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Sample records for rat submandibular glands

  1. Microvascular transplantation of the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, J H; Zhang, F; Levin, D E; Singer, M I; Buncke, H J

    2000-11-01

    Xerostomia results from salivary gland irradiation during treatment of head and neck malignancies. In addition to having difficulty with speech and swallowing, these patients experience loss of taste, dental caries, and chronic fungal infections. The paired submandibular glands provide 70 percent of the normal salivary flow and are difficult to shield during radiation therapy. Another sicca condition, xerophthalmia, may result from facial nerve injury or other medical disorders and results in pain, corneal ulceration, and possible vision loss. Treatment options for xerostomia are limited, and management of xerophthalmia usually focuses on the eyelids, rather than the fundamental problem of inadequate secretory protection. In this study, a rat model for submandibular gland microvascular transplantation was developed to assess the feasibility of salivary tissue transfer. Sixteen rats underwent submandibular gland transplantation from the neck to the groin. Fourteen of these rats underwent microvascular anastomosis of the vascular pedicle. Ten glands were assessed for viability at 4 days after transplantation, and four glands were examined after 7, 10, 14, or 21 days. By gross and histologic examination, 93 percent of transplanted glands showed expected long-term viability after at least 4 postoperative days. Microvascular techniques were shown to be applicable to the transplantation of submandibular gland salivary tissue. This has not previously been shown in a rat model. It is possible that submandibular glands could be transplanted to the eye for treatment of xerophthalmia and out of the neck during irradiation of the head and neck, with subsequent replantation after treatment as a means of preventing permanent xerostomia. PMID:11083564

  2. Effects of thyroxine and dexamethasone on rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and thyroxine are known to have a marked effect on the flow rate and protein composition of rat parotid saliva in hormonally intact animals. In the present study, the effects of a one-week treatment of male rats with dexamethasone and thyroxine were studied by electron microscopy and x-ray micro-analysis, and by measurement of the flow rate and determination of the chemical composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva. Thyroxine had the most extensive effects on the submandibular gland. The acinar cells were enlarged and filled with mucus; the cellular calcium concentration was significantly increased. The flow rate of the submandibular saliva was significantly reduced compared with that in saline-injected control animals. Thyroxine caused an increase in the concentrations of protein, total calcium, and potassium in the saliva. Dexamethasone had no significant effects on gland ultrastructure or on the elemental composition of the acinar cells; flow rate was not affected, but the concentrations of protein, calcium, and potassium were significantly increased. The effects of dexamethasone and thyroxine on the flow rate and protein composition of pilocarpine-induced rat submandibular saliva differ from those reported earlier for rat parotid saliva after simultaneous stimulation with pilocarpine and isoproterenol.

  3. Chronic Stress Induces Neurotrophin-3 in Rat Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Saruta, Juri; Iida, Michitaro; Kondo, Yusuke; To, Masahiro; Hayashi, Takashi; Hori, Mayumi; Sato, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Plasma neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) levels are associated with several neural disorders. We previously reported that neurotrophins were released from salivary glands following acute immobilization stress. While the salivary glands were the source of plasma neurotrophins in that situation, the association between the expression of neurotrophins and the salivary gland under chronic stress conditions is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether NT-3 levels in the salivary gland and plasma were influenced by chronic stress. Materials and Methods Expressions of NT-3 mRNA and protein were characterized, using real-time polymerase chain reactions, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry, in the submandibular glands of male rats exposed to chronic stress (12 h daily for 22 days). Results Plasma NT-3 levels were significantly increased by chronic stress (p<0.05), and remained elevated in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats under the same condition. Since chronic stress increases plasma NT-3 levels in the sialoadenectomized rat model, plasma NT-3 levels were not exclusively dependent on salivary glands. Conclusion While the salivary gland was identified in our previous study as the source of plasma neurotrophins during acute stress, the exposure to long-term stress likely affects a variety of organs capable of releasing NT-3 into the bloodstream. In addition, the elevation of plasma NT-3 levels may play important roles in homeostasis under stress conditions. PMID:23074106

  4. The Human Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Elias Q.; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Loeffelbein, Denys J.; Rohleder, Nils H.; Nieberler, Markus; Hasler, Rafael; Kesting, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Submandibular acinar glands secrete numerous proteins such as digestive enzymes and defense proteins on the basis of the exocrine secretion mode. Exocytosis is a complex process, including a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion of vesicles and target membrane and the additional activation of cytoskeletal proteins. Relevant data are available predominantly for animal salivary glands, especially of the rat parotid acinar cells. The authors investigated the secretory molecular machinery of acinar (serous) cells in the human submandibular gland by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and found diverse proteins associated with exocytosis for the first time. SNAP-23, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-4, and VAMP-2 were localized at the luminal plasma membrane; syntaxin-2 and septin-2 were expressed in vesicles in the cytoplasm. Double staining of syntaxin-2 and septin-2 revealed a colocalization on the same vesicles. Lactoferrin and α-amylase served as a marker for secretory vesicles and were labeled positively together with syntaxin-2 and septin-2 in double-staining procedures. Cytoskeletal components such as actin, myosin II, cofilin, and profilin are concentrated at the apical plasma membrane of acinar submandibular glands. These observations complement the understanding of the complex exocytosis mechanisms. PMID:22131313

  5. Atrophy of submandibular gland by the duct ligation and a blockade of SP receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hishida, Sumiyo; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Honda, Takashi; Shigetomi, Toshio; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the mechanisms underlying the submandibular gland atrophies associated with ptyalolithiasis, morphological changes were examined in the rat submandibular gland following either surgical intervention of the duct or functional blockade at substance P receptors (SPRs). Progressive acinar atrophy was observed after duct ligation or avulsion of periductal tissues. This suggested that damage to periductal tissue involving nerve fibers might contribute to ligation-associated acinar atrophy. Immunohistochemically labeled-substance P positive nerve fibers (SPFs) coursed in parallel with the main duct and were distributed around the interlobular, striated, granular and intercalated duct, and glandular acini. Strong SPR immunoreactivity was observed in the duct. Injection into the submandibular gland of a SPR antagonist induced marked acinar atrophy. The results revealed that disturbance of SPFs and SPRs might be involved in the atrophy of the submandibular gland associated with ptyalolithiasis. PMID:27303108

  6. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms. PMID:25793872

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of Estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the Lacrimal Gland and Submandibular Gland in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups—a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms. PMID:25793872

  8. Effect of duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition, and function of rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagstroem, S.S.; Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Obstruction of salivary glands occurs in association with a number of pathological conditions. It has been suggested that the major changes found in the salivary glands of patients with cystic fibrosis are due to obstruction of the excretory duct by viscous mucus. In the present study, the effect of excretory duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition and function of rat submandibular gland was investigated. Obstruction was effected by infusion of a fast-hardening protein emulsion in the main excretory duct. After 1 week, and more pronounced after 2 weeks of obstruction the number of granular duct cells had decreased in the obstructed gland. X-ray microanalysis showed an increase in Mg, Ca and K, and a decrease in Na levels in the acinar cells, compared to normal glands. The contralateral glands apparently underwent compensatory hypertrophy and showed a similar pattern of changes in elemental composition. The composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva was neither in the obstructed nor in the contralateral gland significantly different from that in control glands. However, the flow rate was somewhat lower. Hence, increase in cellular Ca levels in submandibular gland acinar cells in cystic fibrosis could be secondary to duct obstruction, but the present study does not support the hypothesis that duct obstruction would result in changes in the composition of saliva.

  9. H(1)-Receptor activation triggers the endogenous nitric oxide signalling system in the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Enri; Stranieri, Graciela; Sterin-Borda, Leonor

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histamine is released from mast cells by immunologic and non-immunologic stimuli during salivary gland inflammation, regulating salivary secretion. The receptor-secretory mechanism has not been studied in detail. AIMS: The studies reported were directed toward elucidating signal transduction/second messenger pathways within the rat submandibular gland associated with 2-thiazolylethylamine (ThEA)-induced H(1)-receptor responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the H(1) receptor subtype expression in the rat submandibular gland, a radioligand binding assay was performed. The study also included inositolphosphates and cyclic GMP accumulation, protein kinase C and nitric oxide synthase activities, and amylase release. RESULTS: The histamine H(1) receptor subtype is expressed on the rat submandibular gland with high-affinity binding sites. The ThEA effect was associated with activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, translocation of protein kinase C, stimulation of nitric oxide synthase activity and increased production of cyclic GMP. ThEA stimulation of nitric oxide synthase and cyclic GMP was blunted by agents able to interfere with calcium movilization, while a protein kinase C inhibitor was able to stimulate ThEA action. On the other hand, ThEA stimulation evoked amylase release via the H1 receptor but was not followed by the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, apart from the effect of ThEA on amylase release, it also appears to be a vasoactive chemical mediator that triggers vasodilatation, modulating the course of inflammation. PMID:12581497

  10. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SODIUM SELENITE ON SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Barros, Silvana Pereira; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotector effect of sodium selenite on the ultrastructure of submandibular glands in rats. Fifty-seven male albino Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, irradiated, sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite. The animals in the sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite groups received intraperitoneal injections of sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before irradiation. The animals belonging to the irradiated and irradiated/sodium selenite groups were submitted to 15 Gy of gamma radiation in the head and neck region. The submandibular glands were removed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. The ionizing radiation induced damage to the secretory cells, especially the serous cells, right from the first period. Vacuolization, lysis of cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear alterations occurred. The sodium selenite group also presented cellular alterations in the study periods, but with less damage compared to that caused by radiation. There was greater similarity between the irradiated/sodium selenite group and the control group than with the other groups treated in all study periods. Despite the alterations observed in the sodium selenite group, sodium selenite presented a radioprotective action on the secretory cells of submandibular glands. PMID:19089124

  11. Submandibular gland mucocele: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Yaman, Huseyin; Arbag, Hamdi; Koroglu, Duygu; Toy, Hatice

    2005-12-01

    Submandibular gland mucocele should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle. In the cystic lesion of the submandibular area, the biochemical analysis of aspirated material for amylase should be performed. The cases with submandibular gland mucocele should be treated by removing the lesion with both the submandibular and the sublingual glands. PMID:16301155

  12. Retroductal Submandibular Gland Instillation and Localized Fractionated Irradiation in a Rat Model of Salivary Hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Zheng, Changyu; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2016-01-01

    Normal tissues that lie within the portals of radiation are inadvertently damaged. Salivary glands are often injured during head and neck radiotherapy. Irreparable cell damage results in a chronic loss of salivary function that impairs basic oral activities, and increases the risk of oral infections and dental caries. Salivary hypofunction and its complications gravely impact a patient's comfort. Current symptomatic management of the condition is ineffective, and newer therapies to assuage the condition are needed. Salivary glands are exocrine glands, which expel their secretions into the mouth via excretory ducts. Cannulation of these ducts provides direct access to the glands. Retroductal delivery of a contrast agent to major salivary glands is a routine out-patient procedure for diagnostic imaging. Using a similar procedure, localized treatment of the glands is feasible. However, performing this technique in preclinical studies with small animals poses unique challenges. In this study we describe the technique of retroductal administration in rat submandibular glands, a procedure that was refined in Dr. Bruce Baum's laboratory (NIH)(1), and lay out a procedure for local gland irradiation. PMID:27168158

  13. Effects of Diabetes on Post-Menopausal Rat Submandibular Glands: A Histopathological and Stereological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, Basak; Parlak, Secil Nazife; Keles, Osman Nuri; Can, Ismail; Yetim, Zeliha; Toktay, Erdem; Selli, Jale; Unal, Bunyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The menopause in elderly women is a physiological process where ovarian and uterine cycles end. Diabetes means higher blood glucose level that is a metabolic disease and has an increased incidence. The aim of the study was to examine the single or combined effects of menopause and diabetes that causes pathophysiological processes on submandibular gland on ovariectomy and diabetes induced rat models. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley twelve weeks old female (n=24) rats were divided randomly into four groups; Healthy control group (n=6), diabetic group (DM, n=6), ovariectomized group (OVX, n=6), post ovariectomy diabetes induced group (DM+OVX, n=6) individually. Histopathological, histochemical and stereological analyses were done in these groups. Results: Significant neutrophil cell infiltrations and myoepithelial cell proliferations, granular duct and seromucous acini damages and changes in the content of especially seromucous acini secretion in DM and/or OVX groups and distinctive interstitial and striated duct damages in post ovariectomy diabetes induced group were detected. Alterations ingranular ducts hypertrophic and in seromucous acini atrophic were determined in DM and/or OVX groups. Conclusion: The results revealed the pathophysiological processes that lead to morphological and functional alterations on the cellular level in submandibular glands. The molecular mechanisms related with pathogenesis of diabetes and menopause need further investigation. PMID:26644770

  14. Unusually large submandibular gland stone.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussona, Aws Adel

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland calculi is the most common disease of the gland. In this article, we report a case with unusually large stone located at the hilum of the gland causing necrosis of the overlying duct and the oral mucosa (floor of mouth). PMID:25934409

  15. Multiple bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sunder, V S; Chakravarthy, C; Mikkilinine, R; Mahoorkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis accounts for the most common etiology of salivary gland obstruction which leads to recurrent painful swelling of the involved gland which often exacerbates while eating. Stones may be encountered in any of the salivary glands but most frequently in the submandibular gland and its duct. Simultaneous sialolithiasis in more than one salivary gland is rare, occurring in fewer than 3% of cases. Seventy to 80% of cases feature solitary stones; only about 5% of patients have three or more stones, the case report which we are presenting here had three submandibular sialoliths involving both the submandibular glands which were removed by intraoral approach and no post-operative complications were noted. PMID:24326820

  16. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  17. Differences in control of parasympathetic vasodilation between submandibular and sublingual glands in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshiya; Ishii, Hisayoshi

    2015-12-01

    We examined blood flow in the submandibular gland (SMGBF) and sublingual gland (SLGBF) during electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the lingual nerve (LN) in the urethane-anesthetized rats using a laser speckle imaging flow meter. LN stimulation elicited intensity- and frequency-dependent SMGBF and SLGBF increases, and the magnitude of the SMGBF increase was higher than that of the SLGBF increase. The increase in both glands was significantly inhibited by intravenous administration of the autonomic cholinergic ganglion blocker hexamethonium. The antimuscarinic agent atropine markedly inhibited the SMGBF increase and partly inhibited the SLGBF increase. The atropine-resistant SLGBF increase was significantly inhibited by infusion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist, although administration of VIP receptor antagonist alone had no effect. The recovery time to the basal blood flow level was shorter after LN stimulation than after administration of VIP. However, the recovery time after LN stimulation was significantly delayed by administration of atropine in a dose-dependent manner to the same level as after administration of VIP. Our results indicate that 1) LN stimulation elicits both a parasympathetic SMGBF increase mainly evoked by cholinergic fibers and a parasympathetic SLGBF increase evoked by cholinergic and noncholinergic fibers, and 2) VIP-ergic mechanisms are involved in the noncholinergic SLGBF increase and are activated when muscarinic mechanisms are deactivated. PMID:26354847

  18. The effect of dietary consistency and water content on the parotid glands of submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M

    2002-05-01

    The aim here was to estimate the significance of oral sensation and mastication on functional changes in the parotid glands of partially desalivated rats. Submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats were fed three diets of similar chemical composition but different physical presentations. Two were solid, either pellets or powder, and one was liquid. Water and food intakes were similar for both the duct-ligated rats and sham-operated control rats when they ate the pelleted or powdered-diet, though more food was wasted by the duct-ligated rats in the powdered-diet group than in the pelleted-diet group. No food was wasted in the rats fed the liquid-diet. Parotid gland weight and amylase activity were greatest with the submandibular and sublingual duct-ligated rats fed the powdered-diet and smallest with the duct-ligated and sham-operated control rats fed the liquid-diet. The amount of food wasted correlated positively with the parotid gland weight and parotid amylase activity of the rats. These findings support the view that it is the contact of dry food with the oral mucosa rather than the jaw movements involved in mastication that increases parotid gland weight and amylase activity in partial desalivated rats. PMID:12015217

  19. 3D printing of rat salivary glands: The submandibular-sublingual complex.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, M P; Parnigotto, M; Merigo, F; Marzola, P; Daducci, A; Tambalo, S; Boschi, F; Colombo, L; Sbarbati, A

    2014-06-01

    The morphology and the functionality of the murid glandular complex, composed of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (SSC), were the object of several studies conducted mainly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using a 4.7 T scanner and a manganese-based contrast agent, we improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the SSC relating to the surrounding anatomical structures allowing to obtain high-contrast 3D images of the SSC. In the last few years, the large development in resin melting techniques opened the way for printing 3D objects starting from a 3D stack of images. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the 3D printing technique of soft tissues such as the SSC in the rat with the aim to improve the visualization of the organs. This approach is useful to preserve the real in vivo morphology of the SCC in living animals avoiding the anatomical shape changes due to the lack of relationships with the surrounding organs in case of extraction. It is also harmless, repeatable and can be applied to explore volumetric changes occurring during body growth, excretory duct obstruction, tumorigenesis and regeneration processes. 3D printing allows to obtain a solid object with the same shape of the organ of interest, which can be observed, freely rotated and manipulated. To increase the visibility of the details, it is possible to print the organs with a selected zoom factor, useful as in case of tiny organs in small mammalia. An immediate application of this technique is represented by educational classes. PMID:23822094

  20. Characterization of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor in rat submandibular gland: radioligand binding assay in membrane preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-09-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor in membranes from rat submandibular gland was studied using radioligand binding assays with /sup 125/I-VIP and various unlabeled competing ligands. In addition to the necessity of working within the parameters under which all radioligand binding assays should be performed, binding studies with /sup 125/I-VIP, as with other peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, are subject to additional technical difficulties. Specific problems that were addressed included radioligand proteolysis, the identification of an effective protease inhibitor (leupeptin) and the deleterious effects of a commonly used inhibitor (bacitracin); avid radioligand absorption to incubation tubes that was eliminated by precoating of the tubes with a combination of polyethylenimine and an organosilane; and a disproportionate effect of increasing membrane protein concentration on affinity estimates. Under optimized conditions, the affinity (Kd) and density Bmax values for /sup 125/I-VIP obtained from saturation assays (76 pM, 2.0 pmol/mg) were in excellent agreement. Membrane protein (or receptor) levels beyond the linear portion of the receptor concentration curve are often used in radioligand binding assays. Results from /sup 125/I-VIP binding studies at elevated receptor concentrations revealed the predicted marked decrease in receptor affinity. In addition, the rank order potency of unlabeled ligands in inhibition binding assays was changed. The optimization of the assay for measuring VIP receptors in submandibular gland membrane provides a reliable method for studying the role of receptor regulation in stimulus-secretion coupling for this neuropeptide.

  1. Activation of mTOR coincides with autophagy during ligation-induced atrophy in the rat submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Silver, N; Proctor, G B; Arno, M; Carpenter, G H

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a common consequence of pathology, including Sjögren's syndrome, irradiation therapy and obstructive sialadenitis. During severe atrophy of the rat submandibular gland caused by excretory duct ligation, the majority of acinar cells disappear through apoptosis, whereas ductal cells proliferate and dedifferentiate; yet, the gland can survive in the atrophic state almost indefinitely, with an ability to fully recover if deligated. The control mechanisms governing these observations are not well understood. We report that ∼10% of acinar cells survive in ligation-induced atrophy. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ligated glands indicated sustained transcription of acinar cell-specific genes, whereas ductal-specific genes were reduced to background levels. After 3 days of ligation, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and autophagy occurred as shown by phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and expression of autophagy-related proteins. These results suggest that activation of mTOR and the autophagosomal pathway are important mechanisms that may help to preserve acinar cells during atrophy of salivary glands after injury. PMID:20890458

  2. Follicular lymphoma of the submandibular salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Shashidara, R.; Prasad, Priyanka R.; Jaishankar; Joseph, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas are neoplastic diseases of lymph nodes. Lymphoma of the salivary gland is rare accounting for less than 5% of lymphomas overall. Furthermore, lymphomas arising in the submandibular gland are reported to comprise 916% of all salivary gland lymphomas. Among lymphomas originating from salivary glands, the ratio of follicular lymphoma is very low. They can also be seen in the lymph nodes of the salivary glands which is an uncommon presentation. Here, we present a case follicular lymphoma which presented as a salivary gland tumour. PMID:25364171

  3. Secretion and re-absorption of glucose in rat submandibular and sublingual saliva.

    PubMed

    Takai, N; Yoshida, Y; Kakudo, Y

    1983-10-01

    Glucose permeation from blood to saliva appeared to follow the paracellular pathway in rat submandibular and sublingual glands, and the permeability was much higher in the sublingual than in the submandibular gland. The duct system re-absorbed glucose in the submandibular but not the sublingual gland. The glucose concentration in sublingual saliva was inversely related to the flow rate. PMID:6413563

  4. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, A. Saneem; Kannan, V. Sadesh; Velaven, K.; Sathyanarayanan, G. R.; Roshni, J.; Elavarasi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland) and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth). there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography. It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management. PMID:25210369

  5. Giant sialolith of submandibular gland: report of a case†

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Selçuk; Vuralkan, Erkan; Çobanog˘lu, Bengü; Arslan, Ahmet; Ural, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as ‘giant’ in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder. Here, an unusual case of giant sialolith in submandibular gland is reported. A 42-year-old man referred with complaints of recurrent pain and swelling in the left submandibular area. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified mass of 42 × 17 mm size within the submandibular gland. Excision was performed in the submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 35 mm length localized in the body of the gland was detected. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient fully recovered. PMID:25848088

  6. Giant sialolith of submandibular gland: report of a case†.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Selçuk; Vuralkan, Erkan; Çobanog˘lu, Bengü; Arslan, Ahmet; Ural, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as 'giant' in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder. Here, an unusual case of giant sialolith in submandibular gland is reported. A 42-year-old man referred with complaints of recurrent pain and swelling in the left submandibular area. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified mass of 42 × 17 mm size within the submandibular gland. Excision was performed in the submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 35 mm length localized in the body of the gland was detected. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient fully recovered. PMID:25848088

  7. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Haruka; Tono, Tetsuya; Ibusuki, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion. PMID:26697254

  8. The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on regeneration in a surgical wound model of rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Fumitaka; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    This study developed an animal model of surgically wounded submandibular glands (SMGs) and investigated the effects of collagen gel with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on tissue regeneration of surgically wounded SMGs in vivo. The animal model was produced by creating a surgical wound using a 3-mm diameter biopsy punch in SMGs. The wound was filled with collagen gel with bFGF (bFGF group) or without bFGF (control group). In the animal model of surgically wounded SMGs, salivary glands without scar tissue around the wound area were observed with smaller areas of collagen gel. Small round and spindle-shape cells invaded the collagen gel in both groups after operation day (AOD) 5, and this invasion dramatically increased at AOD 7. Host tissue completely replaced the collagen gel at AOD 21. The invading immune cells in the group treated with collagen gel with bFGF were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD49f, c-kit and AQP5 at AOD 7. Similarly, the mRNA expression of vimentin, αSMA, CD49f, keratin19 and AQP5 was also increased. This study suggests that the use of collagen gels with bFGF improves salivary gland regeneration. PMID:27025261

  9. The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor on regeneration in a surgical wound model of rat submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Fumitaka; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    This study developed an animal model of surgically wounded submandibular glands (SMGs) and investigated the effects of collagen gel with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on tissue regeneration of surgically wounded SMGs in vivo. The animal model was produced by creating a surgical wound using a 3-mm diameter biopsy punch in SMGs. The wound was filled with collagen gel with bFGF (bFGF group) or without bFGF (control group). In the animal model of surgically wounded SMGs, salivary glands without scar tissue around the wound area were observed with smaller areas of collagen gel. Small round and spindle-shape cells invaded the collagen gel in both groups after operation day (AOD) 5, and this invasion dramatically increased at AOD 7. Host tissue completely replaced the collagen gel at AOD 21. The invading immune cells in the group treated with collagen gel with bFGF were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), CD49f, c-kit and AQP5 at AOD 7. Similarly, the mRNA expression of vimentin, αSMA, CD49f, keratin19 and AQP5 was also increased. This study suggests that the use of collagen gels with bFGF improves salivary gland regeneration. PMID:27025261

  10. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  11. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  12. Submandibular gland mucocele presenting as a lateral neck swelling.

    PubMed

    Felstead, Am; Patel, Pm; Revington, Pj

    2012-01-01

    Mucus extravasation cysts or mucoceles are an extremely rare occurrence in the major salivary glands. We report upon an unusual case of a submandibular gland mucocele presenting as a neck lump. It should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of swellings in the lateral neck. Diagnosis and management are complicated by their similarity to the plunging or cervical ranula and differentiation may be potentially difficult. Detailed imaging often reveals the plunging ranula as being characterised by a so -called 'tail' sign. In our case this sign was absent and subsequent excision confirmed origin from the submandibular gland. We discuss potential treatment modalities and propose a rationale for definitive management. PMID:24960677

  13. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  14. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  15. Algorithm changes in treatment of submandibular gland sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Tomasz; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Witold; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata

    2013-07-01

    Our research was conducted to determine the algorithm changes during the treatment of submandibular sialolithiasis. Two time periods were compared between 2004-2008 and 2009-2012. The turning point was December 2008, when sialendoscopy procedure was introduced. In the first period, 48 patients were treated: 31 outpatient duct incisions with stone evacuation and 17 surgical excision of submandibular gland. In the second period, 207 sialendoscopy procedures were performed on 197 patients. Out of this particular group, 158 patients were diagnosed with pathological obstruction of salivary glands and 64 of them were confirmed to have sialolithiasis of submandibular gland. Deposits of calcifications in 40 individuals (62.5 %) affected by sialolithiasis were removed endoscopically; however, in 21 patients, due to the increased circumference of the stone, the intimate association of deposits within the wall of the duct along with its presence inside the deep portions of the gland, double approach (incision of the floor of the mouth in hilar area and sialendoscopy) was performed. Three individuals had their salivary glands totally removed due to the presence of calcified deposits within the glandular parenchyma. Our results allow us to affirm that sialendoscopy is the current treatment of choice for submandibular glands affected by sialoliths. Indication for a complete removal of the gland is becoming uncommon as a first line treatment although still indispensable in chosen cases. PMID:23568038

  16. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  17. A case of granulomatous sialadenitis of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Therkildsen, M H; Nielsen, B A; Krogdahl, A

    1989-01-01

    Granulomatous inflammation of the major salivary glands is very rare and may be due to obstruction. Little attention has been paid to this condition. The reaction is caused by extravasation of mucus, as seen in the common mucocele of the minor salivary glands. A case of granulomatous inflammation of the submandibular gland caused by obstruction is presented. The etiology of granulomatous sialadenitis is reviewed. PMID:2914108

  18. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-12-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  19. Heterotopic Intestinal Cyst of the Submandibular Gland: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Park, Bumjung

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts are rarely found in the oral cavity. Most of these cysts are lined with gastric mucosa and involve the tongue. There have been no reported heterotopic intestinal cysts of the submandibular gland that are completely lined with colonic mucosa. An 8-year-old girl presented with an enlarging swelling in the left submandibular area, and a 4-cm unilocular cyst was fully excised. The cyst was completely lined with colonic mucosa that was surrounded by smooth muscle layer, and the lining cells were positive for CDX-2, an intestinal marker, indicating a high degree of differentiation. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but it may be related to the misplacement of embryonic rests within the oral cavity during early fetal development. Although heterotopic intestinal cysts rarely occur in the submandibular gland, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of facial swellings in the pediatric population. PMID:23837022

  20. Recurrent sialoliths after excision of the bilateral submandibular glands for sialolithiasis treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YING, XIAOXIA; KANG, JIANAN; ZHANG, FUYIN; DONG, HUI

    2016-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease that is characterized by the obstruction of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis mainly affects the submandibular glands and the Wharton's duct. However, bilateral sialolithiasis is a rare condition. In addition, recurrence of sialoliths subsequent to surgical excision of the submandibular gland for the treatment of sialolithiasis has been rarely reported. The present study reported a case presenting with recurrent sialoliths with sialadenitis in the residual Wharton's duct following the excision of bilateral submandibular glands. An 81-year-old man presented with a solid and painful mass in the left submandibular area. The patient had a history of bilateral submandibular sialolithiasis, and had undergone excision of bilateral submandibular glands with the right Wharton's duct 4 years earlier. Computed tomography scans demonstrated two calculi in the residual Wharton's duct, which were surgically removed without any complications. The present study discussed the mechanisms underlying sialolith formation subsequent to the excision of submandibular glands. PMID:26889264

  1. Oversized submandibular gland sialolith: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Garg, Nitin; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Sialolithiasis is a very common reason in causing obstructive salivary gland disease. Its incidence in males is more than females and children. They usually occur in submandibular ducts or gland and are 1 mm to less than 1 cm and rarely more than 1 cm. If they are more than 15 mm then, are termed as sialoliths of unusual size or giant sialoliths. The literatures have reports of up to 3.5 to 7 cm stones and are rare. The management includes removal of stone and re-channelizing the secretions in a functional gland or excision of gland in atrophied glands along with stone. PMID:25838684

  2. Oropharyngeal reconstruction with a pedicled submandibular gland flap.

    PubMed

    Mashrah, Mubarak A; Zhou, Shang-Hui; Abdelrehem, Ahmed; Ma, Chunyue; Xu, Liqun; He, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Locoregional flaps are widely used for reconstruction of small and medium defects in the oral cavity. The submandibular gland flap is a pedicled flap, which derives its blood supply from the facial artery, based on the submandibular gland. We describe the use of the flap in 20 patients who required oropharyngeal reconstruction with a pedicled submandibular gland flap after resection of a tumour between July 2012 and October 2014. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. All flaps were pedicled on the facial vessels (inferiorly in 17 patients and superiorly in 3). The indications were: reconstruction of intraoral mucosal defects (n=13), filling the parapharyngeal dead space (n=6), and obliteration of the mastoid (n=1). All the flaps atrophied, but with no clinical effect. One patient developed partial loss of the flap, and one early leakage. There were no cases of xerostomia, and no signs of recurrence during the postoperative follow-up period of 3-26 months. The flap is useful, as it is simple and reliable for reconstruction of small to medium oropharyngeal defects in carefully selected cases, and gives good cosmetic and functional results. PMID:26388070

  3. Oncocytic Lipoadenoma of Submandibular Gland: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lipomatous tumours of salivary glands are very uncommonly diagnosed and reported tumours. Majority of these tumours present as painless masses which grow slowly over many years. On the histological grounds, they can be subclassified into “monophasic” (lipoma component only) and “biphasic” (lipoma component+epithelial component) tumours. A handful of biphasic tumours contain oncocytic component and they have been omitted from the WHO classification of salivary gland tumours so far and this has remained a matter of persistent confusion and controversy over many years. Other rare variants of monophasic tumours include fibrolipoma, sialolipoma, angiolipoma, sialadenosis and very rarely a liposarcoma can also occur in salivary glands. Pre-operative imaging can help in picking up the fatty component of the tumours and guide in accurate classification. FNAC may not be accurate in diagnosis of these tumours. We report a case of 45-year-old gentleman presenting with submandibular gland swelling for which submandibular gland excision was done. A final diagnosis of oncocytic lipoadenoma was made. We present this rare entity to add to the few cases reported to date and hence, to increase recognisation and understanding of these rare tumours, which may help in establishing a reproducible subclassification. We have discussed the pathological aspects with review of literature of this very rare entity. PMID:25954628

  4. Questionable Necessity for Removing Submandibular Gland in Neck Dissection in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Nagpure, Prakash S; Chavan, Sushil S

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether submandibular gland is involved by metastasis in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. It was a retrospective study, where we reviewed the records of the patients who underwent neck dissections for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the oral cavity. It included 112 patients who had undergone 115 neck dissections (three patients had undergone bilateral neck dissection), either therapeutic or prophylactic. No pathologic evidence of metastasis to submandibular gland was seen in any of the case. Preservation of submandibular glands can be a good technique for reducing future complications in a patient undergoing Neck Dissection wherever feasible. Therefore, if there is no need to expose large oral cavity tumors through the submandibular triangle, or when there is no direct extension of the primary and/or regional lymph nodes into the submandibular gland, it may be safe to preserve the submandibular gland. PMID:27508132

  5. Retinoic acid regulates embryonic development of mammalian submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diana M; Buenger, Deanna E; Abashev, Timur M; Lindeman, Robert P; Ding, Jixiang; Sandell, Lisa L

    2015-11-01

    Organogenesis is orchestrated by cell and tissue interactions mediated by molecular signals. Identification of relevant signals, and the tissues that generate and receive them, are important goals of developmental research. Here, we demonstrate that Retinoic Acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule important for morphogenesis of mammalian submandibular salivary glands (SMG). By examining late stage RA deficient embryos of Rdh10 mutant mice we show that SMG development requires RA in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we find that active RA signaling occurs in SMG tissues, arising earlier than any other known marker of SMG development and persisting throughout gland morphogenesis. At the initial bud stage of development, we find RA production occurs in SMG mesenchyme, while RA signaling occurs in epithelium. We also demonstrate active RA signaling occurs in glands cultured ex vivo, and treatment with an inhibitor of RA signaling blocks growth and branching. Together these data identify RA signaling as a direct regulator of SMG organogenesis. PMID:26278034

  6. CT and MR findings of bilateral submandibular gland aplasia associated with hypertrophied symmetrical sublingual glands herniated through mylohyoid defects

    PubMed Central

    Haktanır, A

    2012-01-01

    There are very limited reports of aplasia of bilateral submandibular glands associated with bilateral sublingual gland hypertrophy. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with bilateral submandibular gland aplasia associated with symmetrical sublingual gland hypertrophy that herniated from bilateral mylohyoid defects and presented as bilateral masses on CT and MRI images. Prolapsed bilateral sublingual gland hypertrophy should be considered in patients with bilateral submandibular masses to avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery. We suggest that radiological evaluation of these cases should be performed before any intervention. PMID:22184630

  7. Giant submandibular gland mucocele as a complication of previous sialolith removal.

    PubMed

    Markou, Konstantinos; Dova, Stamatia; Krommydas, Argyrios; Psillas, George; Blioskas, Sarantis; Karkos, Petros D

    2015-01-01

    Mucoceles are common lesions of minor salivary glands. Mucoceles of the major salivary glands including the submandibular gland are extremely rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of submandibular space swellings. We present a rare case of a 25-year old man, who was diagnosed with a submandibular gland mucocele and had a history of sialolithiasis and intraductal sialolith excision, as well as numerous evacuating punctures and needle aspirations of the mass. The cyst was surgically excised and the specimen included the sublingual gland, in order to prevent recurrence. No postoperative complications were noted. PMID:25459318

  8. Endoscopy-assisted resection of a submandibular gland mass via a thyroidectomy incision.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Pyeong; Park, Jung Je; Park, Hyun Woo; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Submandibular gland excision is traditionally performed via the transcervical approach. In an effort to avoid or reduce visible scarring and nerve injury, diverse innovative surgical trials have been conducted. We report the case of a submandibular gland mass that was endoscopically resected through a thyroidectomy incision. The patient was a 56-year-old woman with a long-standing right-sided submandibular gland mass and a smaller thyroid gland mass that was recently discovered on a routine checkup. The thyroid mass was managed with a total thyroidectomy. The submandibular mass was resected with endoscopic assistance through the thyroidectomy incision with an ultrasonic scalpel. The resection was successful, and the patient experienced no acute complications such as neural injury, hematoma, or seroma formation. Upon healing of the thyroidectomy scar, the cosmetic result was excellent. We conclude that endoscopic resection of a submandibular gland mass through a thyroidectomy incision is a feasible option that results in excellent surgical and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26401679

  9. Oncocytic Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Masamitsu; Inoue, Kyoko; Itoh, Shinya; Kambara, Rumi

    2016-05-01

    Oncocytic carcinoma (OC) of the submandibular gland is extremely rare. A 76-year-old man complained of a painless tumor of the right neck. Ultrasonography demonstrated swelling in the lymph nodes of the neck, and fine-needle aspiration cytology of a node showed metastatic carcinoma with oncocytic features. Radical surgery revealed infiltrating carcinoma of the right submandibular gland with lymph node metastases (19/23). Tumor cells showed less atypia and had abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, which stained deep blue with phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stain. The cells were immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin 7 but negative for p63 and SOX10. We diagnosed the tumor as OC. Chemoradiotherapy was performed after surgery. The patient showed no sign of recurrence until 42 months after the operation, when lymph node swelling was detected in the mediastinum by computed tomography scanning. With no further treatment, the patient is alive with lymph node swellings in the mediastinum and pulmonary hilum 80 months after surgery. PMID:26699942

  10. A Novel Approach to Submandibular Gland Ptosis: Creation of a Platysma Muscle and Hyoid Bone Cradle

    PubMed Central

    Lukavsky, Robert; Linkov, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Submandibular gland ptosis is a common impediment to obtaining superior surgical aesthetic results in neck lift surgery. Techniques for suspending the submandibular gland have been proposed, but these procedures have the drawbacks of disturbing the floor of the mouth mucosa and periosteum. We present an approach of submandibular gland suspension for the treatment of gland ptosis by employing a platysma and hyoid bone fascia cradle. Our technique was performed on cadaveric models. The platysma muscle and hyoid bone cradle for submandibular gland ptosis was created on the left side of the neck in two cadavers. A submental incision with sharp dissection was performed to raise a supraplatysmal flap. A subplatysmal plane was developed until the submandibular gland was identified. Sutures were used to pexy the platysma to the hyoid bone periosteum and deep cervical fascia, tightening the overlying muscle and in turn elevating the submandibular gland. Submandibular gland ptosis must be corrected in order to achieve exemplary aesthetic results. Our approach of creating a cradle with the platysma and hyoid bone avoids the potential complications of previously described sling procedures, while still maintaining the integrity of the gland and surrounding tissues. PMID:27462572

  11. A Novel Approach to Submandibular Gland Ptosis: Creation of a Platysma Muscle and Hyoid Bone Cradle.

    PubMed

    Lukavsky, Robert; Linkov, Gary; Fundakowski, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Submandibular gland ptosis is a common impediment to obtaining superior surgical aesthetic results in neck lift surgery. Techniques for suspending the submandibular gland have been proposed, but these procedures have the drawbacks of disturbing the floor of the mouth mucosa and periosteum. We present an approach of submandibular gland suspension for the treatment of gland ptosis by employing a platysma and hyoid bone fascia cradle. Our technique was performed on cadaveric models. The platysma muscle and hyoid bone cradle for submandibular gland ptosis was created on the left side of the neck in two cadavers. A submental incision with sharp dissection was performed to raise a supraplatysmal flap. A subplatysmal plane was developed until the submandibular gland was identified. Sutures were used to pexy the platysma to the hyoid bone periosteum and deep cervical fascia, tightening the overlying muscle and in turn elevating the submandibular gland. Submandibular gland ptosis must be corrected in order to achieve exemplary aesthetic results. Our approach of creating a cradle with the platysma and hyoid bone avoids the potential complications of previously described sling procedures, while still maintaining the integrity of the gland and surrounding tissues. PMID:27462572

  12. A large sialolith on the parenchyma of the submandibular gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, JAE-HOON; HONG, SUNG OK; NOH, KWANTAE; LEE, DEOK-WON

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the complaint of pain in the right submandibular region and a dry mouth, which had started one week previously. A clinical examination revealed a swelling and tenderness in the right submandibular region. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography identified a sialolith in the submandibular gland. Surgery on the sialolith was subsequently completed under general anesthesia extraorally. A brownish stone was present in the parenchyma of the submandibular gland, measuring 14×10 mm. PMID:25009613

  13. A large sialolith on the parenchyma of the submandibular gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Hong, Sung Ok; Noh, Kwantae; Lee, Deok-Won

    2014-08-01

    A 45-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the complaint of pain in the right submandibular region and a dry mouth, which had started one week previously. A clinical examination revealed a swelling and tenderness in the right submandibular region. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography identified a sialolith in the submandibular gland. Surgery on the sialolith was subsequently completed under general anesthesia extraorally. A brownish stone was present in the parenchyma of the submandibular gland, measuring 14×10 mm. PMID:25009613

  14. A case of bilateral submandibular gland mucoceles in a 16-month-old child

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Jung; Kim, Seoung Geun; Kim, Jong Duk; Kim, Jun Hyeng; Kim, Jun Hyen

    2012-01-01

    Mucoceles are common benign cystic lesions of the oral cavity that develop following extravasation or retention of mucous material from the major or minor salivary glands. Mucoceles are usually located in the lower lip (60 to 70% of cases), and the floor of the mouth is only involved in 6 to 15% of cases. Submandibular gland mucocele is extremely rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of swelling at the submandibular triangle in young children. We present the rare case of a 16-month-old child who was diagnosed with bilateral submandibular gland mucocele, presenting as serial swellings in both submandibular regions. We removed the cystic mass with the submandibular and sublingual glands to prevent recurrence. PMID:22745647

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to low-dose genistein-vinclozolin mixture affects the development and growth factor mRNA expression of the submandibular salivary gland in immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Wided; Desmetz, Catherine; Nahdi, Afef; Bergès, Raymond; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Auger, Jacques; El May, Michèle; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that hormonally controlled submandibular salivary gland (SSG) development and secretions may be affected by endocrine disruptor compounds. We investigated the effects of oral gestation-lactation exposure to 1 mg/kg body weight daily dose of the estrogenic soy-isoflavone genistein and/or the anti-androgenic food contaminant vinclozolin in female rats. The SSGs of female offspring were collected at postnatal day 35 to study gland morphogenesis and mRNA expression of sex-hormone receptors and endocrine growth factors as sex-dependent biomarkers. Because of high expression in neonatal SSG, mRNA expression of transforming growth factor α was also studied. Exposure to genistein, vinclozolin, or a genistein+vinclozolin mixture resulted in significantly lower numbers of striated ducts linked to an increase in their area and lower acinar proliferation (Ki-67-positive nuclei). Exposure to the mixture had the highest significant effects, which were particularly associated with repression of epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, and transforming growth factor α expression. In conclusion, early exposure to low doses of genistein and vinclozolin can affect glandular structure and endocrine gene mRNA expression in prepubertal SSG in female rats, and the effects are potentialized by the genistein+vinclozolin mixture. Our study provides the first evidence that SSG are targeted by both estrogenic and anti-androgenic disrupting compounds and are more sensitive to mixtures. PMID:22317923

  16. Phenylephrine protects autotransplanted rabbit submandibular gland from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Bin; Zhang Yan; Li Yuming; Gao Yan; Gan Yehua; Wu Liling Yu Guangyan

    2008-12-05

    Submandibular gland (SMG) autotransplantation is an effective treatment for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Our previous studies have shown that phenylephrine attenuates structural injury and promotes cell proliferation in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. However, the mechanism by which phenylephrine reduces the injury has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we investigate the ability of phenylephrine to inhibit apoptosis in autotransplanted rabbit SMG. We observed that apoptosis occurred in the early phase of SMG transplantation and that phenylephrine treatment protected transplanted SMG from apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that phenylephrine could significantly upregulate the expression of Bcl-2, downregulate the expression of Bax, and inhibit the activation of both caspase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in autotransplanted SMG. Therefore, the cytoprotective effects of phenylephrine on autotransplanted SMG may be a novel clinical strategy for autotransplanted SMG protection during the early postoperative stage of transplantation.

  17. Schwannomatosis presenting as pancreatic and submandibular gland schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Sedano-Tous, María José

    2013-12-01

    Schwannomatosis is a well-established third form of neurofibromatosis, characterized by the presence of multiple non-vestibular, non-intradermal schwannomas, often associated with chronic pain. Herein, we report a 41-year-old man with a history of paternal neurofibromatosis 1, who presented with partially cystic tumors in the pancreas and in the right submandibular gland. Besides, he complained of neuropathic pain in the right inguinal and suprapubic area. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple intradural-extramedullary tumors at the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal canal, suggestive of schwannomas. The vestibular nerves were not involved. Pathological examination of the glandular tumors disclosed benign schwannomas. These tumors had substantial myxoid stroma and prominent cystic change, and showed a mosaic pattern of loss of INI1/SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Later, the patient developed three nodules in the right lung which were interpreted as schwannomas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of schwannomatosis presenting as pancreatic and salivary gland schwannomas. PMID:24054034

  18. Submandibular gland megalith eroding the floor of the mouth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2013-12-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common pathologic condition affecting the salivary glands. However, large sialoliths (megaliths) are considered rare. The submandibular glands are more susceptible to stone formation than are the other salivary glands. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with an unusually large sialolith that had eroded the floor of the mouth. PMID:24366709

  19. Cavernous hemangioma of the submandibular gland with parapharyngeal extension in an adult: Case report.

    PubMed

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Then, Matthew T; Walia, Rohit; Lango, Miriam N

    2016-02-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the submandibular gland are rare. Signs and symptoms typically resemble those of sialolithiasis and chronic sialadenitis. If a lesion extends into the parapharyngeal space, otalgia and sore throat can result. Spontaneous regression is not a characteristic of cavernous hemangiomas. Surgical excision is a management option. We report the case of an adult with a submandibular gland cavernous hemangioma with parapharyngeal extension. PMID:26930336

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for differential diagnosis of submandibular gland disease.

