) group to which forced exercise was not applied and an exercise (Ex) group to which forced exercise was applied. Forced exercise, using a treadmill, was introduced at a speed of 25 m/min for 30 min, 3 times/day (07:00, 15:00, 23:00). Homogenized tissues were applied to extract of total RNA for further gene analysis. The expression of caveolin-3 and MHC2a in the gastrocnemius muscle of female rats significantly increased in the Ex group compared with the Con group (P<0.05). Furthermore, in the gastrocnemius muscle of male rats, the expression of MHC2x was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). There was an increased expression in caveolin-3 and a slightly decreased expression in TGFβ-1 in muscular tissues implicating caveolin-3 influences the expression of MHC isoforms and TGFβ-1 expression. Eventually, it implicates that caveolin-3 has positive regulatory function in muscle atrophy induced by neural dysfunction with spinal cord injury or stroke. PMID:22474468

  10. Enhanced helical swimming in Boger fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, Francisco; Mendez-Rojano, Rodrigo; Zenit, Roberto; Lauga, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We conduct experiments with force-free magnetically-driven helical swimmers in Newtonian and viscoelastic (Boger) fluids. In order assess the effect of viscoelasticity on the swimming performance, we conduct experiments for swimmers with different helical tail geometries. We use helices with the same wave length and total length but vary the angle of the helix. As previously reported by the computational study of Spagniole and collaborators, we found that the swimming performance can either increase, decrease or remain unchanged, depending on the geometry of the tail. With the right geometry, the enhancement can be up to a factor of two.

  11. Responses in rectal and skin temperatures to centrifugal forces in rats of different ambient temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, K.; Sato, H.; Okuda, N.; Makino, Y.; Isobe, Y.

    1982-03-01

    Effects of centrifugation upon rectal (Tre) and tail skin temperatures (Ts) were studied in male Wistar rats at varying ambient temperature (Ta) using a centrifuge which was placed in a climatic chamber. Centrifugal forces of Gz of 3.0 were imposed on rats which were suspended at horizontal body position using a newly developed mesh suits holding method in the animal box placed on the rotating arm of the centrifuge. Headwards or tailwards forces were applied according to the experimental design. No significant difference of the responses was observed between the two force directions. Centrifugations imposed at different Ta of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 32.5‡C resulted in falls in Tre accompanied by rises in tail Ts at the cooler environments, while rises in Tre accompanied by falls in Ts in the warmer environments. The Ta at which the response pattern of Tre and Ts was reversed (critical ambient temperature) was 26.8±2.3 (mean and SE) and 27.9±2.8‡C, respectively. Tolerance to centrifugation was markedly increased in cooler environments than in wanner ones. It was suggested that the increased skin pressure due to centrifugation exerted some inhibitory effects upon central thermoregulatory ability.

  12. Scaling the Thrust Production and Energetics of Inviscid Intermittent Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoz, Emre; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Many fish have adopted an intermittent swimming gait sometimes referred as a burst-and-coast behavior. By using this gait, fish have been estimated at reducing their energetic cost of swimming by about 50%. Lighthill proposed that the skin friction drag of an undulating body can be around 400% greater than a rigidly-held coasting body, which may explain the energetic savings of intermittent swimming. Recent studies have confirmed the increase in skin friction drag over an undulating body, however, the increase is on the order of 20-70%. This more modest gain in skin friction drag is not sufficient to lead to the observed energy savings. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the inviscid mechanisms behind intermittent swimming for parameters typical of biology. We see that there is an energy savings at a fixed swimming speed for intermittent swimming as compared to continuous swimming. Then we consider three questions: What is the nature of the inviscid mechanism that leads to the observed energy savings, how do the forces and energetics of intermittent swimming scale with the swimming parameters, and what are the limitations to the benefit? Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzola, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  13. Analysis of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Mediated Decline in Contractile Force in Rat Engineered Heart Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Friederike; Luther, Pradeep; Schulze, Thomas; Eder, Alexandra; Streichert, Thomas; Mannhardt, Ingra; Hirt, Marc N.; Schaaf, Sebastian; Stenzig, Justus; Force, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Left ventricular dysfunction is a frequent and potentially severe side effect of many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). The mode of toxicity is not identified, but may include impairment of mitochondrial or sarcomeric function, autophagy or angiogenesis, either as an on-target or off-target mechanism. Methods and Results We studied concentration-response curves and time courses for nine TKIs in three-dimensional, force generating engineered heart tissue (EHT) from neonatal rat heart cells. We detected a concentration- and time-dependent decline in contractile force for gefitinib, lapatinib, sunitinib, imatinib, sorafenib, vandetanib and lestaurtinib and no decline in contractile force for erlotinib and dasatinib after 96 hours of incubation. The decline in contractile force was associated with an impairment of autophagy (LC3 Western blot) and appearance of autophagolysosomes (transmission electron microscopy). Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility to study TKI-mediated force effects in EHTs and identifies an association between a decline in contractility and inhibition of autophagic flux. PMID:26840448

  14. Swim Safely This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... all ages to follow safety rules at the beach or pool. Swim in designated areas supervised by ... to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  15. Swimming pool granuloma

    MedlinePlus

    Aquarium granuloma; Fish tank granuloma ... Risks include exposure to swimming pools, salt water aquariums, or ocean fish. ... Wash hands and arms thoroughly after cleaning aquariums. Or, wear rubber gloves when cleaning.

  16. Choreographed swimming of copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Petra H; Takagi, Daisuke; Hartline, Daniel K

    2015-11-01

    Small metazoan paddlers, such as crustacean larvae (nauplii), are abundant, ecologically important and active swimmers, which depend on exploiting viscous forces for locomotion. The physics of micropaddling at low Reynolds number was investigated using a model of swimming based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. Locomotion of nauplii of the copepod Bestiolina similis was quantified from high-speed video images to obtain precise measurements of appendage movements and the resulting displacement of the body. The kinematic and morphological data served as inputs to the model, which predicted the displacement in good agreement with observations. The results of interest did not depend sensitively on the parameters within the error of measurement. Model tests revealed that the commonly attributed mechanism of 'feathering' appendages during return strokes accounts for only part of the displacement. As important for effective paddling at low Reynolds number is the ability to generate a metachronal sequence of power strokes in combination with synchronous return strokes of appendages. The effect of feathering together with a synchronous return stroke is greater than the sum of each factor individually. The model serves as a foundation for future exploration of micropaddlers swimming at intermediate Reynolds number where both viscous and inertial forces are important. PMID:26490629

  17. Flow analysis of C. elegans swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Improved understanding of microscopic swimming has the potential to impact numerous biomedical and industrial processes. A crucial means of analyzing these systems is through experimental observation of flow fields, from which it is important to be able to accurately deduce swimmer physics such as power consumption, drag forces, and efficiency. We examine the swimming of the nematode worm C. elegans, a model system for undulatory micro-propulsion. Using experimental data of swimmer geometry and kinematics, we employ the regularized stokeslet boundary element method to simulate the swimming of this worm outside the regime of slender-body theory. Simulated flow fields are then compared with experimentally extracted values confined to the swimmer beat plane, demonstrating good agreement. We finally address the question of how to estimate three-dimensional flow information from two-dimensional measurements.

  18. Force-Velocity and Power Characteristics of Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of Hindlimb Suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HS, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control and after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type 11 fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub 0) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter (14, 30, and 38%) and peak force (38, 56, and 63%) after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub 0) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  19. Force-velocity and power characteristics of rat soleus muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HA, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type II fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V sub O)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub O) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter and peak force after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub O) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  20. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, Christiaan M.; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, “fast” and “slow” tooth movers during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27486402

  1. FES control of isometric forces in the rat hindlimb using many muscles.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Berniker, Max; Tresch, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) attempts to restore motor behaviors to paralyzed limbs by electrically stimulating nerves and/or muscles. This restoration of behavior requires specifying commands to a large number of muscles, each making an independent contribution to the ongoing behavior. Efforts to develop FES systems in humans have generally been limited to preprogrammed, fixed muscle activation patterns. The development and evaluation of more sophisticated FES control strategies is difficult to accomplish in humans, mainly because of the limited access of patients for FES experiments. Here, we developed an in vivo FES test platform using a rat model that is capable of using many muscles for control and that can therefore be used to evaluate potential strategies for developing flexible FES control strategies. We first validated this FES test platform by showing consistent force responses to repeated stimulation, monotonically increasing muscle recruitment with constant force directions, and linear summation of costimulated muscles. These results demonstrate that we are able to differentially control the activation of many muscles, despite the small size of the rat hindlimb. We then demonstrate the utility of this platform to test potential FES control strategies, using it to test our ability to effectively produce open-loop control of isometric forces. We show that we are able to use this preparation to produce a range of endpoint forces flexibly and with good accuracy. We suggest that this platform will aid in FES controller design, development, and evaluation, thus accelerating the development of effective FES applications for the restoration of movement in paralyzed patients. PMID:23303688

  2. Protective effects of lactic acid on force production in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, O B; de Paoli, F; Overgaard, K

    2001-10-01

    1. During strenuous exercise lactic acid accumulates producing a reduction in muscle pH. In addition, exercise causes a loss of muscle K(+) leading to an increased concentration of extracellular K(+) ([K(+)](o)). Individually, reduced pH and increased [K(+)](o) have both been suggested to contribute to muscle fatigue. 2. To study the combined effect of these changes on muscle function, isolated rat soleus muscles were incubated at a [K(+)](o) of 11 mM, which reduced tetanic force by 75 %. Subsequent addition of 20 mM lactic acid led, however, to an almost complete force recovery. A similar recovery was observed if pH was reduced by adding propionic acid or increasing the CO(2) tension. 3. The recovery of force was associated with a recovery of muscle excitability as assessed from compound action potentials. In contrast, acidification had no effect on the membrane potential or the Ca(2+) handling of the muscles. 4. It is concluded that acidification counteracts the depressing effects of elevated [K(+)](o) on muscle excitability and force. Since intense exercise is associated with increased [K(+)](o), this indicates that, in contrast to the often suggested role for acidosis as a cause of muscle fatigue, acidosis may protect against fatigue. Moreover, it suggests that elevated [K(+)](o) is of less importance for fatigue than indicated by previous studies on isolated muscles. PMID:11579166

  3. Characterization of mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts in rats utilizing atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Chae, Su-Jin; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lee, So-Ra; Ha, Sang-Jin; Pak, Youngmi Kim; Kim, Weon; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondria play critical roles in both the life and the death of cardiac myocytes. Various factors, such as the loss of ATP synthesis and increase of ATP hydrolysis, impairment in ionic homeostasis, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and release of proapoptotic proteins are related to the generation of irreversible damage. It has been proposed that the release of cytochrome c is caused by a swelling of the mitochondrial matrix triggered by the apoptotic stimuli. However, there is a controversy about whether or not the mitochondria, indeed, swell during apoptosis. The major advantages of atomic force microscopy (AFM) over conventional optical and electron microscopes for bio-imaging include the fact that no special coating and vacuum are required and imaging can be done in all environments--air, vacuum or aqueous conditions. In addition, AFM force-distance curve measurements have become a fundamental tool in the fields of surface chemistry, biochemistry, and material science. In this study, we used AFM to observe the morphological and property changes in heart mitochondria that were isolated from a rat myocardial infarction model. From the shape parameters of the mitochondria in the AFM topographic image, it seemed that myocardial infarction caused the mitochondrial swelling. Also, the results of force-distance measurements showed that the adhesion force of heart mitochondria was significantly decreased by myocardial in infarction. Therefore, we suggested that myocardial infarction might be the cause of mitochondrial swelling and the changes in outer membrane of heart mitochondria. PMID:21050769

  4. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18 months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5 months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12 weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4 reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30 force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12 weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  5. Olfactory bulbectomy increases reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after a forced abstinence in rats.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Zuzana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Merhautova, Jana; Dusek, Ladislav; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2016-01-15

    Drug addiction is commonly associated with depression and comorbid patients also suffer from higher cravings and increased relapse rate. To address this issue preclinically we combined the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration procedure in rats to assess differences in relapse-like behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups; in one group the bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was performed while the other group was sham operated. After recovery, intracardiac catheter was implanted. Intravenous self-administration procedure was conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulbourn Instruments, Inc., USA) under fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Methamphetamine was available at dose 0.08 mg/kg/infusion. After stable methamphetamine intake was maintained, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session was conducted in operant boxes with no drug delivery. In the reinstatement session the mean of 138.4 active nose-pokes was performed by the OBX group, while the sham group displayed 41 responses, i.e. 140 % and 48 % of basal nose-poking during maintenance phase in OBX and sham operated group respectively. OBX group also showed significantly more passive nose-pokes indicating hyperactive behavioral traits in bulbectomized rats. However, the % of active operandum preference was equal in both groups. Olfactory bulbectomy model significantly increased reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking behavior. This paradigm can be used to evaluate potential drugs that are able to suppress the drug-seeking behavior. PMID:26431766

  6. Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Swimming pool. View of aisle between swimming pool and seating area. Non-original spa pool is partially visible on right. - Jewish Community Center of San Francisco, 3200 California Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Force--sarcomere-length relation and filament length in rat extensor digitorum muscle.

    PubMed

    ter Keurs, H E; Luff, A R; Luff, S E

    1984-01-01

    Relations between sarcomere length (SL) and force (F) were studied in ten fiber bundles (six to twenty fibers) from rat extensor digitorum muscles. A bundle (60 micron by 200-300 microns) was mounted in a glass covered perfusion chamber containing modified Krebs Henseleit buffer at 25 degrees C, oxygenated with 95% O2, 5% CO2 and pancuronium bromide (8 mg/1). F ( Disa 51E 01 transducer) and SL (laser diffraction and light microscopy) were measured; the latter could be controlled by a servomotor system. 200-500 ms tetanic stimulus trains were applied via platinum electrodes parallel to the muscle with 20% above maximal intensity, 160 Hz frequency and 1 ms duration of pulses. Tetani were at 2 min intervals. F attained a steady value 100 ms after the start of the tetanus at 2.0-2.5 microns SL and 350 ms at 3.5 microns SL. Active force, measured during tetani in which sarcomere length was held constant, was maximal between SL = 2.15 microns and 2.65 microns and declined in linear fashion with SL to zero at SL = 3.90 microns. Active force at SL = 2.00 microns was 95% of maximal force. Passive force was manifest above SL = 3.10 microns and was 10% of maximal force at 3.80 microns. Eight similar bundles were processed conventionally for electron microscopy (Philips EM 201A ) while SL was measured during the processing steps. Measurements were made from micrographs of longitudinal sections. SL measured from the micrographs were consistent with the observed shrinkage (5%). Actin periodicity was 41.5 +/- 0.19 nm; twenty-seven periods per actin filament were found. Filament lengths were corrected for an assumed actin periodicity of 39 nm. Actin length was 1.13 +/- 0.013 micron; myosin length was 1.53 +/- 0.015 micron. Bare zone was 0.17 micron +/- 0.01 micron. These filament lengths would give optimum overlap at SL between 2.26 and 2.43 microns and a linear decrease to zero with increasing SL from 2.43 microns to 3.79 microns. Actual force was consistently higher than

  8. Effect of a triathlon wet suit on drag during swimming.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, H M; Bruinink, L; Coster, R; De Looze, M; Van Rossem, B; Van Veenen, R; De Groot, G

    1989-06-01

    The effect of a triathlon wet suit on drag was studied in 12 subjects (eight male, four female) swimming at different velocities (1.10, 1.25 and 1.50 m.s-1). The active drag force was directly measured during front crawl swimming using a system of underwater push off pads instrumented with a force transducer (M.A.D. system: 6). Measurements were made when swimming over the system with and without a wet suit. A 14% reduction in drag (from 48.7 to 41.8 Newtons) is found at a swimming velocity of 1.25 m.s-1, which is a typical swimming speed for triathlon distances. At 1.50 m.s-1 a reduction in drag of 12% was observed, which suggests that the wearing of such a suit might be beneficial in conventional swimming events. The reduction in drag can explain the higher swimming velocities observed in triathletes using a wet suit. The effect of the reduction is probably largely due to an increased buoyancy inducing less frontal resistance. However, since the effect of the suit on the lighter female swimmers was not different from the effect on the heavier male swimmers, a reduction in friction drag and drag coefficient may also be significant. PMID:2733583

  9. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers' Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  10. Swimming Near the Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel; Moored, Keith; Dewey, Peter; Lauder, George; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads on rectangular panels undergoing heave and pitch oscillations near a solid wall were measured using a 6-axis ATI sensor. Over a range of Strouhal numbers, reduced frequencies and flexibilities, swimming near the wall was found to increase thrust and therefore the self-propelled swimming speed. Experimental particle image velocimetry revealed an asymmetric wake structure with a momentum jet angled away from the wall. Both the thrust amplification and the asymmetric wake structure were verified and investigated further using an in-house inviscid panel method code. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-08-1-0642.

  11. Sink or Swim: Navigating the Perilous Waters of Promotion and Tenure--What's Diversity Got to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Wanda B.