    PubMed

    Strieth, Sebastian; Siedek, Vanessa; Rytvina, Margarita; Gürkov, Robert; Berghaus, Alexander; Clevert, Dirk-André

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-time gradients (ITGs) of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used for non-invasive monitoring of gland-preserving treatment effects in sialolithiasis-related chronic sialadenitis as well as for imaging vascularization in tumors. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate feasibility to distinguish different entities of submandibular gland disease including inflammatory alterations of the submandibular gland as well as benign and malignant tumors. In this prospective clinical study, ITGs in 30 patients with sialolithiasis-related chronic sialadenitis or an unilateral submandibular mass and 18 disease-free submandibular gland controls were quantitatively analyzed by CEUS using the contrast agent SonoVue. In addition, clinical complaints according to visual analog scales (VAS) were documented. VAS data documented significantly less complaints only in benign tumors compared with the other pathologies of the submandibular gland. In parallel, CEUS-derived ITGs revealed significantly reduced ITGs only in benign tumors (n = 5) compared to the controls (n = 18). Despite of comparably reduced wash-in velocities in malignant lesions (n = 3) statistical significance was not reached. Chronic sialadenitis (n = 18) and its sclerosing variant (Küttner tumor, n = 4) revealed comparable ITGs as controls. Tumors of the submandibular gland present with reduced functional microcirculatory networks comparing with healthy gland controls and chronically inflamed submandibular glands. Thus, dynamic CEUS-derived ITGs in combination with conventional clinical measures--for example VAS--appear as a safe and promising strategy for non-invasive diagnostic workup of submandibular lesions and warrant further validation in a larger set of patients. PMID:23625388

  1. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Submandibular Salivary Gland with Sialo-Cutaneous Fistula: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary glands are rare entities. Most common malignant tumour of submandibular gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histological finding of squamous cell carcinoma is very rare in submandibular salivary gland. Metastasis from distant primary squamous malignancy, direct invasion from cutaneous or mucosal squamous carcinoma, squamous component of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary origin are some of the possible causes. Of these, the latter is distinctly uncommon. Primary squamous malignancy is diagnosed only after ruling out other possible explanations. A positive mucin stain in the tumour or synchronous/ metachronous squamous carcinoma elsewhere excludes the diagnosis of a primary carcinoma. Primary squamous carcinoma is seen most commonly in parotid gland and rarely in submandibular gland. We present a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of right submandibular salivary gland in a 45-year old-man. This case is presented for the rare entity of primary squamous cell carcinoma in submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26435997

  2. Submandibular Gland Reduction in Aesthetic Surgery of the Neck: Review of 112 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tutino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indications for reduction of excessive submandibular gland volume in aesthetic rejuvenation of the neck have been well described, as has the surgical anatomy and the surgical technique. Despite this, submandibular gland reduction does not appear to be widely adopted, nor have significant case series been reported in the literature. This review of a consecutive series of aesthetic submandibular gland reductions was undertaken to provide a perspective about its place in neck contouring. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients on whom the senior author (B.C.M.) had performed submandibular gland reduction for aesthetic reasons. Complications and reoperations were specifically analyzed. Results: Submandibular gland reduction was performed in 112 of 736 consecutive face lifts between 2002 and 2013, an incidence of 13 percent in primary face lifts and 25 percent in secondary face lifts. The median patient age was 57 years, and 87 percent were women. Major complications were those requiring early reoperation (1.8 percent) to manage significant hematomas; one was potentially fatal. Minor complications (10.8 percent) were managed nonoperatively. Submandibular sialocele (4.5 percent) and marginal mandibular branch neurapraxia (4.5 percent) were the most frequent, and all resolved fully by 3 months. Significantly, no patient reported a permanent dry mouth. Conclusions: The complication rate with submandibular gland reduction is comparable to that of a neck lift with platysma plication alone, with some additional specific risks: (1) catastrophic airway compression from bleeding deep in the neck, (2) significant increase of neurapraxias in secondary neck lifts, and (3) a moderate incidence of benign submandibular sialocele. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25989302

  3. Mouse submandibular gland morphogenesis: a paradigm for embryonic signal processing.

    PubMed

    Melnick, M; Jaskoll, T

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing is the sine qua non of embryogenesis. At its core, any single signal transduction pathway may be understood as classic Information Theory, adapted as an open system such that, because of networking, the "receiver" is presented with more information than was initially signaled by the "source". Over 40 years ago, Waddington presented his "Epigenetic Landscape" as a metaphor for the hierarchical nature of embryogenesis. Mathematically, Waddington's landscape may be modeled as a neural net. The "black box" of the neural net is an interacting network of signal transduction pathways (using hormones, growth factors, cytokines, neurotransmitters, and others) which inform the Boolean logic gates. An emerging theme in developmental biology is that defined sets of epigenetic circuits are used in multiple places, at multiple times, for similar and sometimes different purposes during organogenesis. As we show here, submandibular gland embryonic and fetal development is a splendid paradigm of these epigenetic circuits and their phenotypic outcomes, such as branching and lumen formation. PMID:12002815

  4. Submandibular and thyroid gland involvement of hydatid cysts: a very rare association with percutaneous treatment.

    PubMed

    Avcu, Serhat; Unal, Ozkan; Kotan, Cetin; Oztürk, Mustafa; Ozen, Ozkan

    2010-09-01

    A 48-year-old man who had a complaint of swelling in the left submandibular region and right side of the neck was referred to our radiology clinic for sonographic examination that revealed a type 1 hydatid cyst with a diameter of 32 mm in the left submandibular gland, and a type 3 hydatid cyst with a diameter of 33 mm in the right thyroid gland. The diagnosis was verified by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and hemagglutination tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature of hydatid cysts involving both submandibular and thyroid glands. There was no abdominal, thoracic or brain involvement. The patient was a singer and did not accept surgical treatment, and percutaneous drainage with the PAIR (Puncture-Aspiration of cyst contents-Injection of hypertonic saline solution-Reaspiration) technique was performed for both cysts. There were no complications during or after the intervention. During 4 months of follow up the sizes of both cysts were decreased and the germinative membranes were shrunken, having a pseudotumor appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that the PAIR method was applied for thyroid and submandibular gland hydatid cysts. Percutaneous treatment of thyroid and submandibular gland hydatid cysts seems to be a safe and effective procedure as a possible alternative to surgery. PMID:19821255

  5. [Swelling of the submandibular and parotid glands : A description of possible differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Hofauer, B; Chaker, A; Strenger, T; Bas, M; Mansour, N; Knopf, A

    2016-05-01

    Swelling of single or multiple major salivary glands can be caused by various local or systemic diseases. In differential diagnosis, congenital cystic or vascular malformations should be considered, as well as infectious or tumorous alterations. Salivary duct obstructions due to sialolithiasis or stenosis can cause salivary gland enlargement. Multiple systemic diseases can have manifestations in the parotid or submandibular glands. As therapy varies from cause to cause, knowledge of the different potential diagnoses is crucial. PMID:27160691

  6. High affinity binding of [3H]propionyl-[Met(O2)11]substance P(7-11), a tritiated septide-like peptide, in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human neurokinin-1 receptors and in rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Sagan, S; Beaujouan, J C; Torrens, Y; Saffroy, M; Chassaing, G; Glowinski, J; Lavielle, S

    1997-07-01

    Propionyl-[Met(O2)11]substance P(7-11) [ALIE-124 or propionyl-[Met(O2)11]SP(7-11)] has been designed as a septide-like ligand adequate for tritiation and, therefore, adequate for binding studies. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human tachykinin neurokinin (NK)-1 receptors, ALIE-124 displaced [3H][Pro9]substance P (SP) from its binding site at micromolar concentrations. However, ALIE-124 stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, as previously shown for septide-like peptides. With [3H]ALIE-124 (95 Ci/mmol), we have been able to reveal a high affinity binding site in CHO cells (Kd = 6.6 +/- 1.0 nM), with a low maximal binding capacity. [3H]ALIE-124 specific maximal binding represented only 15-20% of that observed with [3H][Pro9]SP in CHO cells. Septide-like peptides, including septide and NKA, were potent competitors (in the nanomolar range) of [3H]ALIE-124 specific binding site. Interestingly, SP and [Pro9]SP were also potent competitors, with 10-fold greater potency for sites labeled with [3H]ALIE-124 than for sites labeled with [3H][Pro9]SP. The NK-1 antagonist RP 67580 also showed a higher potency for [3H]ALIE-124 than for [3H][Pro9]SP-specific binding sites. NKB and [Lys5,methyl-Leu9,Nle10]NKA(4-10) displaced [3H]ALIE-124 binding but with lower potency, whereas senktide had no affinity. The existence of [3H]ALIE-124 specific binding sites was also demonstrated in rat submandibular gland. In this tissue, [3H]ALIE-124 specific maximal binding was higher, reaching 40-50% of that achieved with [3H][Pro9]SP. PMID:9224821

  7. Hormonal regulation of epidermal growth factor and protease in the submandibular gland of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Gresik, E W; Schenkein, I; van der Noen, H; Barka, T

    1981-09-01

    The structure of the granular convoluted tubules of the mouse submandibular gland is influenced by androgens, adrenal steroids, and thyroid hormones. We wished to investigate the effects of variations in hormonal status on the quantitative and qualitative distribution of two secretory products of these tubules, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and protease. The effects of the thyroid and adrenal glands on EGF content and protease activity of the submandibular glands of adult female mice were studied by RIAs (EGF), enzyme assays (protease), and immunocytochemical methods. In animals rendered chronically hypothyroid by propylthiouracil (4 months) or in animals which were adrenalectomized and ovariectomized (3 weeks), protease activity and EGF levels were reduced by 81-97%. The administration of testosterone induced these polypeptides even in hypothyroid animals. Daily administration of L-T4 (T4; 1 micrograms/g BW) for 7 days increased EGF and protease activity 3.6-fold in intact mice and reversed the effect of hypothyroidism. EGF and protease were also induced by T4 in adrenalectomized and ovariectomized mice, although to a lesser degree than in intact animals. Immunocytochemical stainings of submandibular glands indicated that the number of granular convoluted tubule cells immunoreactive for EGF correlated with the levels of EGF determined by RIAs. With respect to immunostaining for protease, such a correlation was not observed. The data indicate multihormonal regulation of EGF and protease in the mouse submandibular gland. PMID:7021131

  8. Observations on two cases of apparent submandibular gland cysts in HIV positive patients: MR and CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesman, R.I.; Som, P.M.; Mester, J.; Silvers, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    To present two cases of probable lymphoepithelial cysts of the submandibular glands in patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and who also had lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands. Computed tomography and MRI of two HIV positive patients with lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands and cysts in tile submandibular glands were correlated with the histories and the possible presence of other known causes of submandibular gland multiple cysts. Because of the present treatment philosophy regarding HIV positive patients with major salivary gland cysts, surgical resection of these glands was not performed. All other known causes of multiple submandibular gland cysts were excluded by either history or laboratory data. Computed tomography and MRI on two patients with known HIV infection and bilateral parotid lymphoepithelial cysts are presented. Both patients also had bilateral multiple submandibular gland cysts and no evidence of obstructive glandular diseases autoimmune disease, or other organ system cysts. These cases of presumed submandibular gland lymphoepithelial cysts are rare in the literature. They are presented in the hope that other radiologists will be stimulated to document the occurrence of this entity. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Estren promotes androgen phenotypes in primary lymphoid organs and submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Islander, Ulrika; Hasséus, Bengt; Erlandsson, Malin C; Jochems, Caroline; Skrtic, Sofia Movérare; Lindberg, Marie; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Background Estrogens and androgens have extensive effects on the immune system, for example they suppress both T and B lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow. Submandibular glands are sexually dimorphic in rodents, resulting in larger granular convoluted tubules in males compared to females. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the estrogenic and androgenic effects of 4-estren-3α,17β-diol (estren) on thymus, bone marrow and submandibular glands, and compare the effects to those of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively. Estrogen receptors (ERs) were blocked by treatment of mice with the ER-antagonist ICI 182,780; also, knock-out mice lacking one or both ERs were used. Results As expected, the presence of functional ERs was mandatory for all the effects of E2. Similar to DHT-treatment, estren-treatment resulted in decreased thymus weight, as well as decreased frequency of bone marrow B cells. Treatment with estren or DHT also resulted in a shift in submandibular glands towards an androgen phenotype. All the effects of estren and DHT were independent of ERs. Conclusion Our study is the first to show that estren has similar effects as the androgen DHT on lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow, and on submandibular glands, and that these effects are independent of estrogen receptors. This supports the hypothesis of estren being able to signal through the androgen receptor. PMID:16011795

  10. Characterization of Long-Term Cultured Murine Submandibular Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Kazuyuki; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human and rat salivary gland cell lines derived from tumors or genetic modification are currently available for research. Here, we attempted to culture and characterize long-term cultured cells spontaneously derived from wild type murine submandibular glands (SGs). Methods SGs were removed from 3-week-old C57B/6J female mice and dissociated by collagenase type 1 and hyaluronidase digestion. Isolated SG epithelial cells were cultured in low calcium, serum-free growth media in the presence of cholera toxin (CT) during early passages. Single-cell colonies were isolated by limiting dilution culture after 25 passages. Early- and late-stage cell cultures were characterized for keratin 14, keratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin, and p63 by immunostaining and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results SG epithelial cells cultured in optimized media maintained their proliferative ability and morphology for over 80 passages. Long-term cultured cells expressed keratin 14, keratin 18, and p63, indicative of an epithelial phenotype. Conclusions Epithelial cells originating from wild type murine SGs could be cultured for longer periods of time and remain phenotypically similar to ductal basal epithelium. PMID:26800086

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of submandibular gland metastatic to great toes: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Oana C; Paul, Doru; Chen, Sheng; Kraus, Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands, with higher frequency in the submandibular gland, a prolonged clinical course, and poor long-term survival. It tends to metastasize to lungs, bone, liver, brain, and rarely to skin. Comprehensive skin examination and appropriate follow-up is recommended, since cutaneous metastasis represents disease progression, requiring management and prognosis adjustment. PMID:27525094

  12. [STUDYING OF MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS AFTER GASTRIC RESECTION IN EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Usenko, A Yu; Kosenko, K; Savitskaya, I M

    2016-03-01

    The impact of gastric resection on the submandibular salivary gland (SSG) state, using histological and histochemical methods of investigation in experiment, was studied up. A relative mass of a SSG after gastric resection conduction have had reduced, and the accompanying changes in stroma were revealed with the gland's secretion enhancement. Essential dystrophic changes in the SSG parenchyma and stroma after gastric resection conduction may cause a pronounced disorders of their function. PMID:27514096

  13. Two-stage autotransplantation of human submandibular gland: a novel approach to treat postradiogenic xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Rudolf; Scheich, Matthias; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Burghartz, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Xerostomia is a persistent side effect of radiotherapy (RT), which severely reduces the quality of life of the patients affected. Besides drug treatment and new irradiation strategies, surgical procedures aim for tissue protection of the submandibular gland. Using a new surgical approach, the submandibular gland was autotransplanted in 6 patients to the patient's forearm for the period of RT and reimplanted into the floor of the mouth 2-3 months after completion of RT. Saxon's test was performed during different time points to evaluate patient's saliva production. Furthermore patients had to answer EORTC QLQ-HN35 questionnaire and visual analog scale. Following this two-stage autotransplantation, xerostomia in the patients was markedly reduced due to improved saliva production of the reimplanted gland. Whether this promising novel approach is a reliable treatment option for RT patients in general should be evaluated in further studies. PMID:26285780

  14. Recurrent right sublingual ranula, concomitant with ipsilateral submandibular salivary gland aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Albsoul, Nader M.; obeidat, Fatima O.; Altaher, Raed N.; Jubouri, Shams A.; Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral ranula is a retention cyst that arises from the salivary gland with recurrence rate of up to 25% after complete excision of ranula and up to 2% in case of complete excision of ranula and sublingual gland. Major salivary gland aplasia is a rare finding that is usually associated with other developmental anomalies. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a 15-year-old female patient presented with recurrent intraoral cystic swelling that was documented to be sublingual ranula. CT scan revealed also the absence of right submandibular salivary gland with persistence of its Whartons duct. This combination has never been reported previously. DISCUSSION The combination of recurrent sublingual ranula associated with aplasia of ipsilateral submandibular salivary gland and persistence of Whartons duct has never been reported before in the literature, a finding that may provide the base for future research. CONCLUSION Further research may prove similar associations between oral ranula and salivary gland aplasia, which may have clinical implications on diagnostic and management plan decisions. PMID:23291329

  15. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands. PMID:26155966

  16. Acute unilateral submandibular gland swelling associated with the laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Suhitharan, Thangavelautham; Seevanayagam, Sathyendran; Parker, Francis Christopher; Teoh, Wendy Hui Ling

    2013-12-01

    We describe a rare complication of acute unilateral submandibular gland swelling following the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in two patients with otherwise uneventful perioperative airway management. This is likely to be a consequence of the pressure exerted by the airway cuff on the tissues within the submandibular triangle. As this complication is rarely reported, its true incidence may in fact be higher, suggesting a need for greater attention on LMA cuff pressures and degree of cuff inflation. We discuss the presenting clinical features, pathophysiology and utilisation of ultrasonographic confirmation of sialadenopathy, and review the current anaesthetic literature to raise awareness of this unusual and under-reported complication of LMA. This complication can be mitigated by incorporating routine manometric checks and limiting intracuff pressures to < 60 cmH2O, potentially avoiding LMA insertions in patients with sialolithiasis and avoiding the use of nitrous oxide. PMID:24356762

  17. Fine structure of the submandibular salivary gland of the venomous short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say (Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Carson, K A; Rose, R K

    1993-01-01

    Adult male short-tailed shrews, Blarina brevicauda, (Insectivora: Soricidae) were trapped in Virginia and Pennsylvania, anesthetized, and perfused via the left ventricle of the heart with fixative. The submandibular glands were dissected free and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. The lobular, compound tubuloacinar glands had secretory endpieces consisting of seromucous acini and serous tubules connected to intercalated ducts, granular ducts, striated ducts, and excretory ducts. The general cytology of the submandibular gland of Blarina shared morphological characters with individuals in several other mammalian orders and yet differed in many ways from another Insectivore, the European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus. PMID:8398545

  18. Indium-111 leukocyte accumulation in submandibular gland saliva as a cause for false-positive gut uptake in children

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, S.L.; Williamson, M.R.; Seibert, J.J.; Boyd, C.M.; Latture, T.

    1987-11-01

    Unexplained false-positive accumulation of In-111 leukocyte in the gastrointestinal tract has been reported previously. In a pediatric population, uptake in the submandibular gland was noted in 19 of 42 children. This is believed to be a normal finding in children that is not seen in adults. In some of these 19 children, unexplained gastrointestinal activity was also noted. Saliva from a patient with false-positive gastrointestinal uptake and positive submandibular activity was positive for In-111. One suggested cause of unexplained gut activity may be secondary to swallowed activity in the saliva from the normal submandibular activity in children.

  19. Recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland treated by rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiangxun; Wang, Hongyan; Shi, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the case of a patient with recurrent myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland without progression for five years following treatment. A 71-year-old male patient presented to hospital with a painless swelling in the region of the right submandibular gland, and received a radical neck dissection on January 29, 2008. A nodule of ~7×4×2 cm was identified at the site of the right submandibular gland, and the pathological results revealed a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma of the right submandibular gland with no lymph node metastasis. However, this case developed local recurrence with wide-spread metastasis in the lungs. Between April and October 2008, the patient underwent several treatment regimens and demonstrated no improvement following 6 cycles of chemotherapy. From then on, the patient was treated with recombinant adenoviral-p53 (rAd-p53) combined with radiotherapy using a 6 millivolt medical linear accelerator. The foci were relieved and the cancer demonstrated no signs of progression during the 5-year follow-up. rAd-p53 combined with radiotherapy was useful for treating myoepithelial carcinoma of the submandibular gland.

  20. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland: an entity of IgG4-related sclerosing disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tzu-Wei; Lien, Ching-Feng; Hsu, Tun-Yen; He, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis typically involves the submandibular gland. It usually occurs in the middle-aged and elderly adults with a slight male predominance. Recent evidences have suggested that it is an entity of IgG4-related sclerosing disease and has distinct histopathological features, such as a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. It is important to discriminate this entity from other diseases, trying to give effective treatment to the patients. In this report, we described a patient having chronic sclerosing sialadenitis in the submandibular gland. PMID:26339446

  1. Microcystic/Reticular Schwannoma Arising in the Submandibular Gland: A Rare Benign Entity that Mimics More Common Salivary Gland Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ryan P; Melamed, Jonathan; Yee-Chang, Melissa; Marcus, Sonya; Givi, Babak; Zamuco, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    Microcystic/reticular schwannoma is a recently described variant of schwannoma with a predilection for the gastrointestinal tract, rarely involving the head/neck region. This is the first reported case involving the submandibular gland. We present a case in a 34 year old man with 4.5 cm submandibular mass. Fine needle aspiration suggested a spindle cell lesion. Frozen section evaluation raised the possibility of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Resection showed a well circumscribed mass with a mucoid appearance. Histologic findings include a lobular architecture with fibrous septa, a lympho-plasmacytic infiltrate, and scattered lymphoid aggregates at the periphery. There are two distinct histologic patterns with solid areas of spindle cells and areas of spindle/ovoid cells with a microcystic pattern in a myxoid background. The tumor has a pushing border, with extension into adipose and adjacent parenchyma, without cytologic atypia or necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains are positive for S-100 and CD34, and negative for calponin, mammoglobin, ALK1, p63, ER, GFAP, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, and C-Kit. Mucicarmine stain is negative. Recognition of this benign unusual variant of schwannoma is paramount for appropriate conservative treatment due to the morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with primary salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:26621673

  2. Season related ultrastructural features of the parotid, submandibular and von Ebner's glands in hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Grandi, D

    1996-08-01

    The parotid, submandibular and the von Ebner's salivary glands of hibernating insectivorous bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Rhinolophus f. e. and Eptesicus serotinus) were studied by transmission electron microscopy and by histochemical methods during various seasons of the year. We report the seasonal ultrastructural changes that occur in the cytoplasmic organelles and the secretory granules of the serous and mucous cells and in the intercalated and striated ducts of the major glands. It previously has been hypothesized that the heterogeneity of the inclusions in the serous granules is closely related to the varying seasonal levels of proteinaceous and glycidic constituents. Lymphatic vessels are present only in the perivascular and periductal connective tissue. Morphofunctional and comparative studies seem to confirm a relationship between secretory activity and nutritional status as well as a likely involvement of the intercalated and striated ducts in determining the composition of the saliva. PMID:8874091

  3. Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Sachiko; Koyama, Noriko; Kashimata, Masanori; Hayashi, Haruki; Kikuta, Akio

    2007-09-01

    Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland was examined under light microscopic histochemistry and electron microscopy. To avoid loss of water-soluble glycogen during histological tissue preparation, fixation with ethanol and embedding in hydrophilic glycol methacrylate resin was used for light microscopy, and high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution for electron microscopy. Glycogen was detected on periodic acid-Schiff stain, periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate reaction, and the digestion test with alpha-amylase. On embryonic day 14, glycogen began to accumulate in the proximal portions of the developing epithelial cords. On embryonic day 17, marked glycogen particles were seen at the basal portion of the ductal epithelial cells and an abrupt increase of glycogen accumulation occurred in the secretory cells in the terminal bulbs. Ultrastructural observation indicated large clumps of glycogen particles localized in the basal portion of the terminal bulb cells. The initiation of glycogen accumulation preceded the formation of lumens in the ducts and terminal bulbs. Furthermore, proliferation analysis by bromodeoxyuridine labeling showed that this glycogen accumulation followed the cessation of the epithelial cell proliferation. Postnatally, glycogen accumulation in the terminal bulbs became gradually inconspicuous and completely disappeared by postnatal day 3, but that in the ducts was retained until around postnatal day 12. Temporary glycogen accumulation after the cell proliferation and before/during the lumen formation and secretory granule formation suggests significant involvement of the carbohydrate metabolism in the organogenesis of the submandibular gland. PMID:17867343

  4. Partial sialoadenectomy for the treatment of benign tumours in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Ge, N; Peng, X; Zhang, L; Cai, Z-G; Guo, C-B; Yu, G-Y

    2016-06-01

    The conventional treatment for benign tumours arising in the submandibular gland (SMG) has always involved whole gland excision with the tumour. In light of developments in parotid gland functional surgery, this prospective study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of partial sialoadenectomy (PS) for benign tumours in comparison with conventional total sialoadenectomy (TS). Thirty-one consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumour in the SMG were included in the study from December 2008 to December 2010. Eleven patients were treated with PS and 20 patients underwent conventional TS. Salivary gland function and surgery-related complications were assessed. No difference in resting saliva flow was found between the two groups before the operation, while this was significantly higher in the PS group than in the TS group at 1 year after surgery (P=0.009). With regard to complications, there was less deformity in facial appearance in the PS group. There was no recurrence in any of the 31 patients during the follow-up period (range 41-82 months). It is believed that this modification to SMG surgery is consistent with the idea of functional and minimal invasive salivary gland surgery. This technique represents a good choice for the management of benign tumours of the SMG for appropriately selected cases. PMID:26970852

  5. Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Dhulekar, Nimit; Oztan, Basak; Yener, Bülent; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix) adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft progression was determined

  6. ALX/FPR2 Modulates Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Submandibular Gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Shuen; Wee, Yinshen; Yang, Chieh-Hsiang; Melvin, James E; Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the G-protein coupled formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) by the lipid mediators lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies indicate that RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 resolves cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in mammalian cells. However, the impact of ALX/FPR2 activation on salivary gland function in vivo is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether submandibular glands (SMG) from ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice display enhanced inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. For these studies, C57BL/6 and ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice at age 8-12-week-old were treated with LPS by i.p for 24 h. Salivary gland structure and function were analyzed by histopathological assessment, saliva flow rate, quantitative PCR, Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Our results showed the following events in the ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice treated with LPS: a) upregulated inflammatory cytokines and decreased M3R (Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor M3) and AQP5 (Aquaporin 5) protein expression, b) decreased saliva secretion, c) increased apoptosis, d) alteration of tight junction and neuronal damage. Overall, our data suggest that the loss of ALX/FPR2 results in unresolved acute inflammation and SMG dysfunction (xerostomia) in response to LPS that is similar to human salivary gland dysfunction induced by bacterial infection. PMID:27064029

  7. Robotic sialoadenectomy of the submandibular gland via a modified face-lift approach.

    PubMed

    De Virgilio, A; Park, Y M; Kim, W S; Lee, S Y; Seol, J H; Kim, S-H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of submandibular gland (SMG) resection using a robotic surgical system through a modified face-lift approach. The authors performed robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG on 5 patients using the daVinci robot system through a modified face-lift approach. Three robotic arms were inserted through a modified face-lift incision; a face-down 30-degree endoscopic arm and two operative arms. The right arm was equipped with a harmonic scalpel and the left arm with a Maryland forceps. In all patients, robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG was completed successfully. Diagnoses were sialolithiasis in two patients, pleomophic adenoma in two patients, and ranula in one patient. The mean robotic operative time was 90.2 min (range 62-185 min) and that for setting the robotic system was 8.2 min (range 5-15 min). No significant intra-operative or postoperative complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the outcome and especially the cosmetic results at their last follow-up visit. In the authors opinion robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG is technically feasible and secures a better cosmetic outcome than endoscopic submandibular resection. PMID:22578632

  8. Agenesis of Submandibular Glands: A Report of Two Cases with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Medine; Güçlü, Oğuz; Dereköy, Fevzi Sefa; Resorlu, Mustafa; Adam, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Congenital absence of the submandibular gland (SMG) is a rare condition. Although complaints such as dry mouth, dental problems, or difficulty in swallowing may be seen, the subjects may also be asymptomatic. The absence of the SMG may be associated with hypertrophy of the contralateral SMG. Case Report. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman with incidentally detected left SMG aplasia, with contralateral SMG hypertrophy mimicking a mass, and the case of a 46-year-old woman with incidentally detected bilateral SMG aplasia, demonstrated by computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusion. It is important for the clinician to know that this very rare abnormality may exist. When such a case is encountered, symptoms and findings should be reevaluated and, if necessary, conservative therapy should be initiated. The possibility of observing additional deformities should be kept in mind and an evaluation should be done for other cases in the family. PMID:25254130

  9. Tmem16A Encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl− Channel in Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland Acinar Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G.; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Brown, David A.; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H. Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R.; Harfe, Brian D.; Melvin, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of an apical Ca2+-dependent Cl− channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca2+-gated Cl− currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca2+-activated Cl− currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca2+-activated Cl− current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2−/− and Tmem16A−/− mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca2+-activated Cl− current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A−/− mice lacked a Ca2+-activated Cl− current and a Ca2+-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl− efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2−/− mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca2+-activated Cl− current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca2+-activated Cl− channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland. PMID:20177062

  10. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD. PMID:26956365

  11. ALX/FPR2 Modulates Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Shuen; Wee, Yinshen; Yang, Chieh-Hsiang; Melvin, James E.; Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the G-protein coupled formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) by the lipid mediators lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies indicate that RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 resolves cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in mammalian cells. However, the impact of ALX/FPR2 activation on salivary gland function in vivo is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether submandibular glands (SMG) from ALX/FPR2−/− mice display enhanced inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. For these studies, C57BL/6 and ALX/FPR2−/− mice at age 8-12-week-old were treated with LPS by i.p for 24 h. Salivary gland structure and function were analyzed by histopathological assessment, saliva flow rate, quantitative PCR, Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Our results showed the following events in the ALX/FPR2−/− mice treated with LPS: a) upregulated inflammatory cytokines and decreased M3R (Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor M3) and AQP5 (Aquaporin 5) protein expression, b) decreased saliva secretion, c) increased apoptosis, d) alteration of tight junction and neuronal damage. Overall, our data suggest that the loss of ALX/FPR2 results in unresolved acute inflammation and SMG dysfunction (xerostomia) in response to LPS that is similar to human salivary gland dysfunction induced by bacterial infection. PMID:27064029

  12. Submandibular gland excision: long-term clinical outcome in 139 patients operated in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Springborg, Line Kanstrup; Møller, Martin Nue

    2013-03-01

    In transcervical resection of the submandibular gland for benign lesions, only a limited risk of damage to neural structures can be accepted and a cosmetically satisfactory result is mandatory. In this retrospective case series, we evaluated 139 patients operated over a 10-year period and completed long-term clinical follow-up of 113 of these patients after a median of 81 months. In all patients, the operation was effective. We found a 4.3 % risk of reoperation for wound infection or postoperative hematomas and an 18.7 % risk of early paresis of the marginal branch of the facial nerve, which decreased to 2.7 % on long-term follow-up. We found a 4.4 % risk of permanent lingual nerve paresis, and no patients had damage to the hypoglossal nerve. Xerostomia was found in 22.1 % of the patients and could be quantified by the easily performed biscuit test. Only 2.5 % reported an unsatisfactory cosmetic result and all scars were ≤ 6 on the Vancouver Scar Scale. Problems with scarring were more common if there had been postoperative infection. We continue to use the lateral transcervical approach as standard in our institution for patients who cannot be managed by gland-sparing procedures. PMID:22941392

  13. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland with rare metastasis to the sternum in a 52-year-old male

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Abdullah; Eldeib, Omar Jamal; Eldeib, Ahmed Jamal; Saleh, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor, described as being one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck. It is the most common malignancy that affects the minor salivary glands. Lung and bones are the most common regions of ACC distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, herein, we report the first ever case of latent isolated sternal metastasis from ACC in a 52-year-old gentleman, who was diagnosed to have ACC of the submandibular gland, excised 10 years ago. PMID:26933463

  14. β-Actin protein expression differs in the submandibular glands of male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zou, Ye; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Lingfei; Hu, Qiaoyun; Li, Ting; Yao, Chenjuan; Yu, Shali; Wang, Xiaoke; Wang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males. β-actin protein is majorly distributed in acinar cells of SMG. There is no significant difference in the expression level of β-actin protein between females and castrated males. After castrated male ICR mice are treated with 10 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) for 3 weeks, the levels of β-actin protein in SMG decrease. The numbers of duct per unit area increase, whereas the numbers of acinus per unit area decrease after TP administration. These data suggest that β-actin protein is mainly distributed in acinar cells of SMG and results in a marked sexual dimorphism in mice. PMID:27079296

  15. A case report of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles in the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Cho, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyung Sik; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Nam, Eun Sook

    2016-09-01

    Spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles has not yet been described, and there are no published reports on its cytological appearance in fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 49-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right submandibular area that had been gradually enlarging for a period of 5 years. The cytologic smears showed fascicles of cohesive spindle cells as well as individual bland cells with bipolar naked nuclei in a fibrillary background. Brightly eosinophilic bundles were intermingled with spindle cells and fat-like vacuoles. The FNA results were suggestive of neurogenic tumor. Patient underwent submandibular gland resection. Grossly, the cut surface showed a well-encapsulated, yellowish-white, soft, elastic mass, measuring 2.8 × 1.9 × 1.5 cm. The tumor consisted of uniform bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles admixed with adipocyte-like cells and transversing thick collagen bundles, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for myoepithelial markers and ultrastructural features characteristic of myoepithelial cells, suggesting the presence of lipomatous metaplasia. The FNA cytology of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia mimicked that of neurogenic tumor or lipomatous mesenchymal tumor. This case represents the first description of submandibular gland myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia, which is characterized by the coexistence of spindle cells, collagen bundles, and fat-like vacuoles in a fibrillary background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:764-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27307392

  16. Sialendoscopy and sialendoscopically-assisted operations in the treatment of lithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands: our experience of 239 cases.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Tomasz; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Młodkowska, Anna; Szyfter, Witold

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of treatment of sialolithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands using sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted surgery. Between 2009-2013, 397 consecutive patients (mean (range) age 48 (18-76) years) were treated for obstructive diseases of the major salivary glands (sialolithiasis n=239, 175 submandibular and 64 parotid). In a total of 175 patients with 191 stones in the submandibular gland treated by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release, 149 patients (85%) were rendered free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=82, and sialendoscopy with operation n=67) Twenty patients (11%) had residual stones and 6 patients (4%) required excisionof the gland. Sixty-four patients had 71 stones removed from the parotid gland by endoscopic retrieval or surgical release and 43 (67%) were free of stones (by sialendoscopy alone n=25, and sialendoscopy with operation n=18). Twenty patients (31%) had residual stones and one (2%) required removal of the gland. In the group of patients whose stones were removed endoscopically, the effectiveness of sialendoscopy was 87% and 85%, respectively. We confirm that sialendoscopy and sialendoscopy-assisted removal is the current treatment of choice for stones in the submandibular and parotid glands. The indications for excision of the gland are becoming less common as first-line treatment, although it is still indispensable in some cases. PMID:27185233

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of keratin 5 in the submandibular gland in adult and postnatal developing mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Sakulsak, Natthiya; Iseki, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    Keratin 5 (K5) is a marker of basal progenitor cells in the epithelia of a number of organs. During prenatal development of the submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, K5(+) progenitor cells in the developing epithelia play important roles in its organogenesis. Although K5(+) cells are also present in the adult mouse SMG and may function in tissue regeneration, their histological localization has not yet investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of K5 in the SMG in adult and postnatal developing mice. At birth, K5 immunoreactivity was detected in the entire duct system, in which it was localized in the basal cells of a double-layered epithelium, but was not detected in the terminal tubule or myoepithelial cells. At postnatal weeks 1-3, with the development of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD), and excretory ducts (ED), K5-immunoreactive basal cells were gradually restricted to the ED and the proximal double-layered portions of the ID connecting to the SD. At the same time, K5 immunoreactivity appeared in myoepithelial cells, in which its positive ratio gradually increased. In adults, K5 immunoreactivity was localized to most myoepithelial cells, most basal cells in the ED, and a small number of ID cells at the boundary between the ID and SD in the female SMG or between the ID and granular convoluted tubules in the male SMG. These results suggest that K5 is a marker of differentiated myoepithelial cells and duct progenitor cells in the mouse SMG. PMID:26671786

  18. Post-Irradiated Human Submandibular Glands Display High Collagen Deposition, Disorganized Cell Junctions, and an Increased Number of Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kihoon; Maruyama, Christina L; Trump, Bryan G; Buchmann, Luke; Hunt, Jason P; Monroe, Marcus M; Baker, Olga J

    2016-06-01

    Salivary glands are vital for maintaining oral health. Head and neck radiation therapy is one of the most common causes of salivary gland hypofunction. Little is known about the structural changes that occur in salivary glands after radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to understand the structural changes that occur in post-irradiated human (submandibular gland [SMG]) as compared with untreated ones. We determined changes in epithelial polarity, presence of collagen deposition, and alteration in adipose tissue. We used formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human SMG from two female subjects exposed to head and neck irradiation. We utilized hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's Trichrome staining. The immunostained tissue sections were examined using confocal microscopy. The number and size of adipocytes per tissue section were calculated using ImageJ, Prism, and SPSS software. Post-irradiated human SMG displayed high collagen deposition, disorganized cell junctions, and an increased number of adipocytes as compared with non-irradiated controls. These findings are important to improve our understanding of the individual risk and variation in radiation-related salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:27126825

  19. Polymicrobial infection alter inflammatory microRNA in rat salivary glands during periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Gautam; Gauna, Adrienne; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Velsko, Irina; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya; Cha, Seunghee

    2016-04-01

    Periodontal disease initiated by subgingival pathogens is linked with diminished secretion of saliva, and implies pathogenic bacteria dissemination to or affects secondary sites such as the salivary glands. MicroRNAs activated in response to bacteria may modulate immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by oral lavage consisting of polymicrobial inocula, namely Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, or sham-infected for 12 weeks (n = 6). We quantified inflammatory miRNA expression levels of miRNA-132, miR-146a, and miR-155 at secondary sites to the primary infection of the gingiva, including submandibular salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and pancreas. The presence of bacteria was detected in situ at secondary sites. Infected rat gingiva showed increased relative expression of miR-155. In contrast, miRNA-155 expression was decreased in submandibular salivary glands, along with positive identification of P. gingivalis in 2/6 and T. denticola in 1/6 rat salivary glands. Furthermore, miRNA-132 and miRNA-146a were significantly decreased in the pancreas of infected rats. This study is the first to show primary periodontal infections can alter miRNA profiles in secondary sites such as the salivary gland and pancreas. Whether these alterations contribute to pathologies of salivary glands in Sjögren's syndrome or of pancreas in diabetes warrants further investigation. PMID:26481834

  20. An unusual case of exclusive liver metastases from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland: a role for surgery? Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Genoveffa; Sagnotta, Andrea; Muroni, Mirko; Cacchi, Claudio; D'Amato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare tumor of the salivary glands, accounting for approximately 5%-10% of all salivary gland tumors. An important feature of ACCs is the long clinical course with a high rate of distant metastases, with an incidence of more than 40% for ACC of submandibular glands. The preferential sites of metastases are the lung and bone, followed by the brain and liver. Most liver metastases are derived from nonparotid ACCs, and the presentation is often related to local recurrence or metastases to other organs. We herein report the case of a patient with liver metastases treated by a hepatectomy, which occurred 18 months after the primary resection of an ACC of the submandibular gland. We furthermore review the literature concerning the management of these tumors. PMID:21431502

  1. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Takahashi, Naofumi; Akema, Satoshi; Soma, Katsumi; Ohnuma-Koyama, Aya; Sato, Akira; Kuwahara, Maki; Harada, Takanori

    2016-06-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  2. Poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinoma with prominent squamous metaplasia in a pregnant Wistar Hannover rat

    PubMed Central

    SHIMADA, Yuko; YOSHIDA, Toshinori; TAKAHASHI, Naofumi; AKEMA, Satoshi; SOMA, Katsumi; OHNUMA-KOYAMA, Aya; SATO, Akira; KUWAHARA, Maki; HARADA, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    A subcutaneous pale brown-colored mass was observed macroscopically in the ventral neck of a 16-week-old Wistar rat on day 18 of gestation. The mass was well demarcated from the adjacent tissues with partial invasion into connective tissues. Necrosis and hemorrhage were evident throughout the mass. The mass comprised a diffuse sheet and a nest-like structure of epithelial cells with prominent squamous metaplasia. The neoplastic cells tested immunopositive for keratin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and p63. A portion of the neoplastic cells exhibited a similar immunoreaction of prominin-1 to the ductal and acinar cells in normal submandibular and parotid glands. Collectively, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma derived from epithelial/myoepithelial lineages in the submandibular and/or parotid glands. PMID:26782134

  3. Increased Expression of TGF-β Signaling Components in a Mouse Model of Fibrosis Induced by Submandibular Gland Duct Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Lucas T.; Camden, Jean M.; El-Sayed, Farid G.; Khalafalla, Mahmoud G.; Petris, Michael J.; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multi-functional cytokine with a well-described role in the regulation of tissue fibrosis and regeneration in the liver, kidney and lung. Submandibular gland (SMG) duct ligation and subsequent deligation in rodents is a classical model for studying salivary gland damage and regeneration. While previous studies suggest that TGF-β may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis, the expression of TGF-β signaling components has not been investigated in relation to mouse SMG duct ligation-induced fibrosis and regeneration following ductal deligation. Following a 7 day SMG duct ligation, TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 were significantly upregulated in the SMG, as were TGF-β receptor 1 and downstream Smad family transcription factors in salivary acinar cells, but not in ductal cells. In acinar cells, duct ligation also led to upregulation of snail, a Smad-activated E-cadherin repressor and regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas in ductal cells upregulation of E-cadherin was observed while snail expression was unchanged. Upregulation of these TGF-β signaling components correlated with upregulation of fibrosis markers collagen 1 and fibronectin, responses that were inhibited by administration of the TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitors SB431542 or GW788388. After SMG regeneration following a 28 day duct deligation, TGF-β signaling components and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers returned to levels similar to non-ligated controls. The results from this study indicate that increased TGF-β signaling contributes to duct ligation-induced changes in salivary epithelium that correlate with glandular fibrosis. Furthermore, the reversibility of enhanced TGF-β signaling in acinar cells of duct-ligated mouse SMG after deligation indicates that this is an ideal model for studying TGF-β signaling mechanisms in salivary epithelium as well as mechanisms of fibrosis initiation and their resolution. PMID:25955532

  4. Dose-Effect Relationships for the Submandibular Salivary Glands and Implications for Their Sparing by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Vineberg, Karen A.; Ship, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: Submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) dysfunction contributes to xerostomia after radiotherapy (RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. We assessed SMG dose-response relationships and their implications for sparing these glands by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 148 HN cancer patients underwent unstimulated and stimulated SMG salivary flow rate measurements selectively from Wharton's duct orifices, before RT and periodically through 24 months after RT. Correlations of flow rates and mean SMG doses were modeled throughout all time points. IMRT replanning in 8 patients whose contralateral level I was not a target incorporated the results in a new cost function aiming to spare contralateral SMGs. Results: Stimulated SMG flow rates decreased exponentially by (1.2%){sup Gy} as mean doses increased up to 39 Gy threshold, and then plateaued near zero. At mean doses {<=}39 Gy, but not higher, flow rates recovered over time at 2.2%/month. Similarly, the unstimulated salivary flow rates decreased exponentially by (3%){sup Gy} as mean dose increased and recovered over time if mean dose was <39 Gy. IMRT replanning reduced mean contralateral SMG dose by average 12 Gy, achieving {<=}39 Gy in 5 of 8 patients, without target underdosing, increasing the mean doses to the parotid glands and swallowing structures by average 2-3 Gy. Conclusions: SMG salivary flow rates depended on mean dose with recovery over time up to a threshold of 39 Gy. Substantial SMG dose reduction to below this threshold and without target underdosing is feasible in some patients, at the expense of modestly higher doses to some other organs.

  5. Dose-Effect Relationships for the Submandibular Salivary Glands and Implications for Their Sparing by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Kim, Hyugnjin M.; Vineberg, Karen A; Ship, Jonathan A.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) dysfunction contributes to xerostomia after radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck (HN) cancer. We assessed SMG dose-response relationships and their implications for sparing these glands by intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods 148 HN cancer patients underwent unstimulated and stimulated SMG salivary flow rate measurements selectively from Wharton’s duct orifices, before RT and periodically through 24 months after RT. Correlations of flow rates and mean SMG doses were modeled throughout all time points. IMRT re-planning in eight patients whose contralateral level I was not a target incorporated the results in a new cost function aiming to spare contralateral SMGs. Results Stimulated SMG flow rates decreased exponentially by (1.2%)Gy as mean doses increased up to 39 Gy threshold, and then plateaued near zero. At mean doses ≤39 Gy, but not higher, flow rates recovered over time at 2.2%/month. Similarly, the unstimulated salivary flow rates decreased exponentially by (3%)Gy as mean dose increased and recovered over time if mean dose was <39 Gy. IMRT re-planning reduced mean contralateral SMG dose by average 12 Gy, achieving ≤39 Gy in 5/8 patients, without target under-dosing, increasing the mean doses to the parotid glands and swallowing structures by average 2–3 Gy. Conclusions SMG salivary flow rates depended on mean dose with recovery over time up to a threshold of 39 Gy. Substantial SMG dose reduction to below this threshold and without target under-dosing is feasible in some patients, at the expense of modestly higher doses to some other organs. PMID:18337023

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic parameters from parotid and submandibular dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy and unstimulated sialometry in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dugonjić, Sanja; Stefanović, Dušan; Ethurović, Branka; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Ajdinović, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to validate eight scintigraphic salivary gland (SG) parameters, as diagnostic parameters in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We used the standardized stimulated dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy (DSGS) protocol and correlated this with the unstimulated whole sialometry (UWS) functions. The DSGS and UWS tests meeting the European and the USA diagnostic classification criteria for SS were applied in twenty patients and in ten normal controls. The DSGS tests were performed 60min after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of 370MBq of technetium-99m-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(-)4) and after per os stimulation with a 0.5g tablet of ascorbic acid administered 40min after the injection. Using time-activity curves, eight different parameters were calculated for each parotid gland (PG) and each submandibular salivary gland (SMG): a) time at maximum counts (Tmax), b) time at minimum counts (Tmin), c) maximum accumulation (MA), d) accumulation velocity (AV), e) maximum secretion (MS), f) maximum stimulated secretion (MSS), g) stimulated secretion velocity (SSV), and h) uptake ratio (UR). Values of UWS below 2.5mL/15min, were considered abnormal. All these parameters, as for the PG, showed significant abnormality in SS patients (P<0.001), especially of the secretion function. All SMG parameters also showed a significant abnormality (P<0.001), but especially of the accumulation function. There was a greater impairment of the above parameters in SMG than in PG in the SS patients. Sensitivity of the standardized DSGS was 100%, specificity 80%, negative prognostic value 100%, and positive prognostic value 91%. Sensitivity of UWS was 75%. In conclusion, this paper suggested that the best diagnostic parameters for the SS patients were those of: a) the maximum secretion, b) the maximum stimulated secretion for both the parotid and the submandibular glands, c) maximum accumulation and d) accumulation velocity of submandibular glands. The times at maximum and at minimum

  7. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  8. MT2-MMP-dependent release of collagen IV NC1 domains regulates submandibular gland branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rebustini, Ivan T.; Myers, Christopher; Lassiter, Keyonica S.; Surmak, Andrew; Szabova, Ludmila; Holmbeck, Kenn; Pedchenko, Vadim; Hudson, Billy G.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Proteolysis is essential during branching morphogenesis, but the roles of MT-MMPs and their proteolytic products are not clearly understood. Here we discover that decreasing MT-MMP activity during submandibular gland branching morphogenesis decreases proliferation and increases collagen IV and MT-MMP expression. Importantly, reducing epithelial MT2-MMP profoundly decreases proliferation and morphogenesis, increases Col4a2 and intracellular accumulation of collagen IV, and decreases the proteolytic release of collagen IV NC1 domains. Importantly, we demonstrate the presence of collagen IV NC1 domains in developing tissue. Furthermore, recombinant collagen IV NC1 domains rescue branching morphogenesis after MT2-siRNA-treatment, increasing MT-MMP and pro-proliferative gene expression via β1 integrin and PI3K-AKT signaling. Additionally, HBEGF also rescues MT2-siRNA-treatment, increasing NC1 domain release, proliferation, and MT2-MMP and Hbegf expression. Our studies provide mechanistic insight into how MT2-MMP-dependent release of bioactive NC1 domains from collagen IV is critical for integrating collagen IV synthesis and proteolysis with epithelial proliferation during branching morphogenesis. PMID:19853562

  9. miR-200c regulates FGFR-dependent epithelial proliferation via Vldlr during submandibular gland branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rebustini, Ivan T.; Hayashi, Toru; Reynolds, Andrew D.; Dillard, Melvin L.; Carpenter, Ellen M.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of epithelial proliferation during organ morphogenesis is crucial for normal development, as dysregulation is associated with tumor formation. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-200c, are post-transcriptional regulators of genes involved in cancer. However, the role of miR-200c during normal development is unknown. We screened miRNAs expressed in the mouse developing submandibular gland (SMG) and found that miR-200c accumulates in the epithelial end buds. Using both loss- and gain-of-function, we demonstrated that miR-200c reduces epithelial proliferation during SMG morphogenesis. To identify the mechanism, we predicted miR-200c target genes and confirmed their expression during SMG development. We discovered that miR-200c targets the very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and its ligand reelin, which unexpectedly regulate FGFR-dependent epithelial proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that miR-200c influences FGFR-mediated epithelial proliferation during branching morphogenesis via a Vldlr-dependent mechanism. miR-200c and Vldlr may be novel targets for controlling epithelial morphogenesis during glandular repair or regeneration. PMID:22115756

  10. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1. PMID:26375462

  11. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1. PMID:26375462

  12. Glucose transporter expression in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Burnol, A F; Leturque, A; Loizeau, M; Postic, C; Girard, J

    1990-01-01

    The expression of different glucose transporter isoforms was measured during the development and differentiation of the rat mammary gland. Before conception, when the mammary gland is mainly composed of adipocytes, Glut 4 and Glut 1 mRNAs and proteins were present. During pregnancy, the expression of Glut 4 decreased progressively, whereas that of Glut 1 increased. In the lactating mammary gland only Glut 1 was present, and was expressed at a high level. The absence of Glut 4 suggests that glucose transport is not regulated by insulin in the lactating rat mammary gland. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2396989

  13. A Novel Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-3 Activator (Alda-89) Protects Submandibular Gland Function from Irradiation without Accelerating Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nan; Cao, Hongbin; Chen, Che-Hong; Kong, Christina S.; Ali, Rehan; Chan, Cato; Sirjani, Davud; Graves, Edward; Koong, Albert; Giaccia, Amato; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of Alda-89 (an ALDH3 activitor) on (1) the function of irradiated (RT) submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, (2) its toxicity profile and (3) its effect on the growth of head and neck cancer (HNC) in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design Adult mice were infused with Alda-89 or vehicle before, during and after RT. Saliva secretion was monitored weekly. Hematology, metabolic profile and post-mortem evaluation for toxicity were examined at the time of sacrifice. Alda-89 or vehicle was applied to HNC cell lines in vitro, and SCID mice transplanted with HNC in vivo with or without radiation; HNC growth was monitored. The ALDH3A1 and ALDH3A2 protein expression was evaluated in 89 HNC patients and correlated to freedom from relapse (FFR) and overall survival (OS). Results Alda-89 infusion significantly resulted in more whole saliva production and a higher percentage of preserved acini after RT compared to vehicle control. There was no difference in the complete blood count, metabolic profile, and major organ morphology between the Alda-89 and vehicle groups. Compared to vehicle control, Alda-89 treatment did not accelerate HNC cell proliferation in vitro, nor did it affect tumor growth in vivo with or without RT. Higher expression of ALDH3A1 or ALDH3A2 was not significantly associated with worse FFR or OS in either HPV-positive or HPV-negative group. Conclusion Alda-89 preserves salivary function after RT without affecting HNC growth or causing measurable toxicity in mice. It is a promising candidate to mitigate RT-related xerostomia. PMID:23812668

  14. Anatomical recovery of the duct of the submandibular gland after transoral removal of a hilar stone without sialodochoplasty: evaluation of a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Kim, Jong Sei; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2014-12-01

    Transoral removal of stones for the treatment of submandibular sialolithiasis has been popularised, even for stones in the hilum. Without sialodochoplasty after surgical retrieval, the affected glands seem to recover well functionally, even without sialodochoplasty. However, the anatomical changes of structural recovery have not been fully studied. We investigated the outcomes and the changes to the salivary duct system after transoral removal of hilar stones using postoperative sialography. We enrolled 28 patients (29 sides) who had transoral removal of stones for submandibular hilar sialolithiasis without sialodochoplasty, and prospectively analysed the structural outcomes 3 months and 12 months postoperatively using sialography. We found 23 ducts (79%) recovered with a normal size, while 4 ducts (14%) developed saccular dilatation and one duct (3%) partially stenosed. Saccular dilatation developed after removal of stones larger than 10mm in diameter, but patients had no recurrent symptoms. By the 12 months' follow up, one stone had formed severe adhesions to the salivary duct that caused stenosis, and this patient had recurrent symptoms. Transoral removal of submandibular hilar stones without sialodochoplasty is an effective treatment with good anatomical restoration of the salivary duct and flow. PMID:25239734

  15. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl- Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-04-24

    Transcellular Cl(-) movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl(-) above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl(-) uptake pathway concentrates Cl(-) ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2(-/-) mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4(-/-) mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter or Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity in Ae4(-/-) mice but correlated with reduced Cl(-) uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity revealed that HCO3 (-)-dependent Cl(-) uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2(-/-) and Ae4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:25745107

  16. Interference by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with cultured mouse submandibular gland branching morphogenesis involves reduced epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukkonen, Anu . E-mail: anummela@mappi.helsinki.fi; Sahlberg, Carin; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Alaluusua, Satu; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2006-05-01

    Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to mouse embryonic teeth, sharing features of early development with salivary glands in common, involves enhanced apoptosis and depends on the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. EGF receptor signaling, on the other hand, is essential for salivary gland branching morphogenesis. To see if TCDD impairs salivary gland morphogenesis and if the impairment is associated with EGF receptor signaling, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E13 submandibular glands with TCDD or TCDD in combination with EGF or fibronectin (FN), both previously found to enhance branching morphogenesis. Explants were examined stereomicroscopically and processed to paraffin sections. TCDD exposure impaired epithelial branching and cleft formation, resulting in enlarged buds. The glands were smaller than normal. EGF and FN alone concentration-dependently stimulated or inhibited branching morphogenesis but when co-administered with TCDD, failed to compensate for its effect. TCDD induced cytochrome P4501A1 expression in the glandular epithelium, indicating activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. TCDD somewhat increased epithelial apoptosis as observed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method but the increase could not be correlated with morphological changes. The frequency of proliferating cells was not altered. Corresponding to the reduced cleft sites in TCDD-exposed explants, FN immunoreactivity in the epithelium was reduced. The results show that TCDD, comparably with EGF and FN at morphogenesis-inhibiting concentrations, impaired salivary gland branching morphogenesis in vitro. Together with the failure of EGF and FN at morphogenesis-stimulating concentrations to compensate for the effect of TCDD this implies that TCDD toxicity to developing salivary gland involves reduced EGF receptor signaling.

  17. Differential involvement of two cortical masticatory areas in submandibular salivary secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naoto; Kobashi, Motoi; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Minagi, Shogo; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-01-16

    To evaluate the role of the masticatory area in the cerebral cortex in the masticatory-salivary reflex, we investigated submandibular salivary secretion, jaw-movement trajectory and electromyographic activity of the jaw-opener (digastric) and jaw-closer (masseter) muscles evoked by repetitive electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory area in anesthetized rats. Rats have two cortical masticatory areas: the anterior area (A-area) in the orofacial motor cortex, and the posterior area (P-area) in the insular cortex. Our defined P-area extended more caudally than the previous reported one. P-area stimulation induced vigorous salivary secretion (about 20 µl/min) and rhythmical jaw movements (3-4 Hz) resembling masticatory movements. Salivary flow persisted even after minimizing jaw movements by curarization. A-area stimulation induced small and fast rhythmical jaw movements (6-8 Hz) resembling licking of solutions, but not salivary secretion. These findings suggest that P-area controls salivary secretion as well as mastication, and may be involved in the masticatory-salivary reflex. PMID:24309141

  18. The Regulatory Role of Rolipram on Inflammatory Mediators and Cholinergic/Adrenergic Stimulation-Induced Signals in Isolated Primary Mouse Submandibular Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Un; Shin, Dong Min; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induces inflammatory signals in salivary glands. We investigated the regulatory role of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram on inflammatory mediators and cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar and ductal cells. Submandibular gland (SMG) expressed PDE4A through 4D mRNA and PDE4 was localized in the luminal membrane of SMG. LPS induced Ca2+ signaling and ROS production in SMG. Treatment with rolipram blocked LPS-induced Ca2+ increase and ROS production. The application of histamine evoked Ca2+ signals and ROS production, which were attenuated by rolipram in SMG cells. Moreover, LPS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and cleaved caspase-1 were inhibited by rolipram. The inhibitory role of rolipram in ROS-induced Ca2+ signaling was mainly observed in acinar cells and not in ductal cells. Rolipram also protected SMG acinar but not ductal cells from LPS-induced cell membrane damage. In the case of cholinergic/adrenergic stimulation, carbachol/isoproterenol-induced Ca2+ signals were upregulated by the treatment of rolipram in SMG. In the case of cAMP-dependent ductal bicarbonate secretion by rolipram, no effect was observed on the modulation of ductal chloride/bicarbonate exchange activity. Rolipram could suppress the inflammatory signals and could be a potential therapeutic strategy against LPS-induced inflammation to protect the salivary gland cells. PMID:27143817

  19. Distribution of H type 1 and of H type 2 antigens of ABO blood group in different cells of human submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y H; Fujitani, N; Koda, Y; Kimura, H

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the immunohistochemical distribution of H Type 1 and of H Type 2 substances of the ABO blood group system in human submandibular gland using either of the two anti-H monoclonal antibodies MAb 1E3 and MAb 3A5. MAb 3A5 was specific for H Type 2, and MAb 1E3 reacted with each of H Type 1-H Type 4 artificial antigens. We have developed a competitive inhibition method against H Type 2 and have obtained MAb 1E3, which is fairly specific for H Type 1 under certain conditions. Mucous cells from secretors were strongly stained by 1E3 and weakly by 3A5, whereas those from nonsecretors showed no reaction with 1E3 and 3A5. Serous cells from both secretors and nonsecretors were stained neither by 1E3 nor by 3A5. Striated and interlobular duct cells were strongly stained by 1E3 and by 3A5, regardless of the secretor status. These results indicated that the expressions of the H Type 1 and H Type 2 in different cell types of the submandibular gland were controlled by different genes. In addition, we have determined the acceptor specificity of two alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferases (H and Se enzymes) after transient expressions of the FUT1 and FUT2 in COS7 cells, and found that the H enzyme activity was similar for both Type 1 and Type 2 precursors, and that Se enzyme activity with the Type 1 precursor was higher than that with the Type 2 precursor. Expression of the H Type 1 antigen in mucous cells was found to be dependent on the Se gene, whereas expressions of the H Type 1 and H Type 2 antigens in striated and interlobular duct cells were dependent on the H gene. (J Histochem Cytochem 46:69-76, 1998) PMID:9405495

  20. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, A.J.B.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were 'not per protocol,' then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of {<=}51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was 'per protocol' or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  1. Submandibular hemangioma with multiple phleboliths mimicking sialolithiasis: the first pediatric case.

    PubMed

    Aynalı, Giray; Unal, Fatih; Yarıktaş, Murat; Yasan, Hasan; Ciriş, Metin; Yılmaz, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are the most common masses of the major salivary glands in parotid glands in childhood particularly. They occur more frequently in the parotid gland and rarely the submandibular gland. Changes in blood flow dynamics within hemangiomas may induce thrombus formation and phleboliths. Cavernous hemangioma may lead to thrombophlebitis in major salivary glands in adults. To our knowledge, cavernous hemangioma of submandibular glands containing phleboliths in childhood has not been described so far in the literature. In this article, we report the first pediatric case of a cavernous hemangioma containing multiple phleboliths in the submandibular gland mimicking submandibular sialolithiasis in a seven-year-old boy. PMID:25010807

  2. Physical, Chemical, and Immunohistochemical Investigation of the Damage to Salivary Glands in a Model of Intoxication with Aluminium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Natacha M. M.; Correa, Russell S.; Júnior, Ismael S. M.; Figueiredo, Adilson J. R.; Vilhena, Kelly F. B.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Teixeira, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Nayana M. M.; Pereira-Júnior, João B.; Dantas, Kelly das Graças F.; da Silva, Marcia C. F.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Alves-Junior, Sergio de M.; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V.; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular glands, leads to an increased expression of MT-I/II in both the glands, damages the cytoskeleton of the myoepithelial cells in both glands, and damages the cytoskeleton of the acinar/ductal cells of the parotid glands, with the submandibular glands showing resistance to the toxicity of the latter. PMID:25464135

  3. ECM and FGF-dependent assay of embryonic submandibular gland epithelial morphogenesis: investigating growth factor/matrix regulation of gene expression during development

    PubMed Central

    Rebustini, Ivan T.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are regulated by dynamic and reciprocal interactions between growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Mouse embryonic submandibular gland (SMG) epithelium, isolated from its endogenous mesenchyme, undergoes branching morphogenesis when cultured ex vivo in a basement membrane extract in serum-free medium with growth factor stimulation. The resulting three-dimensional epithelial morphogenesis in the defined culture system makes this a useful model to analyze cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, growth factor-mediated signaling and gene expression, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, lumen formation, and epithelial morphogenesis in a primary organ culture system. SMG epithelial culture is robust, reproducible, uses small amounts of reagents, and changes in gene expression are measured by real-time PCR using a limited amount of embryonic tissue. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for isolating primary embryonic SMG epithelium and setting up an ECM and growth factor-dependent, serum-free assay of epithelial morphogenesis, with subsequent analysis of gene expression by real-time PCR. PMID:19247608

  4. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini remained unaffected even after increased oxidation. Staining with the subunit was also reduced significantly by adding galactose to the incubation medium. Binding of CTB to cell surfaces apparently requires intact sialic groups on most, but not all, cell surfaces. Oxidation of the sialic acid residues may influence the structure of the sialylated GM1 molecules on the cell surface in different ways. It is possible that both the sialic acid residue and the terminal galactose are oxidized. Alternatively, the sialic acid may be resistant to acid hydrolysis in gangliosides in which the sialic acid is attached to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human milk contains high levels of sialic acid glycoconjugates that may provide defense mechanisms. PMID:26472148

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates anti-oxidant defense enzyme expression in murine submandibular and pancreatic exocrine gland cells and human HSG cells.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Douglas; DeRossi, Scott; Yu, Hongfang; Thomas, Cristina; Kragor, Chris; Paquin, Becky; Hahn, Emily; Ohno, Seiji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Hsu, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and type-1 diabetes are prevalent autoimmune diseases in the USA. We reported previously that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented and delayed the onset of autoimmune disease in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model for both SS and type-1 diabetes. EGCG also normalized the levels of proteins related to DNA repair and anti-oxidant activity in NOD.B10.Sn-H2 mice, a model for primary SS, prior to disease onset. The current study examined the effect of EGCG on the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in the submandibular salivary gland and the pancreas of NOD mice and cultured human salivary gland acinar cells. NOD mice consuming 0.2% EGCG daily dissolved in water showed higher protein levels of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a major anti-oxidant defense protein, and catalase, while the untreated NOD mice exhibited significantly lowered levels of PRDX6. Similarly, pancreas samples from water-fed NOD mice were depleted in PRDX6 and superoxide dismutase, while EGCG-fed mice showed high levels of these anti-oxidant enzymes. In cultured HSG cells EGCG increased PRDX6 levels significantly, and this was inhibited by p38 and JNK inhibitors, suggesting that the EGCG-mediated increase in protective anti-oxidant capacity is regulated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway signaling. This mechanism may explain the higher levels of PRDX6 found in EGCG-fed NOD mice. These preclinical observations warrant future preclinical and clinical studies to determine whether EGCG or green tea polyphenols could be used in novel preventive and therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases and salivary dysfunction involving oxidative stress. PMID:24444391

  6. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  7. Effects of Single Exposure of Sodium Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes in Salivary Glands of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Paula Mochidome; Simões, Alyne; Ganzerla, Emily; Souza, Douglas Nesadal; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Nicolau, José

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that fluoride exposure can inhibit the activity of various enzymes and can generate free radicals, which interfere with antioxidant defence mechanisms in living systems. To further the understanding of this issue, this present study examined the effects of low-dose fluoride treatment on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the parotid (PA) and submandibular (SM) salivary glands of rats. Rats were injected with a single dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) (15 mg F−/kg b.w.) then euthanized at various time intervals up to 24 hours (h) following exposure. NaF exposure did not cause significant differences in SOD or CAT activity or LPO levels in PA glands compared to control. Conversely, SM glands presented increased SOD activity after 3 h and decreased SOD activity after 1, 12, and 24 h, while LPO was increased after 6, 12, and 24 h of the NaF injection. There were no significant differences in the CAT activity in the groups studied. Our results demonstrated that NaF intoxication caused oxidative stress in salivary glands few hours after administration. These changes were more pronounced in SM than in PA gland. PMID:23738039

  8. Sorting of growth hormone-erythropoietin fusion proteins in rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, Yuval Zheng Changyu; Cawley, Niamh X.; Cotrim, Ana P.; Loh, Y. Peng; Baum, Bruce J.

    2008-08-15

    Neuroendocrine and exocrine cells secrete proteins in either a constitutive manner or via the regulated secretory pathway (RSP), but the specific sorting mechanisms involved are not fully understood. After gene transfer to rat salivary glands, the transgenic model proteins human growth hormone (hGH) and erythropoietin (hEpo) are secreted primarily into saliva (RSP; exocrine) and serum (constitutive; endocrine), respectively. We hypothesized that fusion of hGH at either the C-terminus or the N-terminus of hEpo would re-direct hEpo from the bloodstream into saliva. We constructed and expressed two fusion proteins, hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo, using serotype 5-adenoviral vectors, and delivered them to rat submandibular glands in vivo via retroductal cannulation. Both the hEpo-hGH and hGH-hEpo fusion proteins, but not hEpo alone, were secreted primarily into saliva (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0083, respectively). These in vivo studies demonstrate for the first time that hGH, in an N- as well as C-terminal position, influences the secretion of a constitutive pathway protein.

  9. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules. Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10). Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163. MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  10. DNA Microarray Analysis of Submandibular Glands in IgG4-Related Disease Indicates a Role for MARCO and Other Innate Immune-Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Miho; Moriyama, Masafumi; Maehara, Takashi; Gion, Yuka; Furukawa, Sachiko; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Mikami, Yurie; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Iizuka-Koga, Mana; Kawano, Shintaro; Sato, Yasuharu; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel systemic disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by severe fibrosis. Although recent studies demonstrated that innate immune cells including monocytes and macrophages might promote local fibrosis and IgG4 production, the pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the disease-associated genes, especially innate immune molecules.Gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray in submandibular glands (SMGs) from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 5), chronic sialoadenitis (CS) (n = 3), and controls (n = 3). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in IgG4-RD (n = 18), CS (n = 4), Sjögren syndrome (n = 11), and controls (n = 10).Gene expression patterns in the 3 groups were quite different from each other by the pvclust method and principal components analysis. In IgG4-RD, 1028 upregulated genes and 692 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs (P < 0.05). Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis indicated that the upregulated DEGs in IgG4-RD encoded proteins involved in T/B cell activation and chemotaxis. PCR validated significantly higher expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a pattern-recognition receptor, in IgG4-RD compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the expression pattern of MARCO was similar to that of the M2 macrophage marker CD163.MARCO was identified as a disease-associated molecule in IgG4-RD by DNA microarray. Moreover, M2 macrophages might contribute to the initiation of IgG4-RD via MARCO. PMID:26886650

  11. Impact of Salivary Gland Dosimetry on Post-IMRT Recovery of Saliva Output and Xerostomia Grade for Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With or Without Contralateral Submandibular Gland Sparing: A Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhonghe; Yan Chao; Zhang Zhiyuan; Zhang Chenping; Hu Haisheng; Tu Wenyong; Kirwan, Jessica; Mendenhall, William M.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To observe the recovery of saliva output and effect on xerostomia grade after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing and to assess the impact of salivary gland dosimetry on this recovery among patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and May 2008, 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer received definitive (n = 5 patients) and postoperative (n = 47 patients) IMRT at our institution, with at least one parotid gland spared. Of these patients, 26 patients with a low risk of recurrence in the cSMG region underwent IMRT and had their cSMGs spared (cSMG-sparing group). The remaining 26 high-risk patients had no cSMGs spared (cSMG-unspared group). Xerostomia grades and salivary flow rates were monitored at five time points (before IMRT and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after IMRT). Results: Average mean doses and mean volumes receiving 30 Gy (V30) of the cSMGs were lower in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group (mean dose, 20.4 Gy vs. 57.4 Gy; mean V30, 14.7% vs. 99.8%, respectively). Xerostomia grades at 2 and 6 months post-IMRT were also significantly lower among patients in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group, but differences were not significant at 12 and 18 months after IMRT. Patients in the cSMG-sparing group had significantly better mean unstimulated salivary flow rates at each time point post- IMRT as well as better mean stimulated salivary flow rates at 2 months post-IMRT. Conclusions: Recovery of saliva output and grade of xerostomia post-IMRT in patients whose cSMGs were spared were much better than in patients whose cSMGs were not spared. The influence of the mean doses to the cSMG and parotid gland on the recovery of saliva output was equivalent to that of the mean V30 to the glands.

  12. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  13. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  14. Structural Aspects of the Lymphocyte Traffic in Rat Submandibular Lymph Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Albrecht, Ralph M.; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-04-01

    Modulation of lymphocyte flow in the lymphatic compartment of the lymph node may serve, in part, to promote lymphocyte sensitization during an antigenic challenge. This study was undertaken to show where this might occur by examining the structural relationships of the intranodal lymphatic pathways, blood vessels, and connective tissue support with respect to lymphocyte and lymph flow. Differently stained plastic resins were injected into the blood vessels and lymphatics of the submandibular lymph node and visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The specimens were corroded to study the three-dimensional cast structures by scanning electron microscopy. Alkali digestion was also used to prepare the reticular fiber network in the lymph node for scanning electron microscopic examination. At the hilus of the node, two to three arteries gave off arterioles running in medullary cords towards the cortex. The medullary cords, the periphery of the deep cortex, and the perifollicular zones had dense capillary networks. In contrast, the center of the follicle and the center of the deep cortex were less highly vascularized. High-endothelial venules were restricted to the perifollicular zone and the periphery of the deep cortex. At the cortico-medullary boundary, they abruptly transformed into medullary venules with a normal endothelium. The marginal sinus of the lymph node was crossed by thick reticular fibers that arose from the inner sheets of the capsule. The lymph pathway went through the marginal sinus, into the trabecular sinus, to the cortical perifollicular sinus, the dense lymphatic sinus around the deep cortex, and finally into the medullary sinus. At present, the exact functional significance of the complex lymph node lymphatic architecture is not clear. However, the highly organized structural organization may play a significant role in regulating and directing lymphocyte flow to facilitate antigen presentation.

  15. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; s-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, A.W. )

    1991-07-01

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration.

  16. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  17. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found. PMID:27019076

  18. Anatomical study of the submandibular gland duct after removal of a distal stone without sialodochoplasty: a sialographic evaluation of a clinical phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Min Su; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong

    2016-06-01

    Transoral removal of a distal salivary stone is common. We have used postoperative sialography to evaluate the results and changes in the salivary ducts after removal of a salivary distal stone without sialodochoplasty. Of 20 patients who had had transoral operations for submandibular stones, 19 recovered normally with no recurrence. One developed partial stenosis and one a spontaneous neo-opening as a result of severe adhesions and inflammation between the salivary stone and the duct. None of the patients had any symptoms of recurrence during the 12-month follow-up. Sialodochoplasty may not be necessary in patients who have had a distal salivary stone removed. Removal without sialodochoplasty resulted in full anatomical recovery of the salivary ducts. PMID:26975573

  19. Solitary fibrous tumor of the submandibular region

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WANG; WEI, ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are a rare type of neoplasm that originate from the pleura. Although SFTs may occur in a variety of extrathoracic regions, they are considered to be rare in the submandibular region. The current study presents the case of a 39-year-old female with a 3×4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the right side of the submandibular region. The patient exhibited no other clinical manifestations in the head and neck region. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the presence of a well-defined, slightly low-density nodular shadow measuring 2.6×3.3×3.8 cm, in proximity to the right submandibular gland, with mild contrast enhancement and no association with the adjacent lymph nodes. The lesion was surgically excised, and following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, immunohistochemical staining determined that the lesion was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)34, CD99 and vimentin, and negative for desmin, CD31 and S-100; therefore, a diagnosis of an SFT was determined. The patient has so far been followed up for 22 months, with no signs of recurrence or metastases. The present study also discusses the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, treatment strategies and potential clinical outcomes of SFTs. The study proposes that, although rare, SFTs of the submandibular region should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors in the submandibular region. PMID:25621075

  20. Quantitative histomorphology of the blind mole rat harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Shanas, U; Arensburg, B; Hammel, I; Hod, I; Terkel, J

    1996-01-01

    Anatomical, histological and morphometric studies have been performed on the harderian gland and its surroundings in the blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi). The gland is tubuloalveolar with no true duct system. All ducts within the gland are formed by a single epithelial cell type and drain into a wide secretory duct. This opens into the conjunctival sac which serves as a reservoir for harderian secretions. Drainage from the conjunctival sac follows 2 possible routes: one through the nasolacrimal duct to the external nasal cavity, the other through a unique excretory duct that emerges from the anteromedial part of the conjunctival sac and runs through the dermis to the skin, opening at the base of a hair follicle. The function of this newly described duct is discussed. Morphometric studies revealed that the lumen volume fraction in the female, slightly smaller than that of the male during the summer, becomes significantly greater during the winter breeding season. The dimorphism and seasonal variations found in the gland acini suggests that the gland may be implicated in pheromone production. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8621332

  1. Neonatal Inflammatory Submandibular Sialadenitis Associated with Prenatal Methyldopa Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Malli, Dilara Dilsad; Akin, Kayihan; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation of a salivary gland is an uncommon condition in the neonatal period, and an isolated form of submandibular acute inflammatory sialadenitis is an exceptionally rare phenomenon. Among various conditions that might lead to submandibular acute inflammatory sialadenitis, maternal use of drugs during pregnancy should be questioned as there may be possible associations. Herein, we describe a late preterm infant who presented with a large submandibular mass. After excluding possible pathogenic causes, maternal use of methyldopa was believed to be the only factor associated with this condition. To the best of our knowledge, no such relationship has been documented in previously published literature. PMID:25024674

  2. Circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Chiarenza, A P; Sereno, R; Vermouth, N T

    1990-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase, E.C. 3.2.1.1. (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) in parotid gland of 25 day old rats was studied under different experimental conditions (fast, reversed photoperiod, constant light or darkness and treatment with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine). The rhythm of rats fasted or exposed for 7 days to constant darkness did not change. There were modifications in the rhythm of rats submitted to a reversed photoperiod and it disappeared in animals submitted to constant light or darkness for 15 days or treated with reserpine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The rhythm persisted, with minor changes in the acrophase, in parotids of rats kept during their gestation and post-natal life in constant light or darkness. Results suggest that the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland of young rats is endogenous, synchronized by the photoperiod, under autonomous nervous system control and maternal coordination. This model appears to be useful in the study of sympathetic nervous system control of target organs and circadian rhythms in general. PMID:2076161

  3. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  4. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  5. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  6. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream. PMID:26061461

  7. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Data concerned with analyzing the cellular organization of the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The preparation of the cell suspensions and the methods used to separate pituitary cell types are described. Particular emphasis is given to velocity sedimentation at unit gravity, density gradient centrifugation, affinity methods, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and density gradient and continuous-flow electrophoresis. The difficulties encountered when attempting to compare data from different pituitary cell separation studies are discussed, and results from various experiments are presented. The functional capabilities of the separated cell populations can be tested in various culture systems.

  8. Transdifferentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells into acinar cells of the submandibular gland using a co-culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jingu; Park, Sangkyu; Roh, Sangho

    2015-05-15

    A loss of salivary gland function often occurs after radiation therapy in head and neck tumors, though secretion of saliva by the salivary glands is essential for the health and maintenance of the oral environment. Transplantation of salivary acinar cells (ACs), in part, may overcome the side effects of therapy. Here we directly differentiated mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into ACs using a co-culture system. Multipotent ADSCs can be easily collected from stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissues. The isolated ADSCs showed positive expression of markers such as integrin beta-1 (CD29), cell surface glycoprotein (CD44), endoglin (CD105), and Nanog. The cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neural-like cells after 14 days in culture. ADSCs at passage 2 were co-cultured with mouse ACs in AC culture medium using the double-chamber (co-culture system) to avoid mixing the cell types. The ADSCs in this co-culture system expressed markers of ACs, such as α-amylases and aquaporin5, in both mRNA and protein. ADSCs cultured in AC-conditioned medium also expressed AC markers. Cellular proliferation and senescence analyses demonstrated that cells in the co-culture group showed lower senescence and a higher proliferation rate than the AC-conditioned medium group at Days 14 and 21. The results above imply direct conversion of ADSCs into ACs under the co-culture system; therefore, ADSCs may be a stem cell source for the therapy for salivary gland damage. - Highlights: • ADSCs could transdifferentiate into acinar cells (ACs) using ACs co-culture (CCA). • Transdifferentiated ADSCs expressed ACs markers such as α-amylase and aquaporin5. • High proliferation and low senescence were presented in CCA at Day 14. • Transdifferentiation of ADSCs into ACs using CCA may be an appropriate method for cell-based therapy.

  9. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Various techniques for separating the hormone-producing cell types from the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The purity, viability, and responsiveness of the separated cells depend on the physiological state of the donor, the tissue dissociation procedures, the staining technique used for identification of cell type, and the cell separation technique. The chamber-gradient setup and operation, the characteristics of the gradient materials, and the separated cell analysis of velocity sedimentation techniques (in particular Staput and Celsep) are described. Consideration is given to the various types of materials used in density gradient centrifugation and the operation of a gradient generating device. The use of electrophoresis to separate rat pituitary cells is discussed.

  10. Autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptors in rat nasal glands.

    PubMed

    Van Megen, Y J; Teunissen, M J; Klaassen, A B; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for the biochemical and autoradiographic demonstration of low muscarinic receptor densities in peripheral tissue. Histological criteria point clearly to the necessity for fixation to preserve tissue quality. [3H]l-Quinuclidinylbenzilate bound specifically to a homogeneous class of binding sites in 0.5% glutardialdehyde-fixed cryostat sections (10 microns) of rat nasal glands with high affinity (Kd = 0.47 +/- 0.06 nM) and with a receptor density (Bmax) of 41 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein. This binding was linearly dependent on the thickness of the sections. Kinetic experiments resulted in a Kd value of 0.19 nM. Binding was stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Autoradiograms, generated after incubation with 0.6 nM [3H]l-quinuclidinylbenzilate and dipping in nuclear K2 emulsion, showed specific labelling of the glandular acini and excretory ducts. These in vitro observations provide conclusive evidence for the presence of acetylcholine receptors in the nasal glands of the rat. PMID:2450760

  11. Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.

  12. Lectin histochemistry of palatine glands in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Kitaura, Hideki; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) in the developing rat palatine glands. In adult rats, heterogeneous lectin binding patterns were revealed between the anterior and posterior portions of palatine glands, as DBA, VVA, and WGA were bound more intensely and broadly in the posterior portion. SBA, PNA, and sucWGA showed far less reactivity in the anterior than in the posterior portion. At embryonic day 18 (E18), weak labeling was observed with UEA-I and WGA at the basal membrane of terminal buds, UEA-I and PNA labeled the epithelial cord, and there was no apparent binding for SBA, DBA, VVA, and sucWGA. At E20, after acinar lumenization, all lectins were detected at the acinar cell basal membranes. After birth, all lectins detectably labeled at the mucous cell apical membranes and progressively, with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm. Apparent serous cells were observed around postnatal day 10 (PN10) and bound UEA-I. Lectins reached peak reactivity at PN21 and the binding patterns became identical to those of adults around PN28. PMID:24345684

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of parathyroid glands in rats with carbon-14-labeled amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, J.A.; Alavi, A.; Attie, M.; Yudd, A.P.; Johnston, S.A.; Greenberg, J.

    1987-09-01

    We have utilized a quantitative autoradiographic method as a means of evaluating amino acid uptake of the rat parathyroid gland for the ultimate purpose of finding agents potentially suitable for position emission tomographic scanning of parathyroid glands. L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine and L-(guanido-/sup 14/C)arginine were evaluated because of their relatively high content in the synthetic products of the parathyroid glands compared with other neck tissues, thyroid gland, and muscle. Carbon-14 leucine disappeared rapidly from plasma following intravenous injection and there was relatively selective uptake of the (/sup 14/C)leucine and (/sup 14/C)arginine by the parathyroid glands when compared with uptake by the thyroid gland and neck muscle. These data suggest that both agents warrant further investigation for their potential utility in positron emission tomographic scanning of the parathyroid gland.

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the ampullary glands of the ductus deferens in a Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Mutou, Tomoko; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Inomata, Tomo

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously occurring proliferative lesions of the male accessory sex glands are infrequent in various strains of rats. In rodents, the ampullary glands are embedded in the prostate. Although 2 spontaneous cases of atypical hyperplastic lesions at the ampullary gland were previously described in Wistar rats, adenocarcinoma and/or adenoma in this gland have not been reported. This study describes adenocarcinomas in the bilateral ampullary glands in a 52-week-old intact male Sprague-Dawley rat housed as part of a control group in a toxicological experiment. At necropsy, the body weight (644.4 g) and the weight of the prostate with ampullary gland (2.75 g) were similar to others of the same control group, and it had a normal gross appearance. Histopathologically, both ampullary glands revealed microinvasive adenocarcinoma without vascular invasion. The morphological characteristics of the neoplasm varied in different regions of the gland. Other parts of the male accessory sex glands did not show proliferative lesions. PMID:25361752

  15. Cadmium toxicity in the thyroid gland of pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, M.; Mori, N.; Hamasaki, K.; Tanaka, I.; Yokoyama, M.; Hara, K.; Doi, Y.; Umezu, Y.; Araki, H.; Sakamoto, Y. )

    1991-08-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium on the thyroid gland of pregnant rats were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were also analyzed. Deterioration of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum occurred in the thyroid follicular epithelium on the fifth day of cadmium treatment. Large intracellular vacuoles, which arose from dilated cisternae of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, were fused together, and marked swelling of the mitochondria was also noted. Thyroglobulin-secreting granules at the apical cytoplasm were decreased in number. By energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially obtained from swollen mitochondria in the follicular epithelial cells. Serum levels of T3 and T4 were significantly decreased in cadmium-treated rats dams when compared to those of controls. In the present experiment, cycloheximide also caused degenerative changes in the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the disappearance of thyroglobulin-secreting granules. Cycloheximide is a known inhibitor of protein synthesis on cytosolic ribosomes. These results indicated that accumulated cadmium in the mitochondria of thyroid follicular epithelial cells might disturb the oxidative phosphorylation of this organelle and the loss of energy supply possibly caused the inhibition of the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones.

  16. [Guanidinoacetate-N-methyltransferase: location in mammalian retina and rat Harderian gland].

    PubMed

    Mardashchev, S R

    1975-01-01

    Homogenates of retinal external segments of rat, rabbit, beef and hen and of rat Harderian gland were found to possess a considerable activity of guanidineacetate-N-methyltransferase (GAMT, E.C. 2.1.1.2), comparable with the enzyme activity in liver, pancreas and testis. Permanent UV-illumination of rats (from 1 day to 1 week) resulted in the decrease of GAMT activity in retina and especially in Harderian gland. Caffeine (10(-4) M) and papaverine (10(-7) M) activated GAMT in retina and rat Harderian gland, while cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor (0.5-2 mkg/ml), eliminated caffeine-stimulated GAMT activity. Histamine (0.3 mkg/ml) inhibited GAMT activity both in retina and Harderian gland. A decrease of GAMT activity in retina, liver and testis of rat and an increase of the enzyme activity in rat pancreas and Harderian gland were observed in the presence of Mg2+ (5 mM). Physiological importance of GAMT and creatine in mammalian retina and rat Harderian gland is discussed. PMID:1203355

  17. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat.

    PubMed

    Líška, Ján; Brtko, Július; Dubovický, Michal; Macejová, Dana; Kissová, Viktória; Polák, Štefan; Ujházy, Eduard

    2016-02-14

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  18. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  19. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF TCDD ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG EVANS RATS: A TWO GENERATIONAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated variable effects on mammary gland development in rat offspring exposed to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1 ug/kg, gavage) on day 15 of gestation. We have characterized these effects in Long Evans rats, in both one and two-generational...

  20. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  1. Effect of sexual steroids upon ontogeny of alpha-amylase of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, S L; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Blanco, A

    1982-04-30

    The effect of gonadectomy (at the 10th day of life) and treatment with sexual steroids (during the first month) upon development of alpha-amylase activity in rat parotid gland has been studied. Alpha-amylase specific activity of parotid glands from 20-day-old orchidectomized rats and from 25-day-old ovariectomized animals was significantly higher than that of intact male and female rats of the same age respectively. Spayed males treated with testosterone (10 microgram/day on the 13th, 15th, and 17th day) and ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol (2.5 microgram/day from the 16th to the 22nd day) showed values of enzymic activity similar to those of normal animals. Results indicate that oestradiol and testosterone have an inhibitory effect upon the increase of alpha-amylase activity in parotid gland during a very defined period of development. PMID:6178953

  2. Effect of retinoic acid on the nitrergic innervation of meibomian glands in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bolekova, A.; Kluchova, D.; Tomasova, L.; Hvizdosova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of retinoic acid (RA) on the development of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase (NADPH-d) positive structures in the rat Meibomian glands. One mg/kg of RA was applied to pregnant Wistar rats intraperitonaelly during the gestational period in each of the 12th–14th embryonic days (totally 3 mg/kg). Sections of the central upper eyelids were investigated in rat pups on the 14th postnatal day. They were processed histochemically for NADPH-d, to study the presence and distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) positive nerve structures. NADPH-d staining of Meibomian glands was compared in two groups of rat pups. In the control group, eyelids of 14 day-old rats were studied with no experimental intervention. The second group consisted of rat pups which were prenatally administered the excess of RA. Histochemical analysis of control eyelids revealed numerous NADPH-d well-stained acini of Meibomian glands arranged tightly into groups. Intensively stained vessels and NADPH-d/NOS-positive nerve fibers bordered acini of Meibomian glands. These structures were present in the submucosal layer as well. The analysis of RA group showed less numerous, shrunken acini of Meibomian glands that were seen not only smaller in size, but also in density of their staining and the amount of nitrergic nerve fibers around acini were considerably lowered. In the submucosa differences were noticed compared to the control group, there were numerous NADPH-d stained vessels accompanied by NADPH-d/NOS-positive nerve fibers. The excess of RA during the prenatal period may influence on the development and morphology of NADPH-d positive structures of rat's Meibomian glands. PMID:23361246

  3. Effects of continuous light on rat parotid gland structure and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, A P; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Aoki, A; Bellavia, S L

    1989-01-01

    The effects of continuous light on ultrastructural organization and sympathetic secretory responses of the rat parotid gland are reported. After 50 days of continuous light exposure, the fine structure of the parotid gland exhibited features of enhanced secretory activity as judged by the striking development of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes, the depletion of secretory granules and the increased turnover of secretory cells. The secretory responses of parotid gland to isoproterenol revealed that continuous light induced a 30% increase in amylase release. This secretory hyperactivity appears to be related to a postsynaptic supersensitivity of sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:2471423

  4. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Knaś, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Kołodziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; Ładny, J. R.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  5. Sequential changes in the harderian and exorbital lacrimal glands in Wistar rats infected with sialodacryoadenitis virus.

    PubMed

    Percy, D H; Wojcinski, Z W; Schunk, M K

    1989-05-01

    A sequential light and electron microscopic study of the exorbital and Harderian lacrimal glands was done on 2.5- to 15-month-old Wistar rats exposed to sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus. Typical coronaviral particles were readily demonstrated in cytoplasmic vesicles of Harderian and exorbital glands examined at 6 days post-inoculation. Lesions were seen in a relatively high percentage of lacrimal glands in infected animals of all ages, with no obvious age-related variations in the incidence and extent of changes. Lesions frequently persisted for a longer interval post-exposure in lacrimal glands than in salivary glands. The persistence of lesions commonly seen in Harderian glands was attributed, at least in part, to the cytotoxic effects of porphyrin-containing secretions released during the acute necrotizing stages of the disease. The persistence of lesions in some lacrimal glands indicates that they are useful tissues for microscopic examination for the retrospective provisional diagnosis of SDA. Persistent lesions also indicate that normal functions of these glands may be compromised for up to several weeks following outbreaks of SDA. PMID:2548316

  6. Alpha-amylase circadian rhythm of young rat parotid gland: an endogenous rhythm with maternal coordination.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Sereno, R; Vermouth, N T

    1992-01-01

    The circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase, E.C. 3.2.1.1. alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) in the parotid glands of 25-day-old rats were studied under different experimental designs (fasting, reversed photoperiod, constant lighting conditions and treatment with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine). The rhythm of fasted rats did not change. There were modifications in the rhythm of rats submitted to a reversed photoperiod or treated with reserpine or alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The rhythm was present, with changes in the acrophase, in parotids of rats kept during their gestation and postnatal life in constant light or dark. Results suggest that the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland of young rats is endogenous, synchronized by the photoperiod, and with maternal coordination. PMID:1610312

  7. Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

  8. A mode of action for induction of thyroid gland tumors by Pyrethrins in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M.; Osimitz, Thomas G. . E-mail: perseus1@worldnet.att.net; Gabriel, Karl L.; Martin, Tom; Henderson, Wendy J.; Capen, Charles C.; Butler, William H.; Lake, Brian G.

    2006-08-01

    Prolonged treatment with high doses of Pyrethrins results in thyroid gland tumors in the rat. To elucidate the mode of action for tumor formation, the effect of Pyrethrins on rat thyroid gland, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed diets containing 0 (control) and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and female rats diets containing 0, 100, 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins for periods of 7, 14 and 42 days and for 42 days followed by 42 days of reversal. As a positive control, rats were also fed diets containing 1200-1558 ppm sodium Phenobarbital (NaPB) for 7 and 14 days. The treatment of male rats with 8000 ppm Pyrethrins, female rats with 3000 and 8000 ppm Pyrethrins and both sexes with NaPB resulted in increased thyroid gland weights, which were associated with follicular cell hypertrophy. Thyroid follicular cell replicative DNA synthesis was increased by treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB for 7 and/or 14 days. Treatment with Pyrethrins and NaPB increased hepatic microsomal thyroxine UDPglucuronosyltransferase activity and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), but reduced serum levels of either thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and/or triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). The effects of Pyrethrins in female rats were dose-dependent, with 100 ppm being a no-effect level, and on cessation of treatment were essentially reversible in both sexes. The concordance between the effects of Pyrethrins and NaPB suggests that the mode of action for Pyrethrins-induced rat thyroid gland tumors is similar to that of some other non-genotoxic inducers of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism.

  9. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  10. Whole, submandibular, and parotid saliva-mediated aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, K; Habbick, B F; Tumber, S K

    1989-01-01

    The aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by submandibular, parotid, and whole saliva from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF subjects was investigated. There were significant differences (P less than 0.01) in aggregation of mucoid and nonmucoid variants of P. aeruginosa by submandibular and whole saliva from CF patients and non-CF subjects. However, the differences in the parotid secretion were not as pronounced. Patients with CF who were colonized with P. aeruginosa demonstrated a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) percent aggregation of the mucoid variants by the submandibular secretion and of both mucoid and nonmucoid variants by whole saliva, compared with corresponding secretions from patients with CF not colonized with this pathogen. The parotid saliva aggregation activity was not markedly different for the two groups with CF. From patients with CF, whole saliva demonstrated a higher percent P. aeruginosa aggregation than did the submandibular saliva. In non-CF subjects, however, the percent aggregation of P. aeruginosa by submandibular saliva was higher than that by whole saliva. Our results indicate that the sero-mucous products of the submandibular gland have a more significant role in P. aeruginosa aggregation than the serous secreting parotid cells and that the submandibular secretion is possibly responsible for the differences in oral colonization by this pathogen in subjects with and without CF. PMID:2494114

  11. Protection of Radiation-Induced Damage to the Hematopoietic System, Small Intestine and Salivary Glands in Rats by JNJ7777120 Compound, a Histamine H4 Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J.; Carabajal, Eliana; Prestifilippo, Juan P.; Rossi, Luis; Elverdin, Juan C.; Merani, Susana; Bergoc, Rosa M.; Rivera, Elena S.; Medina, Vanina A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 5 Gy on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed 3 or 30 days after irradiation. Tissues were removed, fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin or PAS staining and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferative and apoptotic markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate DNA damage. Submandibular gland (SMG) function was evaluated by methacholine-induced salivation. Results indicate that JNJ7777120 treatment diminished mucosal atrophy and preserved villi and the number of crypts after radiation exposure (240±8 vs. 165±10, P<0.01). This effect was associated to a reduced apoptosis and DNA damage in intestinal crypts. JNJ7777120 reduced radiation-induced aplasia, preserving medullar components and reducing formation of micronucleus and also it accelerated bone marrow repopulation. Furthermore, it reduced micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood (27±8 vs. 149±22, in 1,000 erythrocytes, P<0.01). JNJ7777120 completely reversed radiation-induced reduced salivation, conserving glandular mass with normal histological appearance and reducing apoptosis and atrophy of SMG. JNJ7777120 exhibits radioprotective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in small intestine, SMG and hematopoietic tissues and, thus, could be of clinical value for patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:23922686

  12. DETECTION OF A CRITICAL PERIOD NECESSARY FOR ATRAZINE-INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND DELAYS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of a Critical Period Necessary for Atrazine-Induced Mammary Gland Delays in Rats.

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, R...

  13. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero.
    HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2
    1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  14. Effect of sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland on maternal co-ordination of the circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase in parotid gland from young rats.

    PubMed

    Bellavía, S L; Sanz, E G; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A; Vermouth, N T

    1993-12-01

    Twenty-five-day-old rats maintained in constant darkness since birth and born from mothers kept in the dark since the 14th day of pregnancy showed a circadian rhythm of alpha-amylase content in parotid glands, which may be explained by a mechanism of maternal co-ordination. Rats in the same conditions, except that their mothers had been submitted to bilateral excision of the superior cervical ganglia 30 days before mating, did not show diurnal variations of alpha-amylase activity in the parotid glands. When ganglionectomized mothers were treated with a daily dose of melatonin (1 mg/kg) from the 14th day of gestation up to the 10th day of lactation, their litters showed significant diurnal variations of amylase in the parotid glands, suggesting a role of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal-fetal and/or maternal-neonatal transfer of photoperiodic information. PMID:8141675

  15. Prevention of CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in adrenal gland by Digera muricata extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Younus, Tahira

    2011-10-01

    Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a weed and commonly found in waste places, road sides and in maize fields during the summer season. It possesses antioxidant capacity and is locally used for various disorders such as inflammation, urination, as refrigerant, aperient and in sexual anomalies. In this study antioxidant potential of Digera muricata methanol extract (DMME) and n-hexane extract (DMHE) was evaluated against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in adrenal gland of Sprague-Dawley male rats. 42 rats were equally divided into 7 groups of 6 rats in each. Group I remained untreated, while Group II treated with vehicles. Group III received only CCl(4) (1 ml/kg b.w., 10% in olive oil) once a week for 16 weeks. Group IV and VI received DMME and DMHE at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. along with CCl(4). Animals of Group V and VII administered with DMME and DMHE alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. once a week for 16 weeks. Lipid peroxidation significantly increased while activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px) were reduced in adrenal gland samples by the administration of CCl(4). Glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly decreased whereas DNA fragmentation% and AgNORs count was increased in adrenal gland by CCl(4) administration. Treatment of rat by both the extracts (DMME, DMHE) and CCl(4) increased the glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes while reduced the lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation percent and AgNORs count in adrenal gland. These results indicate that Digera muricata extract is able to ameliorate oxidative stress in adrenal gland induced by CCl(4) in rat. PMID:21959806

  16. Effects of alcohol feeding on androgen receptors in the rat pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.W.