    2010-01-01

    The "sink-or-swim" ideology is pervasive in the United States society. At research universities, for example, promotion and tenure are institutional waters in which faculty are forced to sink or swim with respect to publishing. Either they publish ("swim") or they perish ("sink"). In throwing faculty overboard, institutions assume that those who…

  12. Traxoprodil, a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, potentiates the antidepressant-like effects of certain antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Stasiuk, Weronika; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Oniszczuk, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Świąder, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil. Brain concentrations of tested agents were determined using HPLC. The results showed that traxoprodil at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST and it was not related to changes in animals' locomotor activity. Co-administration of traxoprodil with imipramine, fluoxetine or escitalopram, each in subtherapeutic doses, significantly affected the animals' behavior in the FST and, what is important, these changes were not due to the severity of locomotor activity. The observed effect of traxoprodil is only partially associated with serotonergic system and is independent of the effect on the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. The results of an attempt to assess the nature of the interaction between traxoprodil and the tested drugs show that in the case of joint administration of traxoprodil and fluoxetine, imipramine or escitalopram, there were interactions in the pharmacokinetic phase. PMID:26924124

  13. Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis semen on rats under chronic mild stress and its subchronic oral toxicity in rats and beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previously, we examined the antidepressant effects of Nelumbinis Semen (NS). In this study, we assessed the anti-depressant effects of NS in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress (CMS) models of depression and its oral toxicity in rats and dogs. Methods In the forced swimming test, NS was intraperitoneally injected before 24 h, 5 h and 1 h of forced swimming test. And the rats were forced to swim for 5 min, the duration of immobility was observed. In CMS models, animals were exposed to a variety of CMS for 8 weeks in order to induce depression-like symptoms. They were treated with NS for the last four weeks of the 8-week CMS and then an open field test was conducted. The anti-depression effects were evaluated based on a measured index, which consisted of visiting counts, start latency, rearing number and grooming time. In the toxicological studies, NS was administered to rats by gavages for 13 weeks at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day. To assess the toxicity of NS in beagle dogs, NS was administered orally for 28 days at doses of 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg/day. Results 400 mg/kg of NS had the lowest immobility times in forced swimming test. And NS significantly reversed the decreased visiting counts, rearing number and grooming time caused by CMS. In addition, NS treatment significantly decreased the start latency. No treatment-related toxicity was detected during 13 weeks administration in rats and 28 days administration in dogs. Conclusions Based on the results of this study and previous reports that have examined the anti-depressive effects of NS, NS holds great promise for use in the treatment of depression without causing any adverse effects or toxicities. PMID:22640371

  14. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  15. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia; Wienecke, Jacob; Klein, Anders B

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1α) are important factors, while the induction of neurogenesis requires signaling through the VEGF receptor, Flk-1 (VEGFR-2). VEGF expression is believed to be regulated by two distinct mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin)-containing multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. This study was initiated to investigate the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1α, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks. Rats were euthanized either immediately (0 h) or 24 h after last exercise session. Here, we show that exercise affected mRNA levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, and the coreceptor neuropilin 2 (NRP2) when the rats were euthanized immediately, whereas at 24 h only the expression of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23536493

  16. Voluntary forced use of the impaired limb following stroke facilitates functional recovery in the rat.

    PubMed

    Livingston-Thomas, Jessica M; McGuire, Emily P; Doucette, Tracy A; Tasker, R Andrew

    2014-03-15

    Constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT), which forces use of the impaired arm following stroke, improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying recovery are not well understood, necessitating further investigation into how rehabilitation may affect neuroplasticity using animal models. Animal motivation and stress make modelling CIMT in animals challenging. We have shown that following focal ischemia, voluntary forced use therapy using pet activity balls could engage the impaired forelimb and result in a modest acceleration in recovery. In this study, we investigated the effects of a more intensive appetitively motivated regimen that included task specific reaching exercises. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to focal unilateral stroke using intracerebral injections of endothelin-1 or sham surgery. Three days later, stroke animals were assigned to daily rehabilitation or control therapy. Rehabilitation consisted of 30 min of generalized movement sessions in activity balls, followed by 30 min of voluntary task-specific movement using reaching boxes. Rats were tested weekly to measure forelimb deficit and recovery. After 30 days, animals were euthanized and tissue was examined for infarct volume, brain derived neurotrophic factor expression, and the presence of new neurons using doublecortin immunohistochemistry. Rehabilitation resulted in a significant acceleration of forelimb recovery in several tests, and a significant increase in the number of doublecortin-expressing cells. Furthermore, while the proportion of cells expressing BDNF in the peri-infarct region did not change, there was a shift in the cellular origin of expressed BDNF, resulting in significantly more non-neuronal, non-astrocytic BDNF, presumed to be of microglial origin. PMID:24388978

  17. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  18. Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is antidepressant but not anxiolytic in rat models of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; McGregor, Iain S; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2005-11-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been proposed as a treatment for depression and anxiety disorders. While the antidepressant effect has been modelled in animals, there have been few attempts to examine a possible anxiolytic effect of repetitive TMS (rTMS) in animal models. We administered 18 days of rTMS to male Sprague-Dawley rats. On days 10 through 18, rats were tested in several anxiety models (social interaction, emergence, elevated plus-maze, and predator odor avoidance) and in the forced swim test. No group differences were apparent on any of the anxiety models, while TMS produced an antidepressant effect in the forced swim test. Interestingly, on day 1 of the forced swim test, the home cage control group displayed increased swimming behaviour compared with sham-treated animals, suggesting an observable level of stress may have accompanied sham treatment. The results from the forced swim test suggested that TMS had modest antidepressant properties, but it did not show anxiolytic properties in the models examined. The study also suggested that stress associated with handling should be taken into account in the interpretation of TMS studies in animals. PMID:16223528

  19. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  20. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  1. Swimming performance of young lake trout after chronic exposure to PCBs and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1981-01-01

    Swimming performance was measured in fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to PCB's, DDE, and a combination of these two contaminants in both food and water at concentrations equal to, and 5 and 25 times higher than, levels found in Lake Michigan water and plankton. Fry were tested after about 50, 110, and 165 days of exposure. We measured swimming performance by forcing the fry to swim through a continuous series of incrementally increased velocities until the fish were exhausted. Although we observed significant differences in swimming performance between a few test groups, we detected no relation between swimming performance of the fry and exposure to PCB's or DDE, or both, at the concentrations tested. Inasmuch as swimming performance apparently was not affected by the levels of contamination by PCB's and DDE in Lake Michigan, impairment of swimming by these contaminants cannot account for the failure of lake trout reproduction in Lake Michigan.

  2. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    PubMed

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P < 0.05) while maximum inspiratory pressure was unchanged. Running economy improved by 6 (9)% in CFB following training (P < 0.05). Forced vital capacity increased by 4% (4) in SM (P < 0.05) and was unchanged in CFB. These findings suggest that limiting breath frequency during swimming may improve muscular oxygen utilization during terrestrial exercise in novice swimmers. PMID:24151982

  3. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; p<0.05) and synergistically decreased by exercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA. PMID:26226957

  4. Excitation-induced cell damage and beta2-adrenoceptor agonist stimulated force recovery in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Gissel, Hanne; Fredsted, Anne; Clausen, Torben

    2006-02-01

    Intensive exercise leads to a loss of force, which may be long lasting and associated with muscle cell damage. To simulate this impairment and to develop means of compensating the loss of force, extensor digitorum longus muscles from 4-wk-old rats were fatigued using intermittent 40-Hz stimulation (10 s on, 30 s off). After stimulation, force recovery, cell membrane leakage, and membrane potential were followed for 240 min. The 30-60 min of stimulation reduced tetanic force to approximately 10% of the prefatigue level, followed by a spontaneous recovery to approximately 20% in 120-240 min. Loss of force was associated with a decrease in K+ content, gain of Na+ and Ca2+ content, leakage of the intracellular enzyme lactic acid dehydrogenase (10-fold increase), and depolarization (13 mV). Stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump with either the beta2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol, epinephrine, rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (rCGRP), or dibutyryl cAMP improved force recovery by 40-90%. The beta-blocker propranolol abolished the effect of epinephrine on force recovery but not that of CGRP. Both spontaneous and salbutamol-induced force recovery were prevented by ouabain. The salbutamol-induced force recovery was associated with repolarization of the membrane potential (12 mV) to the level measured in unfatigued muscles. In conclusion, in muscles exposed to fatiguing stimulation leading to a considerable loss of force, cell leakage, and depolarization, stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump induces repolarization and improves force recovery, possibly due to the electrogenic action of the Na+-K+ pump. This mechanism may be important for the restoration of muscle function after intense exercise. PMID:16210418

  5. Endocardial endothelium is a key determinant of force-frequency relationship in rat ventricular myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoxu; Tan, Zhen; Zhong, Xin; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xian; Yu, Bo; Ramirez-Correa, Genaro; Murphy, Anne; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that removing endocardial endothelium (EE) negatively impacts the force-frequency relationship (FFR) of ventricular myocardium and dissected the signaling that underlies this phenomenon. EE of rat trabeculae was selectively damaged by brief (<1 s) exposure to 0.1% Triton X-100. Force, intracellular Ca2+ transient (iCa2+), and activity of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) were determined. In control muscles, force and iCa2+ increased as the stimulation frequency increased in steps of 0.5 Hz up to 3.0 Hz. However, EE-denuded (EED) muscles exhibited a markedly blunted FFR. Neither isoproterenol (ISO; 0.1–5 nmol/l) nor endothelin-1 (ET-1; 10–100 nmol/l) alone restored the slope of FFR in EED muscles. Intriguingly, however, a positive FFR was restored in EED preparations by combining low concentrations of ISO (0.1 nmol/l) and ET-1 (20 nmol/l). In intact muscles, PKA and PKC activity increased proportionally with the increase in frequency. This effect was completely lost in EED muscles. Again, combining ISO and ET-1 fully restored the frequency-dependent rise in PKA and PKC activity in EED muscles. In conclusion, selective damage of EE leads to significantly blunted FFR. A combination of low concentrations of ISO and ET-1 successfully restores FFR in EED muscles. The interdependence of ISO and ET-1 in this process indicates cross-talk between the β1-PKA and ET-1-PKC pathways for a normal (positive) FFR. The results also imply that dysfunction of EE and/or EE-myocyte coupling may contribute to flat (or even negative) FFR in heart failure. PMID:23703113

  6. Optimal shape and motion of undulatory swimming organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tokić, Grgur; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2012-01-01

    Undulatory swimming animals exhibit diverse ranges of body shapes and motion patterns and are often considered as having superior locomotory performance. The extent to which morphological traits of swimming animals have evolved owing to primarily locomotion considerations is, however, not clear. To shed some light on that question, we present here the optimal shape and motion of undulatory swimming organisms obtained by optimizing locomotive performance measures within the framework of a combined hydrodynamical, structural and novel muscular model. We develop a muscular model for periodic muscle contraction which provides relevant kinematic and energetic quantities required to describe swimming. Using an evolutionary algorithm, we performed a multi-objective optimization for achieving maximum sustained swimming speed U and minimum cost of transport (COT)—two conflicting locomotive performance measures that have been conjectured as likely to increase fitness for survival. Starting from an initial population of random characteristics, our results show that, for a range of size scales, fish-like body shapes and motion indeed emerge when U and COT are optimized. Inherent boundary-layer-dependent allometric scaling between body mass and kinematic and energetic quantities of the optimal populations is observed. The trade-off between U and COT affects the geometry, kinematics and energetics of swimming organisms. Our results are corroborated by empirical data from swimming animals over nine orders of magnitude in size, supporting the notion that optimizing U and COT could be the driving force of evolution in many species. PMID:22456876

  7. Swim pressure on walls with curves and corners.

    PubMed

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-09-01

    The concept of swim pressure quantifies the average force exerted by microswimmers on confining walls in nonequilibrium. Here we explore how the swim pressure depends on the wall curvature and on the presence of sharp corners in the wall. For active Brownian particles at high dilution, we present a coherent framework which describes the force and torque on passive particles of arbitrary shape, in the limit of large particles compared to the persistence length of the swimmer trajectories. The resulting forces can be used to derive, for example, the activity-induced depletion interaction between two disks, as well as to optimize the shape of a tracer particle for high swimming velocity. Our predictions are verifiable in experiments on passive obstacles exposed to a bath of bacteria or artificial microswimmers. PMID:26465470

  8. Swim pressure on walls with curves and corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallenburg, Frank; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-09-01

    The concept of swim pressure quantifies the average force exerted by microswimmers on confining walls in nonequilibrium. Here we explore how the swim pressure depends on the wall curvature and on the presence of sharp corners in the wall. For active Brownian particles at high dilution, we present a coherent framework which describes the force and torque on passive particles of arbitrary shape, in the limit of large particles compared to the persistence length of the swimmer trajectories. The resulting forces can be used to derive, for example, the activity-induced depletion interaction between two disks, as well as to optimize the shape of a tracer particle for high swimming velocity. Our predictions are verifiable in experiments on passive obstacles exposed to a bath of bacteria or artificial microswimmers.

  9. Water droplets also swim!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Marjolein; Izri, Ziane; Michelin, Sébastien; Dauchot, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in producing artificial swimmers. One possible path is to produce self-propelling droplets in a liquid phase. The self-propulsion often relies on complex mechanisms at the droplet interface, involving chemical reactions and the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the surfactant. Here, we report the spontaneous swimming of droplets in a very simple system: water droplets immersed in an oil-surfactant medium. The swimmers consist of pure water, with no additional chemical species inside: water droplets also swim! The swimming is very robust: the droplets are able to transport cargo such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells. In this talk we discuss the origin of the spontaneous motion. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. By generalizing a recently proposed instability mechanism, we explain how spontaneous motion emerges in this system at sufficiently large Péclet number. Our water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium constitute the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion of isotropic particles driven by this instability mechanism.

  10. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  11. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  12. Do resonating bells increase jellyfish swimming performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    A current question in swimming and flight is whether or not driving flexible appendages at their resonant frequency results in faster or more efficient locomotion. It has been suggested that jellyfish swim faster and/or more efficiently when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. Previous work has modeled the jellyfish bell as a damped harmonic oscillator, and this simplified model suggests that work done by the bell is maximized when force is applied at the resonant frequency of the bell. We extend the idea of resonance phenomena of the jellyfish bell to a fluid structure interaction framework using the immersed boundary method. We first examine the effects of the bending stiffness of the bell on its resonant frequency. We then further our model with the inclusion of a ``muscular'' spring that connects the two sides of a 2D bell and drives it near its resonant frequency. We use this muscular spring to force the bell at varying frequencies and examine the work done by these springs and the resulting swimming speed. We finally augment our model with a flexible, passive bell margin to examine its role in propulsive efficiency.

  13. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The stresslet provides a simple model of the flow created by a small, freely swimming and neutrally buoyant aquatic organism and shows that the far field fluid disturbance created by such an organism in general decays as one over distance squared. Here we discuss a quieter swimming mode that eliminates the stresslet component of the flow and leads to a faster spatial decay of the fluid disturbance described by a force quadrupole that decays as one over distance cubed. Motivated by recent experimental results on fluid disturbances due to small aquatic organisms, we demonstrate that a three-Stokeslet model of a swimming organism which uses breast stroke type kinematics is an example of such a quiet swimmer. We show that the fluid disturbance in both the near field and the far field is significantly reduced by appropriately arranging the propulsion apparatus, and we find that the far field power laws are valid surprisingly close to the organism. Finally, we discuss point force models as a general framework for hypothesis generation and experimental exploration of fluid mediated predator-prey interactions in the planktonic world. PMID:25974532

  14. Swimming dynamics of the Lyme disease spirochete

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Dhruv K.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, swims by undulating its cell body in the form of a traveling flat-wave, a process driven by rotating internal flagella. We study B. burgdorferi ’s swimming by treating the cell body and flagella as linearly elastic filaments. The dynamics of the cell are then determined from the balance between elastic and resistive forces and moments. We find that planar, traveling waves only exist when the flagella are effectively anchored at both ends of the bacterium and that these traveling flat-waves rotate as they undulate. The model predicts how the undulation frequency is related to the torque from the flagellar motors and how the stiffness of the cell body and flagella affect the undulations and morphology. PMID:23215618

  15. Modular microrobot for swimming in heterogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, U. Kei; Meshkati, Meshkati; Fu, Henry; Kim, Minjun; Drexel University Team; University of Nevada, Reno Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the difficulties in navigating in vivo is to overcome many types of environments. This includes blood vessels of different diameters, fluids with different mechanical properties, and physical barriers. Inspired by conventional modular robotics, we demonstrate modular microrobotics using magnetic particles as the modular units to change size and shape through docking and undocking. Much like the vast variety of microorganisms navigating many different bio-environments, modular microswimmers have the ability to dynamically adapt different environments by reconfiguring the swimmers' physical characteristics. We model the docking as magnetic assembly and undocking mechanisms as deformation by hydrodynamic forces. We characterize the swimming capability of the modular microswimmer with different size and shapes. Finally, we demonstrate modular microrobotics by assembling a three-bead microswimmer into a nine-bead microswimmer, and then disassemble it into several independently swimming microswimmers..

  16. Swimming Dynamics of the Lyme Disease Spirochete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, Dhruv K.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2012-11-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, swims by undulating its cell body in the form of a traveling flat wave, a process driven by rotating internal flagella. We study B. burgdorferi’s swimming by treating the cell body and flagella as linearly elastic filaments. The dynamics of the cell are then determined from the balance between elastic and resistive forces and moments. We find that planar, traveling waves only exist when the flagella are effectively anchored at both ends of the bacterium and that these traveling flat waves rotate as they undulate. The model predicts how the undulation frequency is related to the torque from the flagellar motors and how the stiffness of the cell body and flagella affect the undulations and morphology.

  17. Mechanisms of temperature-dependent swimming: the importance of physics, physiology and body size in determining protist swimming speed.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-12-15

    Body temperatures and thus physiological rates of poikilothermic organisms are determined by environmental temperature. The power an organism has available for swimming is largely dependent on physiological rates and thus body temperature. However, retarding forces such as drag are contingent on the temperature-dependent physical properties of water and on an organism's size. Consequently, the swimming ability of poikilotherms is highly temperature dependent. The importance of the temperature-dependent physical properties of water (e.g. viscosity) in determining swimming speed is poorly understood. Here we propose a semi-mechanistic model to describe how biological rates, size and the physics of the environment contribute to the temperature dependency of microbial swimming speed. Data on the swimming speed and size of a predatory protist and its protist prey were collected and used to test our model. Data were collected by manipulating both the temperature and the viscosity (independently of temperature) of the organism's environment. Protists were either cultured in their test environment (for several generations) or rapidly exposed to their test environment to assess their ability to adapt or acclimate to treatments. Both biological rates and the physics of the environment were predicted to and observed to contribute to the swimming speed of protists. Body size was not temperature dependent, and protists expressed some ability to acclimate to changes in either temperature or viscosity. Overall, using our parameter estimates and novel model, we are able to suggest that 30 to 40% (depending on species) of the response in swimming speed associated with a reduction in temperature from 20 to 5°C is due to viscosity. Because encounter rates between protist predators and their prey are determined by swimming speed, temperature- and viscosity-dependent swimming speeds are likely to result in temperature- and viscosity-dependent trophic interactions. PMID:21113003

  18. Loss of force induced by high extracellular [K+] in rat muscle: effect of temperature, lactic acid and beta2-agonist.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2003-08-15

    Loss of K+ from active muscles, leading to increased [K+]o, has been proposed to cause muscle fatigue by reducing excitability. Since exercise increases muscle temperature, we investigated the influence of temperature on muscle [K+]o sensitivity. Intact rat soleus or extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were mounted on force transducers and stimulated electrically to evoke short isometric tetani at regular intervals. In each experiment, control force at 4 mM K+ was initially determined at every temperature used. In soleus muscles at 20 degrees C, 9 mM K+ reduced force to 33 +/- 5 % of control force. Increasing the temperature to 30 degrees C restored force to 89 +/- 5 % of control force. Likewise, at 30 degrees C 11 mM K+ reduced force to 16 +/- 4 % and increasing the temperature to 35 degrees C restored force to 35 +/- 5 %. Similar results were obtained using EDL. The force recovery induced by elevating temperature, reflecting reduced [K+]o sensitivity, was associated with improved excitability assessed from compound action potentials. Force recovery induced by a temperature elevation from 20 to 30 degrees C was associated with hyperpolarization (5 mV), reduced [Na+]i and a 93 % increase in Na+-K+ pump activity. The force recovery was blocked by ouabain. Since intensive exercise leads to lactic acidosis and increased plasma catecholamines, the effect of these two factors was also investigated. At 11 mM K+, force was completely restored by combining temperature elevation (30 to 35 degrees C), L-lactic acid (10 mM) and the beta2-agonist salbutamol (10-5 M). We suggest an exercise scenario where the depressing action of exercise-induced hyperkalaemia is counteracted by elevated muscle temperature, lactic acidosis and catecholamines. PMID:12813152

  19. Mechanics of Undulatory Swimming in a Frictional Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yang; Sharpe, Sarah S.; Masse, Andrew; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2012-01-01

    The sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus) swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. In previous work we predicted average swimming speed by developing a numerical simulation that incorporated experimentally measured biological kinematics into a multibody sandfish model. The model was coupled to an experimentally validated soft sphere discrete element method simulation of the granular medium. In this paper, we use the simulation to study the detailed mechanics of undulatory swimming in a “granular frictional fluid” and compare the predictions to our previously developed resistive force theory (RFT) which models sand-swimming using empirically determined granular drag laws. The simulation reveals that the forward speed of the center of mass (CoM) oscillates about its average speed in antiphase with head drag. The coupling between overall body motion and body deformation results in a non-trivial pattern in the magnitude of lateral displacement of the segments along the body. The actuator torque and segment power are maximal near the center of the body and decrease to zero toward the head and the tail. Approximately 30% of the net swimming power is dissipated in head drag. The power consumption is proportional to the frequency in the biologically relevant range, which confirms that frictional forces dominate during sand-swimming by the sandfish. Comparison of the segmental forces measured in simulation with the force on a laterally oscillating rod reveals that a granular hysteresis effect causes the overestimation of the body thrust forces in the RFT. Our models provide detailed testable predictions for biological locomotion in a granular environment. PMID:23300407