    1987-10-26

    Specific binding of testosterone-1..beta..,2..beta..-/sup 3/H by cytosol from anterior pituitary gland of ethanol-fed, isocaloric control, and castrated control and ethanol-fed rats with or without testosterone treatment has been investigated by charcoal assay. The number of androgen binding sites was significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats when compared to the isocaloric control value, with no significant change in Kd. Castration significantly increased the number of receptor sites in control rats and when castrated control animals were treated with testosterone the binding sites were decreased to the intact control level. In contrast, castration or testosterone given to castrated alcohol-fed rats did not alter alcohol-induced reduction of the receptor sites. The binding affinity (Kd) is identical in all groups. The concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in alcohol-fed rats when compared to that of normal controls. An increased serum LH level with a decreased testosterone level was noted in castrated control rats. However, castration of alcohol-fed rats had little or no effects on the concentrations of LH and testosterone. Administration of testosterone suppressed castration-induced high LH in control rats but alcohol induced reduction of LH level was not altered by this treatment. These findings indicate that alcohol exerts a suppressive effect on the content of androgen receptors and secretory functions of gonadotropins in the pituitary gland. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Gross, histological and ultrastructural features of the bulbourethral gland in the greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olukole, S G; Oyeyemi, M O; Taiwo, V O; Ihunwo, A O; Oke, B O

    2015-02-01

    The present study examines the structure and ultrastructure of the bulbourethral glands in 10 sexually matured male greater cane rats raised in captivity. Following anaesthesia, the rats were perfusion-fixed transcardially and the bulbourethral glands dissected out. Upon morphologic and morphometric analysis, the Cowper's glands were observed to have an average volume of 0.24±0.08 ml, a diameter of 6.3±0.6 mm and weighs 0.199±0.06 g. The paired, gourd-shaped tubuloalveolar glands were surrounded by dense connective tissues and separated into lobules by capsular septae. Each lobule consists of endpiece/secretory units and excretory ducts lined by simple glandular epithelium and pseudo-stratified epithelium, respectively. The round end pieces consisted of 8-10 pyramidal to columnar epithelial cells with flattened, basally located nuclei and granule-filled cytoplasm that bounded a narrow glandular lumen. The striking ultrastructural features of these secretory cells were the presence of some granules with uniform electron density and those with regions of lesser density as well as the absence of secretory vacuoles. Another unique characteristic of these secretory granules is the presence of electron dense strands radiating from their surfaces. The apical surfaces of the cells were also studded with abundant microvilli. From the findings, the structure of bulbourethral glands in the greater cane rat shows more resemblances to that of humans than to its rodent phylogeny. These findings serve as additional knowledge in the structural interpretation of the bulbourethral gland and its secretory products. PMID:24660943

  18. Expression Patterns of Circular RNAs from Primary Kinase Transcripts in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, ChunLei; Wu, Hui; Wang, YanHong; Zhao, YuLong; Fang, XingTang; Chen, CaiFa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of RNAs, perform important functions in biological processes. However, the role of circRNAs in the mammary gland remains unknown. The present study is aimed at identifying and characterizing the circRNAs expressed in the mammary gland of lactating rats. Methods Deep sequencing of RNase R-enriched rat lactating mammary gland samples was performed and circRNAs were predicted using a previously reported computational pipeline. Gene ontology terms of circRNA-producing genes were also analyzed. Results A total of 6,824 and 4,523 circRNAs were identified from rat mammary glands at two different lactation stages. Numerous circRNAs were specifically expressed at different lactation stages, and only 1,314 circRNAs were detected at both lactation stages. The majority of the candidate circRNAs map to noncoding intronic and intergenic regions. The results demonstrate a circular preference or specificity of some genes. DAVID analysis revealed an enrichment of protein kinases and related proteins among the set of genes encoding circRNAs. Interestingly, four protein-coding genes (Rev3l, IGSF11, MAML2, and LPP) that also transcribe high levels of circRNAs have been reported to be involved in cancer. Conclusion Our findings provide the basis for comparison between breast cancer profiles and for selecting representative circRNA candidates for future functional characterization in breast development and breast cancer. PMID:26472973

  19. Developmental regulation of cytokeratins in cells of the rat mammary gland studied with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R; Dulbecco, R; Syka, P; Bowman, M; Armstrong, B

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated two monoclonal antibodies to cytokeratins and determined their cell specificities. They display interesting localization within the rat mammary gland. One (1A10) shows specificity for myoepithelial cells; the other (24B42) is specific for lumenal cells at various stages of development. These two monoclonal antibodies and three others to cytokeratin previously isolated were used in conjunction with antibodies to myosin and collagen IV to confirm and extend our previous findings on epithelial cell types and development within the mammary gland. Images PMID:6199793

  20. BrdU-label-retaining cells in rat eccrine sweat glands over time.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bingna; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Cell proliferation and turnover are fueled by stem cells. In a previous study, we demonstrated that rat eccrine sweat glands contained abundant bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-label-retaining cells (LRCs). However, morphological observations showed that eccrine sweat glands usually show little or no signs of homeostatic change. In this study, we account for why the homeostatic change is rare in eccrine sweat glands based on cytokinetic changes in BrdU-LRC turnover, and also determine the BrdU-labeled cell type. Thirty-six newborn SD rats, were injected intraperitoneally with 50mg/kg BrdU twice daily at a 2h interval for 4 consecutive days. After a chase period of 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 32 weeks, rats were euthanized, and the hind footpads were removed and processed for BrdU immunostaining, and BrdU/α-SMA and BrdU/K14 double-immunostaining. BrdU-LRCs were observed in the ducts, secretory coils and mesenchymal cells at all survival time points. The percentage of BrdU(+) cells in rat eccrine sweat glands averaged 4.2±1.2% after 4 weeks of chase, increased slightly by the 6th week, averaging 4.4±0.9%, and peaked at 8 weeks, averaging 5.3±1.0%. Subsequently, the average percentage of BrdU(+) cells declined to 3.2±0.8% by the 32nd week. There was no difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs among the different survival time points except that a significant difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs detected at 24 weeks versus 8 weeks, and 32 weeks versus 8 weeks, was observed. We concluded that the BrdU-LRCs turnover is slow in eccrine sweat glands. PMID:26657518

  1. [Effect of space flight aboard "Kosmos-1129" on thyroid hormone content of the blood and thyroid gland of rats].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Kalita, N F; Makho, L; Langer, P; Knopp, Ia

    1985-01-01

    Thyrotrophin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and reverse triiodothyronine were measured in plasma and thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the thyroid gland of the rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. Postflight the plasma content of thyrotrophin and triiodothyronine increased and that of thyroxine decreased and the gland content of thyroxine and triiodothyronine diminished. It is postulated that in the flight animals the functional activity of the thyroid gland declined. PMID:3974186

  2. Characterization of methylaminoisobutyric acid transport by system A in rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tovar, A R; Avila, E; DeSantiago, S; Torres, N

    2000-07-01

    During lactation, the mammary gland has a large demand for amino acids for the synthesis of milk proteins and fatty acids. Arteriovenous differences in amino acids across the mammary gland show an elevated uptake of small neutral amino acids that are mainly transported via system A. The purpose of this study was to characterize the transport of methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB), an amino acid analog used to model transport by system A in lactating rat mammary gland explants. MeAIB accumulation in mammary gland cells increased steadily, and after 3 hours of incubation, the intracellular concentration of the analog was 8-fold higher than the concentration in the medium. MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants showed a Km of 3.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/L and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 555 +/- 23 pmol/microL intracellular fluid (ICF) x min, indicating a system with high capacity but low affinity for its substrate. MeAIB transport into mammary tissue depended highly on Na+, and the uptake was inhibited by addition of natural and analog small neutral amino acids. Cationic, anionic, and large neutral amino acids did not reduce MeAIB transport into mammary gland explants. Preincubation of mammary gland explants in an amino acid-free medium stimulated MeAIB transport, suggesting an adaptive regulation. The addition of an equimolar mixture of alanine, glycine, and serine to the preincubation medium inhibited stimulation of MeAIB transport. Furthermore, stimulation of MeAIB uptake by amino acid starvation was also prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, tunicamycin, and colchicine. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increased MeAIB uptake, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) did not stimulate MeAIB transport. During the first postweaning days, kinetic analyses showed a decrease of 27% in the Vmax. Injection of rat lactating mammary gland mRNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes induced expression of the MeAIB transport system; however, the

  3. Perinatally Administered Bisphenol A as a Potential Mammary Gland Carcinogen in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nicole; Davis, Barbara; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects mammary gland development in rodents and primates. Prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA increased the number of intraductal hyperplasias and ductal carcinomas in situ by 50 days of age in Wistar-Furth rats. Objective: We aimed to determine whether BPA exposure of dams during gestation only or throughout lactation affects the incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in female offspring. Methods: We treated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with BPA at 0, 0.25, 2.5, 25, or 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day from gestational day (GD) 9 to birth and from GD9 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Mammary glands from BPA-exposed offspring were examined at four time points for preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. To assess circulating BPA levels, we exposed pregnant rats to vehicle or 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day during gestation only or during gestation/lactation and analyzed sera from dams, fetuses, and nursing pups for total and unconjugated BPA. Results: Total and unconjugated BPA were detected in sera from 100% of dams and fetuses and 33% of pups exposed to 250 μg BPA/kg BW/day. Unconjugated BPA levels in exposed dams and fetuses (gestational) and in exposed dams and pups (gestational/lactational) were within levels found in humans. Preneoplastic lesions developed in BPA-exposed female offspring across all doses as early as PND50. Unexpectedly, mammary gland adenocarcinomas developed in BPA-exposed offspring by PND90. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BPA during gestation and lactation induces mammary gland neoplasms in the absence of any additional carcinogenic treatment. Thus, BPA may act as a complete mammary gland carcinogen. Citation: Acevedo N, Davis B, Schaeberle CM, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2013. Perinatally administered bisphenol A acts as a mammary gland carcinogen in rats. Environ Health Perspect 121:1040–1046; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  4. Survey of spontaneous dystrophic mineralisation of pineal gland in ageing rats.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S K

    1997-11-01

    The survey included 151 rats from several carcinogenicity studies up to 104 weeks and 260 rats from short-term studies up to 52 weeks. All studies were performed during the period 1990-1996. Young rats up to 52 weeks of age showed normal structural appearance, in 134 male rats the incidence of mineralisation was 6.3% and in 126 females the incidence was only slightly less at 5.6%. In ageing rats, 70-104 weeks, 88 males and 63 females showed far higher incidence of mineralisation, 83% and 57% respectively, showing that the incidence of mineralisation in ageing rats was higher in males than females. The focal mineralisation occurred mainly at the margin of the gland in the subcapsular region mostly adjacent to small blood vessels. On occasions these involved the parenchymal cells in the middle part of the gland. The focal mineralisation stained positive with von Kossa indicating presence of calcium and also with PAS (Pariodic Acid-Schiff method), indicating presence of neutral mucopolysaccharide. There was no evidence of positivity with Perl's stain (for ferric salts), Toluidine blue (for protein) or Alcian blue (for acid mucopolysaccharides). With Oil Red O there was evidence of presence of fat or lipid in pinealocytes. PMID:9428987

  5. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki . E-mail: rtanigu@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = {+-}7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 {+-} 4.18 vs. 4.5 {+-} 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands.

  6. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells migrate to healthy and damaged salivary glands following stem cell infusion.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Silke; Huss, Ralf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Vogel, Breda; Brandau, Sven; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Xerostomia is a severe side effect of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. To date, no satisfactory treatment option has been established. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a potential treatment modality, we aimed to evaluate stem cell distribution following intravenous and intraglandular injections using a surgical model of salivary gland damage and to analyse the effects of MSC injections on the recruitment of immune cells. The submandibular gland ducts of rats were surgically ligated. Syngeneic adult MSCs were isolated, immortalised by simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and characterized by flow cytometry. MSCs were injected intravenously and intraglandularly. After 1, 3 and 7 days, the organs of interest were analysed for stem cell recruitment. Inflammation was analysed by immunohistochemical staining. We were able to demonstrate that, after intravenous injection, MSCs were recruited to normal and damaged submandibular glands on days 1, 3 and 7. Unexpectedly, stem cells were recruited to ligated and non-ligated glands in a comparable manner. After intraglandular injection of MSCs into ligated glands, the presence of MSCs, leucocytes and macrophages was enhanced, compared to intravenous injection of stem cells. Our data suggest that injected MSCs were retained within the inflamed glands, could become activated and subsequently recruited leucocytes to the sites of tissue damage. PMID:24810808

  7. Estrogen receptors are involved in xenoestrogen induction of growth hormone in the rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Dang, Vu Hoang; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of growth, development and body composition. In order to provide new insights into estrogenic endocrine disruptor (ED) activities in the pituitary gland and the potential role played by estrogen receptors (ERs) in mediating their effects in vivo, we examined GH expression in the pituitary gland of an immature rat model. At postnatal day 14, immature rats were treated with various doses of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), p-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA), and the GH mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot/immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. An anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs in ED-induced GH expression during critical windows of development. GH mRNA expression increased significantly 48 h after treatment with a high dose (600 mg/kg body weight [BW]) of OP or NP. However, this induction was abolished completely by co-treatment with ICI 182780. No significant difference in GH mRNA expression was observed following treatment with BPA or co-treatment of BPA with the anti-estrogen. Exposure to high doses (600 mg/kg BW) of these EDs significantly enhanced GH protein expression in the rat pituitary gland, whereas pretreatment with ICI 182780 markedly reduced this expression. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time that in vivo exposure to EDs can induce GH mRNA and protein expression in the rat pituitary gland and that their activities may involve an ER-mediated signaling pathway. These results may provide critical evidence for ED-induced dysregulation of pituitary GH expression and thus may be important for elucidating the potential impacts of EDs in altered body growth and development and for predicting the health risks of ED exposure in humans and wildlife. PMID:19145065

  8. Modulation of T and B cell proliferative responses by factors present in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pockley, A G; Montgomery, P C

    1991-12-01

    Rat salivary gland culture supernatants (SGSN) were shown to inhibit the proliferation of rat spleen cells induced by the mitogens concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and S. typhimurium mitogen (STM). The responses of B cells were more markedly inhibited than the responses of T cells. Factors contained in SGSN which had a molecular weight smaller than 3500 inhibited all responses, whereas factors greater than 3500 only inhibited responses induced by PWM, LPS or STM. Factors present in SGSN also inhibited the proliferation of two B cell hybridoma cell lines, as well as the IL-2-responsive cell line CTLL-2 and the IL-4-responsive cell line CT.4S. However, SGSN factors having a molecular weight greater than 3500 did not inhibit CTLL-2 proliferation. These data indicate that rat salivary glands contain factors which differentially regulate T and B cell proliferative responses in vitro and which may modulate localized immune responses in the salivary gland in vivo. PMID:1757118

  9. Microwave-induced increase of water and conductivity in submaxillary salivary gland of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajczyk, H.

    1981-01-01

    Hypersalivation is an important mechanism for heat dissipation by animals without sweat glands. The water content and conductivity (at 20 kHz) in submaxillary salivary glands (SSG) and in other tissues were investigated in adult male rats exposed to microwaves (2880 MHz, 1.5 microsecond pulses at 1000 Hz) or to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. Eighty rats in one series were exposed, one at a time, for 30 min to microwaves producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.2, 6.3, 6.8, 8.4, 10.8 or 12.6 W/kg. Fifty rats were sham-exposed under similar environmental conditions. In the second series, ten rats were sham-exposed, 33 rats were exposed one at time, for 15, 30 or 60 min to microwaves at a SAR of 9.5 W/kg, and 32 rats were exposed for similar periods to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. In rats of the first series colonic temperatures were elevated significantly at a SAR of 4.2 W/kg, while SSG water content and conductivity increased significantly at SAR values of 6.3 W/kg and higher. In the second series of experiments increases in colonic temperature and SSG water content were greater after 15 and 30 min of microwave exposure than after exposure to heat. Also, SSG conductivity was significantly depressed by heat and significantly increased by microwaves after exposure for 15 or 30 min. The results support the hypothesis that water content and conductivity of SSG of rats can be used as a sensitive specific test of a microwave induced thermal response.

  10. Gene expression and epigenetic profiles of mammary gland tissue: insight into the differential predisposition of four rat strains to mammary gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2015-02-01

    Rats are excellent experimental models for studying breast cancer, but rat strains differ in susceptibility. Among the four strains used in this study, Fischer rats are less susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer, yet they are highly prone to extremely severe metastatic and drug-resistant tumors, in those case where they actually develop the disease. In contrast, Sprague Dawley rats are the most susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer among the strains. ACI rats are highly prone to estrogen-induced cancer. Long-Evans rats are commonly used in mammary gland carcinogenesis studies. The molecular mechanisms of differential breast cancer susceptibility among rat strains are not well understood. Here, gene expression analysis was conducted in the mammary gland tissue of four rat strains--August × Copenhagen Irish (ACI), Long Evans, Fischer-344 and Sprague Dawley--to evaluate possible explanations for the differing breast cancer predispositions. According to the DAVID functional annotation analysis, there were at least eleven, five, and one significantly different pathways, respectively, in Fischer-344, Long-Evans and Sprague Dawley rats, in comparison to ACI rats. Two strains, Fischer-344 and Long-Evans, displayed differential expression in the complement and coagulation cascades, chemokine signaling, PPAR signaling, renin-angiotensin system, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and glutathione metabolism pathways. The only pathway that was significantly different between the Sprague Dawley and the ACI rats was the ribosome pathway. Our data indicate that general cancer susceptibility and predisposition to the development of aggressive and metastatic cancer are independent genetic conditions. Moreover, we have identified several important differences in the basal epigenetic profile of four rat strains with varying degrees of susceptibility to spontaneous and induced mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:25813725

  11. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, K; Boberg, J; Isling, L K; Christiansen, S; Hass, U

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because of small number of animals or few doses investigated these data have not been used by EFSA as point of departure for the newly assessed tolerable daily intake (TDI). We performed a study with perinatal exposure to BPA (0, 0.025, 0.25, 5, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) in rats (n = 22 mated/group). One of the aims was to perform a study robust enough to contribute to the risk assessment of BPA and to elucidate possible biphasic dose-response relationships. We investigated mammary gland effects in the offspring at 22, 100, and 400 days of age. Male offspring showed increased mammary outgrowth on pup day (PD) 22 at 0.025 mg/kg BPA, indicating an increased mammary development at this low dose only. Increased prevalence of intraductal hyperplasia was observed in BPA females exposed to 0.25 mg/kg at PD 400, but not at PD 100, and not at higher or lower doses. The present findings support data from the published literature showing that perinatal exposure to BPA can induce increased mammary growth and proliferative lesions in rodents. Our results indicate that low-dose exposure to BPA can affect mammary gland development in male and female rats, although higher doses show a different pattern of effects. The observed intraductal hyperplasia in female rats could be associated with an increased risk for developing hyperplastic lesions, which are parallels to early signs of breast neoplasia in women. Collectively, current knowledge on effects of BPA on mammary gland at low doses indicates that highly exposed humans may not be sufficiently protected. PMID:27088260

  12. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity. PMID:25487536

  13. Mammary gland development and response to prenatal atrazine exposure in the Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary gland (MG) tumor development in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats is increased by longterm dietary exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR). ATR is proposed to cause these changes in the adult SD rat by altering hormonally-regulated estrous cyclicity. In Long-Evans...

  14. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  15. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the response of the rat mammary gland to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I. H.; Gimotty, P.; Dupuis, M.; Russo, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine whether mammary gland differentiation, which is known to protect this organ from chemically induced carcinogenesis, can be stimulated in virgin rats by administration of a progestagenic agent, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was given to 300 Sprague-Dawley virgin rats, which at the ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 days, groups I, II, III and IV respectively, had implanted an MPA pellet of 0.5 mg (low dose-LD) or 5.0 mg (high dose-HD). Pellets were removed after 21 days, and 21 days later five animals per group were killed for evaluation of mammary gland development. The remaining animals received 8 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) per 100 g body weight, and were killed after 24 weeks for evaluation of tumour incidence. Both age and treatment affected mammary gland structure and had a significant interaction in the proportion of terminal end buds (TEBs) present. The number of TEBs decreased as a function of age; treatment at both LD and HD did not modify the proportion of TEBs in groups I and III; LD decreased their percentage in group II, and both doses markedly increased TEB percentage in group IV animals. MPA LD treatment did not affect overall tumour and adenocarcinoma incidence although group IV animals developed greater incidences than their respective controls. MPA HD treated rats were 2.45 times more likely to develop tumours than their respective controls. Adenocarcinoma incidence had a significant positive correlation with the percentage of TEBs present. It was concluded that this progestagenic agent did not increase the risk of carcinoma development when administered to virgin rats at the clinical dose used for contraception. However, a 10-fold dose increase resulted in a higher tumorigenic response. PMID:2522791

  16. Negative regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) by melatonin in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Li, B; Zhang, H; Akbar, M; Kim, H Y

    2000-01-01

    In this paper evidence that supports a new role for melatonin as a negative endogenous regulator of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is presented. When rat pineal glands were incubated in culture, time-dependent release of arachidonic acid (AA) was observed, which was significantly inhibited by a known 85-kDa cPLA(2) inhibitor, methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate. Co-incubation with melatonin inhibited the AA release in a concentration-dependent manner, and this decrease was accompanied by a reduction of cPLA(2) protein and mRNA expression. Melatonin-receptor agonists, 2-iodo-N-butanoyl-5-methoxytryptamine and 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine, also decreased AA release and cPLA(2) protein and mRNA levels, while pre-incubation with the melatonin receptor antagonists luzindole and 2-phenylmelatonin abolished the melatonin effect. In vivo, as melatonin production reflected a typical diurnal variation, endogenous non-esterified AA and cPLA(2) mRNA levels in the rat pineal gland showed an off-phase diurnal pattern in relation to melatonin levels. Intravenous administration of isoproterenol, which has been shown to elevate melatonin production, also decreased the levels of non-esterified AA and cPLA(2) mRNA significantly. Direct administration of melatonin to rats by intravenous injection decreased the levels of non-esterified AA, cPLA(2) protein and mRNA in rat pineal glands. In conclusion, melatonin endogenously down-regulates cPLA(2) expression, presumably through melatonin-receptor-mediated processes. PMID:11042126

  17. Discrimination of rat Brunner's gland carbohydrate antigens by site-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Goso, Yukinobu; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kurihara, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Mucus produced and secreted by gastrointestinal mucosa contains various types of mucins equipped with unique sugar chains considered to play critical roles in protecting mucous membranes; therefore, the identification and verification of mucin sugar chains is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms. In our previous work, we generated three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42, which recognize sugar chains in rat gastric mucin. Here, we immunohistochemically analyzed the rat gastrointestinal mucosa and found that the antigens recognized by RGM22 and RGM42 were expressed in the rat antrum and Brunner's glands, whereas that recognized by RGM26 was detected in the antrum, but rarely in Brunner's glands. We found that these antibodies reacted with porcine gastric mucin-derived oligosaccharides bearing a common structure: GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6GalNAc-ol. Moreover, epitope analysis revealed that RGM42 and RGM22 recognized α-linked GalNAc and GalNAcα1-3Gal, respectively, on the GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal structure, whereas RGM26 was specific for GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Gal. These results indicate that rat Brunner's glands express specific antigens bearing GalNAcα1-3Gal that are recognized by RGM22 and RGM42. Thus, RGM22, RGM26, and RGM42 with their unique antigen specificities could be useful tools for investigation of oligosaccharide diversity among mucins. PMID:27454489

  18. Ontogenesis of alpha-amylase in rat parotid gland during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, S L; Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Rins, L; Aoki, A

    1981-01-01

    Changes in alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) of parotid gland were investigated during postnatal development of the rat. Modifications in amylase activity after birth allow the distinction of three stages which can be correlated with the morphologic development of the parotid gland. Significant sexual differences in the evolution of alpha-amylase activity were found. During the first stage (from birth to the 20th day) there is a higher increase in females, while males have a more pronounced increment in the second stage (from the 20th to the 30th day). By means of gel electrophoresis of parotid extracts, four molecular forms of amylase can be separated. The slowest migrating band (Form 1) is not detected at the initial stage. PMID:6164673

  19. Ontogeny of alpha-amylase circadian rhythms in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sanz, E G; Vermouth, N T; Bellavia, S L

    1986-01-01

    The content of alpha-amylase (alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1.) and total soluble proteins of parotid glands (from rats exposed to a photoperiod of 14 hr light: 10 hr dark), have been determined every 2 or 3 hr over 24 hr periods in 15, 25 and 90-day-old rats. In 35-, 45- and 72-day-old rats, determinations were performed only at 0100 and 1400 hr. The alpha-amylase and total soluble protein contents from 90-day-old rats show a circadian variation, with a maximum value at 2200 hr and a minimum at 1400 hr. Parotids from 15- and 25-day-old rats also show a circadian rhythm. The minimum value is recorded at 0100 hr and the maximum at 1400 hr. At day 35 and after, there is an inversion of the amylase rhythm. In immature rats, it appears that alpha-amylase and soluble protein are under the influence of another synchronizer, whose timing is independent of that imposed by mastication of solid food. PMID:2878787

  20. Diagnosis and management of neoplastic lesions of the submandibular triangle.

    PubMed

    Munir, Nazia; Bradley, Patrick J

    2008-03-01

    Review of submandibular triangle neoplasms (benign and malignant) treated at a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom (1986-2004). One hundred and seven cases identified via computerised search of histopathology records over the 18 year review period. Retrospective review clinical notes and collation with data maintained prospectively by the senior author. Forty nine benign and 58 malignant neoplasms of the submandibular triangle were reviewed. Definitive diagnosis was by excision and pathological examination. Pleomorphic adenoma (n=37) were the most common benign neoplasms. For malignant lesions (n=58), 48 were primary malignancies and 10 metastatic lesions. The most frequent primary lesions were malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=22), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=9) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=9). The mainstay treatment for both benign and malignant lesions was surgical either by extracapsular excision of the gland/lesion or selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection. The main post-operative complication was temporary weakness of the marginal mandibular nerve (13%). Submandibular triangle neoplasms are rare and pose many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. There is a relatively high incidence of malignant neoplasms in this region (54%). Benign tumours manifest a mild course of disease and have an excellent prognosis following adequate excision. Malignant tumours have a poor symptomatology that can result in late (often post-operative) diagnosis. The adequacy of primary surgery is crucial and would support the approach of a more radical excision primarily with a selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection; ensuring a definitive operation for benign lesions, avoiding the risks of tumour spillage associated with a more limited excision; and removing the primary echelon of lymph nodes at risk of metastasis if the pathology in fact turns out to be malignant; without a significantly higher morbidity in comparison with an extracapsular gland

  1. The effects of sustained delivery of diosgenin on the adrenal gland of female rats.

    PubMed

    Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle; Eckie, Rebecca; Hughes, James

    2003-01-01

    Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin, which is extracted from the root of Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa). It has been reported to have tremendous medical applications. In addition, as an herbal extract it appears to be free of any major adverse effects. Recently, Wild Yam has been used to minimize post-menopausal symptoms and is sold unregulated over the counter at a variety of pharmacy and health food stores. The specific objectives of this study were to continuously deliver diosgenin to adult ovariectomized female rats for 45 days and follow changes in body weight, organ weight and histopathological changes in the adrenal gland. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 54, 250-300 gm BW). Rats in group I served as the control group, animals in group II were ovariectomized and animals in group II were ovariectomized, and supplemented with tricalcium phosphate (TCP) drug delivery system loaded with 500 mg diosgenin. The results indicated that ovariectomized animals had a significant increase in body weight and spleen weights. Slight increases in wet adrenal weights were observed in the ovariectomized group compared to the control animals. Histopathological evaluation of the adrenal gland revealed an increase in the cortical and medullary adrenal areas of the ovariectomized group and a significant decrease in these areas in the diosgenin treated animals (p < 0.001). The information is considered important because reduction in adrenal mass may poses a potential for major endocrine complications. PMID:12724916

  2. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT. PMID:25975382

  3. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. Reinnervation of sweat glands in the rat hind paw following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bharali, L A; Burgess, S A; Lisney, S J; Pearson, D

    1988-08-01

    Electrophysiological experiments have been carried out to investigate the time course and extent of sweat gland reinnervation in the rat hind paw. The first evidence of functional reinnervation after nerve transection was obtained at 12 weeks, when the extent of innervation was 20% of that measured in control animals. By 20 weeks, reinnervation had reached almost 50% of control values but then there was no further improvement up to 52 weeks. These results are comparable to those for skin reinnervation by polymodal nociceptor afferents. PMID:3171090

  5. Detection of Expressional Changes Induced by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Developing Rat Mammary Gland via Exploratory Pathways Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beinder, Lea; Faehrmann, Nina; Wachtveitl, Rainer; Winterfeld, Ilona; Hartner, Andrea; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Rauh, Manfred; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Noegel, Stephanie C.; Doerr, Helmuth G.; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to lead to fetal programming that in turn contributes to developmental changes of many organs postnatally. There is evidence that IUGR is a risk factor for the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. A higher incidence of breast cancer was also observed after IUGR. This could be due to changes in mammary gland developmental pathways. We sought to characterise IUGR-induced alterations of the complex pathways of mammary development at the level of the transcriptome in a rat model of IUGR, using pathways analysis bioinformatics. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed the mammary glands of Wistar rats with IUGR induced by maternal low protein (LP) diet at the beginning (d21) and the end (d28) of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Mammary glands of the LP group were smaller in size at d28, however did not show morphologic changes. We identified multiple differentially expressed genes in the mammary gland using Agilent SurePrint arrays at d21 and d28. In silico analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. In mammary gland tissue of LP rats at d21 of life a prominent upregulation of WT1 and CDKN1A (p21) expression was observed. Differentially regulated genes were associated with the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-1/-2 pathway. Western Blot analysis showed reduced levels of phosphorylated ERK-1/-2 in the mammary glands of the LP group at d21. To identify possible changes in circulating steroid levels, serum LC-Tandem mass-spectrometry was performed. LP rats showed higher serum progesterone levels and an increased corticosterone/dehydrocorticosterone-ratio at d28. Conclusions/Significance Our data obtained from gene array analysis support the hypothesis that IUGR influences pubertal development of the rat mammary gland. We identified prominent differential regulation of genes and pathways for factors regulating cell cycle and growth. Moreover, we detected new

  6. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  7. Alteration in the D-amino acid content of the rat pineal gland under anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hamase, K; Homma, H; Takigawa, Y; Imai, K

    1999-01-01

    In a previous report (Hamase, K. et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1134: 214-222 (1997)), we showed that the rat pineal gland contains D-leucine (D-Leu) as well as D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). In this communication we report alterations in the content of these D-amino acids during anesthesia. The D-Asp content was significantly increased from 2.8 to 5.0, 4.8 and 5.8 nmol/pineal gland by administration of ether, urethane and pentobarbital, respectively. In contrast, the D-Leu content was decreased by administration of urethane or pentobarbital. The D-Leu content decreased from 4.2 to 2.2 pmol/pineal gland 4 hours after administration of urethane, although the content remained unchanged until 1.5 hours after administration. The content of the L-enantiomers of these amino acids were not affected by anesthesia. The urethane-induced decrease in D-leucine content was almost completely suppressed by a beta-agonist, (-)-isoproterenol, whereas the agonist itself had no effect. PMID:10582126

  8. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  9. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  10. Effect of sharply lowered muscular activity on the thyroid gland of the white rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekishev, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypokinesia on the thyroid gland of 200 white rats was studied. The rats were kept in 16x6x6 cm cages for 90 days. The functional activity of the thyroids increased after 24 hrs of partial immobilization and peaked after 15 days. After 30 days of immobilization, the functional activity returned to normal in one third of the test animals and after 60 days in all animals. After 15 days of immobilization, the test animals began to lose weight (in comparison to the controls) and remained underweight for the rest of the test period (up to 90 days). When returned to normal conditions, they caught up with and even overtook in weight the control animals after about 1 month. All changes produced by hypokinesia were reversible after 1 month.

  11. The Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cassandra R.; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C.; Akba, Alexander A.; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H.; Gangula, Pandu R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount and/or composition of saliva and often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes. Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females in the onset of diabetes. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of diabetes have yet to be determined. This study had two aims: 1. To determine whether protein expression and/or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (nNOS, eNOS) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia and 2. To determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression/dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (GTP Cyclohydrolase-1, Dihydrofolate reductase). Methods Functional and western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (type 1 diabetes) and control Sprague Dawley female rats using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. Results In diabetic female rats, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. Furthermore, our results show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. Conclusion Our results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in diabetes-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of NO-BH4 pathway may give insight to possible treatment options for the diabetic patient experiencing xerostomia. PMID:26777763

  12. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Cheryl J; George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11-12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  13. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    SciTech Connect

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S.; Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  15. The gene for the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone is expressed in the mammary gland of lactating rats.

    PubMed Central

    Palmon, A; Ben Aroya, N; Tel-Or, S; Burstein, Y; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1994-01-01

    The high concentration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in milk of several species implies that the mammary gland is either a site of synthesis for this neuropeptide or that it is efficiently concentrated from plasma by this organ. By PCR amplification of mammary gland cDNA, we have demonstrated expression of the mRNA for GnRH. The GnRH mRNA was present in the mammary gland of pregnant and lactating rats but not of virgin rats, implying that expression of the GnRH gene is activated during pregnancy, probably by prolactin. In contrast, actin mRNA was evident in all the preparations of mammary glands. Since GnRH is also known to be synthesized by the placenta, it is likely that the placenta and the mammary gland are complementary units by which the mother exercises control over the development and the metabolism of the infant during pregnancy as well as after parturition. In addition, GnRH synthesized by the mammary gland may also affect the mother by a paracrine and/or an endocrine mechanism. Images PMID:8197170

  16. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways. PMID:27038859

  17. Pharmacological characterization of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites in the rat submaxillary gland.

    PubMed

    Beaujouan, J C; Saffroy, M; Torrens, Y; Sagan, S; Glowinski, J

    1999-11-01

    Binding studies have shown that [125I]NKA is a selective ligand of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites from membranes of the rat submaxillary gland. Indeed, this ligand bound with high affinity to a single population of sites. In addition, competition studies indicated that natural tachykinins and tachykinin-related compounds had a similar affinity for these sites than for those labeled with [3H]ALIE-124, a selective ligand of septide-sensitive binding sites. Moreover, selective tachykinin NK2, or NK3 agonists or antagonists exhibited weak or no affinity for [125I]NKA binding sites. As indicated by Ki values of several compounds, the pharmacological characteristics of the septide-sensitive binding sites (labeled with [125I]NKA) largely differ from those of classic NK1 binding sites, as determined on crude synaptosomes from the rat brain using [125I]Bolton-Hunter substance P (SP) as ligand. Indeed, several tachykinins including neurokinin A (NKA), neuropeptide K (NPK), neuropeptide gamma (NKgamma), and neurokinin B, as well as some SP and NKA analogues or C-terminal fragments such as septide, ALIE-124, SP(6-11), NKA(4-10), which have a weak affinity for classic tachykinin NK1 binding sites exhibited a high affinity for the septide-sensitive binding sites. In contrast, SP, classic selective NK1 agonists, and antagonists had a high affinity for both types of binding sites. The presence of a large population of tachykinin septide-sensitive binding sites in the rat submaxillary gland may thus explain why NPK and NPgamma induce salivary secretion and may potentiate the SP-evoked response in spite of the absence of tachykinin NK2 receptors in this tissue. PMID:10612450

  18. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Schrott, Lisa; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  19. Soy protein isolate and estradiol differ in their effects on the mammary gland of weanling male and female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a casein diet from PND21 to PND33, the same diet substituting soy protein isol...

  20. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 UNC-Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 RTD, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, RTP,NC

    Prenatal exposure ...

  1. EXPOSURE PARAMETERS NECESSARY FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure Parameters Necessary For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine

    Jennifer L. Rayner1, 2, Carmen Wood2, and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Heal...

  2. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in mammary gland of pregnant rats and its regulation by ovarian hormones, prolactin and placental lactogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Deis, R P

    1984-01-01

    Ovariectomy and ovariectomy plus hysterectomy on day 18 of pregnancy increased gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in the mammary gland. The withdrawal of progesterone and the subsequent release of prolactin are responsible for the rise in enzyme activity. Rat placental lactogen in the absence of prolactin and progesterone is able to induce gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. PMID:6149746

  3. Early Effects of Blueberry and Concord Grape Intake on Rat Mammary Gland Development Suggest Potential Protective Mechanisms for Mammary Tumorigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberries (BB) and Concord grapes (CG) are rich in anthocyanins and other polyphenols, which may be linked to reduced incidence of chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We evaluated the early effects of dietary exposure to BB and CG on mammary glands of female rat offspring. ...

  4. Prolactin Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Initiation of Mammary Gland Involution in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Rieanrakwong, Duangjai; Laoharatchatathanin, Titaree; Terashima, Ryota; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2016-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that mammary gland involution after lactation is initiated by accumulation of milk in alveoli after weaning. Here, we report that involution is also dependent on mammary GnRH expression that is suppressed by PRL during lactation. Reduction of plasma prolactin (PRL) by the withdrawal of suckling stimuli increased GnRH and annexin A5 (ANXA5) expression in the mammary tissues after lactation with augmentation of epithelial apoptosis. Intramammary injection of a GnRH antagonist suppressed ANXA5 expression and apoptosis of epithelial cells after forcible weaning at midlactation, whereas local administration of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) caused apoptosis of epithelial cells with ANXA5 augmentation in lactating rats. The latter treatment also decreased mammary weight, milk production, and casein accumulation. Mammary mast cells were strongly immunopositive for GnRH and the number increased in the mammary tissues after weaning. GnRHa was shown to be a chemoattractant for mast cells by mammary local administration of GnRHa and Boyden chamber assay. PRL suppressed the mammary expression of both ANXA5 and GnRH mRNA. It also decreased mast cell numbers in the gland after lactation. These results are the first to demonstrate that GnRH, synthesized locally in the mammary tissues, is required for mammary involution after lactation. GnRH is also suggested to introduce mast cells into the regressing mammary gland and would be in favor of tissue remodeling. The suppression of these processes by PRL is a novel physiological function of PRL. PMID:27175971

  5. Thyrotropin-dependence of the distribution of peroxidase in rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, S; Mihara, S; Hosoya, T

    1981-04-01

    After male rats were injected daily with propylthiouracil, whale thyrotropin, or thyroxine for several days, the thyroid glands were examined for their ultrastructural localization of peroxidase. The propylthiouracil treatment caused a marked increase in the number of round, peroxidase-positive vesicles in the apical and middle regions of cytoplasm, and brought about a formation of granular reaction products in the colloid lumen adjacent to the elongated microvilli. Such changes became evident after 2 days of the drug treatment and increased with the time of the effect, until the whole colloid lumen was filled with the reaction products and very elongated microvilli. The effect of exogenous thyrotropin was essentially similar, to a lesser degree, to the drug effect mentioned above. The thyroxine treatment diminished the population of the small vesicles, as usually seen in the case of normal rat thyroids. When the thyroids of thyrotropin-stimulated and unstimulated rats were homogenized and fractionated into particulates fractions and a soluble fraction, almost all the peroxidase activity was contained in the former in both cases. Based on these results, the dynamics and the physiological role of the intracellular peroxidase are discussed. PMID:7256734

  6. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  7. Radioprotective effects of lycopene and curcumin during local irradiation of parotid glands in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Gómez-García, Francisco; García Carrillo, Nuria; Valle-Rodríguez, Ezkai; Xerafin, Ana; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Radiotherapy effectively treats cancers of the head and neck. We investigated the possible protective effects of lycopene and curcumin on the parotid glands of 40 female Sprague Dawley rats during irradiation. The study followed European Union regulations 86/609/EEC, 2010/63/EU for animal experimentation. The animals were divided into 4 groups: those treated with curcumin and radiation, those treated with lycopene and radiation, those treated with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and radiation, and those treated with radiation alone. All compounds were given intraperitoneally the day before irradiation. The total dose of radiation was 20Gy. Morphological and histopathological analyses showed less cell necrosis in the group treated with curcumin than in the other groups, but the difference was not significant. Analysis of structural damage to the parotid ducts and vacuolisation showed significant differences among all groups (p=0.023, p<0.01). Lycopene and curcumin given 24 hours before irradiation reduced the structural damage to the salivary glands. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26830066

  8. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  9. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  10. Neurochemical evidence for the presence of sympathetic nerve terminals in the rat mammary gland: Changes during the lactogenic cycle.

    PubMed

    Donoso, E A; Sapag-Hagar, M; Lara, H E

    1992-02-01

    Experiments were undertaken to obtain neurochemical evidence of the presence of sympathetic nerve terminals in the rat mammary gland and the changes occurring in them during the lactogenic cycle. The norepinephrine (NE) content of the gland changed during the lactogenic cycle. Higher levels of NE were found during virginity and involution, whereas a lower level was found at 14 days of lactation. Surgical and chemical (with 6-hydroxydopamine) denervation reduced the norepinephrine content of the gland by 61 and 90%, respectively. Uptake of [(3)H]norepinephrine by the mammary gland was saturable and specifically blocked by cocaine. No changes in the maximal capacity of incorporation during the lactogenic cycle were found, but the affinity of NE for the transmembrane carrier was low during lactation, as was the NE content, suggesting a decrease in the sympathetic nerve activity during this stage of the lactogenic cycle. In support of this, we found a decrease in total NE released after stimulation with 80 mM KCI. The neurochemical evidence obtained during this research strongly suggests that rat mammary gland is innervated by sympathetic nerves and that their activity changes during the lactogenic cycle. PMID:19912841

  11. Maintenance of the Extracellular Matrix in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland: Identification of Cells Expressing Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Morio; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Maliza, Rita; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components. PMID:26855451

  12. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  13. Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure Induces Preneoplastic Lesions in the Mammary Gland in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durando, Milena; Kass, Laura; Piva, Julio; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Luque, Enrique H.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    Background Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic compound that leaches from dental materials, food and beverage containers, and other consumer products. Prenatal exposure to BPA has produced long-lasting and profound effects on rodent hormone-dependent tissues that are manifested 1–6 months after the end of exposure. Objective The aim of the present work was to examine whether in utero exposure to BPA alters mammary gland development and increases its susceptibility to the carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to BPA (25 μg/kg body weight per day) or to vehicle. Female offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day (PND) 30, 50, 110, or 180. On PND50 a group of rats received a single subcarcinogenic dose of NMU (25 mg/kg) and they were sacrificed on either PND110 or PND180. Results At puberty, animals exposed prenatally to BPA showed an increased proliferation/apoptosis ratio in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. During adulthood (PND110 and PND180), BPA-exposed animals showed an increased number of hyperplastic ducts and augmented stromal nuclear density. Moreover, the stroma associated with hyperplastic ducts showed signs of desmoplasia and contained an increased number of mast cells, suggesting a heightened risk of neoplastic transformation. Administration of a subcarcinogenic dose of NMU to animals exposed prenatally to BPA increased the percentage of hyperplastic ducts and induced the development of neoplastic lesions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the prenatal exposure to low doses of BPA perturbs mammary gland histoarchitecture and increases the carcinogenic susceptibility to a chemical challenge administered 50 days after the end of BPA exposure. PMID:17366824

  14. Rhythmic expression of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans G; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Abarzua-Catalan, Lorena; Henriquez, Mauricio G; Alvarez-Felmer, Mauro; Gaete, Fernando; Rehren, German E; Seron-Ferre, Maria

    2008-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that melatonin is involved in the regulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production in diurnal primates through activation of MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptors. However, whether melatonin has a similar role in nocturnal rodents remains unclear. Using an integrative approach, here we show that the adult rat adrenal gland expresses a functional MT1 melatonin receptor in a rhythmic fashion. We found that: 1) expression of the cognate mRNA encoding for the MT1 membrane-bound melatonin receptor, displaying higher levels in the day/night transition (1800-2200 h); 2) expression of the predicted 37-kDa MT1 polypeptide in immunoblots from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 1000 h; 3) no expression of the MT2 melatonin receptor mRNA and protein; 4) specific high-affinity 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin binding in membrane fractions and frozen sections from adrenals collected at 2200 h but not 0800 h (dissociation constant = 14.22 +/- 1.23 pm; maximal binding capacity = 0.88 +/- 0.02 fmol/mg protein); and 5) in vitro clock time-dependent inhibition of ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production by 1-100 nm melatonin, which was reversed by 1 microm luzindole (a melatonin membrane receptor antagonist). Our findings indicate not only expression but also high amplitude diurnal variation of functional MT1 melatonin receptors in the rat adrenal gland. It is conceivable that plasma melatonin may play a role to fine-tune corticosterone production in nocturnal rodents, probably contributing to the down slope of the corticosterone rhythm. PMID:18039783

  15. An Herbal Galactagogue Mixture Increases Milk Production and Aquaporin Protein Expression in the Mammary Glands of Lactating Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haibin; Hua, Ying; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Tao, Xuejiao

    2015-01-01

    Background. Herbal galactagogues have been increasingly used to treat postpartum hypogalactia. The mechanism of action of herbal galactagogues remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an herbal galactagogue mixture on milk production and aquaporin (AQP) expression in lactating rats. Methods. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into virgin, lactating + H2O, and lactating + galactagogue groups (n = 10 per group). Lactating rats were administered the decoction of an herbal galactagogue mixture by oral gavage or the same amount of distilled water. Results. The herbal decoction significantly increased milk production in lactating rats (P < 0.05). Both immunohistochemical staining and western blot showed that protein levels of AQP-3 and AQP-5 were significantly increased during lactation compared with virgin stage and the herbal decoction further elevated their expression (P < 0.05). AQP-1 was predominantly expressed in the capillaries whereas AQP-3 and AQP-5 were mainly detected in the epithelial cells and ducts of the mammary glands. Conclusion. The expression of AQPs in the mammary glands of rats was developmentally regulated. Herbal galactagogues might have increased milk secretion by regulating the expression and function of AQPs in the mammary glands. PMID:26075000

  16. Lactation stage-dependent expression of transporters in rat whole mammary gland and primary mammary epithelial organoids.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Samuel E; Alcorn, Jane

    2010-04-01

    Since solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play pivotal roles in the transport of both nutrients and drugs into breast milk, drug-nutrient transport interactions at the lactating mammary gland are possible. Our purpose was to characterize lactation stage-dependent changes in transporter expression in rat mammary gland and isolated mammary epithelial organoids (MEO) to provide additional insight for the safe use of maternal medications during breastfeeding. We used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess the temporal expression patterns of SLC and ABC transporters in rat mammary gland and isolated MEO at different stages of lactation. In whole mammary gland five distinct patterns of expression emerged relative to late gestation: (i) decreasing throughout lactation (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Octn2, Ent2, Ent3, Ncbt2, Mtx1); (ii) prominent increase in early lactation, which may remain elevated or decline with advancing lactation (Octn1, Cnt2, Cnt3, Ent1, Pept1, Pept2); (iii) constant but decreasing later in lactation (Octn3, Dmt1); (iv) increasing until mid-to-late lactation (Oct1, Cnt1); and (v) prominent increase late in lactation (Ncbt1). In isolated MEO (an enriched source of mammary epithelial cells) major differences in expression patterns were noted for Octn3, Ncbt1, and Mtx1, but otherwise were reasonably similar with the whole mammary gland. In conclusion our study augments existing data on transporter expression in the lactating mammary gland. These data should facilitate investigations into lactation-stage dependent changes in drug or nutrient milk-to-serum concentration ratios, the potential for drug- or disease-transporter interactions, and mechanistic studies of transporter function in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:19702690

  17. Atrial natriuretic factor receptors in rat kidney, adrenal gland, and brain: Autoradiographic localization and fluid balance dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, David R.; Braas, Karen M.; Snyder, Soloman H.