  20. Swimming of a model ciliate near an air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Ardekani, A M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the role of the hydrodynamic forces on a swimming microorganism near an air-liquid interface is studied. The lubrication theory is utilized to analyze hydrodynamic effects within the narrow gap between a flat interface and a small swimmer. By using an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimming model called "squirmer," we find that the magnitude of the vertical swimming velocity is on the order of O(εlnε), where ε is the ratio of the gap width to the swimmer's body size. The reduced swimming velocity near an interface can explain experimental observations of the aggregation of microorganisms near a liquid interface. PMID:23848775

  1. Kinematics of swimming and thrust production during powerstroking bouts of the swim frenzy in green turtle hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hatchling sea turtles emerge from nests, crawl down the beach and enter the sea where they typically enter a stereotypical hyperactive swimming frenzy. During this swim the front flippers are moved up and down in a flapping motion and are the primary source of thrust production. I used high-speed video linked with simultaneous measurement of thrust production in tethered hatchlings, along with high-speed video of free swimming hatchlings swimming at different water speeds in a swim flume to investigate the links between kinematics of front flipper movement, thrust production and swimming speed. In particular I tested the hypotheses that (1) increased swimming speed is achieved through an increased stroke rate; (2) force produced per stroke is proportional to stroke amplitude, (3) that forward thrust is produced during both the down and up phases of stroking; and (4) that peak thrust is produced towards the end of the downstroke cycle. Front flipper stroke rate was independent of water speed refuting the hypothesis that swimming speed is increased by increasing stroke rate. Instead differences in swimming speed were caused by a combination of varying flipper amplitude and the proportion of time spent powerstroking. Peak thrust produced per stroke varied within and between bouts of powerstroking, and these peaks in thrust were correlated with both flipper amplitude and flipper angular momentum during the downstroke supporting the hypothesis that stroke force is a function of stroke amplitude. Two distinct thrust production patterns were identified, monophasic in which a single peak in thrust was recorded during the later stages of the downstroke, and biphasic in which a small peak in thrust was recorded at the very end of the upstroke and this followed by a large peak in thrust during the later stages of the downstroke. The biphasic cycle occurs in ∼20% of hatchlings when they first started swimming, but disappeared after one to two hours of swimming. The

  2. Swimming speeds of filaments in viscous fluids with resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Nguyenho; Olson, Sarah D.; Leiderman, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Many microorganisms swim in a highly heterogeneous environment with obstacles such as fibers or polymers. To better understand how this environment affects microorganism swimming, we study propulsion of a cylinder or filament in a fluid with a sparse, stationary network of obstructions modeled by the Brinkman equation. The mathematical analysis of swimming speeds is investigated by studying an infinite-length cylinder propagating lateral or spiral displacement waves. For fixed bending kinematics, we find that swimming speeds are enhanced due to the added resistance from the fibers. In addition, we examine the work and the torque exerted on the cylinder in relation to the resistance. The solutions for the torque, swimming speed, and work of an infinite-length cylinder in a Stokesian fluid are recovered as the resistance is reduced to zero. Finally, we compare the asymptotic solutions with numerical results for the Brinkman flow with regularized forces. The swimming speed of a finite-length filament decreases as its length decreases and planar bending induces an angular velocity that increases linearly with added resistance. The comparisons between the asymptotic analysis and computation give insight on the effect of the length of the filament, the permeability, and the thickness of the cylinder in terms of the overall performance of planar and helical swimmers.

  3. Swimming speeds of filaments in viscous fluids with resistance.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nguyenho; Olson, Sarah D; Leiderman, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Many microorganisms swim in a highly heterogeneous environment with obstacles such as fibers or polymers. To better understand how this environment affects microorganism swimming, we study propulsion of a cylinder or filament in a fluid with a sparse, stationary network of obstructions modeled by the Brinkman equation. The mathematical analysis of swimming speeds is investigated by studying an infinite-length cylinder propagating lateral or spiral displacement waves. For fixed bending kinematics, we find that swimming speeds are enhanced due to the added resistance from the fibers. In addition, we examine the work and the torque exerted on the cylinder in relation to the resistance. The solutions for the torque, swimming speed, and work of an infinite-length cylinder in a Stokesian fluid are recovered as the resistance is reduced to zero. Finally, we compare the asymptotic solutions with numerical results for the Brinkman flow with regularized forces. The swimming speed of a finite-length filament decreases as its length decreases and planar bending induces an angular velocity that increases linearly with added resistance. The comparisons between the asymptotic analysis and computation give insight on the effect of the length of the filament, the permeability, and the thickness of the cylinder in terms of the overall performance of planar and helical swimmers. PMID:27176391

  4. Kinematics and hydrodynamics of swimming in the mayfly larva.

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, John

    2004-02-01

    The kinematics and hydrodynamics of free-swimming mayfly larvae (Chloeon dipterum) were investigated with the aid of a simple wake visualisation technique (tracer dyes) and drag measurements on dead insects. The basic swimming movement consists of a high-amplitude dorso-ventral undulation and, during continuous swimming, this produces a wake of ring vortices shed alternately to the dorsal and ventral sides of the body. The ring vortices propagate laterally away from the body at an angle of approximately 80 degrees relative to dead aft of the swimming line. Thus, mayfly larvae, like damsel-fly larvae, resemble eels in producing a wake consisting of separate vortices that propagate laterally rather than the reverse von Karman vortex street characteristic of most caudal fin swimming fish. The thrust estimated from the momentum in the wake of swimming mayfly larvae was comparable with the drag measured on dead specimens. Possible sources of error in these estimates are discussed, but the conclusion is reached that even though only 14% of the total force generated by vortex production is directed forwards, it is still sufficient to account for the thrust required for steady locomotion. PMID:14766950

  5. Laminar-dependent dendritic spine alterations in the motor cortex of adult rats following callosal transection and forced forelimb use.

    PubMed

    Adkins, DeAnna L; Bury, Scott D; Jones, Theresa A

    2002-07-01

    Previously, the authors found that partial denervation of the motor cortex in adult animals can enhance this region's neuronal growth response to relevant behavioral change. Rats with partial corpus callosum transections that were forced to rely on one forelimb for 18 days had increased dendritic arborization of layer V pyramidal neurons in the opposite motor cortex compared to controls. This was not found as a result of denervation alone or of forced forelimb use alone. However, it seemed possible that each independent manipulation (i.e., forced forelimb use alone and callosal transections alone) resulted in neural structural alterations that were simply not revealed in measurements of dendritic branch number and/or not inclusive of layer V dendrites. This possibility was assessed in the current study with a reexamination of the Golgi-Cox impregnated tissue generated in the previous study. Tissue was quantified from rats that received either partial transections of the rostral two-thirds of the corpus callosum (CCX) or sham operations (Sham) followed either by 18 days of forced use of one forelimb (Use) or unrestricted use of both forelimbs (Cont). Measurements of apical and basilar dendrites from pyramidal neurons of layer II/III and layer V were performed to detect spine addition resulting from either increased spine density or the addition of dendritic material. As hypothesized, significant spine addition was found following forced forelimb use alone (Sham+Use) and callosal transections alone (CCX+Cont). However, forced use primarily increased spines on layer II/III pyramidal neurons, whereas callosal transections primarily increased dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons in comparison to Sham+Cont. A much more robust increase in layer V dendritic spines was found in animals with the combination of forced forelimb use and denervation (CCX+Use). In contrast to the effects of forced use alone, however, CCX+Use rats failed to show major net increases in

  6. Morphological changes in the rat periodontal ligament and its vascularity after experimental tooth movement using superelastic forces.

    PubMed

    Noda, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Kogure, Kyotaro; Nomura, Yoshiaki

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to statistically assess the morphological changes of the rat periodontal ligament (PDL) and its vascularity in relation to varied magnitudes of superelastic force in experimental tooth movement using nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire. Forces of 0.8, 1.6, 4, 8, and 18 g were applied to the upper first molars of five groups of 10-week-old male Wistar rats (300-320 g) for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. A control group with no orthodontic appliance application was assessed in accordance with the five experimental periods. The specimens were observed under light microscopy, processed by computer imaging, and analysed statistically with Tukey's HSD non-parametric test. One day after the start of the experiment, a few blood vessels could be seen in the compressed PDL with forces of 0.8 and 1.6 g. The cross-sectional areas of blood vessels (CAV) and periodontal ligament (CAPL) in the experimental groups where a force of over 4 g was applied were significantly smaller than those where 0.8 and 1.6 g forces were used, and in the control group. On day 7, large CAV were seen in the 1.6, 4, and 8 g groups. On day 28, the 8 and 18 g groups showed significantly larger CAPL than the 0.8, 4 g, or control groups. The findings suggest that a light continuous force, under 1.6 g, maintains the vascular structure during experimental tooth movement. In contrast, a heavy continuous force over 4 g causes the vascular structure to be absent in the early stages of tooth movement, but a dynamic regeneration of the PDL with vascularity and expansion follows. PMID:19073960

  7. Paramecia swimming in viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Jana, S.; Giarra, M.; Vlachos, P. P.; Jung, S.

    2015-12-01

    Ciliates like Paramecia exhibit fore-aft asymmetry in their body shapes, and preferentially swim in the direction of the slender anterior rather than the wider posterior. However, the physical reasons for this preference are not well understood. In this work, we propose that specific features of the fluid flow around swimming Paramecia confer some energetic advantage to the preferred swimming direction. Therefore, we seek to understand the effects of body asymmetry and swimming direction on the efficiency of swimming and the flux of fluid into the cilia layer (and thus of food into the oral groove), which we assumed to be primary factors in the energy budgets of these organisms. To this end, we combined numerical techniques (the boundary element method) and laboratory experiments (micro particle image velocimetry) to develop a quantitative model of the flow around a Paramecium and investigate the effect of the body shape on the velocity fields, as well as on the swimming and feeding behaviors. Both simulation and experimental results show that velocity fields exhibit fore-aft asymmetry. Moreover, the shape asymmetry revealed an increase of the fluid flux into the cilia layer compared to symmetric body shapes. Under the assumption that cilia fluid intake and feeding efficiency are primary factors in the energy budgets of Paramecia, our model predicts that the anterior swimming direction is energetically favorable to the posterior swimming direction.

  8. Blocking in the Morris swimming pool.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A D; Pearce, J M

    1999-04-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that spatial blocking is governed by the same principles that govern blocking in Pavlovian conditioning. In the 2nd stage of each experiment, rats escaped from a Morris swimming pool by swimming to a submerged platform with a beacon attached to it. Test trials were then conducted in the absence of the platform and the beacon to assess the extent to which subjects had learned about the position of the platform with reference to the room cues. For the 1st stage of their training, rats either swam to the platform and beacon in the presence of curtains that prevented the room cues from being seen (Experiments 1 & 2), or they swam to the platform and beacon that were moved from trial to trial (Experiments 3 & 4). In each experiment, learning about the room cues in the 2nd stage of the experiment was blocked by the presence of the beacon. This blocking effect was disrupted by changing the appearance of the beacon for the 2nd stage of training or by restricting the amount of exposure to the beacon during the 1st phase of training. PMID:10331921

  9. Three-link Swimming in Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, R. L.; Ding, Yang; Masse, Andrew; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Many animals move within in granular media such as desert sand. Recent biological experiments have revealed that the sandfish lizard uses an undulatory gait to swim within sand. Models reveal that swimming occurs in a frictional fluid in which inertial effects are small and kinematics dominate. To understand the fundamental mechanics of swimming in granular media (GM), we examine a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids: the three-link swimmer. We create a physical model driven by two servo-motors, and a discrete element simulation of the swimmer. To predict optimal gaits we use a recent geometric mechanics theory combined with empirically determined resistive force laws for GM. We develop a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical predictions; thus geometric tools can be used to study locomotion in GM.

  10. Optimality Principles of Undulatory Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2015-11-01

    A number of dimensionless quantities derived from a fish's kinematic and morphological parameters have been used to describe the hydrodynamics of swimming. In particular, body/caudal fin swimmers have been found to swim within a relatively narrow range of these quantities in nature, e.g., Strouhal number or the optimal specific wavelength. It has been hypothesized or shown that these constraints arise due to maximization of swimming speed, efficiency, or cost of transport in certain domains of this large dimensionless parameter space. Using fully resolved simulations of undulatory patterns, we investigate the existence of various optimality principles in fish swimming. Using scaling arguments, we relate various dimensionless parameters to each other. Based on these findings, we make design recommendations on how kinematic parameters for a swimming robot or vehicle should be chosen. This work is supported by NSF Grants CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  11. Direct determination of the driving forces for taurocholate uptake into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M C; Blitzer, B L; Boyer, J L

    1983-10-01

    To determine directly the driving forces for bile acid entry into the hepatocyte, the uptake of [3H]taurocholic acid into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles was studied. The membrane preparation contained predominantly right-side-out vesicles, and was highly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The uptake of taurocholate at equilibrium was inversely related to medium osmolarity, indicating transport into an osmotically sensitive space. In the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient (NaCl or sodium gluconate), the initial rate of uptake was rapid and taurocholate was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that at equilibrium (overshoot). Other inwardly directed cation gradients (K+, Li+, choline+) or the presence of sodium in the absence of a gradient (Na+ equilibrated) resulted in a slower initial uptake rate and did not sustain an overshoot. Bile acids inhibited sodium-dependent taurocholate uptake, whereas bromsulphthalein inhibited both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent uptake and D-glucose had no effect on uptake. Uptake was temperature dependent, with maximal overshoots occurring at 25 degrees C. Imposition of a proton gradient across the vesicle (pHo less than pHi) in the absence of a sodium gradient failed to enhance taurocholate uptake, indicating that double ion exchange (Na+-H+, OH- -anion) is unlikely. Creation of a negative intravesicular potential by altering accompanying anions or by valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potentials did not enhance taurocholate uptake, suggesting an electroneutral transport mechanism. The kinetics of taurocholate uptake demonstrated saturability with a Michaelis constant at 52 microM and maximum velocity of 4.5 nmol X mg-1 X protein X min-1. These studies provide definitive evidence for a sodium gradient-dependent, carrier-mediated, electrically neutral transport mechanism for hepatic taurocholate uptake. These findings are consistent with a model for bile secretion in which the basolateral

  12. Direct determination of the driving forces for taurocholate uptake into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, M C; Blitzer, B L; Boyer, J L

    1983-01-01

    To determine directly the driving forces for bile acid entry into the hepatocyte, the uptake of [3H]taurocholic acid into rat liver plasma membrane vesicles was studied. The membrane preparation contained predominantly right-side-out vesicles, and was highly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The uptake of taurocholate at equilibrium was inversely related to medium osmolarity, indicating transport into an osmotically sensitive space. In the presence of an inwardly directed sodium gradient (NaCl or sodium gluconate), the initial rate of uptake was rapid and taurocholate was transiently accumulated at a concentration twice that at equilibrium (overshoot). Other inwardly directed cation gradients (K+, Li+, choline+) or the presence of sodium in the absence of a gradient (Na+ equilibrated) resulted in a slower initial uptake rate and did not sustain an overshoot. Bile acids inhibited sodium-dependent taurocholate uptake, whereas bromsulphthalein inhibited both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent uptake and D-glucose had no effect on uptake. Uptake was temperature dependent, with maximal overshoots occurring at 25 degrees C. Imposition of a proton gradient across the vesicle (pHo less than pHi) in the absence of a sodium gradient failed to enhance taurocholate uptake, indicating that double ion exchange (Na+-H+, OH- -anion) is unlikely. Creation of a negative intravesicular potential by altering accompanying anions or by valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potentials did not enhance taurocholate uptake, suggesting an electroneutral transport mechanism. The kinetics of taurocholate uptake demonstrated saturability with a Michaelis constant at 52 microM and maximum velocity of 4.5 nmol X mg-1 X protein X min-1. These studies provide definitive evidence for a sodium gradient-dependent, carrier-mediated, electrically neutral transport mechanism for hepatic taurocholate uptake. These findings are consistent with a model for bile secretion in which the basolateral

  13. The body vitamin B1 levels of rats fed a diet containing the minimum requirement of vitamin B1 is reduced by exercise.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    It is thought that increasing energy expenditure increases consumption of vitamin B1, leading to an increase in the requirement of vitamin B1. However, evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. To examine the hypothesis, initially, we determined the minimum requirement of vitamin B1 for weaning rats. We found that the minimum requirement of vitamin B1 for optimum growth of weaning rats was around 0.786 mg thiamin/kg diet. Next, rats fed a diet containing the minimum requirement of vitamin B1 were forced to swim until exhaustion. Concentrations of vitamin B1 in the blood and liver as well as urinary excretion of swimming rats decreased significantly compared with those of non-swimming rats (p<0.05), while in rats fed the diet containing a sufficient amount of vitamin B1 (4.720 mg thiamin/kg diet), vitamin B1 amounts in the blood, liver and urine were not affected by swimming. We clearly and firstly showed the reduction of body vitamin B1 following increases in energy expenditure. PMID:23727637

  14. Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Brown, Sarah; McConnell, Alison K

    2010-02-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To determine the influence of IMT upon swimming performance over 3 competitive distances, 16 competitive club-level swimmers were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure threshold IMT) or sham IMT placebo control group. Participants performed a series of physiological and performance tests, before and following 6 weeks of IMT, including (1) an incremental swim test to the limit of tolerance to determine lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion responses; (2) standard measures of lung function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); and (3) 100, 200 and 400 m swim time trials. Training utilised a hand-held pressure threshold device and consisted of 30 repetitions, twice per day. Relative to control, the IMT group showed the following percentage changes in swim times: 100 m, -1.70% (90% confidence limits, +/-1.4%), 200 m, -1.5% (+/-1.0), and 400 m, 0.6% (+/-1.2). Large effects were observed for MIP and rates of perceived exertion. In conclusion, 6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400 m. PMID:19841931

  15. Bite Force and Pattern Measurements for Dental Pain Assessment in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Junad; Benoliel, Rafael; Herzberg, Uri; Mannes, Andrew J.; Caudle, Robert M.; Young, Andrew; Eliav, Eli

    2008-01-01

    We present simple method to assess dental pain in the awake rat. Using a sensitive strain gauge we examined changes in bite strength and bite pattern in rats following dental injury. Rats with dental injury displayed a significant reduction in mean peak bite strength and an altered bite-cluster pattern. Both changes in the dental injury rats were reversed by an analgesic dose of morphine, and this could be reversed with naloxone. These changes were not observed in naive control animals. This simple method significantly improves our ability to evaluate dental pain syndromes. PMID:18926882

  16. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  17. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  18. Behavioral effects of bovine lactoferrin administration during postnatal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Shumake, Jason; Barrett, Douglas W; Lane, Michelle A; Wittke, Anja J

    2014-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that rats consuming bovine lactoferrin (bLf) during postnatal development would show better performance of stressful tasks during adolescence. In the first study, we orally administered bLf (750 mg/kg) once daily between postnatal days 16-34. Rats then underwent a battery of behavioral tests: open field (forced exploration of risky environment), light-dark emergence (voluntary exploration of risky environment), baited holeboard (working and reference memory), food neophobia (preference for familiar versus novel food), forced swim (test for antidepressant efficacy), and shuttle-box escape (learning to escape footshock). bLf-supplemented rats showed less exploration of the risky environment, greater preference for the familiar food odor, and faster escape responses. The effect of bLf on forced-swim behavior depended on sex: immobility increased for males and decreased for females. In the next study, we replaced the forced-swim test with an escape-swim test in which rats learned to use a visual cue to locate an escape platform, and we tested the dose response of bLf on this and the shuttle-box escape test, with subjects receiving vehicle or bLf at 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg. Under this modified testing battery, improvement of escape from footshock was not observed at any dose. However, males, but not females, showed a significant dose-dependent effect of bLf on acquisition of the water-escape task. On average, males receiving a higher dose mastered the task 20-25 % sooner than rats receiving a lower dose or vehicle. These results offer preliminary evidence that bLf supplementation during development can improve subsequent cognitive performance during stress. PMID:24752859

  19. Spiral swimming of an artificial micro-swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaveny, Eric E.; Maxey, Martin R.