    1986-01-01

    Mammalian atria contain natriuretic peptides designated atrial natriuretic factors (ANF). Using in vitro autoradiography with 125I-labeled ANF, we have localized high-affinity (Kd = 150 pM) ANF binding sites to the glomeruli of the kidney, zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, and choroid plexus of the brain. The numbers of sites in both kidney and adrenal are increased in rats deprived of water; increases are detectable within 72 hr of water deprivation in the kidney and within 24 hr in the adrenal gland. Receptor numbers decline in rats given 2.0% NaCl as drinking water and in diabetic rats. The discrete localizations and dynamic alterations of these receptors suggest that ANF regulates fluid balance through diverse but coordinated effects on receptors in numerous organs including the kidney, adrenal, and brain. Images PMID:3010291

  18. Effects on high cholesterol-fed to liver, retina, hippocampus, and Harderian gland in Goto-Kakizaki rat

    PubMed Central

    Kengkoom, Kanchana; Klinkhamhom, Aekkarin; Sirimontaporn, Aunchalee; Singha, Ornuma; Ketjareon, Taweesak; Panavechkijkul, Yaowaluk; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Ukong, Suluck; Ampawong, Sumate

    2013-01-01

    To understand the relationship among cholesterolemia, hyperglycemic stage in non obese type 2 diabetes mellitus, and histological perturbations on liver, retina, hippocampus, and Harderian gland, we maintained rat on a diet high in cholesterol for fourteen weeks, then analyzed blood lipid profiles, blood glucose, hepatic enzymes, and microscopic lesion of those tissues. We observed that high cholesterol-treated rat elevated in cholesterol and low density lipoprotein with not correlated to hyperglycemia. Histopathological changing in Goto-Kakizaki rat on liver (microvesicular steatosis) and Harderain gland (tubular lesions) were related to hyperglycemic effect rather than cholesterolemic effect. These may be related to hypoinsulinemic characteristic of this diabetic model. However increasing pyknotic nuclei on hippocampus and reducing of retinal ganglionic cell were related to the high level of cholesterol loaded with synergized effect due to diabetic stage. PMID:23573310

  19. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M.; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night. PMID:18705647

  20. Hormonal influence on the secretory immune system of the eye: androgen control of secretory component production by the rat exorbital gland.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D A; Bloch, K J; Allansmith, M R

    1984-01-01

    Androgens are known to regulate the level of secretory component (SC) in tears of male rats. The purpose of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanism of this hormone action by (i) identifying the ocular tissue(s) involved in SC production; and (ii) determining whether androgens increase SC production by this tissue. We also examined whether androgen administration influenced the concentration of SC in tears of female rats. Ocular tissues from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in the presence or absence of cycloheximide in the incubation medium. Secretory component in the culture media was measured by an RIA which detects primarily free SC. Analysis of media obtained after incubation of exorbital (lacrimal) glands, 'lid' tissues, globes, and Harderian glands revealed that only exorbital glands released substantial amounts of SC. This exorbital gland production of SC, which was significantly greater in tissues from male rats, as compared to those of female rats, was reduced by approximately 50% when cycloheximide was present in the culture medium. To determine whether SC production by exorbital glands was influenced by androgens, orchiectomized glands was influenced by androgens, orchiectomized rats were administered either saline or testosterone (2.0 mg/day for 4 days), and exorbital glands were cultured 24 hr after the last injection. Testosterone treatment in vivo induced a significant, cycloheximide-sensitive increase in SC production in vitro, compared to the glandular SC output of saline-injected controls. It is interesting that similar androgen treatment of ovariectomized females also resulted in elevated tear SC concentrations and enhanced output of SC by their exorbital glands in vitro. These findings indicate that the exorbital gland is primarily responsible for SC production in the rat eye and that androgens may modulate the synthesis of SC in this gland. PMID:6735436

  1. [Oxidative stress development in the tissues of salivary glands of rats in conditions of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity].

    PubMed

    Hordiienko, L P; Berehova, T V; Neporada, K S; Falalieieva, T M

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of damage of salivary glands under obesity are an insufficiently studied problem of modem medicine. On experimental model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate, free-radical processes and antioxidant defense system were studied in the tissues of salivary glands of rats. Under experimental obesity induced by monosodium glutamate there is a significant increase of the content of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, it indicates to the misbalance of prooxidant and antioxidant systems and the development of oxidative stress. PMID:25335241

  2. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated (Tyr(125I)10)VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function.

  3. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3 × 24 h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups. PMID:24080597

  4. Association between microtubules and Golgi vesicles isolated from rat parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Raymond, M N

    1990-01-01

    We report an isolation procedure of trans-Golgi vesicles (GVs) from rat parotid glands. Various organelle markers were used, particularly galactosyl transferase as a trans-Golgi marker, to test the purity of the GV fraction. A quantitative in vitro binding assay between microtubules and GVs is described. The vesicles were incubated with taxol-induced microtubules, layered between 50% and 43% sucrose cushions and subjected to centrifugation. Unlike free microtubules which were sedimented, the GV-bound microtubules co-migrated upward with GVs. Quantification of these bound microtubules was carried out by densitometric scanning of Coomassie blue-stained gels. The association between microtubules and GVs followed a saturation curve, with a plateau value of 20 micrograms of microtubule protein bound to 500 micrograms of GV fraction. The half-saturation of the GV sites was obtained with a microtubule concentration of 20 micrograms/ml. Electron microscopy of negatively stained re-floated material showed numerous microtubule-vesicle complexes. Coating of microtubules with an excess of brain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) abolished binding. In the absence of exogenous microtubules, we showed that the GV fraction was already interacting with a class of endogenous rat parotid microtubules. This class of colcemid and cold-stable microtubules represents 10-20% of the total tubulin content of the parotid cell. PMID:1983303

  5. Regulated phosphorylation of secretory granule membrane proteins of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, C.R.; Castle, J.D.; Gorelick, F.S. )

    1990-07-01

    An antiserum raised against purified rat parotid secretory granule membrane proteins has been used to identify organelle-specific protein phosphorylation events following stimulation of intact cells from the rat parotid gland. After lobules were prelabeled with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate and exposed to secretagogues, phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated with the granule membrane protein antiserum, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and visualized by autoradiography. Parallel studies of stimulated amylase release were performed. Isoproterenol treatment of parotid lobules resulted in an increase in the phosphate content of immunoprecipitable 60- and 72-kDa proteins that correlated with amylase release in a time-dependent manner. Forskolin addition mimicked these effects, but only the isoproterenol effects were reversed by propranolol treatment. To confirm the specificity of the antiserum to the secretory granule membrane fraction, subcellular isolation techniques were employed following in situ phosphorylation. The 60- and 72-kDa phosphoproteins were immunoprecipitated from both a particulate fraction and a purified secretory granule fraction. Furthermore, the extraction properties of both species suggest that they are integral membrane proteins. These findings support the possibility that stimulus-regulated secretion may involve phosphorylation of integral membrane proteins of the exocrine secretory granule.

  6. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases. PMID:19926183

  7. Cellular carbohydrate components in human, rabbit and rat lacrimal gland. Studies using fluorescein and peroxidase labelled lectins.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Grierson, I

    1989-01-01

    Orbital lacrimal glands from adult male and female rabbits, rats and humans were examined for the presence of intracellular receptors of four lectins: concanavalin-A agglutinin, lutus tetragonolobus agglutinin, ricinus comunis-60 agglutinin and wheat-germ agglutinin using fluorescein-conjugated lectin and peroxidase labelling methods for fluorescence and electron microscopy, respectively. Lectins were used as specific probes to detect carbohydrate moiety of the lacrimal gland. The pattern of labelling with the lectins suggests that N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galactose, D-mannose, sialic acid and L-fucose are contained in the lacrimal gland of the three species. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:2920911

  8. Dietary copper can regulate the level of mRNA for dopamine B-hydroxylase in rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sabban, E.L.; Failla, M.L.; McMahon, A.; Seidel, K.E. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Recent studies have shown that Cu deficiency markedly alters the levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in several peripheral tissues of rodents. Conversion of DA to NE is mediated by dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBM). Here the authors examined the effect of dietary Cu deficiency on the levels of DA, NE and DBM mRNA in rat adrenal gland. Severe Cu deficiency was induced by feeding low Cu diet to dams beginning at 17d gestation and weaning pups to the same diet. At 7 wks of age rats fed {minus}Cu diet were characterized by depressed growth, low tissue Cu, enlarged hearts and moderate anemia. Concentrations of DA were higher in adrenals and hearts of {minus}Cu rats compared to +Cu controls. While cardiac level of NE in {minus}Cu rats were reduced to 17% that of controls, adrenal NE was unchanged by Cu deficiency. To investigate possible mechanisms responsible for the response of adrenal gland to Cu deficiency, RNA was isolated and the levels of DBH mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blots. Steady state levels of adrenal DBH mRNA was increased 2-3 fold in {minus}Cu rats, whereas TH mRNA were unchanged by dietary Cu status. Upon feeding the {minus}Cu rats the Cu adequate diet overnight, there was a further increase in DBH mRNA and a slight elevation of TH mRNA levels. The results indicate that dietary copper can markedly affect the level of DBH mRNA in rat adrenal gland.

  9. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3-72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. PMID:25691451

  10. Effect of age on the sensitivity of the rat thyroid gland to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio; Kurashige, Tomomi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood is a well-known risk factor for thyroid cancer. Our study evaluated the effect of age on the radiosensitivity of rat thyroid glands. Four-week-old (4W), 7 -week-old (7W), and 8-month-old (8M) male Wistar rats were exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body X-ray irradiation. Thyroids were removed 3–72 h after irradiation, and non-irradiated thyroids served as controls. Ki67-positivity and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) focus formation (a DNA damage response) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Amounts of proteins involved in DNA damage response (p53, p53 phosphorylated at serine 15, p21), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (LC3, p62) were determined via western blotting. mRNA levels of 84 key autophagy-related genes were quantified using polymerase chain reaction arrays. Ki67-positive cells in 4W (with high proliferative activity) and 7W thyroids significantly decreased in number post-irradiation. The number of 53BP1 foci and amount of p53 phosphorylated at serine 15 increased 3 h after irradiation, regardless of age. No increase in apoptosis or in the levels of p53, p21 or cleaved caspase-3 was detected for any ages. Levels of LC3-II and p62 increased in irradiated 4W but not 8M thyroids, whereas expression of several autophagy-related genes was higher in 4W than 8M irradiated thyroids. Irradiation increased the expression of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins in both 4W and 8M thyroids. In summary, no apoptosis or p53 accumulation was noted, despite the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes in immature and adult thyroids. Irradiation induced autophagy in immature, but not in adult, rat thyroids. PMID:25691451

  11. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of benzene in Zymbal gland and other key target tissues after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Norris, K J; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-01-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic oral administration of benzene. The cause for the specificity of such lesions remains unclear, but it is possible that tissue-specific metabolism or pharmacokinetics of benzene is responsible. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in our laboratory with 14C-benzene at oral doses of 0.15 to 500 mg/kg to ascertain tissue retention, metabolite profile, and elimination kinetics in target and nontarget organs and in blood. Findings from those studies indicate the following: a) the Zymbal gland is not a sink or a site of accumulation for benzene or its metabolites even after a single high dose (500 mg/kg) or after repeated oral administration; b) the metabolite profile is quantitatively different in target tissues (e.g., Zymbal gland, nasal cavity), nontarget tissues and blood; and (c) pharmacokinetic studies show that the elimination of radioactivity from the Zymbal gland is biphasic. PMID:2792043

  12. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of benzene in Zymbal gland and other key target tissues after oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Norris, K J; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1989-07-01

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic oral administration of benzene. The cause for the specificity of such lesions remains unclear, but it is possible that tissue-specific metabolism or pharmacokinetics of benzene is responsible. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in our laboratory with 14C-benzene at oral doses of 0.15 to 500 mg/kg to ascertain tissue retention, metabolite profile, and elimination kinetics in target and nontarget organs and in blood. Findings from those studies indicate the following: a) the Zymbal gland is not a sink or a site of accumulation for benzene or its metabolites even after a single high dose (500 mg/kg) or after repeated oral administration; b) the metabolite profile is quantitatively different in target tissues (e.g., Zymbal gland, nasal cavity), nontarget tissues and blood; and (c) pharmacokinetic studies show that the elimination of radioactivity from the Zymbal gland is biphasic. PMID:2792043

  13. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Raquel; Wang, Richard; Russo, Irma H; Mailo, Daniel A; Lamartiniere, Coral A; Russo, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20) to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days). Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days), becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland. PMID:18062813

  14. Studies on the volume and the activity of the parathyroid glands in osteoporosis of disuse in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Sevastikoglou, J A; Mattsson, S

    1976-01-01

    Inactivity of the right hind leg was brought about in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a) immobilisation in a plaster cast and b) by resection of the sciatic nerve. Determinations of the volume and the activity of the parathyroid glands by morphological methods showed that the parathyroids were, on the whole, not affected by the treatment. Some significant differences observed in some examined parameters should, however, suggest hypofunction of the glands. The serum-calcium level was significantly higher in the treated than in the control rats in the first experiment. No significant differences in serum calcium between treated and control animals were observed in the second experiment. These observations were considered to indicate that the development of localised osteoporosis in these two forms of inactivity did not depend on hyperactivity of the parathyroids. The observed differences in serum-calcium content between the two experiments may suggest that localised osteoporosis in the two cases developed through different pathomechanisms. PMID:1070896

  15. Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Promote Formation of the Ex Vivo Niche for Salivary Gland Epithelial Cell Growth, Matrix Formation, and Retention of Differentiated Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-Xian; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Lin, Alan L.; Wang, Hanzhou; Pilia, Marcello; Ong, Joo L.; Dean, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction often results from a number of causes, including the use of various medications, radiation for head and neck tumors, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and aging. Since treatments for this condition are lacking and adult salivary glands have little regenerative capacity, there is a need for cell-based therapies to restore salivary gland function. Development of these treatment strategies requires the establishment of a system that is capable of replicating the salivary gland cell “niche” to support the proliferation and differentiation of salivary gland progenitor cells. In this study, a culture system using three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds (SFS) and primary salivary gland epithelial cells (pSGECs) from rat submandibular (SM) gland and parotid gland (PG) was established and characterized. pSGECs grown on SFS, but not tissue culture plastic (TCP), formed aggregates of cells with morphological features resembling secretory acini. High levels of amylase were released into the media by both cell types after extended periods in culture on SFS. Remarkably, cultures of PG-derived cells on SFS, but not SM cells, responded to isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, with increased enzyme release. This behavior mimics that of the salivary glands in vivo. Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) formed by pSGECs in culture on SFS contained type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. These results demonstrate that pSGECs grown on SFS, but not TCP, retain important functional and structural features of differentiated salivary glands and produce an ECM that mimics the native salivary gland cell niche. These results demonstrate that SFS has potential as a scaffold for creating the salivary gland cell niche in vitro and may provide an approach for inducing multipotent stem cells to provide therapeutically meaningful numbers of salivary gland progenitor cells for regenerating these tissues in patients. PMID:25625623

  16. Metabolic activation of phenacetin in rat nasal mucosa: dose-dependent binding to the glands of Bowman

    SciTech Connect

    Brittebo, E.B.

    1987-03-01

    The metabolism and binding of the analgetic drug (ring-/sup 3/H)phenacetin in the nasal mucosa were studied in vitro and in vivo in male Sprague-Dawley rats. As shown by whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography there was an irreversible binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa after high but not after low doses of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. In the other tissues, the distribution of radioactivity was not changed when the dose was increased. Autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)-acetaminophen showed no preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa. At incubation of nasal septa with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin in vitro, a binding of metabolites to the glands of Bowman was observed indicating that the metabolism occurred in situ. In rats, glutathione (GSH) depleted by pretreatment with phorone, there was a binding to the glands of Bowman in the olfactory mucosa also after a trace dose of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. Addition of GSH decreased the irreversible binding of (/sup 3/H)phenacetin metabolites that occurred in 9000 X g nasal mucosa supernatants incubated with (/sup 3/H)phenacetin. There was a moderate decrease in the level of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH, in the olfactory mucosa after administration of 100-300 mg/kg phenacetin. Collectively, these data suggest that phenacetin is metabolized and subsequent to GSH depletion, bound preferentially in the glands of Bowman. The data also suggest that in situ metabolic activation and binding of phenacetin in the rat nasal mucosa at high doses may play a role in the pathogenesis of the nasal tumors induced by high doses of phenacetin in the rat.

  17. Effect of ayurvedic medicines on beta-glucuronidase activity of Brunner's glands during recovery from cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Nadar, T S; Pillai, M M

    1989-11-01

    Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands. It can be concluded that Ayurvedic medicines used do not act as antacid but improve the secretory status of Brunner's glands involved in the protection against duodenal ulcer. PMID:2620935

  18. Pseudophosphorylated prolactin (S179D PRL) inhibits growth and promotes beta-casein gene expression in the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Kuo, C Benson; Wu, Wei; Xu, Xiaolei; Yang, Lili; Chen, Cyndi; Coss, Djurdjica; Birdsall, Ben; Nasseri, Dorsa; Walker, Ameae M

    2002-09-01

    We have investigated the individual roles of unmodified prolactin (U-PRL) and a mimic of phosphorylated PRL (S179D PRL) in mammary development. Recombinant versions of the PRLs were delivered to rats throughout pregnancy at a rate of 6 microg/24 h per rat and to non-pregnant females at a rate of 24 microg/24 h per rat. Measurement of progesterone, corticosterone, and estradiol showed no effect of the administered PRLs on the levels of these other mammotropic hormones. Histological and morphometric analysis showed U-PRL to cause mammary growth, whereas S179D PRL inhibited growth. Molecular analysis demonstrated decreased beta-casein expression in the mammary glands of the U-PRL-treated animals at term and increased beta-casein expression in the mammary glands of the S179D PRL-treated animals. Superior beta-casein gene expression in response to S179D PRL versus U-PRL was confirmed in HC11 cells. We conclude that U-PRL is important for growth, whereas S179D PRL promotes at least one measure of differentiated function in the mammary gland. PMID:12195299

  19. Cell-specific expression of the glucocorticoid receptor within granular convoluted tubules of the rat submaxillary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Antakly, T.; Zhang, C.X.; Sarrieau, A.; Raquidan, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The submaxillary gland, a heterogeneous tissue composed essentially of two functionally distinct cell types (tubular epithelial and acinar), offers an interesting system in which to study the mechanisms of steroid-dependent growth and differentiation. One cell type, the granular convoluted tubular (GCT) cell, secretes a large number of physiologically important polypeptides, including epidermal and nerve growth factors. Two steroids, androgens and glucocorticoids, greatly influence the growth, differentiation, and secretory activity of GCT cells. Because glucocorticoids can partially mimic or potentiate androgen effects, it has been thought that glucocorticoids act via androgen receptors. Since the presence of glucocorticoid receptors is a prerequisite for glucocorticoid action, we have investigated the presence and cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the rat submaxillary gland. Binding experiments using (3H)dexamethasone revealed the presence of high affinity binding sites in rat submaxillary tissue homogenates. Most of these sites were specifically competed by dexamethasone, corticosterone, and a pure glucocorticoid agonist RU 28362. Neither testosterone nor dihydrotestosterone competed for glucocorticoid binding. The cellular distribution of glucocorticoid receptors within the submaxillary gland was investigated by immunocytochemistry, using two highly specific glucocorticoid receptor antibodies. The receptor was localized in the GCT cells, but not in the acinar cells of rat and mouse submaxillary tissue sections. In GCT cells, the glucocorticoid receptor colocalized with several secretory polypeptides, including epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, alpha 2u-globulin, and atrial natriuretic factor.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Effect of the growth hormone-secreting tumor StW5 on pituitary and adrenal gland function in rats.

    PubMed

    Coyne, M D; Alpert, L C; Harter, K C; Nunez, A

    1981-01-01

    A growth hormone-secreting tumor (StW5 was implanted into male rats and resulted in a tripling of adrenal weight concomitant with a 30% decrement in pituitary weight. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone in tumor-bearing (TB) rats were significantly elevated at rest or after ACTH injections or the stress of either anesthesia. The rise in plasma concentrations of corticosterone was due mainly to the large increment in adrenal size although a significant increase in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was demonstrated in vitro. In addition, plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in TB rats despite both a doubling of the blood volume and a 50% increase in liver capacity to metabolize corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH content was significantly lower in TB rats, but these pituitary glands could still release near-normal quantities of ACTH as shown both by in vitro incubations and adrenal corticosterone output following ether stress. PMID:6266940

  2. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Using a fractionator-physical disector method, we found reduced total numbers of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells (p < 0.05), accompanied by a decrease (p < 0.05) in serum concentrations of FSH and LH, while the relative intensity of FSH and LH immunofluorescence remained unchanged in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring prenatally exposed to Dx. The data document that overexposure to Dx during fetal development evokes developmental programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function. PMID:26950885

  3. Expression of estrogen receptor subtypes in rat pituitary gland during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Colette; Chesnel, Franck; Schausi, Diane; Tiffoche, Christophe; Thieulant, Marie-Lise

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the expression levels of mRNA of the three estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha, ERbeta, and truncated ER product-1 (TERP-1) found in the rat pituitary gland were modified during gestation, lactation, and postlactation periods. By using relative quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERalpha mRNA significantly peaked in midpregnancy. However, the ERalpha protein level remained constant. ERbeta gene expression did not change throughout pregnancy, suggesting that it was not related to estradiol levels during this reproductive period. In contrast, both TERP-1 mRNA and protein levels dramatically increased throughout the second half of gestation, being faintly detectable in early pregnancy. TERP-1 expression was rapidly reversed by lactation, whereas neither pituitary ERalpha nor ERbeta relative levels were significantly altered. In addition, pup removal for 24-96 h on d 9 postpartum significantly reduced the expression of both ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA compared with that in lactating animals, but the expression of TERP-1 mRNA was no longer detected. Collectively, our data indicate that 1) TERP-1, ERalpha, and ERbeta expression levels are differentially regulated in the pituitary; 2) TERP-1 is variably expressed depending on the hormonal environment related to the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and lactation; and 3) TERP-1/ERalpha ratios dramatically change depending on reproductive periods, suggesting a critical role for TERP-1 in reproductive events. PMID:12399419

  4. Quantitative analysis of microvessels in rat circumventricular organs and pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, J.; Gross, P.; Sposito, N.; Pettersen, S.; Blasberg, R.; Patlak, C.; Butler, A.

    1986-03-01

    The cerebral circumventricular organs (CVOs) and pituitary gland (PG) purportedly have dense, highly permeable capillary beds which allow for ready blood-tissue exchange of messenger molecules. Quantitation of various morphological and physiological features of the capillaries with CVOs and PG plus some brain structures which have tight or blood-brain barrier (BBB) capillaries was undertaken in rats using several radiolabeled markers, quantitative autoradiography, image analysis, and light and electron microscopic morphometry. Microvascular blood volumes in CVOs and PG were several times larger than in other brain areas (54-70 ..mu../g and 5-8 ..mu../g, respectively). Capillary density and surface area were generally much greater in CVOs and PG than in gray matter; however the highest values for these two parameters were found for the pituitary neural lobe (NL) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), which has BBB capillaries. The rate of capillary blood flow was highest in NL and was similar in the subfornical organ, median eminence, cerebral cortex and SON (1.5 ml/g/min). The transcapillary exchange of several markers was 200-500 times greater in CVOs and NL than in BBB capillaries.

  5. Characterization of the substance P receptor on the rat submaxillary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Bahouth, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Its actions include vasodilation, intestinal contraction, salivation and probably nocioception, effects which are thought to be mediated by receptors. To characterize SP receptors, the binding of (/sup 3/H)SP and (/sup 3/H)physalaemin to rat submaxillary gland membranes and the effects of monovalent cations under conditions in which the peptides are protected from degradation and nonspecific adsorption to the filter were studied. In low ionic strength media (0.3 M sucrose) (/sup 3/H)SP binds to two sites, a high affinity one with an affinity (K/sub D/) = 0.14 nM and a receptor density (B/sub max/) = 370 fmole/mg, and a low affinity-high capacity site with a K/sub D/ = 1400 nM and B/sub max/ = 24,000 fmole/mg. Under these conditions physalaemin, which is about twice as potent as SP as a sialogogue, had one hundredth the potency of SP in competing with (/sup 3/H)SP, with an IC/sub 50/ = 150 nM. The increase in the ionic strength of the binding medium had a profound effect on the binding of (/sup 3/H)SP. The addition of monovalent cations reduced the non specific binding by 90%, abolished the low affinity-high capacity site and decreased the K/sub D/ of (/sup 3/H)SP.

  6. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  7. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  8. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  9. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  10. Studies on acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase from rat mammary gland and mammary tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, P M; Feltman, D S; Ahmad, F

    1982-01-01

    The activities of two lipogenic enzymes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, were determined in two transplantable mammary adenocarcinomas (13762 and R3230AC) carried by non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats, and in mammary tissue of control animals (non-tumour-carrying) of comparable physiological states. During mammary-gland differentiation of control or tumour-carrying animals, the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in the lactating gland increased by about 40--50-fold over the values found in non-pregnant animals. On the other hand, in tumours carried by lactating dams there were only modest increases (1.5--2-fold) in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase compared with the neoplasms carried by non-pregnant animals. On the basis of the Km values for different substrates and immunodiffusion and immunotitration data, the fatty acid synthase of neoplastic tissues appeared to be indistinguishable from the control mammary-gland enzyme. However, a comparison of the immunotitration and immunodiffusion experiments indicated that the mammary-gland acetyl-CoA carboxylase might differ from the enzyme present in mammary neoplasms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6130760

  11. Selective accumulation of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin in steroid-synthesizing cells of the rat adrenal gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Deubzer, Hedwig; Holloschi, Andreas; Haffner, Matthias; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1998-04-01

    Rat adrenal glands fluoresce intensely after systemic application of meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). We investigated which parts of the adrenal gland accumulate mTHPC. Furthermore we examined the time course of adrenal mTHPC-accumulation. Ten male Wistar rats each were given 0.5 or 0.7 mg mTHPC kg-1 iv. Each two animals were perfused with normal saline and Zamboni fixative 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after photosensitization. Untreated animals served as controls. Fluorescence was quantified on 20 micrometer frozen sections with CCD-camera and appropriate software. Immunohistochemistry identified specific cell types with antibodies to steroid-synthesizing enzymes. The cortex exhibited an intense fluorescence, with weaker fluorescence of corticocytes in the zona glomerulosa compared to the other zones. Besides intensely fluorescing singly lying scattered cells, the medulla showed a faint mTHPC-induced fluorescence. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intramedullary cells with intense fluorescence were corticocytes, showing a positive reaction to the 21-(beta) -hydroxylase antibody. Peak accumulation of mTHPC was always observed after 24 hours. Our results indicate for the first time that only steroid synthesizing cells of the adrenal gland exhibit an intense photosensitizer-induced fluorescence. Thus mTHPC-application is an uncomplicated method to identify steroid-synthesizing cells, possibly also in other organs.

  12. Amphiregulin Mediates Estrogen, Progesterone, and EGFR Signaling in the Normal Rat Mammary Gland and in Hormone-Dependent Rat Mammary Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kariagina, Anastasia; Xie, Jianwei; Leipprandt, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Both estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) are implicated in the etiology of human breast cancer. Defining their mechanisms of action, particularly in vivo, is relevant to the prevention and therapy of breast cancer. We investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of E and/or P-induced in vivo proliferation, in the normal rat mammary gland and in hormone-dependent rat mammary cancers which share many characteristics with the normal human breast and hormone-dependent breast cancers. We show that E+P treatment induced significantly greater proliferation in both the normal gland and mammary cancers compared to E alone. In both the normal gland and tumors, E+P-induced proliferation was mediated through the increased production of amphiregulin (Areg), an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways (Erk, Akt, JNK) downstream of EGFR that regulate proliferation. In vitro experiments using rat primary mammary organoids or T47D breast cancer cells confirmed that Areg and the synthetic progestin, R5020, synergize to promote cell proliferation through EGFR signaling. Iressa, an EGFR inhibitor, effectively blocked this proliferation. These results indicate that mediators of cross talk between E, P, and EGFR pathways may be considered as relevant molecular targets for the therapy of hormone-dependent breast cancers, especially in premenopausal women. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12672-010-0048-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21258428

  13. AQP and the control of fluid transport in a salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Murakami, M; Murdiastuti, K; Hosoi, K; Hill, A E

    2006-03-01

    Experiments were performed with the perfused rat submandibular gland in vitro to investigate the nature of the coupling between transported salt and water by varying the osmolarity of the source bath and observing the changes in secretory volume flow. Glands were submitted to hypertonic step changes by changing the saline perfusate to one containing different levels of sucrose. The flow rate responded by falling to a lower value, establishing a new steady-state flow. The rate changes did not correspond to those expected from a system in which fluid production is due to simple osmotic equilibration, but were much larger. The changes were fitted to a model in which fluid production is largely paracellular, the rate of which is controlled by an osmosensor system in the basal membrane. The same experiments were done with glands from rats that had been bred to have very low levels of AQP5 (the principal aquaporin of the salivary acinar cell) in which little AQP5 is expressed at the basal membrane. In these rats, salivary secretion rates after hypertonic challenges were small and best modelled by simple osmotic equilibration. In rats which had intermediate AQP5 levels the changes in flow rate were similar to those of normal rats although their AQP5 levels were reduced.Finally, perfused normal glands were subject to retrograde ductal injection of salines containing different levels of Hg(2+) ions (0, 10 and 100 microM: ) which would act as inhibitors of AQP5 at the apical acinar membrane. The overall flow rates were progressively diminished with rising Hg(2+) concentration, but after hypertonic challenge the changes in flow rates were unchanged and similar to those of normal rats. All these results are difficult to explain by a cellular osmotic model but can be explained by a model in which paracellular flow is controlled by an osmosensor (presumably AQP5) present on the basal membrane. PMID:16868676

  14. Melatonin potentiates the anti-tumour effect of pravastatin in rat mammary gland carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Orendáš, Peter; Kubatka, Peter; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Kružliak, Peter; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kapinová, Andrea; Adamicová, Katarína; Sadloňová, Vladimíra; Chmelová, Martina; Stollárová, Nadežda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in the field of cancer research have suggested a possible role for statins in the reduction of risk in certain malignancies. The purpose of these studies was to examine the chemopreventive effects of pravastatin alone and in combination with pineal hormone melatonin in the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis model. Pravastatin was given orally (1 00 mg/kg) and melatonin was added to the water (20 μg/ml). Chemoprevention began seven days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks until autopsy. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Parameters of experimental carcinogenesis, mechanism of action (biomarkers of apoptosis, angiogenesis and proliferation) and side effects after long-term treatment in animals were assessed. Pravastatin alone suppressed tumour frequency by 20.5% and average tumour volume by 15% compared with controls. Combined administration of the drugs decreased tumour frequency by 69% and lengthened tumour latency by nine days compared with control animals. The ration between high and low grade carcinomas was apparently reduced in both treated groups. The analysis of carcinoma cells showed significant expression increase in caspase-3 and caspase-7 after pravastatin treatment; however, combined treatment even more pronounced increase in the expression of both caspases. Regarding VEGFR-2 expression, a small effect in carcinomas of both treated groups was found. In plasma metabolism evaluation, pravastatin alone significantly decreased levels of glucose and triacylglycerols. Our results suggest a mild anti-neoplastic effect of pravastatin in this rat mammary gland carcinoma model. Statins co-administered with other suitable drug (e.g. melatonin) should be further evaluated for tumour-preventive properties. PMID:25270735

  15. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

  16. The regulation of lipogenesis in vivo in the lactating mammary gland of the rat during the starved-refed transition. Studies wtih acarbose, a glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, S W; Williamson, D H

    1987-01-01

    Depression of carbohydrate digestion by oral administration of acarbose, a glucosidase inhibitor, led to a 75% inhibition of the re-activation of lipogenesis in vivo in the mammary gland of 18 h-starved lactating rats refed with 5 g of chow diet. Rates of [1-14C]glucose incorporation in vitro into lipid and CO2 in mammary-gland acini isolated from refed animals were elevated compared with acini from starved rats, but acarbose treatment completely prevented this stimulation. Gastric intubation of glucose led to a large stimulation of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, similar to that induced by refeeding with chow diet; this was dependent on the amount of glucose given and the time elapsed between glucose administration and injection of 3H2O for the measurement of lipogenesis. The switch-on of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, by refeeding or by intubation of glucose, was associated with a decrease in the ratio of [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] in the gland, indicative of an increase in phosphofructokinase activity. A time-course study revealed that the ratio decreased rapidly over the first 30 min of chow refeeding, after which a large surge in lipogenesis was seen. Acarbose, given 25 min after the onset of refeeding, led to a stepwise increase in the ratio, in parallel with the observed decrease in lipogenic activity. It is concluded that the control of lipogenesis in the mammary gland is closely linked to the availability of dietary carbohydrate. An important site of regulation of lipogenesis in the gland appears to be at the level of phosphofructokinase. A possible role of insulin in the regulation of phosphofructokinase activity, and the acute modulation of insulin-sensitivity in the gland during the starved-refed transition, are discussed. PMID:2954538

  17. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of weanling male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Sharma, Neha; Vantrease, Jamie; Hennings, Leah; Shankar, Kartik; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2013-09-01

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg/kg/day) given between postnatal days 21 and 33 on the mammary gland morphology and gene expression profiles of male and female rats compared to vehicle-treated controls. The male mammary gland was more responsive to E2 treatment than in females, with 509 genes regulated >2-fold in a dose-dependent manner in males and only 174 in females. In males, E2 treatment significantly (P < 0.01) increased the number of terminal end buds (TEBs) and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein (P < 0.05), both of which are indicators of proliferation. This change was linked to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of the gene encoding amphiregulin, which is known to induce TEB formation. There was also a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.001) in the estrogen-regulated gene encoding the progesterone receptor. In intact females, despite lack of changes in mammary morphology, we observed a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of genes encoding three milk proteins: whey acidic protein, casein beta and casein kappa. There was a significant (P < 0.05) downregulation of both estrogen receptors in response to E2 treatment. These results suggest that mammary glands of male rats are very sensitive to exogenous E2 during development post-weaning. The dose-dependent increase observed in amphiregulin and progesterone receptor gene expression was linked to morphological changes and represents a reliable and sensitive tool to evaluate estrogenicity. In contrast, intact weanling female rats were less responsive. PMID:23925648

  18. Salivary gland diseases: infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Delli, Konstantina; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The three most frequently diagnosed salivary gland diseases are salivary gland infections, sialolithiasis and mucoceles. Salivary gland infections are usually of bacterial or viral etiology and can be divided into acute and chronic types. Occasionally they can result from obstruction of the salivary duct, an autoimmmune disease or cancer therapy. Infections can occur in all types of salivary glands and are observed at all ages. Sialolithiasis is characterized by the development of calcified structures in the salivary glands, especially in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths are generally attributed to retention of saliva and are usually accompanied by swelling and pain when a salivary stimulus is applied. Mucoceles can be differentiated into mucus extravasation phenomenon or mucus escape reaction, mucus retention cysts and ranulas. They result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissues or from retention of saliva within the duct. PMID:24862601

  19. Cross-Talk in the Female Rat Mammary Gland: Influence of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor on Estrogen Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Helle, Janina; Bader, Manuela I.; Keiler, Annekathrin M.; Zierau, Oliver; Vollmer, Günter; Chittur, Sridar V.; Tenniswood, Martin; Kretzschmar, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) plays a major role in signaling processes in female reproductive organs. Objectives: We investigated the influence of the AHR ligand 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on ER-mediated signaling in mammary gland tissue of ovariectomized (ovx) rats. Methods: After 14 days of hormonal decline, ovx rats were treated for 3 days with 4 μg/kg 17β-estradiol (E2), 15 mg/kg 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), 15 mg/kg 3-MC, or a combination of these compounds (E2 + 3-MC, 8-PN + 3-MC). Whole-mount preparations of the mammary gland were used to count terminal end buds (TEBs). Protein expression studies (immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence), a cDNA microarray, pathway analyses, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed to evaluate the interaction between AHR- and ER-mediated signaling pathways. Results: E2 treatment increased the number of TEBs and the levels of Ki-67 protein and progesterone receptor (PR); this treatment also changed the expression of 325 genes by more than 1.5-fold. Although 3-MC treatment alone had marginal impact on gene or protein expression, when rats were co-treated with 3-MC and E2, 3-MC strongly inhibited E2-induced TEB development, protein synthesis, and the expression of nearly half of E2-induced genes. This inhibitory effect of 3-MC was partially mirrored when 8-PN was used as an ER ligand. The anti-estrogenicity of ligand-activated AHR was at least partly due to decreased protein levels of ERα in ductal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Our data show transcriptome-wide anti-estrogenic properties of ligand-activated AHR on ER-mediated processes in the mammary gland, thereby contributing an explanation for the chemopreventive and endocrine-disrupting potential of AHR ligands. Citation: Helle J, Bader MI, Keiler AM, Zierau O, Vollmer G, Chittur SV, Tenniswood M, Kretzschmar G. 2016. Cross-talk in the female rat mammary gland: influence

  20. Proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the rat and mouse mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands.

    PubMed

    Rudmann, Daniel; Cardiff, Robert; Chouinard, Luc; Goodman, Dawn; Küttler, Karin; Marxfeld, Heike; Molinolo, Alfredo; Treumann, Silke; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The mammary gland of laboratory rodents is an important organ for the evaluation of effects of xenobiotics, especially those that perturb hormonal homeostasis or are potentially carcinogenic. Mammary gland cancer is a leading cause of human mortality and morbidity worldwide and is a subject of major research efforts utilizing rodent models. Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral glands are standard tissues that are evaluated in animal models that enable human risk assessment of xenobiotics. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for mammary, Zymbal's, preputial, and clitoral gland lesions in laboratory animals will improve diagnostic alignment among regulatory and scientific research organizations and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:22949413

  1. Primary structure and possible origin of the non-glycosylated basic proline-rich protein of human submandibular/sublingual saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, R; Kauffman, D L; Waye, M M; Blum, M; Bennick, A; Keller, P J

    1989-01-01

    Human submandibular/sublingual saliva contains one non-glycosylated basic proline-rich protein whereas parotid saliva contains multiple such components. The submandibular protein has a primary structure identical with the C-terminal segment [TZ] of the human parotid acidic proline-rich proteins that contain 150 amino acid residues (Mr 16,000). Northern-blot analyses of human parotid and submandibular glands revealed that mRNAs containing the HaeIII repeat sequence typical for acidic proline-rich proteins are expressed in both of these salivary glands whereas mRNAs for non-glycosylated basic proline-rich proteins containing a typical BstN1 repeat sequence are expressed in the parotid but not in the submandibular gland. Products of translation in vitro of mRNAs from human parotid and submandibular glands were also examined. Two immunoprecipitable bands with Mr 29,000 and 28,000 were obtained by translation of both parotid and submandibular mRNA. In the presence of microsomal membranes these proteins gave rise to proteins electrophoretically identical with the secreted acidic proline-rich proteins of Mr 16,000. These proteins were cleaved by kallikrein, giving rise to proteins with electrophoretic mobilities identical with those of a smaller acidic proline-rich protein with Mr 11,000 and peptide TZ. Additional immunoprecipitable bands with Mr ranging from 35,000 to 46,000 were seen when parotid mRNA was used for translation in vitro, and are believed to be precursors of the basic proline-rich proteins encoded by the BstN1 repeat type mRNA. Neither these bands nor a separate precursor for the basic non-glycosylated proline-rich protein was detected when submandibular mRNA was used for translation in vitro. It is suggested that the non-glycosylated basic proline-rich protein present in human submandibular saliva arises by cleavage of acidic proline-rich proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2688632

  2. Central moxonidine on salivary gland blood flow and cardiovascular responses to pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Thiago Santos; Takakura, Ana Carolina Thomaz; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Renzi, Antonio; Menani, José Vanderlei

    2003-10-17

    Peripheral treatment with the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine induces intense salivation that is inhibited by central injections of the alpha2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist moxonidine. Salivary gland blood flow controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic systems may affect salivation. We investigated the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in the vascular resistance in the submandibular/sublingual gland (SSG) artery, superior mesenteric (SM) artery and low abdominal aorta (hindlimb) in rats treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) pilocarpine alone or combined with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannula implanted into lateral ventricle (LV) and anesthetized with urethane were used. Pilocarpine (4 micromol/kg of body weight) i.p. reduced SSG vascular resistance (-50+/-13% vs. vehicle: 5+/-3%). Pilocarpine i.p. also increased mesenteric vascular resistance (15+/-5% vs. vehicle: 2+/-3%) and MAP (16+/-3 mmHg, vs. vehicle: 2+/-3 mmHg). Moxonidine (20 nmol) i.c.v. increased SSG vascular resistance (88+/-12% vs. vehicle: 7+/-4%). When injected 15 min following i.c.v. moxonidine, pilocarpine i.p. produced no change on SSG vascular resistance. Pilocarpine-induced pressor responses and increase in mesenteric vascular resistance were not modified by i.c.v. moxonidine. The treatments produced no change in heart rate (HR) and hindlimb vascular resistance. The results show that (1) i.p. pilocarpine increases mesenteric vascular resistance and MAP and reduces salivary gland vascular resistance and (2) central moxonidine increases salivary gland vascular resistance and impairs pilocarpine-induced salivary gland vasodilatation. Therefore, the increase in salivary gland vascular resistance may play a role in the anti-salivatory response to central moxonidine. PMID:14499959

  3. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Soo-Ik ); Hammes, G.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the {beta}-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution.

  4. A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mao-Ying, Q.-L.; Zhao Jun; Dong Zhiqiang; Wang Jun; Yu Jin; Yan Minfen; Zhang Yuqiu; Wu Gencheng; Wang Yanqing . E-mail: wangyanqing@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-07-14

    This study described a modified rat model of bone cancer pain. Syngeneic Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity via intercondylar eminence. Series of tests were carried out including bone radiology, bone histology, ambulatory pain, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, weight bearing ability, and electrophysiological recording from primary afferent fibers. The rats inoculated with carcinoma cells showed significant ambulatory pain, mechanical allodynia, and reduction in weight bearing, as well as increased incidence of spontaneous activity in A{beta} fibers in affected limb, whereas PBS (vehicle) or heat-killed cells (sham) injected rats showed no significant difference in comparison to normal rats. The pain hypersensitive behaviors were aggravated with time and destruction of bone. Interestingly, mechanical allodynia was also observed in the contralateral limb, indicating the involvement of 'mirror image' pain in bone cancer pain. In summary, the present study provided a useful and easily established rat model of bone cancer pain which will contribute to further study of the mechanisms underlying cancer pain.

  5. Distribution of BrdU label-retaining cells in eccrine sweat glands and comparison of the percentage of BrdU-positive cells in eccrine sweat glands and in epidermis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Zhang, Mingjun; Li, Haihong; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2014-03-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) has commonly been used for detecting of label-retaining cells (LRCs). To determine if there are LRCs and the distributions of LRCs in eccrine sweat glands, 20 newborn SD rats within 24 h after birth were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg/time BrdU four consecutive times at 2-h intervals, or twice daily at 2-h intervals for four consecutive days. Six weeks after the last BrdU injection, rats were sacrificed, and the hind footpads were harvested, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Five-micrometer thickness tissue sections were cut and the expression of BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. The results showed that BrdU(+) cells were scatteredly distributed in coiled secretory part and coiled duct, as well as the straight duct, but not the intraepidermal duct of eccrine sweat glands. In secretory part, besides secretory cells, myoepithelial cells showed label retaining. The percentage of BrdU(+) cells in eccrine sweat gland of rat footpads had no significant difference between the two injection methods of BrdU (50 mg/kg/time BrdU four consecutive times at 2-h intervals vs. 50 mg/kg/time BrdU twice daily at 2-h intervals for four consecutive days) (P > 0.05). The percentage of BrdU(+) cells in eccrine sweat glands (4.2 ± 1.3 %) was significantly higher than that in stratum basale of epidermis (0.5 ± 0.1 ‰) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, there were LRCs in eccrine sweat glands of rat footpads, and these LRCs might play important roles in the homeostasis of skin and its appendages. PMID:23907330

  6. A possible role of collagen fibrils in the process of calcification observed in the capsule of the pineal gland in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Humbert, W; Cuisinier, F; Voegel, J C; Pévet, P

    1997-06-01

    The relationship between collagen fibrils and calcified concretions exclusively appearing in the pineal gland of adult/aging rats has been investigated. Deposits of lanthanum, which replace calcium ions are distributed along collagen fibrils with a repeating period of about 70 nm. Calcium has been detected histochemically between collagen bundles surrounding extracellular concretions by means of the pyroantimonate method and by X-ray microanalysis. It is associated with phosphorus. The data presented here suggest that collagen fibrils are involved in the genesis and growth of extracellular concretions located in the connective tissue surrounding the pineal gland of aging rats. PMID:9134857

  7. Expression of the spexin gene in the rat adrenal gland and evidences suggesting that spexin inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Porzionato, Andrea; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-04-01

    Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In adult rat adrenal glands the highest levels of SPX mRNA were present in the glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculate/reticularis (ZF/R) zones. High SPX gene expression levels were found in freshly isolated adult rat ZG and ZF/R cells. In cultured adrenocortical cells the levels of SPX mRNA were lower than in freshly isolated cells. SPX mRNA expression levels were found to be 2-3 times higher during days 90-540 of postnatal development than found during days 2-45. Prolonged ACTH administration lowered and dexamethasone increased adrenal SPX mRNA levels in vivo. Adrenal enucleation produced a significant linear increase in SPX mRNA levels, with the highest value occurring at day 8 after surgery, with control values taken on day 30 after enucleation. Immunohistochemistry revealed SPX-like immunoreactivity in the entire cortex of the adult male rat and in enucleation-induced regenerating cortex. A concentration of 10-6M SPX peptide stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG. In prolonged exposure of adrenocortical cell primary cultures to SPX (10-6M) resulted in a small increase in corticosterone secretion and a notable decrease in BrdU incorporation. The results suggest the direct involvement of SPX in the regulation of adrenocortical cell proliferation; however, the mechanism of action remains unknown. PMID:20045034

  8. Pesticide chlorpyrifos acts as an endocrine disruptor in adult rats causing changes in mammary gland and hormonal balance.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Clara; Nieto, María Rosa Ramos; Bourguignon, Nadia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Rodriguez, Horacio; Cao, Gabriel; Randi, Andrea; Cocca, Claudia; Núñez, Mariel

    2016-02-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with hormone regulation and influence mammary carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) acts as an ED in vitro, since it induces human breast cancer cells proliferation through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) pathway. In this work, we studied the effects of CPF at environmental doses (0.01 and 1mg/kg/day) on mammary gland, steroid hormone receptors expression and serum steroid hormone levels. It was carried out using female Sprague-Dawley 40-days-old rats exposed to the pesticide during 100 days. We observed a proliferating ductal network with a higher number of ducts and alveolar structures. We also found an increased number of benign breast diseases, such as hyperplasia and adenosis. CPF enhanced progesterone receptor (PgR) along with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in epithelial ductal cells. On the other hand, the pesticide reduced the expression of co-repressors of estrogen receptor activity REA and SMRT and it decreased serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Finally, we found a persistent decrease in LH levels among ovariectomized rats exposed to CPF. Therefore, CPF alters the endocrine balance acting as an ED in vivo. These findings warn about the harmful effects that CPF exerts on mammary gland, suggesting that this compound may act as a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:26518068

  9. LC/MS/MS analysis of the endogenous dimethyltryptamine hallucinogens, their precursors, and major metabolites in rat pineal gland microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick

    2013-12-01

    We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat. PMID:23881860

  10. Regulation of mevalonate synthesis in rat mammary glands by dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    El-Sohemy, A; Archer, M C

    1997-09-01

    It is well established that dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU-FAs) enhance rat mammary tumor development whereas n-3 PUFAs inhibit it, yet the mechanisms are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate a mechanism by which n-3 and n-6 PUFAs could modulate mammary carcinogenesis. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing either menhaden (n-3) or safflower oil (n-6) in a 7% fat diet for 1 week. In comparison to the n-6 diet, the n-3 diet significantly reduced the activity and levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase in mammary glands, thereby suppressing the formation of mevalonate. In addition to being essential for cholesterol biosynthesis, mevalonate is also required for DNA synthesis and may be involved in malignant transformation. Serum cholesterol was lower in the n-3 group than in the n-6 group (1.91 +/- 0.18 versus 2.61 +/- 0.37 mM; P < 0.01). Extrahepatic tissues meet most of their cholesterol requirements from circulating cholesterol, and the internalized cholesterol down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase. Thus, the concomitant decrease in serum cholesterol and mammary gland HMG-CoA reductase levels suggests that changes in circulating cholesterol levels do not solely determine the activity of extrahepatic reductase. We conclude that the mevalonate pathway may be a mechanism through which different types of dietary fat modulate breast cancer development. PMID:9288773

  11. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  12. Changes in the processing of beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of female rats during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Martensz, N D

    1985-11-01

    Puberty in the female rat is accompanied by a marked attenuation of the opioid inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. One factor which may contribute to this altered role is a change in the metabolism of opioid peptides during sexual maturation. beta-Endorphin undergoes a considerable degree of metabolism through both C-terminal proteolysis and N-acetylation, and these metabolites do not possess opioid activity. The processing of beta-endorphin in the hypothalamus and in the anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary gland in prepubertal and adult female rats was studied using gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with radioimmunoassay. In the anterior lobe, high molecular weight precursors of beta-endorphin (pro-opiomelanocortin and beta-lipotropin) were present in prepubertal (28 days old) rats, but little authentic beta-endorphin was detected. In contrast, only beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were present in mature (70 days old) animals. Only beta-endorphin-sized peptides were present in the neurointermediate lobes of both prepubertal and adult rats. However, the proportion of N-acetylated metabolites was higher in sexually mature animals. In the hypothalamus, only beta-endorphin-sized peptides were present in both juvenile and adult animals. However, C-terminal proteolysis increased with age (no acetylated metabolites were detectable in this tissue). The proportion of the total beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity attributable to beta-endorphin was lower in young adult (first dioestrus after vaginal opening) (55%) and mature (dioestrus, 61-64 days old) rats (56%) compared to prepubertal (30 days old) animals (75%) and the proportions of non-acetylated metabolites [beta-endorphin-(1-27) in young adults and beta-endorphin-(1-26) in adults] were increased concomitantly. These changes were correlated with a reduced luteinizing hormone response to the opiate antagonist naloxone in adult compared to prepubertal rats

  13. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals. PMID:19262491

  14. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    Precerebellin (Cbln)-related peptides are known to modulate the secretory activity and growth of the adrenal gland. However, precise expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated, using RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and hormonal assays, their expression in the adrenals of adult rats and in the course of postnatal ontogenesis. Of the 4 known Cblns, Cbln(1-3) mRNAs were found in the adrenal gland of the adult male rats. Expression patterns of Cbln1 and 3 were similar to each other and different from that of Cbln2. Highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was observed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG), lower expression was noted in the fasciculata/reticularis and lowest expression was observed in the adrenal medulla. Expression of these genes was also present in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. On the contrary, by means of classic RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNAs of CBLN(1-4) in the human adrenal gland. In the rat, highest expression of the Cbln1 and 3 genes was found at postnatal day 2 and was somewhat lower at day 90. On the contrary, expression of the Cbln2 gene was low in adrenals of 2-day-old rats and notably higher at the remaining time points studied (up to day 360). Cerebellin (CER)-like immunoreactivity was observed in the membranes of the adrenal ZG cells, while in the medulla, immunoreactive substances were localized primarily in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity was present mainly in the cortex of the gland, and reaction products were noted both in the membranes and cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells. Semiquantitative evaluation of Cbln1 protein expression in compartments of the adrenal gland of the adult rat revealed a higher concentration of Cbln1 protein in the cortex than in the medulla of studied rats. We also found that both CER and desCER stimulated basal aldosterone secretion by freshly isolated ZG cells. Thus

  15. Visinin-like peptide 1 in adrenal gland of the rat. Gene expression and its hormonal control.

    PubMed

    Trejter, Marcin; Hochol, Anna; Tyczewska, Marianna; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Jopek, Karol; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; Rucinski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    VSNL1 encodes the calcium-sensor protein visinin-like 1 and was identified previously as an upregulated gene in a sample set of aldosterone-producing adenomas. Recently, by means of microarray studies we demonstrated high expression of Vsnl1 gene in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG). Only scanty data are available on the role of this gene in adrenal function as well as on regulation of its expression by factors affecting adrenal cortex structure and function. Therefore we performed relevant studies aimed at clarifying some of the above issues. By Affymetrix(®) Rat Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip, QPCR and immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that expression levels of Vsnl1 in the rat adrenal ZG are notably higher than in the fasciculata/reticularis zone. In QPCR assay this difference was approximately 10 times higher. Expression of this gene in the rat adrenal gland or adrenocortical cells was acutely down regulated by ACTH, while chronic administration of corticotrophin or dexamethasone did not change Vsnl1 mRNA levels. In enucleation-induced adrenocortical regeneration expression levels of both Vsnl1 and Cyp11b2 were notably lowered and positively correlated. Despite these findings, the physiological significance of adrenal Vsnl1 remains unclear, and requires further investigation. PMID:25451331

  16. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  17. p-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol, an Active Phenolic Ingredient of Gastrodia elata, Reverses the Cycloheximide-Induced Memory Deficit by Activating the Adrenal Gland in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Tsai, Fan-Shiu; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the ameliorating effects of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA), an active phenolic ingredient of Gastrodia elata, on cycloheximide (CXM)-induced impairment of passive avoidance response and clarified the role of adrenal glands on the effect of HBA in rats. An adrenalectomy (ADX) caused the memory deficit from 1 to 3 days after surgery. Administration of corticosterone (CORT) plus glucose completely recovered the memory deficit caused by ADX, and this effect was better than that of glucose or CORT alone. HBA ameliorated the memory deficit induced by CXM in sham and ADX rats, but ADX partially blocked it. Furthermore, plasma glucose, epinephrine and adrenal steroid levels of ADX rats significantly decreased. Sham rats who received HBA had an increase in plasma glucose and adrenal steroid levels. Therefore, we suggest that the reversal of CXM-induced memory deficit by HBA was partially dependent on adrenal glands through the increase of the levels of plasma adrenal steroids. PMID:26621444

  18. Bilateral submandibular duct relocation for drooling: an evaluation of results for the Birmingham Children's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Harpreet S; De, Ranit; D'Souza, Alwyn R; Pearman, Ken; Proops, David W

    2003-01-01

    Drooling is a problem of the neurologically impaired that often leads to stigmatisation and social isolation. Bilateral submandibular duct relocation (BSMDR) is a surgical procedure that may be used to control troublesome drooling. The aim of this study was to assess the results following surgery and attempt to identify those factors that would mitigate against a successful outcome. A retrospective case note review was performed, and data were collected on 23 neurologically impaired patients who underwent the procedure between 1993 and 2000 at the Birmingham Children's Hospital, UK. An overall improvement in drooling was demonstrated in 20 (87%) cases, with complete cessation of drooling in 13 (57%) cases. The complications included one ranula, three transient submandibular gland swellings and two persistent swellings requiring gland excision. It is difficult to predict which patients will have an unsuccessful outcome following surgery. In our series, three (13%) patients had poor results. We could not determine any special features that could account for this, except that these patients in particular demonstrated the greatest degree of oral-motor dysfunction. BSMDR is a technically straightforward procedure associated with minimal morbidity and a high success rate. It is the procedure of choice at our institution. PMID:12520357

  19. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  20. Feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with estradiol have different effects on mammary gland morphology and gene expression in weanling male and female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones are phytochemical components of soy diets that bind weakly to estrogen receptors (ERs). To study potential estrogen-like actions of soy in the mammary gland during early development, we fed weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a semi-purified diet with casein as the sole protein ...

  1. Exposure to estrogen and ionizing radiation causes epigenetic dysregulation, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and genome instability in the mammary gland of ACI rats

    PubMed Central

    Kutanzi, Kristy; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The impact of environmental mutagens and carcinogens on the mammary gland has recently received a lot of attention. Among the most generally accepted carcinogenic agents identified as factors that may increase breast cancer incidence are ionizing radiation and elevated estrogen levels. However, the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland aberrations associated with radiation and estrogen exposure still need to be further elucidated, especially the interplay between elevated hormone levels and radiation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated molecular changes induced in rat mammary gland tissue by estrogen, ionizing radiation, and the combined action of these two carcinogens using a well-established ACI rat model. We found that continuous exposure of intact female ACI rats to elevated levels of estrogen or to both estrogen and radiation resulted in significant hyperproliferative changes in rat mammary glands. In contrast, radiation exposure alone did not induce hyperplasia. Interestingly, despite the obvious disparity in mammary gland morphology, we did not detect significant differences in the levels of genomic methylation among animals exposed to estrogen, radiation, or both agents together. Specifically, we observed a significant global genomic hypomethylation at 6 weeks of exposure. However, by 12 and 18 weeks, the levels of global DNA methylation returned to those of age-matched controls. We also found that combined exposure to radiation and estrogen significantly altered the levels of histone H3 and H4 methylation and acetylation. Most importantly, we for the first time demonstrated that estrogen and radiation exposure caused a significant induction of p42/44 MAPK and p38 pathways that was paralleled by elevated levels of H3S10 phosphorylation, a well-established biomarker of genome and chromosome instability. The precise role of MAPK pathways and their inter-relationship with H3S10 phosphorylation and genome instability in mammary gland tissues needs

  2. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  3. Primary Sjögren's syndrome initially presenting as submandibular mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LIANG-YU; TSAI, MING-HSUI; TSAI, LI-TAI; LU, HSIN-MAN; JAN, CHIA-ING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 24-year-old female affected with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), who presented with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the submandibular gland. Reports of such cases, particularly in young patients, are very rare. The patient, who presented no oral or ocular symptoms prior to the development of the mass, underwent surgical ablation of the gland, and MALT lymphoma was diagnosed by histopathology. Since MALT lymphoma in the submandibular gland is rarely observed in otherwise healthy young females, a rheumatologist and an oncologist were consulted. Following a number of immunological tests, the results of the Schirmer's and Saxon tests were negative. However, the antinuclear antibody test revealed a speckled appearance, and there was also strong positivity for the serological markers of Sjögren's syndrome. Consequently, pSS was diagnosed, despite the fact that the patient did not fulfill all the diagnostic criteria for the disease. Therefore, MALT lymphoma in a single salivary gland should be used as a differential diagnosis for Sjögren's syndrome in young asymptomatic patients. Additionally, a multidisciplinary team is required for the treatment and management of these patients. PMID:26893669

  4. Denervation of the Lacrimal Gland Leads to Corneal Hypoalgesia in a Novel Rat Model of Aqueous Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aicher, Sue A.; Hermes, Sam M.; Hegarty, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some dry eye disease (DED) patients have sensitized responses to corneal stimulation, while others experience hypoalgesia. Many patients have normal tear production, suggesting that reduced tears are not always the cause of DED sensory dysfunction. In this study, we show that disruption of lacrimal innervation can produce hypoalgesia without changing basal tear production. Methods Injection of a saporin toxin conjugate into the extraorbital lacrimal gland of male Sprague-Dawley rats was used to disrupt cholinergic innervation to the gland. Tear production was assessed by phenol thread test. Corneal sensory responses to noxious stimuli were assessed using eye wipe behavior. Saporin DED animals were compared to animals treated with atropine to produce aqueous DED. Results Cholinergic innervation and acetylcholine content of the lacrimal gland were significantly reduced in saporin DED animals, yet basal tear production was normal. Saporin DED animals demonstrated normal eye wipe responses to corneal application of capsaicin, but showed hypoalgesia to corneal menthol. Corneal nerve fiber density was normal in saporin DED animals. Atropine-treated animals had reduced tear production but normal responses to ocular stimuli. Conclusions Because only menthol responses were impaired, cold-sensitive corneal afferents appear to be selectively altered in our saporin DED model. Hypoalgesia is not due to reduced tear production, since we did not observe hypoalgesia in an atropine DED model. Corneal fiber density is unaltered in saporin DED animals, suggesting that molecular mechanisms of nociceptive signaling may be impaired. The saporin DED model will be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying corneal hypoalgesia. PMID:26513503

  5. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  6. Complete agenesis of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Berta, E; Bettega, G; Jouk, P S; Billy, G; Nugues, F; Morand, B

    2013-10-01

    A 4 year-old female patient was treated for persistent right-sided dacryocystitis and xerostomia. MRI was performed to screen for a dry syndrome; which resulted in the diagnosis of agenesis of the parotid and submandibular glands as well as lacrimal duct malformation. An MRI of each parent was normal. The mother's history revealed 4 days of pyrexia during the 8th week of amenorrhea. This was an isolated case, with no family history, characterized by a febrile episode during pregnancy at the period of main salivary gland genesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could be implicated. PMID:23993206

  7. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes. PMID:26950199

  8. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  9. Historical control background incidence of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands lesions of rats and CD-1 mice used in 104-week carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kaori; Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and range of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands findings were determined in control Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, and CD-1 mice from 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 1998 and 2010 at Charles River Edinburgh. In both strains of rats and in CD-1 mice, non-proliferative lesions of the thyroid or parathyroid glands were generally uncommon apart from some findings in CD-1 mice such as ultimobranchial duct/cyst (5.72%), follicular distension/dilatation (3.84%), and cystic follicles (3.53%). In Han-Wistar rats, thyroid proliferative lesions were slightly more frequent in males than in females, but in Sprague-Dawley rats, they were of similar incidence in both sexes. The most common findings overall in Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were C-cell hyperplasia (48.11% and 36.56%, respectively) and adenoma (10.87% and 9.52%, respectively), follicular cell hyperplasia (4.21% and 0.91%, respectively) and adenoma (4.32% and 1.36%, respectively). Secondary neoplastic lesions either in thyroid or parathyroid gland were poorly represented. PMID:27559247

  10. Historical control background incidence of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands lesions of rats and CD-1 mice used in 104-week carcinogenicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Kaori; Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and range of spontaneous thyroid and parathyroid glands findings were determined in control Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, and CD-1 mice from 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 1998 and 2010 at Charles River Edinburgh. In both strains of rats and in CD-1 mice, non-proliferative lesions of the thyroid or parathyroid glands were generally uncommon apart from some findings in CD-1 mice such as ultimobranchial duct/cyst (5.72%), follicular distension/dilatation (3.84%), and cystic follicles (3.53%). In Han-Wistar rats, thyroid proliferative lesions were slightly more frequent in males than in females, but in Sprague-Dawley rats, they were of similar incidence in both sexes. The most common findings overall in Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were C-cell hyperplasia (48.11% and 36.56%, respectively) and adenoma (10.87% and 9.52%, respectively), follicular cell hyperplasia (4.21% and 0.91%, respectively) and adenoma (4.32% and 1.36%, respectively). Secondary neoplastic lesions either in thyroid or parathyroid gland were poorly represented. PMID:27559247

  11. A study of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine transport in the perfused rat mammary gland: possible involvement of LAT1 and LAT2.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B; Calvert, D T; Travers, M T; Kudo, Y; Boyd, C A R

    2002-08-19

    The transport of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine by the perfused lactating rat mammary gland has been examined using a rapid, paired-tracer dilution technique. The clearances of all three amino acids by the mammary gland consisted of a rising phase followed by a rapid fall-off, respectively, reflecting influx and efflux of the radiotracers. The peak clearance of L-leucine was inhibited by BCH (65%) and D-leucine (58%) but not by L-proline. The inhibition of L-leucine clearance by BCH and D-leucine was not additive. L-leucine inhibited the peak clearance of radiolabelled L-leucine by 78%. BCH also inhibited the peak clearance of L-phenylalanine (66%) and L-alanine (33%) by the perfused mammary gland. Lactating rat mammary tissue was found to express both LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that system L is situated in the basolateral aspect of the lactating rat mammary epithelium and thus probably plays a central role in neutral amino acid uptake from blood. The finding that L-alanine uptake by the gland was inhibited by BCH suggests that LAT2 may make a significant contribution to neutral amino acid uptake by the mammary epithelium. PMID:12101005

  12. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  13. DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

  14. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  15. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R.; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C.; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  16. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas and Salivary Glands of the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Thomas; Brander-Weber, Patricia; Dangler, Charles; Deschl, Ulrich; Elwell, Michael R; Greaves, Peter; Hailey, Richard; Leach, Michael W; Pandiri, Arun R; Rogers, Arlin; Shackelford, Cynthia C; Spencer, Andrew; Tanaka, Takuji; Ward, Jerrold M

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for nonproliferative and proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for classifying lesions in the digestive system including the salivary glands and the exocrine pancreas of laboratory rats and mice. Most lesions are illustrated by color photomicrographs. The standardized nomenclature, the diagnostic criteria, and the photomicrographs are also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and age related lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test items. Relevant infectious and parasitic lesions are included as well. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for the digestive system will decrease misunderstandings among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. PMID:26973378

  17. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  18. Inhibition of liver trans-sulphuration pathway by propargylglycine mimics gene expression changes found in the mammary gland of weaned lactating rats: role of glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García, Concha; Rus, A Diana; Pallardó, Federico V; Barber, Teresa; Torres, Luis; Miralles, Vicente J; Viña, Juan R

    2003-01-01

    In the lactating mammary gland, weaning produces mitochondrial cytochrome c release and nuclear DNA fragmentation, as determined by gel electrophoresis. This is followed by a significant decrease in lactation. Weaning for 2 h produces an early induction of the tumour suppressor/transcription factor p53, whereas the oncoprotein c-Jun and c-Jun N-terminal kinase are elevated after 24 h of weaning when compared with controls. The expression of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, was significantly higher in weaned rats when compared with control lactating rats. All the changes mentioned above also happen in the lactating mammary gland when propargylglycine, an inhibitor of the liver trans-sulphuration pathway, is administered. This effect is partially reversed by N -acetylcysteine administration. The administration of buthionine sulphoximine, an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, to lactating rats produces a decrease in GSH levels and changes in protein concentrations and gene transcripts similar to those in rats with impaired trans-sulphuration pathway. These data suggest that the inter-tissue flux of GSH is an important mechanism of L-cysteine delivery to the lactating mammary gland and emphasize the importance of this physiological event in maintaining the gene expression required to sustain lactation. PMID:12723969

  19. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats. PMID:23796758

  20. Carcinogenic responses to chemicals applied directly to rat mammary glands in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.; Meade, M.; Stone, J.P.; Shellabarger, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    In four experiments, concentrated glycerin suspensions of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), or the water-soluble compounds, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) were delivered into pockets in the mammary fat pads in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In a 90-day experiment, each of three groups of 20-22 rats were treated with either 25, 50, or 100 ..mu..g DMBA delivered to each of four sites in each rat per group. Dose-related responses were detected for incidence of rats with mammary adenocarcinoma (MAC), and for number of MAC per treated site. In a 120-day study, each of three groups of 20 animals were treated with either 250, 500, or 1000 ..mu..g MNU at each of 80 sites per group. Dose-related MAC responses were detected for incidence of rats with MAC, number of MAC per treated site, and time to detection of MAC. In two experiments of 90 days duration, groups of 20 females were treated with either 1000 ..mu..g ENU or 1000 ..mu..g 4-NQO at each of 80 sites per group. ENU produced a total of 27 MAC sites in 65% of the rats, and 4-NQO produced a total of 26 MAC in 60% of the rats. A comparison of the time to detection of all MAC data for the three water-soluble compounds at the 1000 ..mu..g treatment level, or on the basis of moles per treatment, yielded a carcinogenic potency relationship of 4-NQO > ENU > MNU. 21 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. Age-dependent changes in rat lacrimal gland anti-oxidant and vesicular related protein expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thiago Martins; Tomiyoshi, Lilian Midori; Dias, Ana Carolina; Roma, Letícia Prates; Módulo, Carolina Maria; Malki, Leonardo Tannus; Filho, Elísio Bueno Machado; Deminice, Rafael; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; Cunha, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anti-oxidation and exocytosis are important for maintaining exocrine tissue homeostasis. During aging, functional and structural alterations occur in the lacrimal gland (LG), including oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA. The aims of the present study were to determine in the aging LG: a) the effects of aging on LG structure and secretory activity and b) changes in the expression of oxidative stress markers. Methods To address these goals, tear secretion composition and corneal impression cytology were compared between male Wistar rats of 2 (control) and 24 (aged) months. LG morphology and the expression levels of vitamin E and malonaldehyde (MDA) were evaluated to determine the anti-oxidant activity and lipid peroxidation, respectively. RT–PCR and western blot analysis were used for the analysis of Ras related in brain GTPase protein (Rab) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins of the secretory machinery (i.e.; Rab 3d, Rab 27, vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (Vamp-2), and syntaxin). Results Histological analysis of aged rats revealed a higher frequency of corneal epithelia metaplasia. In the acinar cells, organelles underwent degeneration, and lipofucsin-like material accumulated in the cytoplasm along with declines in the anti-oxidant marker vitamin E. Rab3d and Rab27b mRNA levels fell along with Rab3d protein expression, whereas syntaxin levels increased. Conclusions These findings indicate that exocytotic and anti-oxidant mechanisms become impaired with age in the rat LG. In parallel with these structural alterations, functional declines may contribute to the pathophysiology caused by tear film modification in dry eye disease. PMID:22312187

  2. Expression and cellular localization of the transcription factor NeuroD1 in the developing and adult rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Castro, Analía E; Benitez, Sergio G; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Savastano, Luis E; Patterson, Sean I; Muñoz, Estela M

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of mammalian physiology. The daily pattern of melatonin synthesis and secretion is one of the classic examples of circadian oscillations. It is mediated by a class of neuroendocrine cells known as pinealocytes which are not yet fully defined. An established method to evaluate functional and cytological characters is through the expression of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators. NeuroD1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the specification and maintenance of both endocrine and neuronal phenotypes. We have previously described developmental and adult regulation of NeuroD1 mRNA in the rodent pineal gland. However, the transcript levels were not influenced by the elimination of sympathetic input, suggesting that any rhythmicity of NeuroD1 might be found downstream of transcription. Here, we describe NeuroD1 protein expression and cellular localization in the rat pineal gland during development and the daily cycle. In embryonic and perinatal stages, protein expression follows the mRNA pattern and is predominantly nuclear. Thereafter, NeuroD1 is mostly found in pinealocyte nuclei in the early part of the night and in cytoplasm during the day, a rhythm maintained into adulthood. Additionally, nocturnal nuclear NeuroD1 levels are reduced after sympathetic disruption, an effect mimicked by the in vivo administration of α- and β-adrenoceptor blockers. NeuroD1 phosphorylation at two sites, Ser(274) and Ser(336) , associates with nuclear localization in pinealocytes. These data suggest that NeuroD1 influences pineal phenotype both during development and adulthood, in an autonomic and phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:25752781

  3. Minimizing the Submandibular Incision in Endoscopic Subcondylar Fracture Repair.

    PubMed

    Aboelatta, Yasser Abdallah; Elbarbary, Amir S; Abdelazeem, Sarah; Massoud, Karim S; Safe, Ikram I

    2015-12-01

    Endoscope-assisted treatment of mandibular condylar fractures is an evolving surgical technique of this controversial subject. The approach is performed through an intraoral and additional submandibular incision. This study presents a technique for minimizing the length of the optional submandibular incision. Ten patients with displaced subcondylar fractures and malocclusion underwent endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). A limited (<1 cm) submandibular incision (dissected under endoscopic guidance from within) was needed in eight patients to complement the intraoral incision and facilitate the reduction in the fractures. Satisfactory small scar could be obtained in all patients with neither wound complications nor facial nerve injuries. Our technique depends on dissection first then incision. Performing the external incision after complete intraoral dissection is safe for the facial nerve and minimizes scarring markedly. This very limited submandibular incision facilitates reduction in relatively difficult cases and enables clear visualization of posterior border of the mandible to confirm adequate fracture reduction. PMID:26576236

  4. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Culman, J.; Torda, T.; Weise, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-(methyl-/sup 3/H) adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported.

  5. Maternal coordination of the daily rhythm of malate dehydrogenase activity in testes from young rats: effect of maternal sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland and administration of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Vermouth, N T; Carriazo, C S; Gallará, R V; Carpentieri, A R; Bellavía, S L

    1995-02-01

    Chronic sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) was performed on female rats 30 days before impregnation. The offspring, maintained in the dark from birth, had disruption of the malate dehydrogenase circadian rhythm in the testes at 25 days of age. A daily injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg s.c. at 10:00 or 18:00 h) to denervated mothers from the 14th day of pregnancy up to the 10th day postpartum produced one daily phase in the enzyme activity of tests in the offspring. Entrainment of daily enzyme activity also was obtained when the hormone was administered orally to the pups during the postnatal period or when pups were reared by intact (not denervated) foster mothers. The results indicate the involvement of the maternal pineal gland in the maternal transfer of photoperiodic information necessary for the coordination of the circadian system in young rats. PMID:7750160

  6. Photosensitizer-induced fluorescence of the rat adrenal gland and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) by meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo-Benkmann, Mario; Muhm, Markus; Gahlen, Johannes; Heym, Christine; Senninger, Norbert

    1997-12-01

    Rat adrenal glands exhibit an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The objective of our study was the identification of adrenal cells exhibiting mTHPC-induced fluorescence under normal conditions and under stimulation of adrenal proliferation by reserpine. Furthermore mTHPC-uptake of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells was investigated. Four male Wistar rats received 0.5 mg mTHPC/kg iv 48 hours before perfusion. Furthermore four rats received reserpine (2 mg/kg im od), bromo-deoxy-uridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg ip od) each for one week and mTHPC (0.5 mg/kg) 48 hours before perfusion. BrdU was detected immunohistochemically. PC 12-cells were incubated with 0.5 mg mTHPC/l culture medium for 24 or 48 hours. Cells and tissues were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The adrenal cortex exhibited an intense mTHPC-induced fluorescence. The adrenal medulla fluoresced faintly. Reserpine increased fluorescence of intramedullary cells, not coinciding with adrenal proliferation. Cortical fluorescence remained unchanged. PC 12-cells lying singly or in small groups and differentiating cells showed a more intense mTHPC- induced fluorescence than confluent cells. Differences of cortical and medullary uptake of mTHPC are independent of proliferation and may be explained by lipophilia of mTHPC, since adrenocytes have an uptake mechanism for cholesterol. The difference of mTHPC-uptake between PC 12-cells and chromaffin cells implicate the possibility of photodynamic applications for medullary neoplasia.

  7. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  8. Somatostatin analog (SMS 201-995) inhibits the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated sup 3 H-thymidine uptake by rat adrenal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlikowski, M.; Lewinski, A.; Sewerynek, E.; Szkudlinski, M.; Kunert-Radek, J.; Wajs, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The effects of a long-acting somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 injections on the basal and angiotensin II-stimulated ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake by the rat adrenal glands incubated in vitro were examined. It was shown that SMS 201-995 significantly inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-thymidine uptake and, additionally, suppressed the stimulatory effect of a single angiotensin II injection.

  9. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization of somatostatin-28 in the rat pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, G.; Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1985-04-01

    To identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing somatostatin-28 (SS-28)-binding sites and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, autoradiography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after iv injection of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-SS-28 agonist (Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25)SS-28 into intact, adrenalectomized, or castrated male rats. At the light microscopic level, the silver grains were found in 75% of cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled peptide prevented the binding of label, verifying the specificity of binding. No specific labeling could be detected in the adrenocorticotrophs of adrenalectomized rats or gonadotrophs (castration cells) of castrated rats. At the electron microscopic level, three cell types (somatotrophs, thyrotrophs, and mammotrophs) appear to contain radiolabeled SS-28. The time-course study in somatotrophs of intact animals showed that 2 min after injection, most silver grains were associated with the plasma membrane. Five to 15 min after injection, label was found over both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic organelles, especially the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and secretory granules. At the longest time interval (60 min), labeling was mostly associated with the cytoplasmic organelles. These results indicate that SS-28-binding sites are present only in those cell types in which somatostatin is known to regulate secretory functions. The present data also show that a rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptide occurs.

  10. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-03-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake.

  11. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Misa Agustiño, María José; Leiro, José Manuel; Jorge Mora, María Teresa; Rodríguez-González, Juan Antonio; Jorge Barreiro, Francisco Javier; Ares-Pena, Francisco José; López-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, we studied levels of HSP-90 and HSP-70. We also used hematoxilin eosin to look for evidence of lesions in the gland and applied the DAPI technique of fluorescence to search for evidence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation in the thyroid cells of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats were individually exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell at different levels of non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR), which was calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01) after applying a SAR of 0.046±1.10 W/Kg or 0.104±5.10−3 W/Kg. Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity. PMID:23213477

  12. Fatty acid profiles of mammary gland tissue in rats following exposure to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Karmali, R.

    1986-03-01

    Prostaglandins have been implicated in the mechanism of DMBA carcinogenesis and tumor-promoting effects of linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6). Since elevated levels of arachidonate (C20:4 omega 6) products have been reported in various mammary tumors it is important to evaluate changes in pools of this substrate fatty acid and its precursor, linoleic acid. To address this question, total lipid extracts were subjected to TLC separation to obtain phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and neutral (N) fractions. Fatty acid profiles for each fraction were analyzed by GLC. Three groups of 50 day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used: Control, DMBA 10mg and 20mg/rat. Mammary gland tissue specimens were excised at 2 week intervals from the time of challenge through appearance of tumors. Individual fatty acid percentages and specific ratios were examined. At 2 weeks post DMBA, the levels of C18:2 omega 6 were increased in all 3 lipid fractions in both DMBA-challenged compared with Control groups. On the other hand, similar trends in C20:4 omega 6 were apparent only in the PE fraction. Also, ratio of 20:4/18:2 showed a marked increase from the Control (0.09) to DMBA-challenged groups (0.47 and 0.42 respectively) in the PE fraction. These results suggest changes in fatty acid profiles during the early phase of DMBA carcinogenesis. Results of similar studies at subsequent stages will also be discussed in detail.

  13. [Morphological studies of rat adrenal glands after space flight on "Kosmos-1667"].

    PubMed

    Prodan, N G; Bara'nska, V

    1989-01-01

    Histological and histomorphometric examinations of rat adrenals after a 7-day flight revealed the following changes: blood congestion in the cortex and medulla, progressive delipoidization of the cortex, slight enlargement of the nuclear volume of glomerular and fascicular zones, vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and cell nuclei of the medulla; the adrenal weight remained however unchanged. It is concluded that an early period of adaptation to microgravity was accompanied by a weak stress-reaction. Upon return to Earth the rats developed an acute gravitational stress. From the morphological point of view the stress manifested as: increased volume of nuclei in fascicular cells, decreased content of lipids in them, and greater vacuolization of the cytoplasm of medulla cells. The lack of medulla hypertrophy, reduction of the area of noradrenocyte islets and nuclei of medulla cells suggest that 7-day exposure to microgravity did not exert of stimulating effect on the sympathetic system of rats. PMID:2625973

  14. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  15. The effect of HeNe laser radiation on the thyroid gland of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, E.; Hevia, A.; Rodrigo, P.; Gonzalez-Campora, R.; Armas, J. R.; Galera, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although laser irradiation is becoming common practice in medicine, there is not always a clear understanding of the possible side-effects. The present report is a light and electron microscopic study of the effects of fixed low intensity doses of soft HeNe laser on the thyroid of Wistar rats. The immediate effects are mild multifocal degenerative changes; these lesions recover in less than 3 months. Long-term lesions are identified only by electron microscopy; they consist of an increased number of peroxisomes and free or intramitochondrial crystalline structures. We discuss the laser's hypothetical functions. Images Fig. 3 PMID:1883738

  16. Ryanodine and inositol trisphosphate receptors are differentially distributed and expressed in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Wen, J; Bidasee, K R; Besch, H R; Wojcikiewicz, R J; Lee, B; Rubin, R P

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the cellular distribution of the ryanodine receptor/channel (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) subtypes in parotid acini. Using fluorescently labelled 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid glycyl-ryanodine (BODIPYtrade mark-ryanodine) and confocal microscopy, RyRs were localized primarily to the perinuclear region (basal pole) of the acinar cell. Ryanodine, Ruthenium Red, cAMP and cADP ribose (cADPR) competed with BODIPY-ryanodine, resulting in a reduction in the fluorescence signal. However, inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] did not alter the binding of BODIPY-ryanodine. Using receptor-subtype-specific antisera, InsP3Rs (types I, II and III) were located predominantly in the apical pole of the parotid cell. The presence of these three subtypes was confirmed using reverse transcriptase PCR with RNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Binding studies using a parotid cell-membrane fraction identified and characterized RyRs and InsP3Rs in terms of binding affinity (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and confirmed that cADPR displaces ryanodine from its binding sites. Ruthenium Red and 8-Br-cADP-ribose blocked Ca2+ release in permeabilized acinar cells in response to cADPR and cAMP or forskolin, whereas Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release was unaffected. The localization of the RyRs and InsP3Rs in discrete regions endow broad areas of the parotid cell with ligand-activated Ca2+ channels. The consequences of the dual activation of the RyRs and InsP3Rs by physiologically relevant stimuli such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) are considered in relation to Ca2+ signalling in the parotid gland. PMID:10333498

  17. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in endocrine glands of the rat - pattern of their expression.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-01-01

    The hexadecapeptide cerebellin (CER) is derived from a larger protein, cerebellin 1 precursor protein (Cbln1). At present four precerebellins (Cbln1-4) are known. They are highly expressed in the brain, in particular in the cerebellum. Since CER is involved in regulating endocrine functions, present studies aimed to investigate, by means of molecular biology techniques (RT-PCR, QPCR, Western blotting) the expression of Cbln related genes and Cbln1 protein in classic endocrine glands of the rat. RT-PCR revealed the presence of Cbln1 and Cbln3 mRNAs in all endocrine glands tested; hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, thyroid, adrenal cortex, testis, ovary and pancreatic islets. Expression of Cbln2 gene was demonstrated only in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex and in cerebral cortex, which was studied as a positive control organ. On the contrary, expression of Cbln4 gene was found only in the cerebral cortex. Using QPCR, the highest expression of Cbln1 gene was demonstrated in hypothalamus and pancreatic islets, a somewhat lower one in the anterior pituitary and thyroid, while the lowest was in adrenal cortex, testis and ovary. In general, the Cbln3 gene exhibited a similar pattern of expression, with the highest level in pancreatic islets and somewhat lower in the hypothalamus. Cbln2 gene expression was high in the hypothalamus, lower in the anterior pituitary and very low in adrenal cortex. In general, the pattern of Cbln1 protein expression was similar to that of Cbln1 mRNA. Further experiments aimed to check possible association of Cbln1 with cell membrane. Such association is suggested by differences in Cbln1 protein amount after extraction with RIPA and TRIS buffers. Bioinformatic methods predicting transmembrane topology (HMMTOP and SPLIT 4.0 servers) suggest transmembrane localisation of Cbln1, with transmembrane domain sequence responsible for the formation of an alpha-helix. These findings suggest possible physiological roles of Cbln

  18. In utero exposure of rats to high-fat diets perturbs gene expression profiles and cancer susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ying, Jun; Gear, Robin; Bornschein, Robert L; Medvedovic, Mario; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Human studies suggest that high-fat diets (HFDs) increase the risk of breast cancer. The 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis rat model is commonly used to evaluate the effects of lifestyle factors such as HFD on mammary tumor risk. Past studies focused primarily on the effects of continuous maternal exposure on the risk of offspring at the end of puberty (PND50). We assessed the effects of prenatal HFD exposure on cancer susceptibility in prepubertal mammary glands and identified key gene networks associated with such disruption. During pregnancy, dams were fed AIN-93G-based diets with isocaloric high olive oil, butterfat or safflower oil. The control group received AIN-93G. Female offspring were treated with DMBA on PND21. However, a significant increase in tumor volume and a trend of shortened tumor latency were observed in rats with HFD exposure against the controls (P=.048 and P=.067, respectively). Large-volume tumors harbored carcinoma in situ. Transcriptome profiling identified 43 differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of the HFBUTTER group as compared with control. Rapid hormone signaling was the most dysregulated pathway. The diet also induced aberrant expression of Dnmt3a, Mbd1 and Mbd3, consistent with potential epigenetic disruption. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence supporting susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands to DMBA-induced tumorigenesis that can be modulated by dietary fat that involves aberrant gene expression and likely epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:26895667

  19. Complete amino acid sequence of the medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase from rat mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Randhawa, Z.I.; Smith, S.

    1987-03-10

    The complete amino acid sequence of the medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase (thioesterase II) from rat mammary gland is presented. Most of the sequence was derived by analysis of (/sup 14/C)-labelled peptide fragments produced by cleavage at methionyl, glutamyl, lysyl, arginyl, and tryptophanyl residues. A small section of the sequence was deduced from a previously analyzed cDNA clone. The protein consists of 260 residues and has a blocked amino-terminal methionine and calculated M/sub r/ of 29,212. The carboxy-terminal sequence, verified by Edman degradation of the carboxy-terminal cyanogen bromide fragment and carboxypeptidase Y digestion of the intact thioesterase II, terminates with a serine residue and lacks three additional residues predicted by the cDNA sequence. The native enzyme contains three cysteine residues but no disulfide bridges. The active site serine residue is located at position 101. The rat mammary gland thioesterase II exhibits approximately 40% homology with a thioesterase from mallard uropygial gland, the sequence of which was recently determined by cDNA analysis. Thus the two enzymes may share similar structural features and a common evolutionary origin. The location of the active site in these thioesterases differs from that of other serine active site esterases; indeed, the enzymes do not exhibit any significant homology with other serine esterases, suggesting that they may constitute a separate new family of serine active site enzymes.

  20. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. PMID:27168421

  1. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  2. Redox capacity of the pineal gland in rats. Effect of castration.

    PubMed

    Ianăs, O; Olinescu, R; Bădescu, I

    1993-01-01

    The day/night cycle-induced effects, and the effect of castration on pineal oxidative potential in rats, were studied herein. Experiments were made in adult and castrated Wistar rats kept under normal light conditions during winter (on December and January). Castration was performed 72 hrs before sacrification. Groups of 6 intact or castrated animals were sacrificed at 4 hr-intervals during 24 hrs (the day/night cycle). Blood and pineal were then taken. Peroxides and total pineal antioxidants in plasma and pineal homogenate were assessed by chemiluminescence. The results obtained prove that photoperiod is involved in the organism oxidative potential, and that pineal is involved in the diurnal rhythm of this potential. Pineal peroxide and antioxidative concentrations show circadian variations with minimum and maximal values during the day or the night, which are also reflected at the plasma level. In the first half of the morning are registered increased peroxide and decreased antioxidative levels while at night the diagrams are reversed. As compared to the intact group, in the castrated one antioxidants and peroxides maintain their biorhythms but their concentrations are significantly changed. The diagram of pineal peroxides in the castrated group is situated above that of the intact one, with statistically significant differences only at midday (12:00). Taking into account the antioxidative characteristics of melatonin, one can suppose that maximum pineal antioxidative levels during the night might be due to maximum concentrations of nocturnal melatonin. The significant increase in peroxide concentration and the decrease in antioxidants after castration would partly explain the physiologic status of the elderly with decreased melatonin production and increased oxidative processes. PMID:7697061

  3. Calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1 is expressed in human salivary glands and contains an anti-inflammatory motif.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Chris D; St Laurent, Katherine E; Mathison, Ron D; Befus, A Dean

    2015-04-01

    Salivary glands are involved in the production and exocrine and endocrine secretion of biologically active proteins, polypeptides, and hormones involved in growth and differentiation, homeostasis, and digestion. We have previously studied the prohormone submandibular rat 1 (SMR1), product of the Vcsa1 gene, which is highly expressed in the testes and salivary glands of rats, and can be cleaved to produce polypeptides with analgesic, erectile function, and anti-inflammatory activities. Humans lack the Vcsa1 gene, but homologous sequences and functions for analgesia and erectile function exist in the human genes Prol1, SMR3a, and SMR3b located on the human chromosomal region close to where Vcsa1 lies in the rat. Here we show the human protein calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1) contains a similar sequence to the anti-inflammatory sequence in rat SMR1, thus CABS1 may be another human gene with homologous function to Vcsa1. Using Western blot and PCR, we discovered that the human protein CABS1, previously thought to only be expressed in the testes, is also expressed in the salivary glands and lung, in a tissue-specific manner. Peptides derived from CABS1 were tested in an in vivo mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neutrophilia and an ex vivo rat model of antigen-induced intestinal anaphylaxis and significantly reduced both neutrophil accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and antigen-induced ileal contractions, respectively. Thus human CABS1 has a peptide motif homologous to the anti-inflammatory peptide sequence of rat SMR1. Whether this similarity of CABS1 extends to the neuroendocrine regulation of the anti-inflammatory activity seen for SMR1 remains to be determined. PMID:25632019

  4. [State of the thyroid gland C-cells in rats after a flight on Kosmos-type biosatellites (based on morphological study data)].

    PubMed

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I

    1980-01-01

    Calcitonin-secreting cells (C-cells) of the thyroid glands from 51 SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 to 22 days aboard biosatellites Cosmos-605, 782 and 936 and sacrificed 4.5--13 hours, 1--2 and 25--27 days after recovery were examined histologically and karyometrically. Vivarium (57) and synchronous (58) rats were used as controls. Variations in the nuclear volume of C-cells and their density were shown to depend on the experimental conditions and time interval elapsed after recovery. Morphological changes in C-cells were assumed to be associated with alterations in calcium metabolism during an exposure of rats to weightlessness, artificial gravity and Earth gravity. PMID:7382402

  5. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  6. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary ... system since they contain endocrine tissue that secretes hormones. These include the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The ...

  7. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002351.htm Endocrine glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The ...

  8. [Studies of the morphology of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone levels in the blood of rats in experiments on "Kosmos-1667" and "Kosmos-1887"].

    PubMed

    Plakhuta-Plakutina, G I; Kabitskiĭ, E N; Dmitrieva, N P; Amirkhanian, E A

    1990-01-01

    Using histological, electron microscopic, and biochemical (measurement of total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in plasma) method, thyroid glands of 17 male rats of the Wistar SPF strain flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 and for 13 days on Cosmos-1887 were investigated. It was found that a longer exposure to space flight effects (for 13 days) led to a thyroid activity decline (significant reduction of thyrocyte size and nuclear area, accumulation of colloid drops in the cytoplasm, decrease of iodinated thyroglobulins in the colloid, etc.) together with a substantial decrease of T4 and T3 in plasma. The above structural and functional changes in the thyroid gland and hormonal status are characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction and reflect variations of the early and intermediate stages of adaptation to microgravity during 7- and 13-day space flights. PMID:2214661

  9. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Costa, José Ronaldo Vieira da; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

  10. Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; da Costa, José Ronaldo Vieira; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2014-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

  11. Salivary gland uptake of 67Ga-citrate following radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bekerman, C; Hoffer, P B

    1976-08-01

    Radiogallium uptake in the salivary glands is strongly correlated with prior therapeutic radiation which includes the cervical region. Fifteen of 17 patients with increased salivary gland uptake had such a history. An easily identified characteristic pattern of symmetric localization of 67Ga occurs in the parotid and submandibular regions in these patients. This pattern must not be mistaken for recurrent tumor in the cervical region. PMID:932810

  12. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  13. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  14. Vascular malformation with phleboliths involving the parotid gland: A case report with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ho, Caleb; Judson, Benjamin L; Prasad, Manju L

    2015-01-01

    Phleboliths within the parotid gland are exceedingly rare. We report a case of a venous malformation with multiple phleboliths that involved the left parotid gland and extended into the extraparotid tissue in a 43-year-old woman. We also review 13 similar cases that have been reported since 1948, and we highlight the significance of distinguishing phleboliths from sialoliths because management of the two can be entirely different. Phleboliths in and around the salivary glands primarily affect the parotid and submandibular glands in adult women. Patients can present with recurrent, intermittent swelling that may be associated with food intake and hyposalivation. Any sialolithiasis located outside of its most common location in the submandibular glands must be investigated thoroughly before surgery. PMID:26535823

  15. Low dose irradiation profoundly affects transcriptome and microRNAme in rat mammary gland tissues

    PubMed Central

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully used in medical tests and treatment therapies for a variety of medical conditions. However, patients and health-care workers are greatly concerned about overexposure to medical ionizing radiation and possible cancer induction due to frequent mammographies and/or CT scans. Diagnostic imaging involves the use of low doses of ionizing radiation, and its potential carcinogenic role creates a cancer risk concern for exposed individuals. In this study, the effects of X-ray exposure of different doses on the gene expression patterns and the micro-RNA expression patterns in normal breast tissue were investigated in rats. Our results revealed the activation of immune response pathways upon low dose of radiation exposure. These included natural killer mediated cytotoxicity pathways, antigen processing and presentation pathways, chemokine signaling pathways, and T- and B-cell receptor signaling pathways. Both high and low doses of radiation led to miRNA expression alterations. Increased expression of miR-34a may be linked to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Up-regulation of miR-34a was correlated with down-regulation of its target E2F3 and up-regulation of p53. This data suggests that ionizing radiation at specific high and low doses leads to cell cycle arrest and a possible initiation of apoptosis. PMID:25594002

  16. In vivo oestrogenic modulation of Egr1 and Pitx1 gene expression in female rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Alina; Herman, Andrzej P; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Kochman, Kazimierz; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-12-01

    EGR1 and PITX1 are transcription factors required for gonadotroph cell Lhb promoter activation. To determine changes in Egr1 and Pitx1 mRNA levels in central and peripheral pituitary stimulations, an in vivo model based on i.c.v. pulsatile (1 pulse/0.5 h over 2 h) GnRH agonist (1.5 nM buserelin) or antagonist (2 nM antide) microinjections was used. The microinjections were given to ovariectomised and 17β-oestradiol (E2) (3×20 μg), ERA (ESR1) agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) (3×0.5 mg), ERB (ESR2) agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (3×0.5 mg) s.c. pre-treated rats 30 min after last pulse anterior pituitaries were excised. Relative mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results revealed a gene-specific response for GnRH and/or oestrogenic stimulations in vivo. Buserelin pulses enhanced Egr1 expression by 66% in ovariectomised rats, whereas the oestradiol-supplemented+i.c.v. NaCl-microinjected group showed a 50% increase in Egr1 mRNA expression. The oestrogenic signal was transmitted via ERA (ESR1) and ERB (ESR2) activation as administration of PPT and DPN resulted in 97 and 62%, respectively, elevation in Egr1 mRNA expression. A synergistic action of GnRH agonist and 17β-oestradiol (E2) stimulation of the Egr1 gene transcription in vivo were found. GnRHR activity did not affect Pitx1 mRNA expression; regardless of NaCl, buserelin or antide i.c.v. pulses, s.c. oestrogenic supplementation (with E2, PPT or DPN) consistently decreased (by -46, -48 and -41% respectively) the Pitx1 mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland. Orchestrated Egr1 and Pitx1 activities depending on specific central and peripheral regulatory inputs could be responsible for physiologically variable Lhb gene promoter activation in vivo. PMID:25258388

  17. Isolated suppurative submandibular sialadenitis in a preterm neonate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ester; Lapa, Patrícia; Basto, Lígia; Afonso, Eulália

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal isolated suppurative submandibular sialadenitis (NISSS) is rare, with only 21 cases described in the English literature. All cases, with the exception of one, were caused by Staphylococcus aureus. In this case report, we describe a preterm neonate with NISSS due to infection by S aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia presenting on day 11 of life with submandibular swelling and low-grade fever. Possible contributors for the development of the infection include prematurity, neutropenia, prolonged orogastric feed and bacterial virulence. Antibiotic treatment was effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of NISSS caused by a mixed flora. PMID:24810437

  18. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice modulates 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hepatic but not mammary gland phase I and II enzymes in female rats.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2011-03-01

    Chokeberry is a rich source of procyanidins known to have several types of biological activity including anticarcinogenic potential in experimental models. In this study we examined the effect of chokeberry juice on the hepatic and mammary gland carcinogen metabolizing enzyme expression altered by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with chokeberry juice (8 ml/kg b.w.) for 28 consecutive days. DMBA was administered i.p. on the 27th and the 28th days. Pretreatment with chokeberry juice reduced the activity of CYP1A1 and increased that of CYP2B involved in metabolic activation/detoxication of DMBA in rat liver, as well as expression and activity of phase II enzymes. Chokeberry juice had no effect on these parameters in the mammary gland and DMBA induced DNA damage in rat blood cells. These results together with our earlier observations indicate that metabolic alterations induced by chokeberry feeding are tissue specific and depend on the class of carcinogen. PMID:21787703

  19. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies. PMID:27270969

  20. [Effect of a single dose of some long-acting neuroleptics on the estrus cycle and the mammary gland of the rat].