    A device constructed from a filament of paramagnetic beads connected to a human red blood cell will swim when subject to an oscillating magnetic field. Bending waves propagate from the tip of the tail toward the red blood cell in a fashion analogous to flagellum beating, making the artificial swimmer a candidate for studying what has been referred to as micro-swimming. In this study, we demonstrate that under the influence of a rotating field the artificial swimmer will perform -type swimming. We conduct numerical simulations of the swimmer where the paramagnetic tail is represented as a series of rigid spheres connected by flexible but inextensible links. An optimal range of parameters governing the relative strength of viscous, elastic and magnetic forces is identified for swimming speed. A parameterization of the motion is extracted and examined as a function of the driving frequency. With a continuous elastica/resistive force model, we obtain an expression for the swimming speed in the low-frequency limit. Using this expression we explore further the effects of the applied field, the ratio of the transverse field to the constant field, and the ratio of the radius of the sphere to the length of the filament tail on the resulting dynamics.

  20. The influence of stimulation frequency on force-velocity characteristics of in situ rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    de Haan, A

    1998-01-01

    Force (and power)-velocity characteristics were determined at different stimulation frequencies in th situ rat muscle with nerve stimulation at 36 degrees C. In isometric contractions (duration, 150 ms), maximal force is generated at approximately 120 Hz. In contrast, in the high velocity (250 mm s-1) shortening contractions, frequencies of approximately 400 Hz were needed to obtain maximal dynamic force, while 120 Hz elicited only approximately 26% of the maximum. At the highest velocity measured, power production was significantly different (P < 0.05) among frequencies of 80, 120, 200 and 400 Hz, suggesting that maximal shortening velocity should be assessed using very high stimulation frequencies. However, the results further indicate that lower frequencies may be adequate in exercise studies that investigate fatigue and changes in power output during series of repetitive contractions. PMID:9483421

  1. Undulatory swimming on a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Gann, Olivia; Thiria, Benjamin

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of swimmers in nature use body undulations to generate a propulsive force, in part owing to the relative insensitivity of the principle of undulatory swimming to the value of the Reynolds number Re=UL/ν, which measures the relative importance of viscous and inertial forces in the flow considered (U and L being the typical speed and length of the animal, and ν the kinematic viscosity of the surrounding fluid). Here we study a flexible filament forced to oscillate by imposing a harmonic motion to one of its extremities (using magnetic interactions) and propelling itself at the surface of a water tank. This experiment serves as a canonical model for studying the interactions between an elastic structure undergoing complex deformations and the surrounding fluid.

  2. Hybrid electro-optical stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve induces force generation in the plantarflexor muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Austin R.; Peterson, Erik; Mackanos, Mark A.; Atkinson, James; Tyler, Dustin; Jansen, E. Duco

    2012-12-01

    Objective. Optical methods of neural activation are becoming important tools for the study and treatment of neurological disorders. Infrared nerve stimulation (INS) is an optical technique exhibiting spatially precise activation in the native neural system. While this technique shows great promise, the risk of thermal damage may limit some applications. Combining INS with traditional electrical stimulation, a method known as hybrid electro-optical stimulation, reduces the laser power requirements and mitigates the risk of thermal damage while maintaining spatial selectivity. Here we investigate the capability of inducing force generation in the rat hind limb through hybrid stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Approach. Hybrid stimulation was achieved by combining an optically transparent nerve cuff for electrical stimulation and a diode laser coupled to an optical fiber for infrared stimulation. Force generation in the rat plantarflexor muscles was measured in response to hybrid stimulation with 1 s bursts of pulses at 15 and 20 Hz and with a burst frequency of 0.5 Hz. Main results. Forces were found to increase with successive stimulus trains, ultimately reaching a plateau by the 20th train. Hybrid evoked forces decayed at a rate similar to the rate of thermal diffusion in tissue. Preconditioning the nerve with an optical stimulus resulted in an increase in the force response to both electrical and hybrid stimulation. Histological evaluation showed no signs of thermally induced morphological changes following hybrid stimulation. Our results indicate that an increase in baseline temperature is a likely contributor to hybrid force generation. Significance. Extraneural INS of peripheral nerves at physiologically relevant repetition rates is possible using hybrid electro-optical stimulation.

  3. Changes in collagen fibril pattern and adhesion force with collagenase-induced injury in rat Achilles tendon observed via AFM.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Samjin; Chon, Jinmann; Yoo, Seungdon; Cho, Ilsung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2011-01-01

    The Achilles tendon consists mainly of type I collagen fibers that contain collagen fibrils. When the Achilles tendon is injured, it is inflamed. The collagenase-induced model has been widely used to study tendinitis. The major advantages of atomic force microscopy (AFM) over conventional optical and electron microscopy for bio-imaging include its non-requirement of a special coating and vacuum, and its capability to perform imaging in all environments. AFM force-distance measurements have become a fundamental tool in the fields of surface chemistry, biochemistry and materials science. Therefore, the changes in the ultrastructure and adhesion force of the collagen fibrils on the Achilles tendons of rats with Achilles tendinitis were observed using AFM. The changes in the structure of the Achilles tendons were evaluated based on the diameter and D-banding of the collagen fibrils. Collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis was induced with the injection of 30 microl crude collagenase into 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were each sacrificed on the first, second, third, fifth and seventh day after the collagenase injection. The normal and injured Achilles tendons were fixed in 4% buffered formalin and dehydrated with increasing concentrations of ethanol. AFM was performed using the non-contact mode at the resolution of 512 x 512 pixels, with a scan speed of 0.8 line/sec. The adhesion force was measured via the force-distance curve that resulted from the interactions between the AFM tip and the collagen fibril sample using the contact mode. The diameter of the collagen fibrils in the Achilles tendons significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after the collagenase injection, and the pattern of the D-banding of the collagen fibrils was similar to that of the diameter changes. The adhesion force decreased until the fifth day after the collagenase injection, but increased on the seventh day after the collagenase injection (p < 0.0001). PMID:21446543

  4. The physics of swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, M. R.

    1980-09-01

    Like all physical skills swimming is subject to the laws of mechanics. Until fairly recently, however, the biomechanical study of this cross disciplinary activity has been largely left alone by the two specialists who would be primarily involved, the physicist and the physical educationist. Since the early 1970s, however, a greater cross fertilisation of ideas has taken place and the sports scientist has emerged. It is possible to analyse human performance and thus identify areas where for example greater strength, a slightly different angle or a slightly different degree of twist might produce that all important extra few millimetres in distance or that reduction in time of a few milliseconds. In man's search for excellence this is important. The study of the performance of a sprinting swimmer in biomechanical terms makes it possible to build up a model of the stroke under investigation which may then be improved upon.

  5. In vivo quantification of liver stiffness in a rat model of hepatic fibrosis with acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael H; Palmeri, Mark L; Guy, Cynthia D; Yang, Liu; Hedlund, Laurence W; Diehl, Anna Mae; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2009-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is currently staged using needle biopsy, a highly invasive procedure with a number of disadvantages. Measurement of liver stiffness changes that accompany progression of the disease may provide a quantitative and noninvasive method to assess the health of the liver. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between liver stiffness measured by radiation force induced shear waves and disease related changes in the liver. An additional aim is to present initial findings on the effects of liver viscosity on radiation force induced shear wave morphology. Liver fibrosis was induced in 10 rats using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), while five rats acted as controls. Liver stiffness was measured in vivo in all rats after a treatment period of 8 weeks using a modified Siemens SONOLINE Antares scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Ultrasound Division, Issaquah, WA, USA). The spatial coherence of radiation force induced shear waves propagating in the viscoelastic rat liver decreased significantly with propagation distance, compared with shear waves in an elastic phantom and a finite element model of a purely elastic medium. Animals were sacrificed after imaging and liver samples were taken for histopathologic analysis and collagen quantification using picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assay. At the end of the treatment period, five rats had healthy livers (stage F0), while six had severe fibrosis (F3) and the rest had light to moderate fibrosis (F1 and F2). The measured liver stiffness for the F0 group was 1.5+/-0.1 kPa (mean+/-95% confidence interval) and for F3 livers was 1.8+/-0.2 kPa. In this study, liver stiffness was found to be linearly correlated with the amount of collagen in the liver measured by picrosirius red staining (r(2)=0.43, p=0.008). In addition, stiffness spatial heterogeneity was also linearly correlated with liver collagen content (r(2)=0.58, p=0.001) by picrosirius red staining. These results are consistent

  6. Attenuated increase in maximal force of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after concurrent peak power and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Regula; Jaspers, Richard T; Baggerman, Hein L; Bravenboer, Nathalie; Lips, Paul; de Haan, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control), peak power training (PT), or both peak power and endurance training (PET), which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training. PMID:23509812

  7. Swimming Performance and Metabolism of Golden Shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swimming ability and metabolism of golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, was examined using swim tunnel respirometery. The oxygen consumption and tail beat frequencies at various swimming speeds, an estimation of the standard metabolic rate, and the critical swimming speed (Ucrit) was determ...

  8. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swimming pools. 1250.89 Section 1250.89 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.89 Swimming pools. (a) Fill and draw swimming pools shall not be installed or used. (b) Swimming pools of the recirculation type shall...

  9. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2009-04-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces.

  10. Repeated stress exposure causes strain-dependent shifts in the behavioral economics of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Groblewski, Peter A; Zietz, Chad; Willuhn, Ingo; Phillips, Paul E M; Chavkin, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Cocaine-experienced Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats received four daily repeated forced swim stress sessions (R-FSS), each of which preceded 4-hour cocaine self-administration sessions. Twenty-four hours after the last swim stress, cocaine valuation was assessed during a single-session threshold procedure. Prior exposure to R-FSS significantly altered cocaine responding in Wistar, but not WKY, rats. Behavioral economic analysis of responding revealed that the Wistar rats that had received R-FSS exhibited an increase in the maximum price that they were willing to pay for cocaine (Pmax ). Pre-treatment with the long-lasting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist norbinaltorphimine prevented the stress-induced increase in Pmax . Thus, R-FSS exposure had strain-dependent effects on cocaine responding during the threshold procedure, and the stress effects on cocaine valuation exhibited by Wistar, but not WKY, required intact KOR signaling. PMID:24919534

  11. Repeated stress exposure causes strain-dependent shifts in the behavioral economics of cocaine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Groblewski, Peter A.; Zietz, Chad; Willuhn, Ingo; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Chavkin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-experienced Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats received four daily repeated forced swim stress sessions (R-FSS), each of which preceded 4-hour cocaine self-administration sessions. Twenty-four hours after the last swim stress, cocaine valuation was assessed during a single-session threshold procedure. Prior exposure to R-FSS significantly altered cocaine responding in Wistar, but not WKY, rats. Behavioral economic analysis of responding revealed that the Wistar rats that had received R-FSS exhibited an increase in the maximum price that they were willing to pay for cocaine (Pmax). Pre-treatment with the long-lasting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist norbinaltorphimine prevented the stress-induced increase in Pmax. Thus, R-FSS exposure had strain-dependent effects on cocaine responding during the threshold procedure, and the stress effects on cocaine valuation exhibited by Wistar, but not WKY, required intact KOR signaling. PMID:24919534

  12. Multidimensional characterisation of biomechanical structures by combining Atomic Force Microscopy and Focused Ion Beam: A study of the rat whisker.

    PubMed

    Adineh, Vahid Reza; Liu, Boyin; Rajan, Ramesh; Yan, Wenyi; Fu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity of biological structures, particularly at the micro/nano scale can offer insights valuable for multidisciplinary research in tissue engineering and biomimicry designs. Here we propose to combine nanocharacterisation tools, particularly Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for three dimensional mapping of mechanical modulus and chemical signatures. The prototype platform is applied to image and investigate the fundamental mechanics of the rat face whiskers, a high-acuity sensor used to gain detailed information about the world. Grazing angle FIB milling was first applied to expose the interior cross section of the rat whisker sample, followed by a "lift-out" method to retrieve and position the target sample for further analyses. AFM force spectroscopy measurements revealed a non-uniform pattern of elastic modulus across the cross section, with a range from 0.8GPa to 13.5GPa. The highest elastic modulus was found at the outer cuticle region of the whisker, and values gradually decreased towards the interior cortex and medulla regions. Elemental mapping with EDS confirmed that the interior of the rat whisker is dominated by C, O, N, S, Cl and K, with a significant change of elemental distribution close to the exterior cuticle region. Based on these data, a novel comprehensive three dimensional (3D) elastic modulus model was constructed, and stress distributions under realistic conditions were investigated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The simulations could well account for the passive whisker deflections, with calculated resonant frequency as well as force-deflection for the whiskers being in good agreement with reported experimental data. Limitations and further applications are discussed for the proposed FIB/AFM approach, which holds good promise as a unique platform to gain insights on various heterogeneous biomaterials and biomechanical systems. PMID:25839121

  13. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Hikida, Takuji; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggling) in vivo. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into control, heavy force (HF), optimal force (OF), and jiggling force (JF) groups. The expression levels of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1; an IL-8-related protein in rodents), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin protein in the dental root were determined using immunohistochemistry. Results On day 21, a greater number of root resorption lacunae, which contained multinucleated odontoclasts, were observed in the palatal roots of rats in the JF group than in rats from other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the numbers of cathepsin K-positive and MMP-9-positive odontoclasts in the JF group on day 21. Immunoreactivities for IL-6, CINC-1, and RANKL were stronger in resorbed roots exposed to jiggling than in the other groups on day 21. Negative reactivity was observed in the controls. Conclusions These results suggest that jiggling may induce ORR via inflammatory cytokine production during orthodontic tooth movement, and that jiggling may be a risk factor for ORR. PMID:27478800

  14. Fluid dynamics: Swimming across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2014-10-01

    The myriad creatures that inhabit the waters of our planet all swim using different mechanisms. Now, a simple relation links key physical observables of underwater locomotion, on scales ranging from millimetres to tens of metres.

  15. Swim pressure of active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen; Brady, John; Caltech Team

    2014-11-01

    Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important (i.e., the Stokes number is not small). Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  16. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  17. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  18. Energy exchanges of swimming man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadel, E. R.; Holmer, I.; Bergh, U.; Astrand, P.-O.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Three male swimmers underwent 10-min resting and 20-min swimming (breaststroke) exposures in a swimming flume. Water temperatures in separate exposures were 18, 26, and 33 C. At each water temperature the subjects rested and swam at water velocities of 0.50, 0.75, and 0.95 m/sec, which were designed to produce around 40, 70, and 100% of maximal aerobic power. Measurements were made of esophageal temperature, four skin temperatures, water temperature, heat flow from five local skin surfaces (Hatfield-Turner disks), and oxygen uptake. Calculations were made of mean area-weighted skin temperature and heat flow, metabolic rate, and heat storage. Internal body temperature changes after 20 min of swimming were related to water temperature, swimming intensity, and body composition.

  19. Metabolism and activity of zoxazolamine in white rats during forced immobilization with and without hyperthermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchel, L.; Murawsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of restraint of rats held either at normal body temperature or at lowered body temperature as related to the effects of the muscle relaxant zoxazolamine was studied. The techniques used and experimental results obtained are presented.

  20. Hydrodynamic theory of swimming of flagellated microorganisms.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J G; Bloomfield, V A

    1977-10-01

    A theory of the type commonly used in polymer hydrodynamics is developed to calculate swimming properties of flagellated microorganisms. The overall shape of the particle is modeled as an array of spherical beads which act, at the same time, as frictional elements. The fluid velocity field is obtained as a function of the forces acting at each bead through Oseen-type, hydrodynamic interaction tensors. From the force and torque equilibrium conditions, such quantities as swimming velocity, angular velocity, and efficiency can be calculated. Application is made to a spherical body propelled by a helical flagellum. A recent theory by Lighthill, and earlier formulations based on tangential and normal frictional coefficients of a curved cylinder, CT and CN, are analyzed along with our theory. Although all the theories predict similar qualitative characteristics, such as optimal efficiency and the effect of fluid viscosity, they lead to rather different numerical values. In agreement with Lighthill, we found the formalisms based on CN and CT coefficients to be somewhat inaccurate, and head-flagellum interactions are shown to play an important role. PMID:901902

  1. Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Raymond C Z; Cleary, Paul W; Mason, Bruce R

    2012-06-01

    In competitive human swimming the submerged dolphin kick stroke (underwater undulatory swimming) is utilized after dives and turns. The optimal dolphin kick has a balance between minimizing drag and maximizing thrust while also minimizing the physical exertion required of the swimmer. In this study laser scans of athletes are used to provide realistic swimmer geometries in a single anatomical pose. These are rigged and animated to closely match side-on video footage. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) fluid simulations are performed to evaluate variants of this swimming stroke technique. This computational approach provides full temporal and spatial information about the flow moving around the deforming swimmer model. The effects of changes in ankle flexibility and stroke frequency are investigated through a parametric study. The results suggest that the net streamwise force on the swimmer is relatively insensitive to ankle flexibility but is strongly dependent on kick frequency. PMID:21840077

  2. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  3. A Role For The Prefrontal Cortex In Heroin-Seeking After Forced Abstinence By Adult Male Rats But Not Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir+ and Fos-ir− neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir+ neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  4. Adenosine signaling in reserpine-induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Minor, Thomas R; Hanff, Thomas C

    2015-06-01

    A single, 6 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of reserpine increased floating time during forced swim testing 24h after administration in rats in five experiments. Although such behavioral depression traditionally is attributed to drug-induced depletion of brain monoamines, we examined the potential contribution of adenosine signaling, which is plausibly activated by reserpine treatment and contributes to behavioral depression in other paradigms. Whereas peripheral administration of the highly selective A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.5, 1.0, or 5.0mg/kg i.p.) 15 min before swim testing failed to improve performance in reserpine-treated rats, swim deficits were completely reversed by 7 mg/kg of the nonselective receptor antagonist caffeine. Performance deficits were also reversed by the nonselective A2 antagonist 3,7-dimethylxanthine (0, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg i.p.), and the highly selective A2A receptor antagonist (CSC: 8-(3 chlorostyral)caffeine) (0.01, 0.1, or 1.0mg/kg i.p.) in a dose-dependent manner. The highly selective A2B antagonist alloxazine had no beneficial effect on swim performance at any dose under study (0.1, 1.0, and 5.0mg/kg i.p.). PMID:25721738

  5. Towards direct numerical simulation of freely swimming fish.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curet, Oscar; Patankar, Neelesh; Maciver, Malcolm

    2006-11-01

    Swimming mechanisms employed by fish are currently inspiring unique underwater vehicles and robotic devices as well as basic science research into the neural control of movement. Key engineering issues include propulsion efficiency, precise motion control and maneuverability. A numerical scheme that simulates the motion of freely swimming fish will be a valuable design and research tool. We are working towards this goal. In particular we are interested in simulating the motion of a gymnotiform fish that swims by producing undulations of a ventral ribbon fin while keeping its body rigid. We model the fish as a rigid body with an attached undulating membrane. In our numerical scheme the key idea is to assume that the entire fluid-fish domain is a fluid. Then we impose two constraints: the first requires that the fluid in the region occupied by the fish body moves rigidly (a fictitious domain approach), and the second requires that the fluid at the location of the fin has the traveling wave velocity of the fin (an immersed boundary approach). Given the traveling wave form of the fin, the objective is for the numerical scheme to give the swimming velocity of the fish by solving the coupled fluid-fish problem. We will present results for the forces generated by a fin attached to a fixed body and preliminary results for freely swimming fish.