    PubMed

    Lanza, J P; Goude, F; Lanza, M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of two neuroleptics (pipotiazine and fluphenazine) and five long-acting neuroleptics (pipotiazine undecylenate and palmitate, fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, fluopentixol decanoate) are tested in the rat, during an observation period of 20 to 40 days following only one injection of compound. The compounds administered at three different and non toxic doses, are showing effects, the intensity and duration of which are different according to the dose and the compound: diestrus of pseudo-gestation or more than 15 days, hypertrophy of mammary gland, decreasing of the uterine weight. Some long-acting neuroleptics are active during more than forty days. PMID:43191

  1. Voltage-dependent currents and modulation of calcium channel expression in zona fasciculata cells from rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, J G; Takeda, K

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage-activated currents from single zona fasciculata (ZF) cells from rat adrenal glands were studied. T- and L-type Ca2+ currents and a slowly inactivating A-type K+ current were the three major currents observed. 2. In freshly isolated cells, the A-type K+ current and the T-type Ca2+ current were predominant. The A-type current was activated at -50 mV and inhibited by 4-amino-pyridine with a half-maximal block (IC50) at 130 microM while the T-type current was activated at -70 mV and blocked by Cd2+, Ni2+ and amiloride with IC50 values of 24.1, 132.4 and 518.9 microM, respectively. 3. Under current clamp, depolarizing current pulses produced a single Ca2+ action potential with Cs+ in the pipette internal solution. Upon replacement of Cs+ by K+, the half-amplitude width of the action potential was shortened and membrane potential oscillations were seen after the spike. 4. In freshly isolated cells and during the first 24 h after plating, the T-type current was observed in all cells, with L-type current being observed in < 2% of cells, even in the presence of (+)SDZ 202,791, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist. With time in culture, the T-type current disappeared, and a high-voltage-activated L-type current became increasingly apparent. In cells tested after > 2 days in culture, (+)SDZ 202,791 potentiated L-type current by 407 +/- 12% and the antagonist (-)SDZ 202,791 blocked this increase. The L-type current was activated between -30 and -20 mV and was sensitive to nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA. 5. Pre-incubation of cultured ZF cells with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) for 3 days resulted in a high, sustained level of expression of T-type current, with a mean amplitude of 34.2 +/- 5.5 pA pF-1 for ACTH-treated cells compared with 3.4 +/- 1.8 pA pF-1 for untreated cells. Cycloheximide strongly inhibited this effect. Neither treatment affected L-type current expression. 6. The expression of both Ca

  2. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  3. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine. PMID:27070740

  4. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  5. A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Irwin, S E; Kommineni, C; Mackerer, C R; Mehlman, M A

    1989-07-01

    Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 micrograms/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 10(9) nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone greater than hydroquinone greater than phenol greater than benzenetriol greater than catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ. PMID:2507309

  6. A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with 32P-postlabeling.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M V; Blackburn, G R; Irwin, S E; Kommineni, C; Mackerer, C R; Mehlman, M A

    1989-01-01

    Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 micrograms/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 10(9) nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone greater than hydroquinone greater than phenol greater than benzenetriol greater than catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ. Images FIGURE 3. A FIGURE 3. B FIGURE 3. C FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:2507309

  7. A method for in vitro culture of rat Zymbal gland: Use in mechanistic studies of benzene carcinogenesis in combination with sup 32 P-postlabeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.V.; Blackburn, G.R.; Irwin, S.E.; Kommineni, C.; Mackerer, C.R.; Mehlman, M.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Zymbal glands were excised bilaterally from the ear ducts of female Sprague-Dawley rats (three/group), minced into approximately four fragments per gland, and transferred into a microtiter plate containing 1.5 mL per well of Waymouth's tissue culture medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, hydrocortisone, insulin, and gentamicin. After addition of a test compound or solvent vehicle, plates were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 96 hr at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. Tissue in culture for 6 hr was histologically indistinguishable from the freshly excised tissue, while that in culture for 24, 48, and 96 hr showed a progressive deterioration often with necrosis and/or squamous metaplasia. More pronounced deterioration was noted in samples treated with 750 or 1500 micrograms/mL of benzene. Using a nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, aromatic DNA adducts were detected in cultured Zymbal glands exposed for 48 hr to benzene and its derivatives, as well as to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Benzene produced very low levels of adducts (0.5 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides), whereas its congeners produced relatively high levels of adducts (50-2000 lesions per 10(9) nucleotides), which decreased in the order benzoquinone greater than hydroquinone greater than phenol greater than benzenetriol greater than catechol. Each adduct profile overall was characteristic for the compound studied, suggesting the formation of compound-specific electrophiles. AAF and DMBA adducts were identical to those formed in vivo in animals. Our results show that the Zymbal glands are capable of metabolizing different carcinogens to DNA-reactive intermediates, a process that may be causally associated with tumor formation in vivo in this organ.

  8. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  9. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression differ in female rats treated with 17β-estradiol or fed soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Shankar, Kartik; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Hennings, Leah; Singhal, Rohit; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2012-12-01

    Soy foods have been suggested to have both positive health benefits and potentially adverse effects as a result of their content of phytoestrogens. However, studies on the estrogenicity of soy foods are lacking. Here we directly compared the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI), the protein in soy infant formula, with those of 17β-estradiol (E2), on global gene expression profiles and morphology in the female rat mammary gland. Rats were fed AIN-93G diets containing casein or SPI beginning on postnatal d 30. Rats were ovariectomized on postnatal d 50 and treated with 5 μg/kg/d E2 or vehicle for 14 d. Microarray analysis revealed that E2 treatment altered expression of 780 genes more than or equal to 2-fold (P < 0.05), whereas SPI feeding altered expression of only 53 genes more than or equal to 2-fold. Moreover, the groups had only 10 genes in common to increase more than or equal to 2-fold. The combination of SPI feeding and E2 altered expression of 422 genes and reversed E2 effects on many mRNAs, including those involved in the c-myc signaling pathway, cyclin D1, and Ki67. ERα binding to its response element on the Tie-2/Tek and progesterone receptor promoters was increased by E2, but not SPI, and this promoter binding was suppressed by the combination of E2 + SPI for the Tie-2/Tek promoter but increased for the progesterone receptor promoter (P < 0.05). SPI reduced the ratio of epithelial to fat pad area and E2 + SPI reduced both epithelial and fat pad area (P < 0.05). These data suggest that SPI is only minimally estrogenic in the rat mammary gland even in the absence of endogenous estrogens. PMID:23027806

  10. In Utero and Lactational Exposures to Low Doses of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether-47 Alter the Reproductive System and Thyroid Gland of Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Talsness, Chris E.; Kuriyama, Sergio N.; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Schnitker, Petra; Grande, Simone Wichert; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Andrade, Anderson; Grote, Konstanze; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are capable of disrupting thyroid hormone homeostasis. PBDE-47 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is one of the most abundant congeners found in human breast adipose tissue and maternal milk samples. Objectives We evaluated the effects of developmental exposure to low doses of PBDE-47 on the female reproductive system. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were administered vehicle (peanut oil) or PBDE-47 [140 or 700 μg/kg body weight (bw)] on gestation day (GD) 6, or 5 mg 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)/L in the drinking water from GD7 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Results In female offspring sacrificed on PND38, there was a significant decrease in ovarian weight after exposure to PTU or 140 μg/kg PBDE-47. Alterations in folliculogenesis were apparent: we observed a decrease in tertiary follicles and serum estradiol concentrations in the offspring exposed to either PTU or 700 μg/kg PBDE-47. PTU exposure also resulted in a decrease in primordial follicles. On PND100, persistent effects on the thyroid glands included histologic and morphometric changes after exposure to either PTU or PBDE-47. No relevant changes in reproductive indices were observed after mating the exposed F1 females with nontreated males. Conclusions Administration of PBDE-47 at doses relevant to human exposure led to changes in the rat female reproductive system and thyroid gland. PMID:18335096

  11. Possible etiology of calculi formation in salivary glands: biophysical analysis of calculus.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Kimijima, Yutaka; Amagasa, Teruo

    2005-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the common diseases of the salivary glands. It was speculated that, in the process of calculi formation, degenerative substances are emitted by saliva and calcification then occurs around these substances, and finally calculi are formed. However, the exact mechanism of the formation of calculi is still unclear. In this study, we identify some possible etiologies of calculi formation in salivary glands through biophysical analysis. Calculi from 13 patients with submandibular sialolithiasis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Transmission electron microscopic observation of calculi was performed in the submandibular gland (n = 13). In 3 of the 13 cases, a number of mitochondria-like structures and lysosomes were found near calcified materials. Scanning electron microscopic examination of these materials revealed that there were lamellar and concentric structures and that the degree of calcification was different among the calculi. X-ray microanalysis disclosed the component elements in the calculi to be Ca, P, S, Na, etc., and the main constituents were Ca and P. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratio was 1.60-1.89. Analysis of the area including mitochondria-like structures, lysosomes, and the fibrous structures by electron diffraction revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite and calcified materials. It is speculated that mitochondria and lysosomal bodies from the ductal system of the submandibular gland are an etiological source for calcification in the salivary gland. PMID:16170467

  12. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  13. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  14. Characterization of the human submandibular/sublingual saliva glycoproteome using lectin affinity chromatography coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Lu, Bingwen; Liao, Lujian; Xu, Tao; Bedi, Gurrinder; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth analysis of the salivary proteome is fundamental to understanding the functions of salivary proteins in the oral cavity and to reveal disease biomarkers involved in different pathophysiological conditions, with the ultimate goal of improving patient diagnosis and prognosis. Submandibular and sublingual glands contribute saliva rich in glycoproteins to the total saliva output, making them valuable sources for glycoproteomic analysis. Lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics was used to explore the submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) saliva glycoproteome. A total of 262 N- and O-linked glycoproteins were identified by multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Only 38 were previously described in SM and SL salivas from the human salivary N-linked glycoproteome, while 224 were unique. Further comparison analysis with SM/SL saliva of the human saliva proteome, revealed 125 glycoproteins not formerly reported in this secretion. KEGG pathway analyses demonstrated that many of these glycoproteins are involved in processes such as complement and coagulation cascades, cell communication, glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo-lactoseries, O-glycan biosynthesis, glycan structures-biosynthesis 2, starch and sucrose metabolism, peptidoglycan biosynthesis or others pathways. In summary, lectin-affinity chromatography coupled to MudPIT mass spectrometry identified many novel glycoproteins in SM/SL saliva. These new additions to the salivary proteome may prove to be a critical step for providing reliable biomarkers in the diagnosis of a myriad of oral and systemic diseases. PMID:21936497

  15. Expression of plasmid DNA in the salivary gland epithelium: novel approaches to study dynamic cellular processes in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Masedunskas, Andrius; Parente, Laura; Molinolo, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The ability to dynamically image cellular and subcellular structures in a live animal and to target genes to a specific cell population in a living tissue provides a unique tool to address many biological questions in the proper physiological context. Here, we describe a powerful approach that is based on the use of rat submandibular salivary glands, which offer the possibility to easily perform intravital imaging and deliver molecules from the oral cavity, and plasmid DNA, which offers the advantage of rapid manipulations. We show that, under different experimental conditions, a reporter molecule can be rapidly expressed in specific compartments of the glands: 1) in the intercalated ducts, when plasmid DNA is administered alone, and 2) in granular ducts, striated ducts, and, to a lesser extent, acini, when plasmid DNA is mixed with replication-deficient adenovirus subtype 5 particles. Remarkably, we also found that gene expression can be directed to acinar cells when plasmid DNA is administered during isoproterenol-stimulated exocytosis, suggesting a novel mechanism of plasmid internalization regulated by compensatory endocytosis. Finally, as a practical application of these strategies, we show how the expression of fluorescently tagged molecules enables the study of the dynamics of various organelles in live animals at a resolution comparable to that achieved in cell cultures. PMID:19794147

  16. Plasmid DNA is internalized from the apical plasma membrane of the salivary gland epithelium in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Non viral-mediated gene delivery represents an alternative way to express the gene of interest without inducing immune responses or other adverse effects. Understanding the mechanisms by which plasmid DNAs are delivered to the proper target in vivo is a fundamental issue that needs to be addressed in order to design more effective strategies for gene therapy. As a model system, we have used the submandibular salivary glands in live rats and we have recently shown that reporter transgenes can be expressed in different cell populations of the glandular epithelium, depending on the modality of administration of plasmid DNA. Here, by using a combination of immunofluorescence and intravital microscopy, we have explored the relationship between the pattern of transgenes expression and the internalization of plasmid DNA. We found that plasmid DNA is internalized: 1) by all the cells in the salivary gland epithelium, when administered alone 2) by large ducts, when mixed with empty adenoviral particles, and 3) by acinar cells upon stimulation of compensatory endocytosis. Moreover, we showed that plasmid DNA utilizes different routes of internalization, and evades both the lysosomal degradative pathway and the retrograde pathway towards the Golgi apparatus. This study clearly shows that in vivo approaches have the potential to address fundamental questions on the cellular mechanisms regulating gene delivery. PMID:22544351

  17. Mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature of prepubertal male and female rats following exposure to exogenous estradiol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize the actions of xenoestrogens, it is essential to possess a solid portrait of the physiological effects of exogenous estradiol. We assessed effects of three doses of exogenous estradiol (E2) (0.1, 1.0 and 10 micrograms/kg/day) on the mammary gland morphology and gene expressi...

  18. SOY AND WHEY PROTEINS DOWNREGULATE DMBA-INDUCED LIVER AND MAMMARY GLAND CYP1 EXPRESSION IN FEMALE RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One possible mechanism by which diet may reduce cancer risk is through enhancement of metabolic systems that prevent activation of carcinogens or accelerate carcinogen inactivation. We studied the effects of diet and 7/12-dimethylbenz-(a)anthracene (DMBA) on hepatic and mammary gland CYP1A1, CYP1A2...

  19. [A non-exocrine function of the submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Boyer, R; Jame, F; Arancibia, S

    1991-01-01

    Emphasizing on the concept of "banalization" and multifactoriality of the signal molecules of the cellular communication, the authors review data of the literature which allow to attribute to some substances synthetized by the submandibular salivary glands (SSG), mainly growth factors as EGF and NGF, an endocrine role. Because of their direct secretion in the oral cavity or their overflow into bloodstream the consequences of the deficit of these growth factors could be correlated with some oral pathologies such as aphthous lesions, puberty and pregnancy gingivitis, which endocrine etiology is often assumed, as well as autoimmune salivary pathologies. Thus, the results obtained after SSG removal furnish a support for envisaging a link between the submandibular salivary glands and the reproductive function (decrease in plasma LH level, ultrastructural changes of the Leydig cells, spontaneous abortion) and with some structures of the central nervous system such as hypothalamus (variation in hypothalamic TRH content) or pineal gland (decrease in pineal cyclic AMP content). Particularly interesting is the possibility that NGF secreted in blood by the SSG during a stress may represent the signal able to stimulate the peripheral immunity cells as well as to inform the central nervous system through a neuronal pathway via the superior cervical ganglia and the pineal gland. This brain afferent information could be associated with an increased hypothalamic NGF synthesis, also observed during stress, whose finality might be to stimulate the secretion of hypophyseal ACTH, the main hormone involved in the interrelationship between endocrine and immune response. PMID:1819220

  20. Protein kinase activity in the rat mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning: a correlation with growth but not with progesterone receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Sharoni, Y; Feldman, B; Teuerstein, I; Levy, J

    1984-11-01

    A protein kinase activity fraction was defined in cytosols and membranes of mammary tissue isolated from rats during pregnancy lactation, and weaning. By partial purification on DEAE-cellulose columns, it was shown that this protein kinase activity is cAMP independent and that its preferential substrate is casein and not histone. This protein kinase activity is inhibited by the bioflavonoid quercetin at doses that do not inhibit cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. The enzyme requires Mg2+ and is inactive in the presence of 10 mM Ca+2; these properties distinguish this activity from casein kinase activity found in the Golgi fraction and involved in milk protein processing. By following the physiological cycle of mammary gland development during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning, we found a close correlation between proliferation, expressed as the DNA content per gland, and quercetin-inhibited cytosolic protein kinase activity. Moreover, changes in this phosphorylating activity preceded the glandular growth changes. There was a less significant correlation between the growth process and protein kinase activity in the membrane fraction. The cytosolic cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity showed (only partial) correlation with growth only during pregnancy. Cytosolic progesterone receptor levels in mammary tissue were used as an estrogenic marker. Tissue growth correlated with progesterone receptor levels during pregnancy, where estrogens are the predominant hormones affecting tissue proliferation. However, no such correlation was found during lactation and weaning, when PRL is the major hormone affecting mammary gland growth. These results suggest that quercetin-inhibitable protein kinase activity is not merely another estrogenic marker, but represents more general regulatory activity which might be connected to growth processes of breast tissue. PMID:6092041

  1. Expression of the beacon gene in the rat adrenal gland: direct inhibitory effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from dispersed adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Neri, Giuliano; Di Liddo, Rosa; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-02-01

    Beacon gene was recently identified in the rat hypothalamus, and there is evidence that beacon may be involved in the functional regulation of neuroendocrine axes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry showed the expression of beacon mRNA and protein in the rat adrenal gland, especially in the cortex. Beacon[47-73], at a concentration over 10(-7) M decreased basal aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells, without affecting the ACTH-stimulated one. Basal and agonist-stimulated corticosterone secretion from dispersed zona fasciculata-reticularis cells and catecholamine release from adrenomedullary slices were unaffected by beacon[47-73]. The suppressive effect of beacon[47-73] on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells was abolished by either H-89 or calphostin-C, which are inhibitors of protein kinase A and C signaling cascades. Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that beacon can be included in the group of regulatory peptides involved in the fine tuning of ZG secretory activity. PMID:14719126

  2. Assessment of the proliferative capacity of the flavanones 8-prenylnaringenin, 6-(1.1-dimethylallyl)naringenin and naringenin in MCF-7 cells and the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Helle, Janina; Kräker, Kristin; Bader, Manuela I; Keiler, Annekathrin M; Zierau, Oliver; Vollmer, Günter; Welsh, JoEllen; Kretzschmar, Georg

    2014-07-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and naringenin (Nar) are phytoestrogens found in food items and nutritional supplements, while 6-(1.1-dimethylallyl)naringenin (6-DMAN) is a component of an African plant. Besides their assumed beneficial effects they may promote mammary and endometrial cancer. We therefore assessed their proliferative and estrogenic potential on the mammary gland in vitro and in vivo. In competitive estrogen receptor (ER) ligand binding assays 8-PN displayed a high relative binding affinity for both ERs with a preference for ERα and had the strongest mitotic effect on MCF-7 cells among the test substances. In a three day exposure in young adult ovariectomized female rats 15 mg/kg 8-PN had the highest capacity to increase the number of terminal end buds (TEB) in the mammary gland and stimulated expression of proliferation markers in epithelial ductal cells, followed by 6-DMAN and Nar, but overall their capacity to stimulate proliferation was weak in comparison to 17β-Estradiol (E2). PMID:24859648

  3. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  4. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

  5. Alpha adrenergic drugs inhibit ( sup 3 H)-QNB binding to muscarinic receptors of rat heart, brain and parotid gland membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Filep, J.; Zelles, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Alpha adrenergic agonists and antagonists as clonidine, guanfacine, yohimbine, phenylephrine and prazosin inhibited the ({sup 3}H)-QNB binding to rat brain cortex muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR, M-1 subtype), heart (M-2 subtype) and parotid gland homogenate (M-3 subtype) in a dose-dependent competitive fashion. Ki values were between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}3} M. Hill coefficients were about 1. No correlation was found between mAChR inhibiting capacity of these drugs and their activity on alpha adrenergic receptors. In contrast, other transmitters, as dopamine, GABA, glutamic acid, histamine, serotonin, isoproterenol and platelet activating factor (PAF) did not affect the QNB binding.

  6. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  7. The phytoestrogenic Cyclopia extract, SM6Met, increases median tumor free survival and reduces tumor mass and volume in chemically induced rat mammary gland carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Visser, Koch; Zierau, Oliver; Macejová, Dana; Goerl, Florian; Muders, Michael; Baretton, Gustavo B; Vollmer, Günter; Louw, Ann

    2016-10-01

    SM6Met, a phytoestrogenic extract of Cyclopia subternata indigenous to the Western Cape province of South Africa, displays estrogenic attributes with potential for breast cancer chemoprevention. In this study, we report that SM6Met, in the presence of estradiol, induces a significant cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest similar to the selective estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, in the N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea induced rat mammary gland carcinogenesis model, SM6Met increases tumor latency by 7days and median tumor free survival by 42 days, while decreasing palpable tumor frequency by 32%, tumor mass by 40%, and tumor volume by 53%. Therefore, the current study provides proof of concept that SM6Met has definite potential as a chemopreventative agent against the development and progression of breast cancer. PMID:27142456

  8. Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-05-01

    Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

  9. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  10. Modes of action of local hypothalamic and skin thermal stimulation on salivary secretion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kanosue, K; Nakayama, T; Tanaka, H; Yanase, M; Yasuda, H

    1990-01-01

    1. In urethane or ketamine-anaesthetized rats, salivary secretion was observed when local brain sites or trunk skin were stimulated thermally or electrically. 2. Salivary secretion was facilitated by bilateral local brain warming. Sensitive sites were restricted to the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, but in a region distinct from a previously reported sensitive site for producing saliva-spreading behaviour. 3. Unilateral warming of the preoptic area produced greater salivary secretion from the ipsilateral submandibular/sublingual salivary glands than from the contralateral glands. Electrical stimulation of the same sites elicited salivation only from the ipsilateral glands. 4. Trunk skin, not including the scrotum, was unilaterally cooled when spontaneous salivary secretion was observed in a hot environment. Salivary secretion from both sides was equally suppressed in response to the unilateral skin cooling. 5. We conclude that efferent signals from the anterior part of the hypothalamus project dominantly to the ipsilateral salivary gland for thermally induced salivary secretion. Thermal signals from the skin of either side of the trunk, on the other hand, appear to be integrated and to affect salivary secretion bilaterally. PMID:2391658

  11. Biocompatibility of tungsten disulfide inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like nanoparticles with salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Elisheva B; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Palmon, Aaron; Hovav, Avi-Hai; Aframian, Doron J

    2015-03-01

    Impaired salivary gland (SG) function leading to oral diseases is relatively common with no adequate solution. Previously, tissue engineering of SG had been proposed to overcome this morbidity, however, not yet clinically available. Multiwall inorganic (tungsten disulfide [WS2]) nanotubes (INT-WS2) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (IF-WS2) have many potential medical applications. A yet unexplored venue application is their interaction with SG, and therefore, our aim was to test the biocompatibility of INT/IF-WS2 with the A5 and rat submandibular cells (RSC) SG cells. The cells were cultured and subjected after 1 day to different concentrations of INT-WS2 and were compared to control groups. Growth curves, trypan blue viability test, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) proliferation assay were obtained. Furthermore, cells morphology and interaction with the nanoparticles were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed no significant differences in growth curves, proliferation kinetics, and viability between the groups compared. Moreover, no alterations were observed in the cell morphology. Interestingly, TEM images indicated that the nanoparticles are uptaken by the cells and accumulate in cytoplasmic vesicles. These results suggest promising future medical applications for these nanoparticles. PMID:25366879

  12. Biocompatibility of Tungsten Disulfide Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles with Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Elisheva B.; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Neumann, Yoav; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Palmon, Aaron; Hovav, Avi-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Impaired salivary gland (SG) function leading to oral diseases is relatively common with no adequate solution. Previously, tissue engineering of SG had been proposed to overcome this morbidity, however, not yet clinically available. Multiwall inorganic (tungsten disulfide [WS2]) nanotubes (INT-WS2) and fullerene-like nanoparticles (IF-WS2) have many potential medical applications. A yet unexplored venue application is their interaction with SG, and therefore, our aim was to test the biocompatibility of INT/IF-WS2 with the A5 and rat submandibular cells (RSC) SG cells. The cells were cultured and subjected after 1 day to different concentrations of INT-WS2 and were compared to control groups. Growth curves, trypan blue viability test, and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) proliferation assay were obtained. Furthermore, cells morphology and interaction with the nanoparticles were observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed no significant differences in growth curves, proliferation kinetics, and viability between the groups compared. Moreover, no alterations were observed in the cell morphology. Interestingly, TEM images indicated that the nanoparticles are uptaken by the cells and accumulate in cytoplasmic vesicles. These results suggest promising future medical applications for these nanoparticles. PMID:25366879

  13. Sonoelastographic Modalities in the Evaluation of Salivary Gland Characteristics in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Heiser, Clemens; Gahleitner, Constanze; Thuermel, Klaus; Bas, Murat; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate salivary tissue assessment with various sonoelastographic modalities (real-time tissue elastography, Virtual Touch imaging and quantification) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome as compared with an appropriate control group. The sonoelastographic modalities were evaluated in 50 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Patients underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid glands. Results of B-mode, real-time tissue elastography, Virtual Touch imaging-each graded with the appropriate scoring system-and Virtual Touch quantification were compared with those for 50 patients with sicca symptoms who did not fulfill the American-European consensus group criteria. In B-mode, 34 of 50 parotid glands in patients with pSS and 8 of 50 in the control group had abnormal findings (p < 0.001). Compared with 9 of 50 control patients, 38 of 50 patients with pSS had abnormal findings in submandibular gland B-mode (p < 0.001). With real-time tissue elastography, there was a trend toward higher scores for parotid glands in the pSS group (p = 0.238), whereas scores for submandibular glands in the control group were higher (p = 0.107). Virtual Touch imaging did not indicate any difference (p = 0.647 and p = 0.658). In Virtual Touch quantification, values for parotid (mean: 2.99 m/s) and submandibular glands (mean: 2.54 m/s) in the pSS group were higher than those for parotid (mean: 2.16 m/s) and submandibular (mean: 2.04 m/s) glands in the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Glandular stiffness, measured by Virtual Touch quantification, was significantly higher in patients with Sjögreńs syndrome than in patients with sicca symptoms. PMID:27207020

  14. Altered Carcinogenesis and Proteome in Mammary Glands of Rats after Prepubertal Exposures to the Hormonally Active Chemicals Bisphenol A and Genistein123

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Angela M.; Wang, Jun; Jenkins, Sarah; Mobley, Jim; Russo, Jose; Lamartiniere, Coral A.

    2012-01-01

    Through our diet, we are exposed to numerous natural and man-made chemicals, including polyphenols with hormone-like properties. The most abundant hormonally active polyphenols are characterized as weak estrogens. These chemicals are hypothesized to interfere with signaling pathways involved in important diseases such as breast cancer, which in most cases is initially estrogen dependent. Two such chemicals are bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer, and genistein, a component of soy. In spite of both possessing estrogenic properties, BPA and genistein yield different health outcomes. The exposure of rats during the prepubertal period to BPA increases the susceptibility of adult animals for mammary cancer development, whereas genistein decreases this susceptibility in a chemically induced model. Because both BPA and genistein possess estrogenic properties, it is certainly plausible that additional mechanisms are affected by these chemicals. Hence, it was our goal to investigate at the protein level how exposure to these 2 chemicals can contribute to mammary cancer causation as opposed to cancer chemoprevention. Using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by MS analysis, we identified differentially regulated proteins from the mammary glands of rats prepubertally exposed to BPA and genistein. Following protein identification, we used immunoblotting techniques to validate the identity and regulation of these proteins and to identify downstream signaling proteins. Our studies highlight the importance of proteomics technology in elucidating signaling pathways altered by exposure to hormonally active chemicals and its potential value in identifying biomarkers for mammary cancer. PMID:22649256

  15. Physiological role of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Regarding the 13 known mammalian aquaporins (AQPs), their functions in their expressing tissues, effects of their mutation/polymorphisms in humans, and effects of knockout of their genes are summarized in this review article. The roles of AQP5, an exocrine gland-type water channel, in the salivary gland under normal and pathophysiological conditions are reviewed in detail. First, the involvement of AQP5 in water secretion from acinar cells was demonstrated by measuring volume changes of acini/acinar cells, as well as activation energy (E a) in transepithelial water movement by NMR spectrometry, and a functional linkage between AQP5 and TRPV4 was suggested. Next, involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system on the AQP5 levels in the acinar cells of the submandibular and that of a β-adrenergic agonist on those in the parotid gland are described. That is, chorda tympani denervation induces autophagy of the submandibular gland, causing AQP5 degradation/metabolism, whereas isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, causes first an increase then decrease in AQP5 levels in the parotid gland, which action is coupled with the secretory-restoration cycle of amylase-containing secretory granules. The PG also responded to endotoxin, a lipopolysaccharide that activates NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Elevated NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun) form a complex that can bind to the NF-κB-responsive element on the AQP5 promoter and thus potentially downregulate AQP5 transcription. Salivary gland pathologies and conditions involving AQP5 and possible treatments are described as well. PMID:26537593

  16. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  17. Positive Selection Shaped the Convergent Evolution of Independently Expanded Kallikrein Subfamilies Expressed in Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    We performed proteomics studies of salivas from the genome mouse (C57BL/6 strain) and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi strain). Our goal was to identify salivary proteins with one or more of three characteristics that may indicate that they have been involved in adaptation: 1) rapid expansion of their gene families; 2) footprints of positive selection; and/or 3) sex-limited expression. The results of our proteomics studies allow direct comparison of the proteins expressed and their levels between the sexes of the two rodent species. Twelve members of the Mus musculus species-specific kallikrein subfamily Klk1b showed sex-limited expression in the mouse saliva proteomes. By contrast, we did not find any of the Rattus norvegicus species-specific kallikrein subfamily Klk1c proteins in male or female genome rat, nor transcripts in their submandibular glands. On the other hand, we detected expression of this family as transcripts in the submandibular glands of both sexes of Sprague-Dawley rats. Using the CODEML program in the PAML package, we demonstrate that the two rodent kallikrein subfamilies have apparently evolved rapidly under the influence of positive selection that continually remodeled the amino acid sites on the same face in the members of the subfamilies. Thus, although their kallikrein subfamily expansions were independent, this evolutionary pattern has occurred in parallel in the two rodent species, suggesting a form of convergent evolution at the molecular level. On the basis of this new data, we suggest that the previous speculative function of the species-specific rodent kallikreins as important solely in wound healing in males be investigated further. In addition to or instead of that function, we propose that their sex-limited expression, coupled with their rapid evolution may be clues to an as-yet-undetermined interaction between the sexes. PMID:21695125

  18. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Lukasz; Zemleduch, Tomasz; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2010-09-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is a regulatory peptide secreted mostly by adipose tissue and acting via two receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Our aim was to investigate expression of adiponectin system genes in the rat adrenal gland as well as its ontogenetic and physiological control. Furthermore, we examined the effects of acute and prolonged activation of HPA axis on ADN system in adipose tissue. By means of QPCR, ADN and AdipoR1 expression was demonstrated in rat adrenal cortex both at mRNA and protein levels, while AdipoR2 could only be detected at mRNA levels. ADN expression level was significantly upregulated in a developing and regenerating adrenal cortex. Globular domain of adiponectin at 10(-9) M stimulated corticosterone output and BrdU incorporation by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Moreover, both acute (ACTH and ether stress) and prolonged (ACTH) adrenal stimulation resulted in lowered ADN levels, while expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was upregulated by the acute treatment. Depending on its site of origin, visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue responded differently to alterations in HPA axis. VAT expression of ADN and its receptors remained almost unchanged by experimental manipulations. In SAT, on the other hand, expression of ADN and AdipoR2 was markedly increased by ACTH treatment and stress, while dexamethasone suppressed ADN and AdipoR1 mRNA levels. The results of this study provide new evidence for direct and indirect interactions between adipokines and HPA axis. PMID:20600433

  19. Abnormal changes in both mandibular salivary glands in a dog: Non-mineral radiopaque sialoliths

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Dai Jung; Lee, A-Jin; Chung, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Eom, Ki-Dong; Do, Sun Hee; Kim, Hwi-Yool

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old Maltese dog was presented with a firm mass on the left side of his neck. Physical examination confirmed a firm mass in the left and a submandibular swelling in the right cervical region. Sialolithiasis and associated sialocele in both mandibular salivary glands were suspected and bilateral sialoadenectomy was performed. The stones were identified as non-mineral sialoliths. PMID:26483575

  20. Abnormal changes in both mandibular salivary glands in a dog: Non-mineral radiopaque sialoliths.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Dai Jung; Lee, A-Jin; Chung, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Eom, Ki-Dong; Do, Sun Hee; Kim, Hwi-Yool

    2015-10-01

    A 10-year-old Maltese dog was presented with a firm mass on the left side of his neck. Physical examination confirmed a firm mass in the left and a submandibular swelling in the right cervical region. Sialolithiasis and associated sialocele in both mandibular salivary glands were suspected and bilateral sialoadenectomy was performed. The stones were identified as non-mineral sialoliths. PMID:26483575

  1. Moderate Exercise Prevents Functional Remodeling of the Anterior Pituitary Gland in Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Mercau, María E; Repetto, Esteban M; Perez, Matías N; Martinez Calejman, Camila; Sanchez Puch, Silvia; Finkielstein, Carla V; Cymeryng, Cora B

    2016-03-01

    A sustained elevation of glucocorticoid production, associated with the establishment of insulin resistance (IR) could add to the deleterious effects of the IR state. The aim of this study is to analyze the consequences of long-term feeding with a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) on Pomc/ACTH production, define the underlying cellular processes, and determine the effects of moderate exercise (ME) on these parameters. Animals fed a standard chow with or without 30% sucrose in the drinking water were subjected to ME. Circulating hormone levels were determined, and pituitary tissues were processed and analyzed by immunobloting and quantitative real-time PCR. Parameters of oxidative stress (OxS), endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy were also determined. Rats fed SRD developed a decrease in pituitary Pomc/ACTH expression levels, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. ME prevented pituitary dysfunction as well as induction of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Reporter assays were performed in AtT-20 corticotroph cells incubated in the presence of palmitic acid. Pomc transcription was inhibited by palmitic acid-dependent induction of OxS and autophagy, as judged by the effect of activators and inhibitors of both processes. Long-term feeding with SRD triggers the generation of OxS and autophagy in the pituitary gland, which could lead to a decline in Pomc/ACTH/glucocorticoid production. These effects could be attributed to an increase in fatty acids availability to the pituitary gland. ME was able to prevent these alterations, suggesting additional beneficial effects of ME as a therapeutic strategy in the management of IR. PMID:26672805

  2. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging demonstrates the specific localization of deca-bromo-diphenyl-ether residues in the ovaries and adrenal glands of exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Seyer, Alexandre; Riu, Anne; Debrauwer, Laurent; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Brunelle, Alain; Laprévote, Olivier; Zalko, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Deca-bromo-diphenyl ether (DBDE) is one of the most efficient brominated flame retardant (BFR) available on the market. We recently demonstrated that when administered to female rat by oral route, DBDE is efficiently absorbed, with the highest residual concentrations found in two endocrine glands, namely the adrenal glands and the ovaries. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging, a technique usually used for the study of endogenous compounds, was applied for the first time to a persistent organic pollutant, allowing to detect and to precisely localize DBDE residues in these two target tissues. The detection of the bromide ion ((81)Br isotope) by TOF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging allowed us to demonstrate a marked cortical tropism of DBDE residues for the adrenal glands in female rats dosed per os 2 mg·kg(-1) DBDE, daily, over 96 h. In ovaries, DBDE residues were found to be concentrated in spots corresponding to part of the corpora lutea. Hepatic residues of DBDE were found to be homogeneously distributed. Due to the intrinsic toxicity of DBDE, its accumulation in the adrenal glands and the ovaries may be connected to the mechanisms of actions by which DBDE could trigger endocrine disruption in mammals. PMID:20675151

  3. Assessment of the Stiffness of Major Salivary Glands in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome through Quantitative Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zhu, Jiaan; Zhang, Xia; He, Jing; Li, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to evaluate salivary gland stiffness in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) via acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, including Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ). Twenty-one patients with pSS and 11 healthy patients were included, and the paired parotid and submandibular glands of all of the patients were examined using VTQ and VTIQ. Differences between the two groups were compared with independent and paired t-tests. The VTQ value for the parotid in the pSS group was significantly higher than that obtained for the control group (1.33 ± 0.22 and 1.18 ± 0.04 m/s, respectively, p < 0.01). The VTIQ values for the parotid and submandibular gland were both significantly higher in the pSS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In the pSS group, a positive correlation was observed between the VTQ and VTIQ results for the parotid and submandibular glands. In summary, the stiffness of the major salivary glands in patients with pSS was increased compared with that of patients with normal glands. This finding indicates that VTQ and VTIQ imaging may be valuable adjuncts to gray-scale ultrasonography for the clinical diagnosis of pSS. PMID:26715188

  4. Autoradiographic localization and characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the rat central nervous system and adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.R.; Wildey, G.M.; Manaker, S.; Glembotski, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) have recently been identified in both heart and CNS. These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities, and are all apparently derived from a single prohormone. Specific ANP binding sites have been characterized in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and kidney cortex, and one study reported ANP binding sites in the CNS. However, a detailed examination of the localization of ANP binding sites throughout the brain has not been reported. In this study, quantitative autoradiography was employed to examine the distribution of ANP receptors in the rat CNS. The binding of (3-/sup 125/I-iodotyrosyl28) rat ANP-28 to binding sites in the rat CNS was saturable, specific for ANP-related peptides, and displayed high affinity (Kd = 600 pM). When the relative concentrations of ANP binding sites were determined throughout the rat brain, the highest levels of ANP binding were localized to the circumventricular organs, including the area postrema and subfornical organ, and the olfactory apparatus. Moderate levels of ANP binding sites were present throughout the midbrain and brain stem, while low levels were found in the forebrain, diencephalon, basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum. The presence of ANP binding sites in the subfornical organ and the area postrema, regions considered to be outside the blood-brain barrier, suggests that peripheral ANP levels may regulate some aspects of CNS control of salt and water balance. The possible functions of ANP binding sites in other regions of the rat brain are not known, but, like many other peptides, ANP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator at these loci.

  5. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  6. Coronavirus infection in the laboratory rat: immunization trials using attenuated virus replicated in L-2 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, D H; Scott, R A

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-nine specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats approximately eight weeks of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of an attentuated strain of sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus in providing protection against infection on subsequent challenge with virulent SDA virus. Fifty-four animals were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(3.5) median cell culture infectious doses of the 25th passage of SDA virus in L-2 cells. Randomly-selected vaccinated animals were killed in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of attenuated virus by histopathological examination of the salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and lower respiratory tract, and titration of sera for antibody to SDA virus. At three months and six months postvaccination (pv), animals were selected at random and challenged with virulent SDA virus. Seronegative, age-matched animals were also challenged, and served as controls. In animals examined at six to ten days pv, lesions were absent in submandibular and parotid salivary glands and lacrimal glands, but transient lesions were present in major airways of the lower respiratory tract. In a comparison of the incidence and extent of lesions, and antibody titers in challenged vaccinates and seronegative controls, lesions were minimal or absent in vaccinates compared to challenged naive rats, particularly in animals inoculated at three months pv. In addition, antibody titers in challenged vaccinates were much higher than were postinoculation titers in inoculated controls. In a comparison of lesions in salivary and lacrimal glands in vaccinated and control animals challenged at six months pv, there was a significant reduction in the number of animals without lesions in the vaccinated group (p = less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1653100

  7. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, S; French, C A; Josiassen, M; Hahn, C H; Kiss, K

    2016-09-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on 19p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis confer a grave prognosis when treated as SCC as illustrated by the present case, but is important for the inclusion of patients in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:26586234

  8. Assessment of Salivary Gland Function Using Salivary Scintigraphy in Pre and Post Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Diagnosed Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Badam, Raj Kumar; Suram, Jyotsna; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Marshal, Rahul; Bontha, Sharath Chandra; Lavanya, Reddy; Kanth, Sudheer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid carcinoma represents less than 1% of all cancers. The first line of treatment for thyroid cancer is partial/total thyroidectomy. High-dose Iodine131 therapy using Iodine radioisotopes is commonly used in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. In this process, the non-thyroidal tissues, such as, salivary gland, stomach and breast tissues also take up radioactive iodine. Salivary gland scintigraphy is widely accepted as a sensitive and valid method for evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction after Radioactive Iodine131 Therapy (RIT). Aim To assess and compare the salivary flow rates, relative uptake and ejection fractions in parotid and submandibular glands just before and one month after Iodine131 therapy. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 24 patients diagnosed with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent partial/total thyroidectomy and were due for radioactive iodine therapy. These patients were divided into two groups based on the lesion based dosimetry (Group A: 60-100Gy; Group B: 100-150Gy). Salivary gland assessment was done by salivary gland scintigraphy before and after RIT. Statistical Analysis The data collected was tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software version16 using paired t-test and individual sample t-test. Results A statistically significant difference in the uptake percent and ejection fraction percent in the parotid and submandibular glands before RIT and one month after RIT was observed in the study. Conclusion We inferred from the study that there was an overall decrease in uptake percent and ejection fraction percent one month post RIT in both parotid and submandibular glands. Also, a statistically significant difference was noted in the uptake and ejection fraction percent between Group A and Group B concluding the fact that the damage is dose related. PMID:26894178

  9. Retrieval of mandibular third molar tooth accidentally displaced in submandibular space: Series of two cases.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ravinder; Khangwal, Monika; Kumar, Davender; Goel, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Displacement of tooth or root in submandibular or parapharyngeal spaces is one of the serious complications while extracting mandibular third molar by the general practitioners. Possibilities enhance in cases with extremely thin lingual plates. Moreover, there are no posterior fascial borders limiting the sublingual and submandibular spaces. In addition, no fascial border separates these spaces from the inferior parapharyngeal space. Thus, there is free communication between these spaces and tooth easily may dislodge into further spaces and lead to serious complications ahead. Patients may represent with pain and swelling of the submandibular region and sometimes the limitation in mouth opening when the patient had undergone an unsuccessful surgical procedure and third molar displacement into submandibular space. Two cases of such complications are presented ahead. On clinical examination, submandibular area on the left side of the mandible was tender on palpation. Panoramic radiographs elicited presence of a radiopaque mass similar to that of a tooth root. The computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a high-density area in the submandibular region. Orthopantomography and cone beam CT in another patient revealed the displaced third molar in submandibular space. Patients were planned to retrieve the tooth under local anesthesia and the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:27433055

  10. Retrieval of mandibular third molar tooth accidentally displaced in submandibular space: Series of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Ravinder; Khangwal, Monika; Kumar, Davender; Goel, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Displacement of tooth or root in submandibular or parapharyngeal spaces is one of the serious complications while extracting mandibular third molar by the general practitioners. Possibilities enhance in cases with extremely thin lingual plates. Moreover, there are no posterior fascial borders limiting the sublingual and submandibular spaces. In addition, no fascial border separates these spaces from the inferior parapharyngeal space. Thus, there is free communication between these spaces and tooth easily may dislodge into further spaces and lead to serious complications ahead. Patients may represent with pain and swelling of the submandibular region and sometimes the limitation in mouth opening when the patient had undergone an unsuccessful surgical procedure and third molar displacement into submandibular space. Two cases of such complications are presented ahead. On clinical examination, submandibular area on the left side of the mandible was tender on palpation. Panoramic radiographs elicited presence of a radiopaque mass similar to that of a tooth root. The computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a high-density area in the submandibular region. Orthopantomography and cone beam CT in another patient revealed the displaced third molar in submandibular space. Patients were planned to retrieve the tooth under local anesthesia and the postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:27433055

  11. [Morphofunctional changes in the sex gland of rats during stimulation and blockade of the M- and N-cholinoreactive systems].

    PubMed

    Rafaél'skaia, G I

    1980-01-01

    The cholinergic agents arecolin, nicotin, amizil and etherofen induced morphofunctional changes in the testes as shown by experiments on white male rats. The drugs in a dose of 1 mg/kg stimulated hormonogenesis of the testicle. The cholinoblockers amizil and etherofen in a dose of 5 mg/kg strongly inhibited androgenic production. All the substances disturbed spermatogenesis, whose intensity depended on the action and doses of the drugs. PMID:6103822

  12. Diurnal variation in the fraction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the active form in the mammary gland of the lactating rat.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R A; Middleton, B; West, D W

    1986-01-01

    'Expressed' and 'total' activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) were measured in freeze-clamped samples of mammary glands from lactating rats at intervals throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. 'Expressed' activities were measured in microsomal fractions isolated and assayed in the presence of 100 mM-KF. 'Total' activities were determined in microsomal preparations from the same homogenates but washed free of KF and incubated with exogenously added sheep liver phosphoprotein phosphatase before assay. Both 'expressed' and 'total' activities of HMG-CoA reductase underwent a diurnal cycle, which had a major peak 6 h into the light phase and a nadir 15 h later, i.e. 9 h into the dark period. Both activities showed a secondary peak of activity (around 68% of the maximum activity) at the time of changeover from dark to light, with a trough in the value of the 'expressed' activity that was close to the nadir value. 'Expressed' activity was lower than 'total' at all time points, indicating the presence of enzyme molecules inactivated by covalent phosphorylation. Nevertheless the 'expressed'/'total' activity ratio was comparatively constant and varied only between 43% and 75%. Immunotitration of enzyme activity, with antiserum raised in sheep against purified rat liver HMG-CoA reductase, confirmed the presence of both active and inactive forms of the enzyme and indicated that at the peak and nadir the variation in 'expressed' HMG-CoA reductase activity resulted from changes in the total number of enzyme molecules rather than from covalent modification. The sample obtained after 3 h of the light phase exhibited an anomalously low 'total' HMG-CoA reductase activity, which could be increased when Cl- replaced F- in the homogenization medium. The result suggests that at that time the activity of the enzyme could be regulated by mechanisms other than covalent phosphorylation or degradation. PMID:3814075

  13. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function: Preflight and flight experiment for pituitary gland study on COSMOS, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1990-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on Earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormore. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to Earth.

  14. Mechanism of phosphorylation in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Translocation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate into Golgi vesicles from rat liver and mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Capasso, J.M.; Keenan, T.W.; Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1989-03-25

    The occurrence of phosphorylated secretory proteins such as caseins and vitellogenin and the recent characterization of phosphorylated proteoglycans, in the xylose and protein core, has raised the question of where in the cell and how this phosphorylation occurs. Previous studies have described a casein kinase activity in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and this organelle as the site of xylose addition to the protein core of proteoglycans. We now report the translocation in vitro of ATP into the lumen of rat liver and mammary gland Golgi vesicles which are sealed and have the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo. The entire ATP molecule was translocated into the lumen of the Golgi vesicles; this was established by using ATP radiolabeled with tritium in the adenine and gamma-/sup 32/P. Translocation was temperature dependent and saturable, with an apparent Km of 0.9 microM and Vmax of 58 pmol/mg protein/min. Preliminary evidence suggests that translocation of ATP into the vesicles' lumen is coupled to exit of AMP from the lumen. Following translocation of ATP into the lumen of the vesicles, proteins were phosphorylated.