  6. Distribution of sup 3 H-proline within transseptal fibers of the rat following release of orthodontic forces

    SciTech Connect

    Row, K.L.; Johnson, R.B. )

    1990-10-01

    Maxillary right first molar teeth of rats were tipped mesially with an orthodontic appliance for 2 weeks (experimental group), {sup 3}H-proline was injected, and orthodontic forces were removed 6 hr later (time 0). The contralateral molar teeth of treated (internal control group) and age- and weight-matched untreated animals (external control group) were also studied. Diastemata were created between the molar teeth by the orthodontic appliance, and transseptal fibers between first and second (P less than 0.001) and second and third molars (P less than 0.005) were significantly lengthened as compared to external and internal controls at time 0. Diastemata between molar teeth were closed 5 days after removal of orthodontic force. Transseptal fibers adjacent to the source of the orthodontic force (mesial region) had the highest mean number of {sup 3}H-proline-labeled proteins at time 0 and at all times following removal of the force (P less than 0.001), and had the highest rate of labeled protein removal (P less than 0.001). Half-lives for removal of 3H-proline-labeled transseptal fiber proteins were significantly greater in mesial and distal regions and significantly less in middle regions of experimentals than in corresponding regions of external controls (P less than 0.001).

  7. Insulin binding and glucose uptake of adipocytes in rats adapted to hypergravitational force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Mondon, C. E.; Oyama, J.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 4.15 g for 1 yr and weight and age matched, and lean noncentrifuged rats were used as control groups. Rats exposed to chronic hypergravity (hypergravic rats) were found to show lower ambient insulin levels, greater food intake with smaller body weight gain, and decreased size of isolated adipocytes. The ability of adipocytes from the hypergravic rats to bind insulin was increased. With Scatchard analysis, both number and affinity of receptors were increased. In contrast to the increased binding, glucose transport was found to be decreased in adipocytes from these animals. However, when the data were expressed as a percentage of maximal effect, the half maximal insulin effect for both the hypergravic and lean control groups was produced at an insulin concentration of 0.23 + or - 0.02 ng/ml, which was lower than the insulin concentration of 0.31 + or - 0.02 ng/ml for the weight-matched control group (P less than 0.05). This increased insulin sensitivity in the hypergravic group was accounted for by an increased number of receptors.

  8. Displacement of plasma protein and conduction velocity in rats under action of acceleration forces and hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranski, S.; Edelwejn, Z.; Wojtkowiak, M.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of capillary vessels was investigated in order to determine if acceleration alone or following prolonged hypokinesia would induce changes in the vascular wall leading to the penetration by l-albumins and/or proteins with larger molecules. In rats undergoing action of +5 Gz accelerations, no increase in vascular permeability, as tested with the use of (Cr-5k)-globulin, was demostrated. In rats immobilized for 4 weeks before centrifugation, rather weak migration of (Cr-51)-globulin from the vessels was observed. Immobilization resulted also in lowering of conduction velocity in the sciatic nerve.

  9. Modeling Forces and Moments at the Base of a Rat Vibrissa during Noncontact Whisking and Whisking against an Object

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Brian W.; Seghete, Vlad; Huet, Lucie A.; Murphey, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    During exploratory behavior, rats brush and tap their whiskers against objects, and the mechanical signals so generated constitute the primary sensory variables upon which these animals base their vibrissotactile perception of the world. To date, however, we lack a general dynamic model of the vibrissa that includes the effects of inertia, damping, and collisions. We simulated vibrissal dynamics to compute the time-varying forces and bending moment at the vibrissa base during both noncontact (free-air) whisking and whisking against an object (collision). Results show the following: (1) during noncontact whisking, mechanical signals contain components at both the whisking frequency and also twice the whisking frequency (the latter could code whisking speed); (2) when rats whisk rhythmically against an object, the intrinsic dynamics of the vibrissa can be as large as many of the mechanical effects of the collision, however, the axial force could still generate responses that reliably indicate collision based on thresholding; and (3) whisking velocity will have only a small effect on the transient response generated during a whisker–object collision. Instead, the transient response will depend in large part on how the rat chooses to decelerate its vibrissae after the collision. The model allows experimentalists to estimate error bounds on quasi-static descriptions of vibrissal shape, and its predictions can be used to bound realistic expectations from neurons that code vibrissal sensing. We discuss the implications of these results under the assumption that primary sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion are sensitive to various combinations of mechanical signals. PMID:25057187

  10. Nutrition for swimming.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Boyd, Kevin T; Burke, Louise M; Koivisto, Anu

    2014-08-01

    Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macrocycle, microcycle, and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout, should be manipulated (3-10 g/kg of body mass/day) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3 g of high-biological-value protein per kilogram of body mass immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should be tried only with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximize training performance, which ensures sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather, optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are used to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period. PMID:24903758

  11. Hypobaric hypoxia induces depression-like behavior in female Sprague-Dawley rats, but not in males.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Shami; Bogdanova, Olena V; Olson, Paul R; Sung, Young-Hoon; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2015-03-01

    Rates of depression and suicide are higher in people living at altitude, and in those with chronic hypoxic disorders like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and smoking. Living at altitude exposes people to hypobaric hypoxia, which can lower rat brain serotonin levels, and impair brain bioenergetics in both humans and rats. We therefore examined the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on depression-like behavior in rats. After a week of housing at simulated altitudes of 20,000 ft, 10,000 ft, or sea level, or at local conditions of 4500 ft (Salt Lake City, UT), Sprague Dawley rats were tested for depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST). Time spent swimming, climbing, or immobile, and latency to immobility were measured. Female rats housed at altitude display more depression-like behavior in the FST, with significantly more immobility, less swimming, and lower latency to immobility than those at sea level. In contrast, males in all four altitude groups were similar in their FST behavior. Locomotor behavior in the open field test did not change with altitude, thus validating immobility in the FST as depression-like behavior. Hypobaric hypoxia exposure therefore induces depression-like behavior in female rats, but not in males. PMID:25803141

  12. Numerical and experimental investigations of human swimming motions

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Sato, Yohei; Matsuuchi, Kazuo; Sanders, Ross H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reviews unsteady flow conditions in human swimming and identifies the limitations and future potential of the current methods of analysing unsteady flow. The capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been extended from approaches assuming steady-state conditions to consideration of unsteady/transient conditions associated with the body motion of a swimmer. However, to predict hydrodynamic forces and the swimmer’s potential speeds accurately, more robust and efficient numerical methods are necessary, coupled with validation procedures, requiring detailed experimental data reflecting local flow. Experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this area are limited, because at present observations are restricted to a two-dimensional 1.0 m2 area, though this could be improved if the output range of the associated laser sheet increased. Simulations of human swimming are expected to improve competitive swimming, and our review has identified two important advances relating to understanding the flow conditions affecting performance in front crawl swimming: one is a mechanism for generating unsteady fluid forces, and the other is a theory relating to increased speed and efficiency. PMID:26699925

  13. Numerical and experimental investigations of human swimming motions.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Sato, Yohei; Matsuuchi, Kazuo; Sanders, Ross H

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews unsteady flow conditions in human swimming and identifies the limitations and future potential of the current methods of analysing unsteady flow. The capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been extended from approaches assuming steady-state conditions to consideration of unsteady/transient conditions associated with the body motion of a swimmer. However, to predict hydrodynamic forces and the swimmer's potential speeds accurately, more robust and efficient numerical methods are necessary, coupled with validation procedures, requiring detailed experimental data reflecting local flow. Experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this area are limited, because at present observations are restricted to a two-dimensional 1.0 m(2) area, though this could be improved if the output range of the associated laser sheet increased. Simulations of human swimming are expected to improve competitive swimming, and our review has identified two important advances relating to understanding the flow conditions affecting performance in front crawl swimming: one is a mechanism for generating unsteady fluid forces, and the other is a theory relating to increased speed and efficiency. PMID:26699925

  14. Swimming capability and swimming behavior of juvenile acipenser schrenckii.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Taupier, Rachel; Johnson, David; Tu, Zhiying; Liu, Guoyong; Huang, Yingping

    2013-03-01

    Acipenser schrenckii, the Amur Sturgeon, was a commercially valuable fish species inhabiting the Amur (Heilongjiang) River but populations have rapidly declined in recent years. Dams impede A. schrenckii spawning migration and wild populations were critically endangered. Building fishways helped maintain fish populations but data on swimming performance and behavior was crucial for fishway design. To obtain such data on A. schrenckii, a laboratory study of juvenile A. schrenckii (n = 18, body mass = 32.7 ± 1.2 g, body length = 18.8 ± 0.3 cm) was conducted using a stepped velocity test carried out in a fish respirometer equipped with a high-speed video camera at 20°C. Results indicate: (1) The counter-current swimming capability of A. schrenckii was low with critical swimming speed of 1.96 ± 0.10 BL/sec. (2) When a linear function was fitted to the data, oxygen consumption, as a function of swimming speed, was determined to be MO2  = 337.29 + 128.10U (R(2)  = 0.971, P < 0.001) and the power value (1.0) of U indicated high swimming efficiency. (3) Excess post-exercise oxygen cost was 48.44 mgO2 /kg and indicated excellent fatigue recovery. (4) Cost of transport decreased slowly with increased swimming speed. (5) Increased swimming speed led to increases in the tail beat frequency and stride length. This investigation contributed to the basic science of fish swimming behavior and provided data required for the design of fishways. Innovative methods have allowed cultivation of the species in the Yangtze River and, if effective fishways could be incorporated into the design of future hydropower projects on the Amur River, it would contribute to conservation of wild populations of A. schrenckii. The information provided here contributes to the international effort to save this critically endangered species. J. Exp. Zool. 319A:149-155, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23359615

  15. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  16. Steps of Healthy Swimming: Protection against Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... has moved to Steps of Healthy Swimming. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  17. Influence of phosphate and pH on myofibrillar ATPase activity and force in skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ebus, J P; Stienen, G J; Elzinga, G

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH on maximal calcium-activated isometric force and MgATPase activity were studied in chemically skinned cardiac trabeculae from rat. ATP hydrolysis was coupled enzymatically to the breakdown of NADH, and its concentration was determined photometrically. Measurements were performed at 2.1 microns sarcomere length and 20 degrees C. ATPase activity and force were also determined when square-wave-shaped length changes were applied, with a frequency of 23 Hz and an amplitude of 2.5%. 2. At pH 7.0 without added Pi, the average isometric force (+/- S.E.M.) was 51 +/- 3 kN m-2 (n = 23). The average isometric ATPase activity was 0.43 +/- 0.02 mM s-1 (n = 23). During the changes in length ATPase activity increased to 152 +/- 3% of the isometric value, while the average force level decreased to 48 +/- 2%. 3. Isometric force gradually decreased to 31 +/- 2% of the control value when the Pi concentration was increased to 30 mM. Isometric ATPase activity, however, remained constant for Pi concentrations up to 5 mM and decreased to 87 +/- 3% at 30 mM Pi. When Pi accumulation inside the preparation due to ATP hydrolysis was taken into account, a linear relationship was found between isometric force and log [Pi]. The decrease in relative force was found to be 44 +/- 4% per decade. 4. During the length changes, ATPase activity and average force showed, apart from the increase in ATPase activity and decrease in average force, the same dependence on Pi as the isometric values. Stiffness, estimated from the amplitude of the force responses during the length changes, decreased in proportion to isometric force when the Pi concentration was increased. The changes in the shape of the force responses due to the repetitive changes in length as a function of the Pi concentration were relatively small. These results suggest that the effect of Pi on the transitions which influence ATP turnover is rather insensitive to changes in cross

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids improve behavioral coping to stress in multiparous rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Elisa; Barrett, Douglas W; Shumake, Jason; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Lane, Michelle A

    2015-02-15

    Behavioral coping refers to the ability to modify behavior to escape from stress, and is protective against the development of depressive disorders. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) intake is inversely correlated with anxiety and depression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine if consumption of n-3 FAs promotes adaptive coping behaviors in a multiparous rat model. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to diets with or without n-3 FA containing menhaden oil or sunflower oil as the fat source, respectively. Rats experienced two cycles of gestation and lactation. Behavioral testing began on the second day after the last parturition. Rats consuming n-3 FAs displayed improved escape learning in the shuttle box test. Specifically, rats consuming n-3 FAs escaped footshock more quickly and had a greater number of successful escapes in the shuttle box than rats not consuming n-3 FAs. Diet did not affect general activity in the open field, but rats consuming n-3 FAs showed less reactivity and habituation to novelty in the open field than rats not consuming n-3 FAs. Immobility and swimming in the forced swim test, risk-taking assessed by the light/dark test, sucrose drinking, and motor coordination were not significantly affected by diet. A diet enriched with n-3 FAs promoted behavioral escape changes consistent with increased adaptive coping to stressful events, suggesting that n-3 FAs may help prevent the development of stress-related depressive disorders. PMID:25446767

  19. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  20. Optimal swimming of a sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  1. Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rayner, J M

    1995-01-01

    The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail. PMID:8571221

  2. Energetic costs of surface swimming and diving of birds.

    PubMed

    Butler, P J

    2000-01-01

    The energetic costs of swimming at the surface (swimming) and swimming underwater (diving) are compared in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and three species of penguins, the gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), the king (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and the emperor (Aythya forsteri). Ducks swim on the surface and use their webbed feet as paddles, whereas penguins tend to swim just below the surface and use their flippers as hydrofoils, the latter being much more efficient. Penguins are more streamlined in shape. Thus, the amount of energy required to transport a given mass of bird a given distance (known as the cost of transport) is some two to three times greater in ducks than in penguins. Ducks are also very buoyant, and overcoming the force of buoyancy accounts for 60% and 85% of the cost of descent and remaining on the bottom, respectively, in these birds. The energy cost of a tufted duck diving to about 1.7 m is similar to that when it is swimming at its maximum sustainable speed at the surface (i.e., approximately 3.5 times the value when resting on water). Nonetheless, because of the relatively short duration of its dives, the tufted duck dives well within its calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL, usable O(2) stores per rate of O(2) usage when underwater). However, these three species of penguins have maximum dive durations ranging from 5 min to almost 16 min and maximum dive depths from 155 to 530 m. When these birds dive, they have to metabolise at no more than when resting in water in order for cADL to encompass the duration of most of their natural dives. In gentoo and king penguins, there is a fall in abdominal temperature during bouts of diving; this may reduce the oxygen requirements in the abdominal region, thus enabling dive duration to be extended further than would otherwise be the case. PMID:11121344

  3. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters... Guard guidelines when engaging in any underwater activities. (c) You must not dive, jump, or swing...

  4. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters... Guard guidelines when engaging in any underwater activities. (c) You must not dive, jump, or swing...

  5. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters... Guard guidelines when engaging in any underwater activities. (c) You must not dive, jump, or swing...

  6. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters... Guard guidelines when engaging in any underwater activities. (c) You must not dive, jump, or swing...

  7. 43 CFR 423.36 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Swimming. (a) You may swim, wade, snorkel, scuba dive, raft, or tube at your own risk in Reclamation waters... Guard guidelines when engaging in any underwater activities. (c) You must not dive, jump, or swing...

  8. Alterations in intermediate filaments expression in disc cells from the rat temporomandibular joint following exposure to continuous compressive force

    PubMed Central

    Magara, Jin; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Suzuki, Akiko; Kawano, Yoshiro; Ono, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2012-01-01

    The articular disc in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) that serves in load relief and stabilizing in jaw movements is a dense collagenous tissue consisting of extracellular matrices and disc cells. The various morphological configurations of the disc cells have given us diverse names, such as fibroblasts, chondrocyte-like cells and fibrochondrocytes; however, the characteristics of these cells have remained to be elucidated in detail. The disc cells have been reported to exhibit heterogeneous immunoreaction patterns for intermediate filaments including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and vimentin in the adult rat TMJ. Because these intermediate filaments accumulate in the disc cells as tooth eruption proceeds during postnatal development, it might be surmised that the expression of these intermediate filaments in the disc cells closely relates to mechanical stress. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the effect of a continuous compressive force on the immunoexpression of these intermediate filaments and an additional intermediate filament – muscle-specific desmin – in the disc cells of the TMJ disc using a rat experimental model. The rats wore an appliance that exerts a continuous compressive load on the TMJ. The experimental period with the appliance was 5 days as determined by previous studies, after which some experimental animals were allowed to survive another 5 days after removal of the appliance. Histological observations demonstrated that the compressive force provoked a remarkable acellular region and a decrease in the thickness of the condylar cartilage of the mandible, and a sparse collagen fiber distribution in the articular disc. The articular disc showed a significant increase in the number of desmin-positive cells as compared with the controls. In contrast, immunopositive cells for GFAP, nestin and vimentin remained unchanged in number as well as intensity. At 5 days after removal of the appliance, both the disc

  9. Paramecia Swim with a constant propulsion in Solutions of Varying Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Jung, Ilyong; Mickalide, Harry; Park, Hojin; Powers, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Paramecia swim through the coordinated beating of the 1000's of cilia covering their body. We have measured the swimming speed of populations of Paramecium Caudatam in solutions of different viscosity, η, to see how their propulsion changes with increased drag. We have found the average instantaneous speed, V to decrease monotonically with increasing η. The product ηv is roughly constant over a factor of 7 change in viscosity suggesting that paramecia swim at constant propulsion force. The distribution of swimming speeds is Gaussian. The width appears proportional to the average speed implying that both fast and slow swimmers exert a constant propulsion. We discuss the possibility that this behavior implies that the body cilia beat at constant force with varying viscosity.

  10. The effects of viscosity on the undulatory swimming dynamics of C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backholm, M.; Kasper, A. K. S.; Schulman, R. D.; Ryu, W. S.; Dalnoki-Veress, K.

    2015-09-01

    The undulatory swimming dynamics of the millimetric nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was investigated in fluids with different viscosities. The technique of micropipette deflection was used to directly measure the drag forces experienced by the swimming worm in both the lateral and propulsive directions. Gait modulation due to increasing viscosity in our tethered system was found to be qualitatively similar to that of freely swimming worms. Resistive force theory was used to determine the drag coefficients of the slender swimmer, and the experimental values were compared to the classical theories of Lighthill as well as Gray and Hancock. The gait modulation was shown to be independent of how the environmental resistance is changed, indicating the relevance of only the fluid resistance on the swimming kinematics and dynamics of the nematode.