  15. Inhibition of NF-κB, Bcl-2 and COX-2 Gene Expression by an Extract of Eruca sativa Seeds during Rat Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Salah; Shaban, Nadia; Haggag, Amany; Awad, Doaa; Bassiouny, Ahmad; Talaat, Iman

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Eruca sativa seed extract (SE) on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene expression levels was investigated in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis induced by 7,12 dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA increased NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and lipid peroxidation (LP), while, decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total antioxidant concentration (TAC) compared to the control group. After DMBA administration, SE treatment reduced NF-κB, COX-2 and Bcl-2 gene expression levels and LP. Hence, SE treatment reduced inflammation and cell proliferation, while increasing apoptosis, GST and SOD activities and TAC. Analysis revealed that SE has high concentrations of total flavonoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids and polyphenolic compounds such as gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic, 3,4-dicaffeoyl quinic, 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic, tannic, cinnamic acids, catechin and phloridzin. These findings indicate that SE may be considered a promising natural product from cruciferous vegetables against breast cancer, especially given its high antioxidant properties. PMID:26745094

  16. Enucleation-induced rat adrenal gland regeneration: expression profile of selected genes involved in control of adrenocortical cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1-8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  17. Enucleation-Induced Rat Adrenal Gland Regeneration: Expression Profile of Selected Genes Involved in Control of Adrenocortical Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tyczewska, Marianna; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Trejter, Marcin; Hochol-Molenda, Anna; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.

    2014-01-01

    Enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration is a highly controlled process; however, only some elements involved in this process have been recognized. Therefore, we performed studies on regenerating rat adrenals. Microarray RNA analysis and QPCR revealed that enucleation resulted in a rapid elevation of expression of genes involved in response to wounding, defense response, and in immunological processes. Factors encoded by these genes obscure possible priming effects of various cytokines on initiation of regeneration. In regenerating adrenals we identified over 100 up- or downregulated genes involved in adrenocortical cell proliferation. The changes were most significant at days 2-3 after enucleation and their number decreased during regeneration. For example, expression analysis revealed a notable upregulation of the growth arrest gene, Gadd45, only 24 hours after surgery while expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes was notably elevated between days 1–8 of regeneration. These changes were accompanied by changes in expression levels of numerous growth factors and immediate-early transcription factors genes. Despite notable differences in mechanisms of adrenal and liver regeneration, in regenerating adrenals we identified genes, the expression of which is well recognized in regenerating liver. Thus, it seems legitimate to suggest that, in the rat, the general model of liver and adrenal regeneration demonstrate some degree of similarity. PMID:25431590

  18. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  19. [Mansonella perstans isolated on aspiration puncture of a salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Mateu, Lourdes; Sopena, Nieves; Giménez, Montserrat; Valerio, Lluís

    2008-03-01

    Chronic parasitosis due to nematode worms (filariae) in tissue are very common in tropical ecosystems; their larvae (microfilariae) have been isolated in lymph vessels, skin, and blood. The case reported here is of a Nigerian patient suffering severe renal failure and admitted owing to the presence of a right submandibular gland abscess. In the FNAP, the presence of a Mansonella perstans microfilaria was identified. Post-surgery examination of pathology samples from the gland reported an acute inflammatory infiltrate including abundant eosinophils and microfilariae. There are some reports in the literature of haematic or lymphatic microfilariae, especially in epithelial or glandular tissues, and, as in this case, in inflammatory or malignant conditions. Both ivermectin and mebendazol are used for treatment; the scant pathogenicity of the genus Mansonella should, however, lead to an individualized decision. PMID:18364209

  20. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  1. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  2. Systems analysis of salivary gland development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Melinda; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Musselmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a crucial developmental process in which vertebrate organs generate extensive epithelial surface area while retaining a compact size. In the vertebrate submandibular salivary gland, branching morphogenesis is crucial for generation of the large surface area necessary to produce sufficient saliva. However, in many salivary gland diseases, saliva-producing acinar cells are destroyed, resulting in dry mouth and secondary health conditions. Systems-based approaches can provide insights into understanding salivary gland development, function, and disease. The traditional approach to understanding these processes is identification of molecular signals using reductionist approaches; we review current progress with such methods in understanding salivary gland development. Taking a more global approach, multiple groups are currently profiling the transcriptome, the proteome, and other “omes” in both developing mouse tissues and in human patient samples. Computational methods have been successful in deciphering large data sets, and mathematical models are starting to make predictions regarding the contribution of molecules to the physical processes of morphogenesis and of cellular function. A challenge for the future will be to establish comprehensive, publicly accessible salivary gland databases spanning the full range of genes and proteins; plans are underway to provide these resources to researchers in centralized repositories. The greatest challenge for the future will be to develop realistic models that integrate multiple types of data to both describe and predict embryonic development and human disease. PMID:20890964

  3. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  4. Cystadenocarcinoma of the salivary glands with potential lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mukaigawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Tomioka, Toshifumi; Fujii, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Cystadenocarcinoma derived from the salivary gland in the head and neck region is an extremely rare malignancy. Therefore, the clinicopathological characteristics is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics, and present a total of four patients who were treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital East during the period between 1995 and 2012. The patients were all male, with ages ranging from 47 to 74 years old. The primary sites were the parotid glands, submandibular gland and minor salivary gland of the tongue. Within the follow-up period from 19 to 54 months, lymph node metastases were observed in three of the four patients. However, all the patients were salvaged by additional resection, including neck dissection, and remain alive to date without distant metastases. Cystadenocarcinoma is classified as a low-grade histological subtype of salivary gland tumors. Although the tumor has the potential to produce lymph node metastases, as shown in our patients, it is generally an indolent tumor with a good prognosis as compared with high-grade subtypes. This study suggests that a long-term follow up paying close attention to lymph node metastases is necessary for cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:26441367

  5. Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole body homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system and thus constitutes a "neuroendocrine axis". The potent anti-inflammatory activities, both in vivo and in vitro, of the tripeptide Phe-Glu-Gly (FEG) are reviewed. FEG is a carboxyl terminal peptide of the prohormone SMR1 identified in the rat submandibular salivary gland, The D-isomeric form (feG) mimics the activity of its L-isomer FEG. Macropharmacologically, feG attenuates the cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of endotoxemia and anaphylaxis, by inhibition of hypotension, leukocyte migration, vascular leak, and disruption of pulmonary function and intestinal motility. Mechanistically, feG affects activated inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, by regulating integrins and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Pharmacodynamically, feG is active at low doses (100 μg/kg) and has a long (9-12 hour) biological half life. As a therapeutic agent, feG shows promise in diseases characterized by over exuberant inflammatory responses such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other acute inflammatory diseases. Arthritis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, asthma, acute respiratory inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, and equine laminitis are potential targets for this promising therapeutic peptide. The term "Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives" (ImSAIDs) is proposed for salivary-derived peptides to distinguish this class of agents from corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  6. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  7. Binding of (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol to the D-2 dopamine receptor in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland: a thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agui, T.; Amlaiky, N.; Caron, M.G.; Kebabian, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The novel iodinated ligand (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol ((/sup 125/I)NAPS) was used to identify the D-2 dopamine receptor in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The binding of (/sup 125/I)NAPS was of high affinity and saturable, given that the dissociation constant and the maximal binding were 34.7 +/- 4.8 pM and 21.1 +/- 2.5 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The ability of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to compete with (/sup 125/I)NAPS varied markedly with incubation temperature. The marked decrease of the molar potency associated with increasing incubation temperature in the competitive displacement curve suggested that the binding of five agonists, dopamine, (-)-apomorphine, (-)-n-propylnorapomorphine, N-0434, and LY-171555, to the D-2 dopamine receptor was enthalpy-driven, with a negative change in entropy. In contrast, the binding of three antagonists, fluphenazine, (+)-butaclamol, and domperidone, was entropy-driven, with positive change in entropy, suggesting less temperature-sensitive change in the molar potency. Several molecules gave unanticipated results; the molar potency of two dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and lisuride, was much less temperature-sensitive than the other agonists used in this study. The thermodynamic parameters for the atypical agonists indicated entropy-driven binding. Conversely, the molar potency of (+)-apomorphine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was markedly affected by incubation temperature, indicating enthalpy-driven binding. Another antagonist, YM-09151-2, was affected by the inclusion of sodium chloride in the assay system: in the absence of sodium chloride, the drug was relatively weak and displayed enthalpy-driven binding; in the presence of sodium chloride, its molar potency was increased and its binding manner turned into entropy-driven.

  8. Thyroid tumors following /sup 131/I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.

    1982-11-01

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ..mu..Ci of Na /sup 131/I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for /sup 131/I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor.

  9. Calcium concretions in the pineal gland of aged rats: an ultrastructural and microanalytical study of their biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Humbert, W; Pévet, P

    1995-03-01

    The genesis of calcium concretions in aged rats was studied by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The potassium pyroantimonate method, combined with X-ray microanalysis, allowed us to study the distribution of cations and calcium. Notable accumulations of calcium (associated with phosphorus) were localized in vesicles, vacuoles, lipid droplets, lipopigments, and mitochondria of dark pinealocytes. The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that these organelles are involved in the genesis of the concretions. The presence of sulfur indicates the existence of an organic matrix. We propose that genesis takes place in dark pinealocytes, which contain more calcium than light pinealocytes. Mineralization foci are sometimes associated with cellular debris and enlarge by further apposition of material. Two types of concretions, as determined by electron microscopy and confirmed by electron diffraction, could be observed: the "amorphous" type with concentric layers and the crystalline type with needle-shaped crystals. Once formed, the concretions reach the extracellular space and the cell breaks down. Possible extracellular calcification is suggested in the extracellular calcium-rich floculent material. The mineralization process is interpreted as being an age-related phenomenon and mainly a consequence of the degeneration of pinealocytes. PMID:7736553

  10. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in the rat thyroid gland by acute iodide administration.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Calil-Silveira, Jamile; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2010-04-01

    Iodide is an important regulator of thyroid activity. Its excess elicits the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, characterized by an acute suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis, which has been ascribed to serum TSH reduction or TGF-beta increase and production of iodolipids in the thyroid. These alterations take hours/days to occur, contrasting with the promptness of Wolff-Chaikoff effect. We investigated whether acute iodide administration could trigger events that precede those changes, such as reduction of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA abundance and adenylation, and if perchlorate treatment could counteract them. Rats subjected or not to methylmercaptoimidazole treatment (0.03%) received NaI (2,000 microg/0.5 ml saline) or saline intraperitoneally and were killed 30 min up to 24 h later. Another set of animals was treated with iodide and perchlorate, in equimolar doses. NIS mRNA content was evaluated by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, and NIS mRNA poly(A) tail length by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-poly(A) test (RACE-PAT). We observed that NIS mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length were significantly reduced in all periods of iodide treatment. Perchlorate reversed these effects, indicating that iodide was the agent that triggered the modifications observed. Since the poly(A) tail length of mRNAs is directly associated with their stability and translation efficiency, we can assume that the rapid decay of NIS mRNA abundance observed was due to a reduction of its stability, a condition in which its translation could be impaired. Our data show for the first time that iodide regulates NIS mRNA expression at posttranscriptional level, providing a new mechanism by which iodide exerts its autoregulatory effect on thyroid. PMID:20107044

  11. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  12. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  13. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    PubMed

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine (430-500 mg/liter of drinking water) on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard (5%) or high (20%) levels of fat (corn oil) was examined. In the initiation studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diet treatments were provided for 34 days, from 24-29 days of age to 58-63 days of age. Three days prior to termination of caffeine-fat diet treatments, each rat received a single dose of DMBA. In the promotion studies, caffeine and the standard or high fat diets were provided commencing 3 days after a single dose of DMBA (at 56-61 days of age) and until termination of the study. Caffeine consumption, during the initiation phase significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat), in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of caffeine in rats fed either a standard or high fat diet did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, an apparent increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; this increase in mammary carcinoma multiplicity did not, however, reach the 5% level of statistical probability. When caffeine was administered during both the initiation and promotion phases, no significant effect on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed. Treatment of rats during the initiation or promotion phases with caffeinated coffee (via drinking water) mimicked the mammary tumor modulating activities of caffeine. Decaffeinated coffee consumption did not effect either the initiation or promotion phases of this tumorigenic process. In both the initiation and promotion studies, caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency period of

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in detecting submandibular sialoliths

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ho; Aoki, Eduardo Massaharu; Abdala-Júnior, Reinaldo; Asaumi, Junichi; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic performance of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in detecting submandibular sialoliths. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients (20 cases and 20 controls) were included in this retrospective study. Cases were defined as subjects with a submandibular sialolith confirmed by computed tomography (CT), whereas controls did not have any submandibular calcifications. Three observers with different expertise levels assessed panoramic and occlusal radiographs of all subjects for the presence of sialoliths. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were assessed using the kappa test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and the diagnostic odds ratio of panoramic and occlusal radiographs in screening for submandibular sialoliths were calculated for each observer. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for occlusal and panoramic radiographs all ranged from 80% to 100%. The lowest values of sensitivity and specificity observed among the observers were 82.6% and 80%, respectively (P=0.001). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were higher for occlusal radiographs than for panoramic radiographs, although panoramic radiographs demonstrated a higher overall accuracy. Conclusion Both panoramic and occlusal radiographic techniques displayed satisfactory diagnostic performance and should be considered before using a CT scan to detect submandibular sialoliths. PMID:27358815

  15. [Peptide 612-627 of thyrotropin receptor and its modified derivatives as the regulators of adenylyl cyclase in the rat thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Shpakova, E A; Tarasenko, I I; Derkach, K V

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of the specific activity of the thyroid gland is carried by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) through TSH receptor (TSHR). This receptor is coupled to different types of G-proteins, including the G(s)-proteins, through which TSH stimulates the enzyme adenylyl cyclase (AC). As the application of TSH in medicine is limited, the development of selective regulators of TSHR with agonistic and antagonistic activity is carried out. One of the approaches to their creation is to develop the peptides corresponding to functionally important regions of TSHR which are located in its intracellular loops (ICL) and are involved in the binding and activation of G-proteins. We have synthesized peptide corresponding to the C-terminal region 612-627 of the third ICL of TSHR and its derivatives modified by palmitic acid residue (at the N- or the C-terminus) or by polylysine dendrimer (at the N-terminus), and studied their effect on the basal and TSH-stimulated AC activity in the membrane fraction isolated from the rat thyroid. The most active was peptide 612-627-K(Pal)A modified by palmitate at the C-terminus, where in TSHR the hydrophobic transmembrane region is located. At the micromolar concentrations the peptide increased AC activity and reduced the AC stimulating effect of TSH. The action of the 612-627-K(Pal)A has been directed onto TSHR homologous to it, as indicated by the following facts: 1) the inhibition of G(s)-protein, the downstream component of AC system, by treating the membranes with cholera toxin led to the blocking of peptide AC effect, 2) this effect was not detected in the tissues where no TSHR, 3) the peptide did not significantly affect the AC stimulating effects of hormones acting via other receptors. The unmodified peptide and the peptide with N-terminal dendrimer are far behind the 612-627-K(Pal)A in their ability to activate AC in the thyroid, while the peptide modified by palmitate at the N-terminus was inactive. At the same time, the peptide

  16. Iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase is present in mouse sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Imura, H

    1993-03-01

    Homogenates from male ddy mouse sublingual glands were incubated with 100 nM [125I]rT3 in the presence of 2 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). Metabolites were analyzed by HPLC or Dowex-50 minicolumn assay. 3,3'-Diiodothyronine and I- were the only appreciable products. Iodide release from rT3 was compatible with the enzymatic nature. The Km and maximum velocity from three separate determinations were 326, 356, and 629 nM and 29.8, 42.1, and 31.3 pmol I- release/mg protein.min, respectively. The deiodinase activity was DTT dependent and had higher affinity for rT3 than for T4 or T3. 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil inhibited the deiodination, which was competitively overcome by DTT. Sublingual 5'-deiodinase activity was approximately 80% of that in the liver, while the submandibular gland showed no deiodination. Our results show the presence of 5'-deiodinase (type I) in mouse sublingual gland for the first time. Selective localization and abundance of the enzyme suggest a previously unrecognized role of the sublingual gland in thyroid hormone physiology. PMID:8440180

  17. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  18. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Gutkind, J Silvio; Wang, Songlin

    2016-04-12

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  19. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Silvio Gutkind, J; Wang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  20. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  1. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland Arising de novo in the Parapharyngeal Space- A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Laturiya, Rahul; Kasim, Jendi Shoeb; Jankar, Ajit Suryakant; Mohiuddin, Syed Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumour that is found in this space. This tumour may arise in the deep lobe of parotid gland and extend into the parapharyngeal space or may arise de novo from the aberrant minor salivary glands in parapharyngeal space. The latter entity is an extremely rare finding. CT scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology form the important diagnostic tools in case of these tumours. Surgery is the mainstay for the treatment of these tumours. The strategic location and also the extension of these tumours may at times demand to alter the surgical procedure for their excision. This article presents a case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with a mass in the right submandibular region that was excised successfully using transcervical approach in conjunction with transoral approach without mandibulotomy. The biopsy report suggested it to be "pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland". PMID:27135010

  2. Iatrogenic Submandibular Duct Rupture Complicating Sialography: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharouny, Hadi; Omar, Rahmat Bin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands. Sialography is particularly important for the assessment of the outflow tract and in diagnosing obstructive salivary gland lesions including calculi. Case Presentation: We report on a 38-year-old female with sialolithiasis whom had Wharton’s duct perforation, complicating the sialography. She was treated conservatively with a course of co-amoxiclav, oral prednisolone for three days and pain-killers. The patient was clinically well on follow-up reassessments at the end of the first week and three weeks post procedure. Conclusions: Perforation of salivary duct complicating the sialography is rare. Awareness of this potential complication and utilizing a good sialography technique need to be advocated amongst radiologists. Response to treatment by conservative management is preferred as illustrated in this case. PMID:25593739

  3. Identification of Stem Cells in the Secretory Complex of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Kwak, M; Alston, N; Ghazizadeh, S

    2016-07-01

    Salivary glands have an essential secretory function for maintaining oral and overall health. The epithelial compartment of the gland is composed of several highly specialized cell types that cooperate to secrete and deliver saliva to the oral cavity. The mouse submandibular gland has been used as a model for major salivary glands in human. The secretory complex in this model is composed of 2 secretory compartments, including acini and granular ducts connected by intercalated ducts. Contractile myoepithelial cells surround the secretory complex to facilitate salivary flow. Whether differentiated cells in the secretory complex are maintained by self-duplication or contribution from stem cells has remained an open question. Here, in analyzing the expression of basal cytokeratin (K) 14 in the secretory complex, we discovered a subset of K14(+) ductal cells in the intercalated ducts of the adult gland. These cells are distinct from the K14-expressing basal/myoepithelial cells, proliferate at a significantly higher rate than any other epithelial cell type in the gland, and reside in a spatially defined domain within the intercalated duct. Using inducible genetic lineage tracing, we show that K14(+) ductal cells represent a long-lived yet cycling population of stem cells that are established during development and contribute to the formation and maintenance of the granular ducts throughout life. Our data provide direct evidence for the existence of stem cells contributing to homeostasis of salivary glands, as well as new insights into glandular pathobiology. PMID:26936214

  4. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002933.htm Thyroid gland removal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or ...

  5. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  6. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  7. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  8. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  9. The oncofetal protein IMP3 is an indicator of early recurrence and poor outcome in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Elshafey, Mohamed R.; Ahmed, Rehab A.; Mourad, Mohamed I; Gaballah, Essam T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary malignancy of the salivary glands. Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) is an important prognostic factor in some cancers and a tool that differentiates between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. This study aimed to identify a relationship between the expression of IMP3 and the outcome of salivary gland MEC, as well as to differentiate MEC from pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Methods:Tissue specimens from 70 cases of salivary gland MEC, 40 cases of PA, and 10 cases with normal salivary gland were examined immunohistochemically for IMP3. The association among the expression of IMP3, clinicopathological characteristics and patient's survival was assessed. Results:IMP3 was present in 51.4% of MEC but absent in PA and normal salivary gland tissues. IMP3 expression was associated with age > 60 years, submandibular gland tumors, tumor size > 4 cm, high-grade tumors, lymph node metastasis, involvement of surgical margins, perineural invasion, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage, tumor relapse, and death ( P<0.05). Increased expression of IMP3, tumors of the submandibular gland, and lymph node metastasis were independent prognostic factors of -free survival (DFS). In addition, IMP3 was a strong predictor of overall survival (OS) together with distant metastasis and intermediate and high-grade tumors. Conclusions:IMP3 expression is highly important in evaluating the outcome of MEC. IMP3 can be used to differentiate MEC from PA of salivary glands. PMID:27458536

  10. Connexin 43 Is Necessary for Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis and FGF10-induced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Aya; Futagi, Masaharu; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Kan; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Arakaki, Makiko; Hino, Ryoko; Sugawara, Yu; Ishikawa, Momoko; Naruse, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Kanako; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell interaction via the gap junction regulates cell growth and differentiation, leading to formation of organs of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of connexin43 in salivary gland development, we analyzed its expression in developing submandibular glands (SMGs). Connexin43 (Cx43) was found to be expressed in salivary gland epithelium. In ex vivo organ cultures of SMGs, addition of the gap junctional inhibitors 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) and oleamide inhibited SMG branching morphogenesis, suggesting that gap junctional communication contributes to salivary gland development. In Cx43(-/-) salivary glands, submandibular and sublingual gland size was reduced as compared with those from heterozygotes. The expression of Pdgfa, Pdgfb, Fgf7, and Fgf10, which induced branching of SMGs in Cx43(-/-) samples, were not changed as compared with those from heterozygotes. Furthermore, the blocking peptide for the hemichannel and gap junction channel showed inhibition of terminal bud branching. FGF10 induced branching morphogenesis, while it did not rescue the Cx43(-/-) phenotype, thus Cx43 may regulate FGF10 signaling during salivary gland development. FGF10 is expressed in salivary gland mesenchyme and regulates epithelial proliferation, and was shown to induce ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelial cells, while ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HSY cells was dramatically inhibited by 18α-GA, a Cx43 peptide or siRNA. On the other hand, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB separately induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in primary cultured salivary mesenchymal cells regardless of the presence of 18α-GA. Together, our results suggest that Cx43 regulates FGF10-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in salivary epithelium but not in mesenchyme during the process of SMG branching morphogenesis. PMID:26565022

  11. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide: structure of the precursor and tissue-specific expression in rat.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C C; Jarboe, L A; Landau, S B; Williams, E K; Wolfe, M M

    1993-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid gastrointestinal regulatory peptide that stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells in the presence of glucose. Approximately 7.8 x 10(5) recombinant clones of a neonatal rat intestinal cDNA library were screened by using plaque hybridization, and three clones were identified and sequenced with the dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method. The translated amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA indicated that rat GIP was derived by proteolytic processing of a 144-amino acid precursor polypeptide. The mature peptide is flanked by a 43-amino acid NH2-terminal peptide that contains a 21-amino acid signal peptide and by a 59-amino acid COOH-terminal peptide. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of rat GIP revealed only two substitutions from the known human GIP peptide. The use of high-stringency RNA blot-hybridization analysis of total RNA extracted from various organs demonstrated expression of the GIP gene in the duodenum and jejunum and, to a lesser extent, in the ileum. In addition, expression of the GIP gene was observed in the submandibular salivary gland both by RNA analysis and RIA. In response to duodenal perfusion of a 20% Lipomul meal for 60 min, duodenal mucosal GIP mRNA concentrations increased by 42.8% and 48.2% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8446620

  12. Unique Gene Expression Profiles in the Mammary Gland of Prepubertal and Adult Female Rats Treated With Estradiol or Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have arisen regarding infertility and increased breast cancer risk in women consuming soy foods, primarily because of the perceived estrogenicity of soy isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein. Two studies were conducted in mammary gland to determine if consumption of soy products induce...

  13. Accidental displacement of a dental implant into the submandibular space during explantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, B H; Kim, B C; Lee, J

    2016-07-01

    Dental implants are reliable and widely used, but complications such as peri-implantitis occasionally necessitate their removal. Accidents during removal are similar to those that may occur during extraction, including displacement into another structure in the maxillofacial region. We present a rare case of accidental displacement into the submandibular space, which happened during an attempt to remove an implant. PMID:26507676

  14. DNA damage induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in the liver and the mammary gland of rats exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon enzyme inducers during perinatal life.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, C; Parrini, M; Aiello, C; Rossi, L

    1991-03-01

    The long-lasting modulating effect induced by the prenatal or neonatal exposure to phenobarbital (PB) and aroclor on the genotoxic activity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. The effect was measured as DNA damage evaluated in the liver and in the mammary gland of 55-day-old animals, 4 and 24 h after an i.g. injection of 80 mg/kg of DMBA. PB was given per os, i.g. or in drinking water to pregnant females and by i.g. only to neonates or in adult progeny. Aroclor was injected i.g. in prenatal and in neonatal life, and a second dose was given in adult life. Under these experimental conditions it was shown that DNA damage kinetics caused by DMBA are modulated by exposure to PB and, to a minor extent, by aroclor. The amount and persistence of DNA damage were highest when PB was administered to neonates. An average 2-fold increase in the elution constants (K) of DNA in the liver and the mammary gland was observed 4 h after DMBA treatment, as compared to uninduced animals. Repeated enzyme induction by PB seems to reduce DMBA genotoxicity, as shown by a decrease in DNA damage and persistence in the liver and mammary gland. The inducibility of the monooxygenase enzyme system in perinatal life favouring metabolic activation or inactivation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might be critical in determining individual susceptibility of adult progeny to chemical carcinogenesis by DMBA. PMID:1905382

  15. Lactose and fatty acid synthesis in lactating-rat mammary gland. Effects of starvation, re-feeding, and administration of insulin, adrenaline, streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Ward, S; Kuhn, N J

    1984-01-01

    Lactose synthesis and fatty acid synthesis in intact lactating-rat mammary gland were measured simultaneously by incorporation of [U-14C]glucose and of both [U-14C]glucose and 3H2O respectively. Both processes were almost abolished by overnight starvation. Self-re-feeding caused recovery of lipogenesis to 100% of normal by 2 h and to 170% by 5 h. Lactose synthesis recovered to 80% of normal by 5 h. Food intubated to starved rats caused partial recovery in 3 h, standard diet favouring lactose synthesis and sugars favouring lipogenesis. Casein and starch were ineffective. Olive oil intubated to fed rats suppressed lipogenesis greatly and lactose synthesis slightly. Paraffin oil or water partly mimicked these effects. Adrenaline (subcutaneous) decreased lipogenesis from glucose, whereas insulin (subcutaneous) caused hypoglycaemia associated with loss of lactose synthesis but unchanged fatty acid synthesis. Streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) impaired lipogenesis but not lactose synthesis. The results are interpreted in terms of competition for intracellular glucose by biosynthetic pathways for lactose and fat, and the possible implications for variations in milk composition are discussed. PMID:6232923

  16. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Yang, Xi; Chen, Jiayan; Ge, Xiaolin; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM) in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR) (Group I), SIM + sham IR (Group II), IR + solvent (Group III), and IR + SIM (Group IV). SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week) was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome), and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. PMID:27471375

  17. Endoscope-Assisted Transoral Fixation of Mandibular Condyle Fractures: Submandibular Versus Transoral Endoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver. PMID:27380571

  18. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  19. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Minor Salivary Gland Arising de novo in the Parapharyngeal Space- A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Jendi Shoeb; Jankar, Ajit Suryakant; Mohiuddin, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumour that is found in this space. This tumour may arise in the deep lobe of parotid gland and extend into the parapharyngeal space or may arise de novo from the aberrant minor salivary glands in parapharyngeal space. The latter entity is an extremely rare finding. CT scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology form the important diagnostic tools in case of these tumours. Surgery is the mainstay for the treatment of these tumours. The strategic location and also the extension of these tumours may at times demand to alter the surgical procedure for their excision. This article presents a case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with a mass in the right submandibular region that was excised successfully using transcervical approach in conjunction with transoral approach without mandibulotomy. The biopsy report suggested it to be “pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland”. PMID:27135010

  20. Pineal gland as an endocrine gravitational lunasensor: manifestation of moon-phase dependent morphological changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, A V; Kostyuchenko, V P; Solovieva, A S; Olovnikov, A M

    2014-10-01

    We found that some morphological properties of the pineal gland and submandibular salivary gland of mice are significantly distinct at the new and full moon. We suppose that the differences are initiated by the displacements of the electron-dense concretions in the secretory vesicles of pinealocytes. This presumably occurs under the influence of the gravitational field, which periodically changes during different phases of the moon. It seems that the pinealocyte is both an endocrine and gravisensory cell. A periodic secretion of the pineal gland probably stimulates, in a lunaphasic mode, the neuroendocrine system that, in turn, periodically exerts influence on different organs of the body. The observed effect probably serves, within the lifelong clock of a brain, to control development and aging in time. PMID:25519065

  1. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni in rats: endocrine effects.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, R M; Uehara, O A; Minetti, C A; Valle, L B

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the active principles of S. rebaudiana (SR) on endocrine parameters of male rats were studied upon chronic administrations (60 days) of a concentrated, crude extract of its leaves, starting at prepubertal age (25-30 days old). 2. The following determinations were made: glycemia; serum levels of T3 and T4; available binding sites in thyroid hormone-binding proteins (T3R index); binding of [3H]R 1881 to prostate cytosol; zinc content in prostate, testis, submandibular salivary gland (SMG) and pancreas; water content in testis and prostate. The body weight gain and the final weight of testis, prostate, seminal vesicle, SMG and adrenal were also studied. 3. Results showed that the SR-treated group did not significantly differ from the control group, with exception to the seminal vesicle weight, which fell by about 60%. 4. It is concluded that if the SR extract does have some potential to decrease rat fertility at all, this effect is almost certainly not exerted on the male. PMID:2785472

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  3. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  4. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  5. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:26902981

  6. MyD88 Deficiency Alters Expression of Antimicrobial Factors in Mouse Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Into, Takeshi; Takigawa, Toshiya; Niida, Shumpei; Shibata, Ken-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    The surfaces of oral mucosa are protected from infections by antimicrobial proteins and natural immunoglobulins that are constantly secreted in saliva, serving as principal innate immune defense in the oral cavity. MyD88 is an important adaptor protein for signal transduction downstream of Toll-like receptors and TACI, receptors for regulation of innate immunity and B cell responses, respectively. Although MyD88-mediated signaling has a regulatory role in the intestinal mucosal immunity, its specific role in the oral cavity has remained elusive. In the present study, we assessed the influence of MyD88 deficiency on the oral innate defense, particularly the expression of antimicrobial proteins in salivary glands and production of salivary basal immunoglobulins, in mice. Microarray analysis of the whole tissues of submandibular glands revealed that the expression of several genes encoding salivary antimicrobial proteins, such as secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), S100A8, and lactotransferrin, was reduced due to MyD88 deficiency. Histologically, SLPI-expressing acinar cells were evidently decreased in the glands from MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that B cell populations, including B-1 cells and IgA+ plasma cells, residing in submandibular glands were increased by MyD88 deficiency. The level of salivary anti-phosphorylcholine IgA was elevated in MyD88 deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Thus, this study provides a detailed description of the effect of MyD88 deficiency on expression of several salivary antimicrobial factors in mice, illustrating the role for MyD88-mediated signaling in the innate immune defense in the oral cavity. PMID:25415419

  7. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in salivary glands: A clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Sahejmeet S; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Primary salivary gland peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are uncommon. This study is a retrospective, clinicopathologic review of 9 cases of PNST (5 neurofibromas, 3 schwannomas and 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)) arising from the salivary glands, encountered between 1990 and 2015. All patients with neurofibromas were male (ages 1-62 years) and had a single parotid lesion of which 2 were diffuse, 2 plexiform and one mixed diffuse/plexiform. Four had a history of neurofibromatosis I. Four of 5 presented with symptoms related to mass effect including facial swelling, facial drooping, and dysphagia. All underwent de-bulking surgery and recurred due to continued growth. Of the 3 patients with schwannomas, 1 was male and 2 were female (ages 19, 44 and 56 years). One tumor each arose in the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands. Two of 3 presented with soreness and swelling local to the affected gland, especially while chewing. There was no recurrence of these tumors after resection. An MPNST in a male presented as a tender mass in the patient's left parotid; the tumor was resected. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere in the body. The tumor did not recur in 12 years of follow-up. The most common tumor type in the current series was neurofibroma; most arose in the background of neurofibromatosis type I and all of which recurred after initial subtotal resection. Most PNST arose in the parotid gland. PMID:27402223

  8. Detection of clonally expanded salivary gland lymphocytes in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Freimark, B; Fantozzi, R; Bone, R; Bordin, G; Fox, R

    1989-07-01

    Recurrent swelling of the parotid and submandibular salivary glands occurs in some patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Using Southern blot methods, we analyzed immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor (TCAR) gene rearrangements in DNA obtained from salivary gland lymphocytes of 9 SS patients. Based on histologic appearance of the biopsy specimens, these patients were diagnosed as having myoepithelial sialadenitis. We found oligoclonal rearrangements of the kappa gene (4 patients) and lambda gene (1 patient), and oligoclonal rearrangement of the TCAR beta chain in 2 additional SS patients. Patients with Ig gene rearrangements did not show rearrangements of their TCAR gene, nor did patients with TCAR rearrangements exhibit Ig rearrangements. The observed oligoclonal rearrangements probably derive from 5-10% of the salivary gland B cells or T cells. Three of these SS patients developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 2-8 years after the initial biopsy. Our results suggest that minor populations of B cells or T cells may clonally expand in the salivary gland tissues of SS patients with pseudolymphoma, and that such lymphocyte expansions may be controlled by the endogenous immune response and/or medications. However, continued lymphoproliferation in these salivary gland tissues may eventually lead to emergence of a neoplastic clone that escapes immunologic control and develops into a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as a result of a multistep process. PMID:2546568

  9. Identification of cells in rat brain and peripheral tissues expressing mRNA for members of the nerve growth factor family.

    PubMed

    Ernfors, P; Wetmore, C; Olson, L; Persson, H

    1990-10-01

    Cells expressing mRNA for hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor (HDNF/NT-3) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were identified by in situ hybridization. In the rat brain, HDNF mRNA was predominantly found in pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA2 of the hippocampus. Lower levels of HDNF mRNA were found in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus and in neurons of the taenia tecta and induseum griseum. BDNF mRNA-expressing cells were more widely distributed in the rat brain, with high levels in neurons of CA2, CA3, and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus, in the external and internal pyramidal layers of the cerebral cortex, in the claustrum, and in one brainstem structure. Lower levels were seen in CA1 and in the granular layer of the hippocampus, in the taenia tecta, and in the mammillary complex. In peripheral tissues, HDNF mRNA was found in glomerular cells in the kidney, secretory cells in the male rat submandibular gland, and epithelial cells in secondary and tertiary follicles in the ovary. Cells expressing BDNF mRNA were found in the dorsal root ganglia, where neurons of various sizes were labeled. PMID:2206535

  10. Evaluation of biopsy methods in the diagnosis of submandibular space pathology.

    PubMed

    Olubaniyi, B O; Chow, V; Mandalia, U; Haldar, S; Gok, G; Michl, P; Ramesar, K; Sellon, E; Williams, M; Howlett, D C

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (USCNB), punch biopsy, and surgical excision biopsy in neoplasms presenting within the submandibular space. A retrospective analysis of all patients with a pathological diagnosis of a submandibular space neoplasm within a 12-year period (February 1999 to June 2011) was performed. Biopsy results were compared to histopathological diagnosis obtained from surgical excision biopsy. Eighty-one specimens from 44 patients met the search criteria (15 FNAC, 24 USCNB, 7 punch biopsy, and 35 surgical excision biopsy). The final diagnosis was established by USCNB, punch biopsy, or surgical excision biopsy and not by FNAC alone. Surgical excision biopsy was performed as a primary diagnostic (n = 8), secondary diagnostic (n = 15), or as a post-diagnostic therapeutic procedure (n = 12). Non-diagnostic results were: FNAC 11/15, USCNB 2/24, and punch biopsy 1/7. Diagnostic results were: FNAC 2/15, USCNB 20/24, and punch biopsy 5/7. No complications were reported. Although punch biopsy demonstrated good yield and accuracy, its use is restricted to a small cohort of patients. USCNB is a safe and accurate technique in the submandibular space, with a low non-diagnostic rate. PMID:24074488

  11. Chain-length dependency of interactions of medium-chain fatty acids with glucose metabolism in acini isolated from lactating rat mammary glands. A putative feed-back to control milk lipid synthesis from glucose.

    PubMed Central

    Heesom, K J; Souza, P F; Ilic, V; Williamson, D H

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a series of medium-chain fatty acids (C6-C12) on glucose metabolism in isolated acini from lactating rat mammary glands have been studied. Hexanoate (C6) octanoate (C8) and decanoate (C10), but not laurate (C12), decreased [1-14C]glucose conversion into [14C]lipid and the production of 14CO2 (an index of the pentose phosphate pathway). With hexanoate and octanoate, glucose utilization was decreased, whereas decanoate had a slight stimulatory effect on glucose utilization, but there was a large accumulation of lactate. Addition of dichloroacetate (an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) decreased this accumulation of lactate and stimulated the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid and 14CO2. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose utilization in the presence of hexanoate. It stimulated the rate in the presence of octanoate and laurate and increased the conversion of [1-14C]glucose into [14C]lipid in the presence of octanoate, decanoate or laurate. The major fate of 1-14C-labelled medium-chain fatty acids (C6, C8 and C12) was conversion into [14C]lipid. The proportion converted into 14CO2 decreased with increasing chain length, whereas the rate of [14C]lipid formation increased. It is concluded that the interactions between medium-chain fatty acids and glucose metabolism represent a feed-back mechanism to control milk lipid synthesis, and this may be important when milk accumulates in the gland. PMID:1731763

  12. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  13. PERSISTENT ABNORMALITIES IN THE RAT MAMMARY GLAND FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure during gestation has revealed reproductive anomalies in rat offspring, including inconclusive reports of stunted mammary development in females (Brown et al., 1998, Lewis et al., 2001). The current studies wer...

  14. [Meibomian gland morphology study progression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

    2014-04-01

    The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

  15. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  16. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  17. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  18. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  19. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  20. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  1. Induction and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells from human buccal fat pads into salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Miyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Mataga, Izumi

    2016-07-01

    Atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland because of aging or disease leads to hyposalivation that affects patient quality of life by causing dry mouth, deterioration of mastication/deglutition, and poor oral hygiene status. Current therapy for atrophy or hypofunction of the salivary gland in clinical practice focuses on symptom relief using drugs and artificial saliva; therefore, there is still a need to develop new therapies. To investigate potential novel therapeutic targets, we induced the differentiation of salivary gland cells by co-culturing human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from buccal fat pads (hBFP-ASCs) with human salivary-gland-derived fibroblasts (hSG-fibros). We examined their potential for transplantation and tissue neogenesis. Following the culture of hBFP-ASCs and hSG-fibros, differentiated cells were transplanted into the submandibular glands of SCID mice, and their degree of differentiation in tissues was determined. We also examined their potential for functional tissue reconstitution using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Co-cultured cells expressed salivary-glandrelated markers and generated new tissues following transplantation in vivo. Moreover, cell reconstituted glandular structures in the 3D culture system. In conclusion, coculture of hSG-fibros with hBFP-ASCs led to successful differentiation into salivary gland cells that could be transplanted to generate new tissues. PMID:26842556

  2. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  3. Effect of endotoxin and radio-detoxified endotoxin on the serum T4 level of rats and response of their thyroid gland to exogenous TSH

    SciTech Connect

    Bertok, L.; Nagy, S.U.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were performed to demonstrate that, while the shock-inducing dose of parent (toxic) endotoxin significantly decreases the serum T4 level of rats and inhibits the T4 response given to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), the radio-detoxified (/sup 60/Co-gamma, 150 kGy) endotoxin preparation does not inhibit the response to exogenous TSH. It also decreases serum T4 level to a lesser extent than untreated endotoxin.

  4. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system. PMID:22807383

  5. Effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A on gene expression and global genomic DNA methylation in the prostate, female mammary gland, and uterus of NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Luísa; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Han, Tao; Kobets, Tetyana; Koturbash, Igor; Surratt, Gordon; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Fuscoe, James C.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Pogribny, Igor P.; Delclos, K. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, binds to the nuclear estrogen receptor with an affinity 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than that of estradiol. We reported previously that “high BPA” (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day), but not “low BPA” [2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day], induced clear adverse effects in NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged daily from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 90. The “high BPA” effects partially overlapped those of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 0.5 and 5.0 μg/kg bw/day). To evaluate further the potential of “low BPA” to induce biological effects, here we assessed the global genomic DNA methylation and gene expression in the prostate and female mammary glands, tissues identified previously as potential targets of BPA, and uterus, a sensitive estrogen-responsive tissue. Both doses of EE2 modulated gene expression, including of known estrogen-responsive genes, and PND 4 global gene expression data showed a partial overlap of the “high BPA” effects with those of EE2. The “low BPA” doses modulated the expression of several genes; however, the absence of a dose response reduces the likelihood that these changes were causally linked to the treatment. These results are consistent with the toxicity outcomes. PMID:25862956

  6. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  7. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with (18)F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and (18)F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  8. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  9. Proteomic profiling of salivary gland after nonviral gene transfer mediated by conventional plasmids and minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Geguchadze, Ramaz; Wang, Zhimin; Zourelias, Lee; Perez-Riveros, Paola; Edwards, Paul C; Machen, Laurie; Passineau, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared gene transfer efficiency and host response to ultrasound-assisted, nonviral gene transfer with a conventional plasmid and a minicircle vector in the submandibular salivary glands of mice. Initially, we looked at gene transfer efficiency with equimolar amounts of the plasmid and minicircle vectors, corroborating an earlier report showing that minicircle is more efficient in the context of a physical method of gene transfer. We then sought to characterize the physiological response of the salivary gland to exogenous gene transfer using global proteomic profiling. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that sonoporation alone, without a gene transfer vector present, had virtually no effect on the salivary gland proteome. However, when a plasmid vector was used, we observed profound perturbations of the salivary gland proteome that compared in magnitude to that seen in a previous report after high doses of adeno-associated virus. Finally, we found that gene transfer with a minicircle induces only minor proteomic alterations that were similar to sonoporation alone. Using mass spectrometry, we assigned protein IDs to 218 gel spots that differed between plasmid and minicircle. Bioinformatic analysis of these proteins demonstrated convergence on 68 known protein interaction pathways, most notably those associated with innate immunity, cellular stress, and morphogenesis. PMID:25414909

  10. A focused salivary gland infection with attenuated MCMV: an animal model with prevention of pathology associated with systemic MCMV infection.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Mark J; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D

    2007-06-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue-culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Furthermore, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  11. A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of managing parotid and submandibular sialoliths using sialendoscopy assisted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jadu, Fatima M.; Jan, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To review the available techniques and procedures for management of parotid and submandibular sialoliths with special emphasis on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used combination of techniques; namely, sialendoscopy with conservative surgical removal of the stone. Methods: A systematic search of the English literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library databases were conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Articles between the years 2004 and 2013 were selected on the basis of preset inclusion criteria. Then, they were reviewed against a checklist to assess the evidence of efficacy of therapy or prevention and analyzed for pertinent data. Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of sialendoscopy combined with minor surgical removal of parotid and submandibular sialoliths ranges from 69-100%. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy combined with a minor surgical extraction of parotid and submandibular sialoliths is safe and efficacious. PMID:25316462

  12. Multiscale Feature Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baydil, Banu; Daley, William P.; Larsen, Melinda; Yener, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation in developing tissues involves dynamic spatio-temporal changes in cellular organization and subsequent evolution of functional adult structures. Branching morphogenesis is a developmental mechanism by which patterns are generated in many developing organs, which is controlled by underlying molecular pathways. Understanding the relationship between molecular signaling, cellular behavior and resulting morphological change requires quantification and categorization of the cellular behavior. In this study, tissue-level and cellular changes in developing salivary gland in response to disruption of ROCK-mediated signaling by are modeled by building cell-graphs to compute mathematical features capturing structural properties at multiple scales. These features were used to generate multiscale cell-graph signatures of untreated and ROCK signaling disrupted salivary gland organ explants. From confocal images of mouse submandibular salivary gland organ explants in which epithelial and mesenchymal nuclei were marked, a multiscale feature set capturing global structural properties, local structural properties, spectral, and morphological properties of the tissues was derived. Six feature selection algorithms and multiway modeling of the data was performed to identify distinct subsets of cell graph features that can uniquely classify and differentiate between different cell populations. Multiscale cell-graph analysis was most effective in classification of the tissue state. Cellular and tissue organization, as defined by a multiscale subset of cell-graph features, are both quantitatively distinct in epithelial and mesenchymal cell types both in the presence and absence of ROCK inhibitors. Whereas tensor analysis demonstrate that epithelial tissue was affected the most by inhibition of ROCK signaling, significant multiscale changes in mesenchymal tissue organization were identified with this analysis that were not identified in previous biological studies. We

  13. Insulin receptors in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin binding studies were conducted using mammary membrane preparations to further the authors understanding of insulin's role in regulating mammary metabolism, particularly ruminant mammary metabolism. Specific objectives were to: (1) characterize insulin binding to bovine mammary microsomes and determine if the specificity and kinetics of binding indicate the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland; (2) examine and compare insulin binding by liver and mammary microsomes of the pig and dairy cow; (3) examine insulin binding to bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) and evaluate this model's usefulness in assessing insulin receptor regulation in the mammary gland of the cow; (4) examine the effect of dietary fat in insulin binding by rat mammary and liver microsomes. The specificity and kinetics of /sup 125/I-insulin binding of bovine mammary microsomes indicated the presence of insulin receptors in bovine mammary gland. Bovine liver and mammary microsomes specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did the corresponding porcine microsomes, and mammary microsomes, regardless of species, specifically bound less /sup 125/I-insulin than did liver microsomes. These differences in binding suggest differences in insulin responsiveness between pigs and cattle, as well as between the liver and mammary glands.

  14. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Takahahi, Toru; To, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Hayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tomoko; Kamata, Yohei; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as a major effector in mucosal immunity by preventing submucosal invasion of pathogens. However, the mechanism by which consumption of fermentable fibers increases IgA in saliva was not fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) intake and time after feeding on IgA levels in the saliva and cecal digesta and on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the cecum in rats. Five-week-old rats were fed a fiber-free diet or a diet with 50 g/kg FOS for zero, one, four, and eight weeks. Ingestion of FOS at one and eight weeks led to a higher IgA flow rate of saliva per weight of submandibular gland tissue (p < 0.05), which positively correlated with the concentration of SCFA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.86, p = 0.0006, n = 12), but showed no correlation with the concentration of IgA in the cecal digesta (rs = 0.15, p = 0.3, n = 48). These results suggested that ingestion of FOS increased salivary IgA secretion through high levels of SCFA in the large intestine, which was produced by fermentation of FOS. Thus, continuously ingesting FOS for more than one week could increase secretion of salivary IgA. PMID:27548207

  15. The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Takahahi, Toru; To, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Hayashi, Taka