  11. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds (Ucrit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below Ucrit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  12. Powered control mechanisms contributing to dynamically stable swimming in porcupine puffers (Teleostei: Diodon holocanthus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Alexis M.; Lauritzen, Dean V.; Gordon, Malcolm S.

    2007-11-01

    Balances of multiple varying forces must be the basis for the unusually great dynamic stability of swimming pufferfishes. We used high-speed digital video recordings to study biomechanics and kinematics of rectilinear swimming at different speeds of five porcupine puffers in a water tunnel. We measured critical swimming speeds ( U crit); fin biomechanics, kinematics, and coordination; recoil movements; and gait changes. Major propulsors were pectoral fins at lower speeds; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins at higher speeds. Precise coordination of fin movements produced small recoil movements at speeds below U crit. The unusual body shape probably contributes to unconscious stability control.

  13. Swimming Paramecium in magnetically simulated enhanced, reduced, and inverted gravity environments

    PubMed Central

    Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Earth's gravity exerts relatively weak forces in the range of 10–100 pN directly on cells in biological systems. Nevertheless, it biases the orientation of swimming unicellular organisms, alters bone cell differentiation, and modifies gene expression in renal cells. A number of methods of simulating different strength gravity environments, such as centrifugation, have been applied for researching the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic force-based technique that is unique in its capability to enhance, reduce, and even invert the effective buoyancy of cells and thus simulate hypergravity, hypogravity, and inverted gravity environments. We apply it to Paramecium caudatum, a single-cell protozoan that varies its swimming propulsion depending on its orientation with respect to gravity, g. In these simulated gravities, denoted by fgm, Paramecium exhibits a linear response up to fgm = 5 g, modifying its swimming as it would in the hypergravity of a centrifuge. Moreover, experiments from fgm = 0 to −5 g show that the response is symmetric, implying that the regulation of the swimming speed is primarily related to the buoyancy of the cell. The response becomes nonlinear for fgm >5 g. At fgm = 10 g, many paramecia “stall” (i.e., swim in place against the force), exerting a maximum propulsion force estimated to be 0.7 nN. These findings establish a general technique for applying continuously variable forces to cells or cell populations suitable for exploring their force transduction mechanisms. PMID:16916937

  14. Effect of unilateral denervation on maximum specific force in rat diaphragm muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Geiger, P C; Cody, M J; Macken, R L; Bayrd, M E; Sieck, G C

    2001-04-01

    We hypothesize that 1) the effect of denervation (DNV) is more pronounced in fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and 2) the effect of DNV on maximum specific force reflects a reduction in MHC content per half sarcomere or the number of cross bridges in parallel. Studies were performed on single Triton X-100-permeabilized fibers activated at a pCa (-log Ca2+ concentration) of 4.0. MHC content per half sarcomere was determined by densitometric analysis of SDS-PAGE gels and comparison to a standard curve of known MHC concentrations. After 2 of wk DNV, the maximum specific force of fibers expressing MHC2X was reduced by approximately 40% (MHC(2B) expression was absent), whereas the maximum specific force of fibers expressing MHC2A and MHC(slow) decreased by only approximately 20%. DNV also reduced the MHC content in fibers expressing MHC2X, with no effect on fibers expressing MHC2A and MHC(slow). When normalized for MHC content per half sarcomere, force generated by DNV fibers expressing MHC2X and MHC2A was decreased compared with control fibers. These results suggest the force per cross bridge is also affected by DNV. PMID:11247914

  15. [Neurochemical mechanisms of depression-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats].

    PubMed

    Sarkisova, K Iu; Kulikov, M A; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Midzianovskaia, I S; Biriukova, L M; Folomkina, A A; Basian, A S

    2013-01-01

    Behavior in the light-dark choice, open-field, sucrose consumption/preference and forced swimming tests, monoamines and their metabolites level in 6 brain structures (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala), and density of D2-like dopamine receptors in 21 brain regions were studied in WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. WAG/Rij rats exhibited symptoms of depression-like behavior such as increased immobility in the forced swim test and decreased sucrose consumption/preference (anhedonia). Substantial changes in behavior indicating increased anxiety in WAG/Rij rats were not revealed. Neurochemical abnormalities suggesting hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system were found in "depressive" WAG/Rij rats compared with "normal" Wistar rats: decreased levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine in the nucleus accumbens, and increased density of D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Reduced levels of dopamine were also observed in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. No substantial changes in the content of monoamines and their metabolites have been revealed in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and amygdala as well as in the content ofserotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in all studied brain structures with the exception of increased level ofserotonin in the amygdala. Results suggest that hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic brain system (nucleus accumbens) is a neurochemical mechanism of depression-like behavior in WAG/Rij rats. PMID:24450162

  16. Optimal swim speeds for traversing velocity barriers: An analysis of volitional high-speed swimming behavior of migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, T.

    2005-01-01

    Migrating fish traversing velocity barriers are often forced to swim at speeds greater than their maximum sustained speed (Ums). Failure to select an appropriate swim speed under these conditions can prevent fish from successfully negotiating otherwise passable barriers. I propose a new model of a distance-maximizing strategy for fishes traversing velocity barriers, derived from the relationships between swim speed and fatigue time in both prolonged and sprint modes. The model predicts that fish will maximize traversed distance by swimming at a constant groundspeed against a range of flow velocities, and this groundspeed is equal to the negative inverse of the slope of the swim speed-fatigue time relationship for each mode. At a predictable flow velocity, they should switch from the optimal groundspeed for prolonged mode to that for sprint mode. Data from six migratory fish species (anadromous clupeids: American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis; amphidromous: striped bass Morone saxatilis; and potomodromous species: walleye (previously known as Stizostedion vitrium) and white sucker Catostomus commersonii) were used to explore the ability of fish to approximate the predicted distance-maximizing behaviors, as well as the consequences of deviating from the optima. Fish volitionally sprinted up an open-channel flume against fixed flow velocities of 1.5-4.5 m s-1, providing data on swim speeds and fatigue times, as well as their groundspeeds. Only anadromous clupeids selected the appropriate distance-maximizing groundspeed at both prolonged and sprint modes. The other three species maintained groundspeeds appropriate to the prolonged mode, even when they should have switched to the sprint optima. Because of this, these species failed to maximize distance of ascent. The observed behavioral variability has important implications both for distributional limits and fishway design.

  17. 1968 Listing of Swimming Pool Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    An up-to-date listing of swimming pool equipment including--(1) companies authorized to display the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standards relating to diatomite type filters, (3) equipment listed as meeting NSF swimming pool equipment standard relating to sand type…

  18. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Swimming. 327.5 Section 327.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.5 Swimming. (a) Swimming, wading,...

  19. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Swimming. 327.5 Section 327.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.5 Swimming. (a) Swimming,...

  20. Effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Rizi, Atefeh Asadi; Reisi, Parham; Naghsh, Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The forced treadmill running can influence the opioid contents of the brain, through both effects of exercise and the effects of stress caused by coercion. Since opioids can cause negative effects on brain functions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups were the control, the exercise, the naloxone, and the naloxone exercise. The exercise program was treadmill running at 22 m/min at 0° inclination for 50 min/day, 6 days/week, for 4 weeks. Naloxone (1 mg/kg) was injected 5 min before the treadmill running. Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning tests were used for evaluation of memory. Acquisition phase of both tests was performed before interventions, and memory was evaluated 1-day and 1-week after the last session of exercise and treatments. Results: Our data showed that forced exercise impaired performance in passive avoidance learning test (P < 0.05 and P <0.01, 1-day, and 1-week after the last session of exercise and treatments, respectively). Spatial memory was only impaired after 1-week in the exercise group. Naloxone had no significant effect on memory in the control group. However, it improved memory in the exercise group, as there was no significant difference between the control and the naloxone exercise in both tests. Conclusion: The data correspond to the possibility that opioidergic system may have mediatory roles in exercise-induced responses in forced exercise. These roles are likely harmful for memory. PMID:26962522

  1. Targeted delivery of colloids by swimming bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Koumakis, N.; Lepore, A.; Maggi, C.; Di Leonardo, R.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of exploiting motile microorganisms as tiny propellers represents a fascinating strategy for the transport of colloidal cargoes. However, delivery on target sites usually requires external control fields to steer propellers and trigger cargo release. The need for a constant feedback mechanism prevents the design of compact devices where biopropellers could perform their tasks autonomously. Here we show that properly designed three-dimensional (3D) microstructures can define accumulation areas where bacteria spontaneously and efficiently store colloidal beads. The process is stochastic in nature and results from the rectifying action of an asymmetric energy landscape over the fluctuating forces arising from collisions with swimming bacteria. As a result, the concentration of colloids over target areas can be strongly increased or depleted according to the topography of the underlying structures. Besides the significance to technological applications, our experiments pose some important questions regarding the structure of stationary probability distributions in non-equilibrium systems. PMID:24100868

  2. Random flow induced by swimming algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsler, Vasily; Rushkin, Ilia; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    In this work we studied the random flow induced in a fluid by the motion of a dilute suspension of the swimming algae Volvox carteri. The fluid velocity in the suspension is a superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions that decay as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocity fluctuations are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet. Deviations from Gaussianity are shown to arise from near-field effects. Comparison is made with the statistical properties of abiotic sedimenting suspensions. The experimental results are supplemented by extensive numerical studies.

  3. A mechanism for efficient swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Saadat, Mehdi; Brandes, Aaron; Saraiya, Vishaal; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2015-11-01

    We present experimental measurements of hydrodynamic performance as well as wake visualization for a freely swimming 3D foil with pure pitching motion. The foil is constrained to move in its axial direction. It is shown that the iso-lines for speed and input power (or economy) coincide in the dimensional frequency versus amplitude plane, up to a critical amplitude. The critical amplitude is independent from swimming speed. It is shown that all swimming gaits (combination of frequency and amplitude) share a single value for Strouhal number (for amplitudes below the critical amplitude), when plotted in non-dimensional frequency vs. amplitude plane. Additionally, it is shown that the swimming gaits with amplitudes equal to the critical amplitude are energetically superior to others. This finding provides a fundamental mechanism for an important observation made by Bainbridge (1958) namely, most fish (such as trout, dace, goldfish, cod and dolphins) maintain constant tail-beat amplitude during cruise, and their speed is correlated linearly with their tail-beat frequency. The results also support prior findings of Saadat and Haj-Hariri (2013). Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  4. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  5. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  6. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  7. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections1

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Takkinen, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Mattila, Leena

    2004-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infections in Finland. Swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. Eating undercooked meat and drinking dug-well water were also independent risk factors for Campylobacter infection. PMID:15496253

  8. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  9. Swimming and persons with mild persistant asthma.

    PubMed

    Arandelović, Mirjana; Stanković, Ivana; Nikolić, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45) and control group B (n = 20). Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short-acting beta2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months). At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) (3.55 vs. 3.65) (p < 0.01), FVC (forced vital capacity) (4.27 vs. 4.37) (p < 0.05), PEF (peak expiratory flow) (7.08 vs. 7.46) (p < 0.01), and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01) (p < 0.001). In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05) and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37), FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55), PEF (6.79 vs.7.46), and variability (p < 0.001), and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75) (p < 0.001). Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine. PMID:17704850

  10. An updated protocol to assess arm swimming power in front crawl.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Castells, R; Izquierdo, M; Arellano, R

    2013-04-01

    Mechanical power output is a reliable predictor of swim speed in front crawl. However, a complete power curve (power vs. load) has not been described for swimming, and intra-cycle power has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to examine intra-cycle power output at propulsive phases and to determine maximum swimming power, the corresponding load and swimming speed. 18 swimmers (age 22.10±4.31years, height 1.79±0.07 m, arm span 1.85±0.08 m and body mass 76.74±9.00 kg) performed a swim power test. It consisted of 12.5 m all-out swims with only the arms, with a load attached to the swimmer. A linear encoder and a load cell recorded intra-cycle speed and force in each trial. The test was recorded with 2 underwater cameras. Intra-cycle power was obtained for propulsive stroke phases (pull: 60.32±18.87 W; push: 71.21±21.06 W). Peak power was 114.37±33.16 W. Mean maximum swim power was 66.49 W (0.86 W/kg), which was reached at a swimming velocity of 0.75 m/s with a 47.07% of the individual maximal load. Significant positive correlation (r=0.76, p<0.01) between maximum swim power and maximum swim speed was observed. These results suggest that the proposed test may be a training tool that is relatively simple to implement and would provide swimmers and coaches with quick feedback. PMID:23065661

  11. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and nerve fibers was larger in CS1 (P < 0.01) and CS14 (P < 0.05) than in C, and myelin sheath thickness was lower in all crushed groups (P < 0.05). There was no functional difference between CS1 and CS14 (P > 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  12. Calcium-activated force responses in fast- and slow-twitch skinned muscle fibres of the rat at different temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, D G; Williams, D A

    1981-01-01

    1. Force responses from mechanically skinned fibres of rat skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) were measured at different temperatures in the range 3-35 degrees C following sudden changes in Ca2+ concentration in the preparations. 2. At all temperatures there were characteristic differences between the slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres with respect to the relative steady-state force-[Ca2+] relation: such as a lower [Ca2+] threshold for activation and a less steep force-pCa curve in slow-twitch muscle fibres. 3. At 3-5 degrees C the force changes in both types of muscle fibres lagged considerably behind the estimated changes in [Ca2+] within the preparations and this enabled us to perform a comparative analysis of the Ca2+ kinetics in the process of force development in both muscle fibre types. This analysis suggest that two and six Ca2+ ions are involved in the regulatory unit for contraction of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres respectively. 4. The rate of relaxation following a sudden decrease in [Ca2+] was much lower in the slow-twitch than in the fast-twitch muscle at 5 degrees C, suggesting that properties of the contractile apparatus could play an essential role in determining the rate of relaxation in vivo. 5. There was substantial variation in Ca2+ sensitivity between muscle fibres of the same type from different animals at each temperature. However the steepness of the force-[Ca2+] relation was essentially the same for all fibres of the same type. 6. A change in temperature from 5 to 25 degrees C had a statistically significant effect on the sensitivity of the fast-twitch muscle fibres, rendering them less sensitive to Ca2+ by a factor of 2. However a further increase in temperature from 25 to 35 degrees C did not have any statistically significant effect on the force-[Ca2+] relation in fast-twitch muscle fibres. 7. The effect of temperature on the Ca2+ sensitivity of slow-twitch muscle fibres was not statistically significant

  13. Suspension biomechanics of swimming microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organisms play a vital role in many biological, medical and engineering phenomena. Some recent research efforts have demonstrated the importance of biomechanics in understanding certain aspects of micro-organism behaviours such as locomotion and collective motions of cells. In particular, spatio-temporal coherent structures found in a bacterial suspension have been the focus of many research studies over the last few years. Recent studies have shown that macroscopic properties of a suspension, such as rheology and diffusion, are strongly affected by meso-scale flow structures generated by swimming microbes. Since the meso-scale flow structures are strongly affected by the interactions between microbes, a bottom-up strategy, i.e. from a cellular level to a continuum suspension level, represents the natural approach to the study of a suspension of swimming microbes. In this paper, we first provide a summary of existing biomechanical research on interactions between a pair of swimming micro-organisms, as a two-body interaction is the simplest many-body interaction. We show that interactions between two nearby swimming micro-organisms are described well by existing mathematical models. Then, collective motions formed by a group of swimming micro-organisms are discussed. We show that some collective motions of micro-organisms, such as coherent structures of bacterial suspensions, are satisfactorily explained by fluid dynamics. Lastly, we discuss how macroscopic suspension properties are changed by the microscopic characteristics of the cell suspension. The fundamental knowledge we present will be useful in obtaining a better understanding of the behaviour of micro-organisms. PMID:19674997

  14. The hydrodynamics of flexible-body manoeuvres in swimming fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy J.

    2008-08-01

    Swimming in flexible-bodied animals like fish is characterised by a travelling wave passing along the spinal chord of the body. Symmetric transverse undulations of the body generate thrust and propel the fish forward. Turns are effected by generating an asymmetric transverse movement of the fish body, frequently as a C-shaped bend. Typical fish swimming speeds allow for simplifying assumptions of incompressible and inviscid flow. The objective of the current work is to use existing theoretical models developed for forward swimming, to analyse fish turns. Lighthill’s classical elongated-body theory for fish swimming forms the fundamental basis for the 3D flow model and ‘recoil’ correction concept implemented here. In the methods developed here, transverse motion of a thin ‘waving’ plate is prescribed by a displacement signal acting along the midline, for finite time to. Lighthill’s approach to calculate the rigid-body motion or ‘recoil’ correction is implemented to ensure zero net force and moments act on the body. Accordingly, angular and transverse motion are computed and final orientation of the plate after the manoeuvre is calculated. A 3D boundary-value algorithm has been developed using a vortex lattice method. The essential methodology, modifications for turning and comparisons with the analytical methods in the small and large aspect ratio limits are presented.

  15. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  16. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Morouço, Pedro G.; Marinho, Daniel A.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Neiva, Henrique; Marques, Mário C.

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female) randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking). A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r = 0.77, P < 0.01), whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r = 0.81, P < 0.01). The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws. PMID:26539511

  17. Application of a Rat Hindlimb Model: A Prediction of Force Spaces Reachable Through Stimulation of Nerve Fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Will L.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury. PMID:21244999

  18. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  19. Effects of lithium and carbamazepine on spatial learning and depressive behavior in a rat model of bipolar disorder induced by ouabain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chou; Wang, En-Nan; Wang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Chung-Lei; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2013-04-01

    Lithium (LiCl) and carbamazepine (CBZ), the common mood stabilizers, are thought to be effective treatments for bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether LiCl as well as CBZ has similar effects on the bipolar disorder-associated cognitive dysfunctions in rats, particularly the spatial learning and depressive responses. Adult male Wistar rats were administered intracerebroventricularly with 5μl of 10(-3)M ouabain on session 1, and then received an intraperitoneal injection of LiCl or CBZ for 4 sessions (1 session/2days). For the behavioral tests, all rats were subjected to the water maze 15min for spatial learning and the forced swimming test 5min for depression on each session. The present results showed that ouabain resulted in increased latency and longer distance traveled to reach the hidden platform in the water maze, indicating that ouabain impaired the spatial learning. However, ouabain did not affect swimming velocity in the water maze and depressive responses in the forced swimming test. LiCl treatment decreased the ouabain-enhanced latency and the total distance, but not the velocity, swam to reach the hidden platform in the water maze task. Additionally, LiCl did not result in changes of any depressive indices, such as struggling behavior, swimming behavior, and floating behavior. Likewise, CBZ did not affect any behavioral indices of spatial learning and depression. A linear regression analysis suggested that LiCl, but not CBZ, could predict the decreased latency and total distance traveled except the velocity of swimming in the water maze and depressive behaviors. In summary, the present results suggested that lithium provided a better therapeutic effect than CBZ for ouabain-caused dysfunctions of spatial learning in a rat model of bipolar disorder. PMID:23428514

  20. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The swimming of microorganisms typically involves the undulation or rotation of thin, filamentary objects in a fluid or other medium. Swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, and only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here, we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic (e.g., a polymer melt or network). We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D (i.e., a sheet). A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparing theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. These results suggest that our methodology provides an accurate means for exploring the physics of swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels.

  1. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors. PMID:26056076

  2. Free swimming organisms: Microgravity as an investigative tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, John O.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, micro-organisms are in the grip of gravitational and viscous forces. These forces, in combination with sensory stimuli, determine the average orientation of the organisms' swimming trajectories relative to the fluid environment. Microgravity provides the opportunity to study the rules which govern the summation or orienting influences and to develop quantitative physical measurements of sensory responses, e.g. the measurement of phototactic orientation tendency in torque units. Also, by reducing or eliminating density anisotropy-driven buoyant convection, it will be possible to study illumination, temperature gradient and concentration gradient-mediated collective dynamics.

  3. Swimming in turbulent flow - profitable or costly ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, E. C.; Roy, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    Fish swimming performance has long been of interest to researchers. Experiments on swimming performance are generally performed under conditions which minimise flow heterogeneity. However, fish live in environments were intense fluctuations of flow velocity and pressure occur. Only recently, studies emerged that consider the effect of turbulence on the swimming performance of fish. Research has shown that fish may benefit from turbulence. For example, rainbow trout swimming behind an obstacle which produced stable vortex shedding, profited from the energy of these vortices. Fish adjusted their swimming patterns to slalom between the vortices which resulted in a reduction in muscle activity suggesting that fish reduced energy expenditure of swimming. Similarly, sockeye salmon exploited recirculation zones during upriver spawning migration to minimise energy expenditure. In contrast to these investigations showing that fish may actually profit from turbulence, several studies suggested that turbulence increases energy expenditure of swimming. Sustained swimming speed of fish decreased with increasing turbulence intensity suggesting an increase in swimming costs. Similarly, Atlantic salmon swimming in turbulent flow have 2- to 4-fold increased energy expenditure in comparison to estimates obtained under minimised flow heterogeneity. We will give an overview of recent studies and of new experimental evidence showing how turbulence affects fish behaviour, energetics and distribution and we discuss the relevant scales at which turbulent flow structures affect fish depending on its size. These results are from special interest not only for fisheries management, habitat restoration and biodiversity conservation but also for conceptualisation and construction of migratory fish pathways.

  4. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus. PMID:23500055

  5. Adhesion to Carbon Nanotube Conductive Scaffolds Forces Action-Potential Appearance in Immature Rat Spinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Francesca Maria; Calura, Enrica; Rizzetto, Lisa; Carrieri, Claudia; Roncaglia, Paola; Martinelli, Valentina; Scaini, Denis; Masten, Lara; Turco, Antonio; Gustincich, Stefano; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, carbon nanotube growth substrates have been used to investigate neurons and neuronal networks formation in vitro when guided by artificial nano-scaled cues. Besides, nanotube-based interfaces are being developed, such as prosthesis for monitoring brain activity. We recently described how carbon nanotube substrates alter the electrophysiological and synaptic responses of hippocampal neurons in culture. This observation highlighted the exceptional ability of this material in interfering with nerve tissue growth. Here we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote the development of immature neurons isolated from the neonatal rat spinal cord, and maintained in vitro. To address this issue we performed electrophysiological studies associated to gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that spinal neurons plated on electro-conductive carbon nanotubes show a facilitated development. Spinal neurons anticipate the expression of functional markers of maturation, such as the generation of voltage dependent currents or action potentials. These changes are accompanied by a selective modulation of gene expression, involving neuronal and non-neuronal components. Our microarray experiments suggest that carbon nanotube platforms trigger reparative activities involving microglia, in the absence of reactive gliosis. Hence, future tissue scaffolds blended with conductive nanotubes may be exploited to promote cell differentiation and reparative pathways in neural regeneration strategies. PMID:23951361

  6. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers. PMID:24667278

  7. Finding the best swimming sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Tom; Morozov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Many microorganisms propel through fluid environments by undulating their bodies or long thin organelles (flagella). The particular waveform of the undulations can often be changed by the organism to adapt to particular environmental conditions. It has been proposed in the literature that this adaptation is driven by the desire to optimise the swimming efficiency. However, it remains an open question as to whether this is indeed the optimised quantity for microorganisms. We study propulsion in Newtonian fluids at zero inertia for a model organism, the so-called Taylor waving sheet. We develop a numerical method that allows us to calculate flow fields for sheets of arbitrary waverforms in the bulk and next to a wall. We perform optimisations of various quantities that can potentially be optimised by a swimming microorganisms (efficiency, speed, etc.) and present the optimal waveforms. We also present a simple analytical model that yields similar results. We conclude that various optimal waveforms are very similar, both in the bulk and next to a boundary, and one cannot claim that optimising the swimming efficiency is the strategy adopted by undulating microorganisms. SUPA, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, UK.

  8. Swimming & Propulsion in Viscoelastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Many microorganisms have evolved within complex fluids, which include soil, intestinal fluid, and mucus. The material properties or rheology of such fluids can strongly affect an organism's swimming behavior. A major challenge is to understand the mechanism of propulsion in media that exhibit both solid- and fluid-like behavior, such as viscoelastic fluids. In this talk, we present experiments that explore the swimming behavior of biological organisms and artificial particles in viscoelastic media. The organism is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a roundworm widely used for biological research that swims by generating traveling waves along its body. Overall, we find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion compared to Newtonian fluids due to the enhanced resistance to flow near hyperbolic points for viscoelastic fluids. As fluid elasticity increases, the nematode's propulsion speed decreases. These results are consistent with recent theoretical models for undulating sheets and cylinders. In order to gain further understanding on propulsion in viscoelastic media, we perform experiments with simple reciprocal artificial `swimmers' (magnetic dumbbell particles) in polymeric and micellar solutions. We find that self-propulsion is possible in viscoelastic media even if the motion is reciprocal.

  9. Hypericum Perforatum Decreased Hippocampus TNF-α and Corticosterone Levels with No Effect on Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio in Bilateral Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hasanin, Amany H

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect Hypericum Perforatum (HP), on behavioral changes, corticosterone, TNF-α levels and tryptophan metabolism and disposition in bilateral ovariectomized rats compared to 17α -ethinylestradiol. Behavioral analysis by measuring immobility time in forced swimming test and open field test, serum and hippocampal corticosterone and TNF-α along with hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were determined in mature ovariectomized rats treated orally either by HP at three different doses 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day or by 17α-ethinylestradiol 30 µg/kg/day for 30 days. Ovariectomized rats showed significant increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test. Along with elevation in serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone levels associated with significant increase in hippocampal kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Immobility time in the forced swimming test was decreased in rats treated by different doses of HP in a dose dependent manner and 17α-ethinylestradiol with no concomitant changes in the open field test. Only Rats treated with HP exhibited significant decrease in the elevated serum and hippocampal TNF-α and corticosterone, which couldn't explain the associated insignificant effect on hippocampaus kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in comparison to ovariectomized untreated rats. It is concluded that increased tryptophan metabolism toward kynurenine secondary to elevated corticosterone and TNF-α might be one of the pathohphysiological mechanisms that could explain depression like state observed in this rat model. Further, the observed attenuating effect of HP on TNF-α and corticosterone could contribute in its antidepressant effect in this animal model by other ways than their effects on tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism pathway. PMID:24976763

  10. Health Effects from Swimming Training in Chlorinated Pools and the Corresponding Metabolic Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Deng, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Can-Xin; Qiu, Li-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Lin, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Chlorination is the most popular method for disinfecting swimming pool water; however, although pathogens are being killed, many toxic compounds, called disinfection by-products (DBPs), are formed. Numerous epidemiological publications have associated the chlorination of pools with dysfunctions of the respiratory system and with some other diseases. However, the findings concerning these associations are not always consistent and have not been confirmed by toxicological studies. Therefore, the health effects from swimming in chlorinated pools and the corresponding stress reactions in organisms are unclear. In this study, we show that although the growth and behaviors of experimental rats were not affected, their health, training effects and metabolic profiles were significantly affected by a 12-week swimming training program in chlorinated water identical to that of public pools. Interestingly, the eyes and skin are the organs that are more directly affected than the lungs by the irritants in chlorinated water; instead of chlorination, training intensity, training frequency and choking on water may be the primary factors for lung damage induced by swimming. Among the five major organs (the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys), the liver is the most likely target of DBPs. Through metabolomics analysis, the corresponding metabolic stress pathways and a defensive system focusing on taurine were presented, based on which the corresponding countermeasures can be developed for swimming athletes and for others who spend a lot of time in chlorinated swimming pools. PMID:25742134

  11. Associations Between Dry Land Strength and Power Measurements with Swimming Performance in Elite Athletes: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Morouço, Pedro; Neiva, Henrique; González-Badillo, Juan J.; Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Marques, Mário C.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance. Ten male national level swimmers (age: 14.9 ± 0.74 years, body mass: 60.0 ± 6.26 kg, height: 171.9 ± 6.26, 100 m long course front crawl performance: 59.9 ± 1.87 s) volunteered as subjects. Height and Work were estimated for CMJ. Mean power in the propulsive phase was assessed for squat, bench press (concentric phase) and lat pull down back. Mean force production was evaluated through 30 s maximal effort tethered swimming in front crawl using whole body, arms only and legs only. Swimming velocity was calculated from a maximal bout of 50 m front crawl. Height of CMJ did not correlate with any of the studied variables. There were positive and moderate-strong associations between the work during CMJ and mean propulsive power in squat with tethered forces during whole body and legs only swimming. Mean propulsive power of bench press and lat pull down presented positive and moderate-strong relationships with mean force production in whole body and arms only. Swimming performance is related with mean power of lat pull down back. So, lat pull down back is the most related dry land test with swimming performance; bench press with force production in water arms only; and work during CMJ with tethered forces legs only. PMID:23486734

  12. Blood flow distribution in submerged and surface-swimming ducks.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, R; Jones, D R

    1992-05-01

    Observations that the response of the avian heart rate to submergence varies under different circumstances have led to speculation about variability of blood flow distribution during voluntary dives. We used a radiological imaging technique to examine the patterns of circulating blood flow in captive redhead ducks (Aythya americana) during rest, swimming, escape dives, forced dives and trapped escape dives and have shown that blood flow distribution in escape dives was the same as that in ducks swimming at the water surface. The response during trapped escape dives, however, was highly variable. Blood pressure was unchanged from the resting value during all activities. Predictions made about blood flow distribution during unrestrained dives on the basis of heart rate and other indirect data were confirmed in this study. However, the trapped escape dive responses indicated that heart rate alone is not always a reliable indicator of tissue blood flow in exercising ducks. PMID:1602277

  13. Large-amplitude undulatory swimming near a wall.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prats, Rafael; Raspa, Veronica; Thiria, Benjamin; Huera-Huarte, Francisco; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    The propulsive dynamics of a flexible undulating foil in a self-propelled swimming configuration near a wall is studied experimentally. Measurements of the swimming speed and the propulsive force are presented, together with image acquisition of the kinematics of the foil and particle image velocimetry (PIV) in its wake. The presence of the wall enhances the cruising velocity in some cases up to 25% and the thrust by a 45% , for swept angles of 160 and 240°. The physical mechanisms underlying this effect are discussed by studying the vorticity dynamics in the wake of the foil. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to the PIV measurements in order to analyse the kinetic energy modal distribution in the flow and to relate it to the propulsion generated by the foil. PMID:25561330

  14. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia. PMID:26223765

  15. Swimming dynamics of bidirectional artificial flagella.

    PubMed

    Namdeo, S; Khaderi, S N; Onck, P R

    2013-10-01

    We study magnetic artificial flagella whose swimming speed and direction can be controlled using light and magnetic field as external triggers. The dependence of the swimming velocity on the system parameters (e.g., length, stiffness, fluid viscosity, and magnetic field) is explored using a computational framework in which the magnetostatic, fluid dynamic, and solid mechanics equations are solved simultaneously. A dimensionless analysis is carried out to obtain an optimal combination of system parameters for which the swimming velocity is maximal. The swimming direction reversal is addressed by incorporating photoresponsive materials, which in the photoactuated state can mimic natural mastigonemes. PMID:24229282

  16. The Swim Pressure of Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John; Takatori, Sho; Yan, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Through their self-motion, active matter systems generate a unique ``swim pressure'' that is entirely athermal in origin. This new source for the active stress exists at all scales in both living and nonliving active systems, and also applies to larger organisms where inertia is important. Here we explain the origin of the swim stress and develop a simple thermodynamic model to study the self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. Our new swim stress perspective may help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria and catalytic nanobots, schools of fish and birds, and molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  17. Forced arm use is superior to voluntary training for motor recovery and brain plasticity after cortical ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Both the immobilization of the unaffected arm combined with physical therapy (forced arm use, FAU) and voluntary exercise (VE) as model for enriched environment are promising approaches to enhance recovery after stroke. The genomic mechanisms involved in long-term plasticity changes after different means of rehabilitative training post-stroke are largely unexplored. The present investigation explored the effects of these physical therapies on behavioral recovery and molecular markers of regeneration after experimental ischemia. Methods 42 Wistar rats were randomly treated with either forced arm use (FAU, 1-sleeve plaster cast onto unaffected limb at 8/10 days), voluntary exercise (VE, connection of a freely accessible running wheel to cage), or controls with no access to a running wheel for 10 days starting at 48 hours after photothrombotic stroke of the sensorimotor cortex. Functional outcome was measured using sensorimotor test before ischemia, after ischemia, after the training period of 10 days, at 3 and 4 weeks after ischemia. Global gene expression changes were assessed from the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus. Results FAU-treated animals demonstrated significantly improved functional recovery compared to the VE-treated group. Both were superior to cage control. A large number of genes are altered by both training paradigms in the ipsi- and contralateral cortex and the hippocampus. Overall, the extent of changes observed correlated well with the functional recovery obtained. One category of genes overrepresented in the gene set is linked to neuronal plasticity processes, containing marker genes such as the NMDA 2a receptor, PKC ζ, NTRK2, or MAP 1b. Conclusions We show that physical training after photothrombotic stroke significantly and permanently improves functional recovery after stroke, and that forced arm training is clearly superior to voluntary running training. The behavioral outcomes seen correlate with

  18. Force-velocity relations and myosin heavy chain isoform compositions of skinned fibres from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Bottinelli, R; Schiaffino, S; Reggiani, C

    1991-01-01

    1. This study was performed to assess whether muscle contractile properties are related to the presence of specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. 2. Force-velocity relations and MHC isoform composition were determined in seventy-four single skinned muscle fibres from rat soleus, extensor digitorum longus and plantaris muscles. 3. Four groups of fibres were identified according to their MHC isoform composition determined by monoclonal antibodies: type 1 (slow), and types 2A, 2B and 2X (fast). 4. With respect to maximum velocity of shortening (V0), the fibres formed a continuum between 0.35 and 2.84 L/s (muscle lengths per second) at 12 degrees C. V0 in type 1 fibres (slow fibres) was between 0.35 and 0.95 L/s (0.639 +/- 0.038 L/s; mean +/- S.E. of mean). V0 in type 2 fibres (fast fibres) was consistently higher than 0.91 L/s. Ranges of V0 in the three fast fibre types mostly overlapped. Type 2A and 2X fibres had similar mean V0 values (1.396 +/- 0.084 and 1.451 +/- 0.066 L/s respectively); type 2B fibres showed a higher mean V0 value (1.800 +/- 0.109 L/s) than type 2A and 2X fibres. 5. Mean values of a/P0, an index of the curvature of force-velocity relations, allowed us to identify two groups of fibres: a high curvature group comprised of type 1 (mean a/P0, 0.066 +/- 0.007) and 2A (0.066 +/- 0.024) fibres and a low curvature group comprised of type 2B (0.113 +/- 0.013) and 2X (0.132 +/- 0.008) fibres. 6. Maximal power output was lower in slow fibres than in fast fibres, and among fast fibres it was lower in type 2A fibres than in type 2X and 2B. 7. Force per unit cross-sectional area was less in slow fibres than in fast fibres. There was no relation between fibre type and cross-sectional area. 8. The results suggest that MHC composition is just one of the determinants of shortening velocity and of other muscle contractile properties. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1890654

  19. Cholinergic mechanisms of analgesia produced by physostigmine, morphine and cold water swimming.

    PubMed

    Romano, J A; Shih, T M

    1983-07-01

    This study concerns the cholinergic involvement in three experimental procedures which produce analgesia. Rats were given one of seven treatments: saline (1.0 ml/kg, i.p.); morphine sulfate (3.5, 6.0 or 9.0 mg/kg, i.p.); physostigmine salicylate (0.65 mg/kg, i.p.); warm water swim (3.5 min at 28 degrees C); and cold water swim (3.5 min at 2 degrees C). Each rat was tested on a hot plate (59.1 degrees C) once prior to and 30 min after treatment. Immediately after the last test the rats were killed with focussed microwave radiation. Levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) in six brain areas (brain stem, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum and striatum) were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Morphine (9.0 mg/kg), physostigmine and cold water swimming caused significant analgesia. Morphine elevated the levels of ACh in the cerebellum and striatum, cold water swimming--in the cerebellum, striatum and cortex, and physostigmine--in the striatum and hippocampus. Levels of choline were elevated by morphine in the cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus, while cold water swimming elevated levels of choline in the cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Physostigmine did not change levels of choline in any of the brain areas studied. These data suggest that the analgetic effects of morphine or cold water swimming may be mediated by components of the cholinergic system that differ from those involved in the analgetic effects of physostigmine. PMID:6621812

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Swimming Styles in Competitive Swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Loebbecke, Alfred; Mittal, Rajat; Gupta, Varun; Mark, Russell

    2007-11-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to conduct a critical evaluation of swimming strokes in competitive swimming. We combine computational fluid dynamics (CFD), laser body scans, animation software, and video footage to develop accurate models of Olympic level swimmers and use these to examine contrasting styles of the dolphin kick as well as the arm strokes in back and front crawl stroke. In the dolphin kick, the focus is on examining the effects of Strouhal number, kick amplitude, frequency, and technique on thrust production. In the back stroke, we examine the performance of the so called ``flat stroke'' versus the ``deep catch,'' The most important aspect that separates the two major types of back stroke is the alignment or angle of attack of the palm during the stroke. In one style of front crawl arm stroke, there is greater elbow joint flexion, shoulder abduction and sculling whereas the other style consists of a straight arm pull dominated by simple shoulder flexion. Underlying the use of these two styles is the larger and more fundamental issue of the role of lift versus drag in thrust production and we use the current simulations to examine this issue in detail.

  1. Solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, H.W.

    1984-12-04

    A solar heater for swimming pools is provided having one or more heating panels installable on a roof or the like and arranged to discharge into a pool equipped with an apron without need for disturbing or obstructing the apron. This is accomplished by the provision of an elevated bistable dumper adjacent the perimeter of the apron having a dispensing spout normally inclined upwardly but pivoting at intervals to discharge into the pool across the apron without obstructing it. Water to be heated is diverted from the pool filtering system to the solar heater via a pressure regulator and a solar responsive flow control.

  2. The archaellum: how Archaea swim

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Sonja-Verena; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on archaeal motility have shown that the archaeal motility structure is unique in several aspects. Although it fulfills the same swimming function as the bacterial flagellum, it is evolutionarily and structurally related to the type IV pilus. This was the basis for the recent proposal to term the archaeal motility structure the “archaellum.” This review illustrates the key findings that led to the realization that the archaellum was a novel motility structure and presents the current knowledge about the structural composition, mechanism of assembly and regulation, and the posttranslational modifications of archaella. PMID:25699024

  3. Upstream Swimming in Microbiological Flows.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, Arnold J T M; Shendruk, Tyler N; Yeomans, Julia M; Doostmohammadi, Amin

    2016-01-15

    Interactions between microorganisms and their complex flowing environments are essential in many biological systems. We develop a model for microswimmer dynamics in non-Newtonian Poiseuille flows. We predict that swimmers in shear-thickening (-thinning) fluids migrate upstream more (less) quickly than in Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that viscoelastic normal stress differences reorient swimmers causing them to migrate upstream at the centerline, in contrast to well-known boundary accumulation in quiescent Newtonian fluids. Based on these observations, we suggest a sorting mechanism to select microbes by swimming speed. PMID:26824571

  4. Upstream Swimming in Microbiological Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Arnold J. T. M.; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Yeomans, Julia M.; Doostmohammadi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between microorganisms and their complex flowing environments are essential in many biological systems. We develop a model for microswimmer dynamics in non-Newtonian Poiseuille flows. We predict that swimmers in shear-thickening (-thinning) fluids migrate upstream more (less) quickly than in Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that viscoelastic normal stress differences reorient swimmers causing them to migrate upstream at the centerline, in contrast to well-known boundary accumulation in quiescent Newtonian fluids. Based on these observations, we suggest a sorting mechanism to select microbes by swimming speed.

  5. Arm insulation and swimming in cold water.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, David S; Ducharme, Michel B

    2008-09-01

    To test whether adding insulation to the arms would improve cold water swimming performance by delaying swimming failure (SF). Novice (n = 7) and expert (n = 8) swimmers, clothed and equipped with a personal flotation device, each performed two trials in a swimming flume filled with 10 degrees C water. During free swimming (FS), subjects performed swimming until failure, followed by the Heat Escape Lessening Posture. In free swimming with additional insulation (FSA), subjects wore custom-fitted armbands. Trials ended when rectal temperature decreased to 34 degrees C or after 2 h of immersion. Measurements included: rectal and skin temperatures, heat flow, and various appraisals of swimming performance. FSA was thermally advantageous versus FS. Rectal temperature cooling rates during swimming (dT/dt Swim) were faster for FS compared to FSA (0.050 +/- 0.007 degrees C min(-1) vs. 0.042 +/- 0.006 degrees C min(-1), P < 0.01). Armbands maintained arm skin temperature about 10 degrees C warmer, for approximately 70 min (P < 0.001). Although additional insulation did not greatly improve physical performances, video analysis showed that swimming technique in FSA was maintained 10-15% better than in FS between minutes 30 and 50 (P < 0.001). SF was achieved in 5/30 trials, with increases in stroke rate (6.6 str min(-1)) and decreases in stroke length (0.24 m str(-1)) observed. In this simulation of cold water swimming survival, equipping subjects with neoprene armbands appears to have partially preserved muscle function, but with unimpressive effects on overall performance. SF is a complex entity, but is evidently related to both triceps skinfold and arm girth. PMID:18309510

  6. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  7. Mechanisms underlying rhythmic locomotion: body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Friesen, W. O.; Iwasaki, T.

    2011-01-01

    Swimming of fish and other animals results from interactions of rhythmic body movements with the surrounding fluid. This paper develops a model for the body–fluid interaction in undulatory swimming of leeches, where the body is represented by a chain of rigid links and the hydrodynamic force model is based on resistive and reactive force theories. The drag and added-mass coefficients for the fluid force model were determined from experimental data of kinematic variables during intact swimming, measured through video recording and image processing. Parameter optimizations to minimize errors in simulated model behaviors revealed that the resistive force is dominant, and a simple static function of relative velocity captures the essence of hydrodynamic forces acting on the body. The model thus developed, together with the experimental kinematic data, allows us to investigate temporal and spatial (along the body) distributions of muscle actuation, body curvature, hydrodynamic thrust and drag, muscle power supply and energy dissipation into the fluid. We have found that: (1) thrust is generated continuously along the body with increasing magnitude toward the tail, (2) drag is nearly constant along the body, (3) muscle actuation waves travel two or three times faster than the body curvature waves and (4) energy for swimming is supplied primarily by the mid-body muscles, transmitted through the body in the form of elastic energy, and dissipated into the water near the tail. PMID:21270304

  8. Behavioral deficits in sepsis-surviving rats induced by cecal ligation and perforation.

    PubMed

    Barichello, T; Martins, M R; Reinke, A; Constantino, L S; Machado, R A; Valvassori, S S; Moreira, J C F; Quevedo, J; Dal-Pizzol, F

    2007-06-01

    Sepsis and its complications are the leading causes of mortality in intensive care units, accounting for 10-50% of deaths. Intensive care unit survivors present long-term cognitive impairment, including alterations in memory, attention, concentration, and/or global loss of cognitive function. In the present study, we investigated behavioral alterations in sepsis-surviving rats. One hundred and ten male Wistar rats (3-4 months, 250-300 g) were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and 44 were submitted to sham operation. Forty-four rats (40%) survived after CLP, and all sham-operated animals survived and were used as control. Twenty animals of each group were used in the object recognition task (10 in short-term memory and 10 in long-term memory), 12 in the plus-maze test and 12 in the forced swimming test. Ten days after surgery, the animals were submitted individually to an object recognition task, plus-maze and forced swimming tests. A significant impairment of short- and long-term recognition memory was observed in the sepsis group (recognition index 0.75 vs 0.55 and 0.74 vs 0.51 for short- and long-term memory, respectively (P < 0.05). In the elevated plus-maze test no difference was observed between groups in any of the parameters assessed. In addition, sepsis survivors presented an increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test (180 vs 233 s, P < 0.05), suggesting the presence of depressive-like symptoms in these animals after recovery from sepsis. The present results demonstrated that rats surviving exposure to CLP, a classical sepsis model, presented recognition memory impairment and depressive-like symptoms but not anxiety-like behavior. PMID:17581683

  9. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-01-01

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function. PMID:27457414

  10. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Nicholas L.; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T.; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Watanabe, Yuuki Y.

    2016-01-01

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag—and in turn, the cost of transport—by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function. PMID:27457414

  11. Effect of a Fast-skin 'body' suit on drag during front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Huub M; Truijens, Martin; Elzinga, Meint-Jan; van de Ven, Ad; de Best, Henk; Snabel, Bart; de Groot, Gert

    2002-01-01

    The effect on drag of a Speedo Fast-skin suit compared to a conventional suit was studied in 13 subjects (6 males, 7 females) swimming at different velocities between 1.0 and 2.0 m.s-1. The active drag force was directly measured during front crawl swimming using a system of underwater push-off pads instrumented with a force transducer (MAD system). For a range of swimming speeds (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 m.s-1), drag values were estimated. On a group level, a statistically non-significant drag reduction effect of 2% was observed for the Fast-skin suit (p = 0.31). Therefore, the 7.5% reduction in drag claimed by the swimwear manufacturer was not corroborated. PMID:14658132

  12. Swimming of a Microrobot Actuated by a Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Frederck P.; Zhou, David; Lalande, Viviane; Vonthron, Manuel; Martel, Sylvain

    2010-11-01

    A miniature robot was designed to achieve fish-like locomotion when actuated by the imaging coils of a clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. The wireless fish robot is composed of a ferromagnetic head, a flexible tail and a float. In an aquarium placed in the MRI, the robot is set into a swimming motion by an alternating transverse linear magnetic gradient. The influence of tail length, forcing frequency and forcing magnitude on the swimming velocity and flapping amplitude are investigated. Moreover, by using a combination of simultaneous magnetic gradients, the fish can reach superior swimming speeds than can be achieved by simply "pulling" on the fish with a magnetic field. Upon further miniaturization, the propulsion principle devised here could be used to navigate a micro surgical robot or a drug delivery system. A great advantage of this system is that no energy storage, motor or control system need to be carried by the robot, allowing great miniaturization possibilities.

  13. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Swimming. (a) Swimming, wading, snorkeling or scuba diving at one's own risk is permitted, except at... Commander. (b) An international diver down, or inland diving flag must be displayed during underwater activities. (c) Diving, jumping or swinging from trees, bridges or other structures which cross or...

  14. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Swimming. (a) Swimming, wading, snorkeling or scuba diving at one's own risk is permitted, except at... Commander. (b) An international diver down, or inland diving flag must be displayed during underwater activities. (c) Diving, jumping or swinging from trees, bridges or other structures which cross or...

  15. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  16. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Nanxi; Massoudieh, Arash; Liang, Xiaomeng; Hu, Dehong; Kamai, Tamir; Ginn, Timothy R.; Zilles, Julie L.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  17. Teaching Swimming Using a Backward Chain Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    The backward chaining instructional method, based on behavioral learning principles, offers swimming instructors an alternative to traditional methods of teaching swimming skills by breaking down the skill into a number of tasks or steps and teaching them in reverse sequence. (CB)

  18. Swim pressure: stress generation in active matter.

    PubMed

    Takatori, S C; Yan, W; Brady, J F

    2014-07-11

    We discover a new contribution to the pressure (or stress) exerted by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique swim pressure that is entirely athermal in origin. The origin of the swim pressure is based upon the notion that an active body would swim away in space unless confined by boundaries-this confinement pressure is precisely the swim pressure. Here we give the micromechanical basis for the swim stress and use this new perspective to study self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. The swim pressure gives rise to a nonequilibrium equation of state for active matter with pressure-volume phase diagrams that resemble a van der Waals loop from equilibrium gas-liquid coexistence. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by Brownian dynamics simulations. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria to catalytic nanobots to molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton. PMID:25062240

  19. 36 CFR 327.5 - Swimming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Swimming. (a) Swimming, wading, snorkeling or scuba diving at one's own risk is permitted, except at... Commander. (b) An international diver down, or inland diving flag must be displayed during underwater activities. (c) Diving, jumping or swinging from trees, bridges or other structures which cross or...

  20. Assessment of Swimming in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from the book "Assessment of Swimming in Physical Education" by Susan J. Grosse. In this excerpt, the different methods of assessment are discussed. Each type of assessment presented in the book has a place in swim curriculum. Assessments can measure form, skill application, knowledge, behavior, attitude, or…

  1. Teaching the Physically Handicapped to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William

    First principles of teaching swimming to the handicapped are reviewed; attention is given to children with cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, physical handicaps, blindness, and deafness. Swimming strokes, suggested exercises, group teaching, and a typical sequence of lessons and exercises are considered. Some case histories and a plan for a…

  2. A Training Program for Swimming Pool Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, James R., Jr.; Mihalik, Brian J.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States today, there is a dramatic shortage of qualified public swimming pool operators. This article describes a training program initiated in South Carolina to serve the needs of everyone responsible for and involved in the safe operation and management of a public swimming pool. (MT)

  3. Teaching Swimming--The Coach's Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarie, John

    1983-01-01

    Coaches of competitive swimmers use many types of equipment and teaching techniques that should also be available to physical educators who teach swimming. Equipment, such as goggles, hand paddles, swim benches, fins, kickboards, pace clocks, and pull buoys, and training methods used in conjunction with them, are discussed. (PP)

  4. Long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure in rats on spatial learning in the Barnes maze and on cliff avoidance, corticosterone release, and neurotoxicity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Blankenmeyer, Tracy L; Schaefer, Tori L; Brown, Carrie A; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V

    2003-12-30

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a commonly abused stimulant and because of its addictive properties, abusers may not cease use during pregnancy, thereby exposing the fetus to the drug. The consequences of such exposure remain largely unknown however data from animal models show that long-term deficits in spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) occur. In this study we explored the spatial learning ability of rats treated four times daily with MA (5 mg/kg/dose) during the sensitive period for induction of MWM deficits, postnatal days (P) 11-20, using a different maze. In adulthood the animals were tested in a non-swimming spatial task, the Barnes maze, using either aversive (bright light) or appetitive (food reward) motivation. Approximately 30 days after behavioral testing, the pituitary and adrenal response to forced swim was assessed and susceptibility to MA-induced neurotoxicity measured. MA-treated animals tested in the aversive, but not the appetitive, version of the Barnes maze demonstrated spatial learning deficits. An attenuated corticosterone response in MA-treated animals was observed following forced swimming, however no differences in ACTH were found. Following acute MA administration in adulthood to all animals, the neonatally MA-treated animals displayed longer latencies to fall from a cliff than neonatally saline-treated rats given the same acute MA dose. This effect supports previous data showing hypoactivity in neonatally MA-treated animals. Acute MA treatment caused comparable striatal monoamine depletions in all groups, although females treated with MA as neonates displayed increased basal levels of corticosterone three days after the acute dose. These data demonstrate that MA administration during the neonatal period impairs spatial learning in an aversive non-swimming task and alters the adrenal response to a forced swim stressor, suggesting that the adrenal output during learning may contribute to the spatial learning deficits. PMID

  5. Chronic caffeine produces sexually dimorphic effects on amphetamine-induced behavior, anxiety and depressive-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Townsend, Shannon E; Dixon, Rushell S; Hickman, Emma T; Lee, Sabrina M

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine consumption has been increasing rapidly in adolescents; however, most research on the behavioral effects of caffeine has been conducted in adults. Two experiments were conducted in which adolescent male and female rats were treated with a moderate dose of caffeine (0.25 g/l) in their drinking water beginning on P26-28. In the first experiment, animals were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water for 14 days and were then tested for behavioral and striatal c-Fos response to amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats were maintained on caffeinated drinking water or normal tap water beginning on P28 and were tested for novel object recognition, anxiety in the light/dark test (L/D) and elevated plus maze (EPM), and depressive like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) beginning on the 14th day of caffeine exposure. Caffeine decreased amphetamine-induced rearing in males, but had no effect in females; however, this behavioral effect was not accompanied by changes in striatal c-Fos, which was increased by amphetamine but not altered by caffeine. No effects of caffeine were observed on novel object recognition or elevated plus maze behavior. However, in the L/D test, there was a sex by caffeine interaction on time spent in the light driven by a caffeine-induced increase in light time in the males but not the females. On the pretest day of the FST, sex by caffeine interactions were observed for swimming and struggling; caffeine decreased struggling behavior and increased swimming behavior in males and caffeine-treated females demonstrated significantly more struggling and significantly less swimming than caffeine-treated males. A similar pattern was observed on the test day in which caffeine decreased immobility overall and increased swimming. These data reveal sex dependent effects of caffeine on behavior in adolescent rats. PMID:26850920

  6. Sandfish numerical model reveals optimal swimming in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maladen, Ryan; Ding, Yang; Kamor, Adam; Slatton, Andrew; Goldman, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Motivated by experiment and theory examining the undulatory swimming of the sandfish lizard within granular media footnotetextMaladen et. al, Science, 325, 314, 2009, we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We hypothesize that features of its morphology and undulatory kinematics, and the granular media contribute to effective sand swimming. Our results agree with a resistive force model of the sandfish and show that speed and transport cost are optimized at a ratio of wave amplitude to wavelength of 0.2, irrespective of media properties and preparation. At this ratio, the entry of the animal into the media is fastest at an angle of 20^o, close to the angle of repose. We also find that the sandfish cross-sectional body shape reduces motion induced buoyancy within the granular media and that wave efficiency is sensitive to body-particle friction but independent of particle-particle friction.

  7. On Torque and Tumbling in Swimming Escherichia coli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Darnton, Nicholas C.; Turner, Linda; Rojevsky, Svetlana; Berg, Howard C.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria swim by rotating long thin helical filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor. When the motors of peritrichous cells turn counterclockwise (CCW), their filaments form bundles that drive the cells forward. We imaged fluorescently labeled cells of Escherichia coli with a high-speed charge-coupled-device camera (500 frames/s) and measured swimming speeds, rotation rates of cell bodies, and rotation rates of flagellar bundles. Using cells stuck to glass, we studied individual filaments, stopping their rotation by exposing the cells to high-intensity light. From these measurements we calculated approximate values for bundle torque and thrust and body torque and drag, and we estimated the filament stiffness. For both immobilized and swimming cells, the motor torque, as estimated using resistive force theory, was significantly lower than the motor torque reported previously. Also, a bundle of several flagella produced little more torque than a single flagellum produced. Motors driving individual filaments frequently changed directions of rotation. Usually, but not always, this led to a change in the handedness of the filament, which went through a sequence of polymorphic transformations, from normal to semicoiled to curly 1 and then, when the motor again spun CCW, back to normal. Motor reversals were necessary, although not always sufficient, to cause changes in filament chirality. Polymorphic transformations among helices having the same handedness occurred without changes in the sign of the applied torque. PMID:17189361

  8. Swimming

    MedlinePlus

    ... dad to make sure your flotation devices are Coast Guard-approved. Walk slowly in the pool area. Don' ... life jacket. (Again, the life jacket should be Coast Guard-approved.) Even if you are a good swimmer, ...

  9. Undulatory swimming in non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardekani, Arezoo; Li, Gaojin

    2015-11-01

    Microorganisms often swim in complex fluids exhibiting both elasticity and shear-thinning viscosity. The motion of low Reynolds number swimmers in complex fluids is important for better understanding the migration of sperms and formation of bacterial biofilms. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of non-Newtonian fluid properties, including shear-thinning and elasticity, on the undulatory locomotion. Our results show that elasticity hinders the swimming speed, but a shear-thinning viscosity in the absence of elasticity enhances the speed. The combination of the two effects hinders the swimming speed. The swimming boost in a shear-thinning fluid occurs even for an infinitely long flagellum. The swimming speed has a maximum, whose value depends on the flagellum oscillation amplitude and fluid rheological properties. The power consumption, on the other hand, follows a universal scaling law. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1445955 and Indiana CTSI TR001108.

  10. Undulatory Swimming in Shear-thinning Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaoning; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    Many fluids in which microorganisms move, feed, and reproduce possess shear-rate dependent viscosity behavior (e.g. shear-thinning). Such fluids include wet soil, clay suspension, mucus, and gels. In this talk, we experimentally investigate the effects of shear-rate dependent viscosity on the swimming behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans using velocimetry and tracking methods. Here, aqueous solutions of xanthan gum, which is a rod-like stiff polymer, are used with concentrations varying from the semi-dilute to the concentrated regime. The data is compared to swimming in simple, Newtonian fluids. We find that the nematode swims at an approximately constant speed in the semi-dilute regime. Surprisingly, the nematode exhibits 40% increases in swimming speed once immersed in a concentrated solution. The enhancement in swimming speed seems to be related to the dynamics of rod-like polymer networks formed in concentrated solutions. This work was supported by NSF-CAREER (CBET)-0954084.

  11. Resolving shifting patterns of muscle energy use in swimming fish.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Shannon P; Ellerby, David J

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes. PMID:25165858

  12. Resolving Shifting Patterns of Muscle Energy Use in Swimming Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gerry, Shannon P.; Ellerby, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes. PMID:25165858

  13. Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines

    PubMed Central

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the “squirmer.” We identify the Richardson number—the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces—as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147

  14. Fluid velocity fluctuations in a suspension of swimming protists.

    PubMed

    Rushkin, Ilia; Kantsler, Vasily; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2010-10-29

    In dilute suspensions of swimming microorganisms the local fluid velocity is a random superposition of the flow fields set up by the individual organisms, which in turn have multipole contributions decaying as inverse powers of distance from the organism. Here we show that the conditions under which the central limit theorem guarantees a Gaussian probability distribution function of velocities are satisfied when the leading force singularity is a Stokeslet, but are not when it is any higher multipole. These results are confirmed by numerical studies and by experiments on suspensions of the alga Volvox carteri, which show that deviations from Gaussianity arise from near-field effects. PMID:21231140

  15. Trapping of swimming microorganisms at lower surfaces by increasing buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M

    2014-11-21

    Models suggest that mechanical interactions alone can trap swimming microorganisms at surfaces. Testing them requires a method for varying the mechanical interactions. We tuned contact forces between Para