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Sample records for rat type ii

  1. Potassium currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Jacobs, E R; Silver, M R

    1988-01-01

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed. PMID:2457683

  2. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Cells Isolated from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Mason, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    It is unclear what factors control the secretion of pulmonary surface active material from alveolar type II cells in vivo. Other workers have suggested that cholinergic stimuli, adrenergic stimuli, and prostaglandins may all stimulate secretion. We isolated type II cells from the lungs of rats by treatment with elastase, discontinuous density centrifugation, and adherence in primary culture. β-Adrenergic agonists, but not cholinergic agonists, caused an increase in the release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surface-active material, from type II cells in culture. The β-adrenergic effect was stereo-selective, (−)-isoproterenol being 50 times more potent than (+)-isoproterenol. Terbutaline, 10 μM, a noncatecholamine β-2 adrenergic agonist, caused a release of 2.0±0.5 (mean±SD) times the basal release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine in 3 h; the concentration of terbutaline causing half maximal stimulation was 800 nM. The terbutaline effect was blocked by propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (calculated Kd = 6 nM), but not by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic antagonist. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and 8-Br cyclic AMP, but not 8-Br cyclic guanosine monophosphate, also stimulated release. We conclude that type II cells secrete disaturated phosphatidylcholine in response to treatment with adrenergic stimulation. PMID:34631

  3. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  4. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  5. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  6. Hyperoxia stimulates the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ana; Fu, Jianhua; Yang, Haiping; Zhu, Yuting; Pan, Yuqing; Xu, Shuyan; Xue, Xindong

    2015-05-01

    Supplemental oxygen treatment in preterm infants may cause bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is characterized by alveolar simplification and vascular disorganization. Despite type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC II) damage being reported previously, we found no decrease in the AEC II-specific marker, surfactant protein C (SP-C), in the BPD model in our previous study. We thus speculated that AEC II injury is not a unique mechanism of BPD-related pulmonary epithelial repair dysfunction and that abnormal transdifferentiation can exist. Newborn rats were randomly assigned to model (85% oxygen inhalation) and control groups (room air inhalation). Expressions of AEC I (aquaporin 5, T1α) and AEC II markers (SP-C, SP-B) were detected at three levels: 1) in intact lung tissue, 2) in AEC II isolated from rats in the two groups, and 3) in AEC II isolated from newborn rats, which were further cultured under either hyperoxic or normoxic conditions. In the model group, increased AEC I was observed at both the tissue and cell level, and markedly increased transdifferentiation was observed by immunofluorescent double staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in alveolar epithelium such as damaged AECs, a fused air-blood barrier structure, and opened tight junctions in the model group. These findings indicate that transdifferentiation of AECs is not suppressed but rather is increased under hyperoxic treatment by compensation; however, such repair during injury cannot offset pulmonary epithelial air exchange and barrier dysfunction caused by structural damage to AECs. PMID:25681436

  7. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  8. Phenotypic characterization of type II collagen-induced arthritis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    SONG, HOU-PAN; LI, XIN; YU, RONG; ZENG, GUANG; YUAN, ZHEN-YI; WANG, WEI; HUANG, HUI-YONG; CAI, XIONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a more specific, efficient and simple method for the induction of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Different strains of rats were injected at the base of the tail with bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The onset and severity of arthritis were evaluated by clinical assessment. The established CIA model was analyzed using a comprehensive examination of clinical, hematological, histological and radiological parameters. The results demonstrated that Wistar rats were the most susceptible strain to CIA followed by Wistar Furth rats, with Sprague Dawley rats being the least susceptible. Following primary and booster immunization, female Wistar rats developed severe arthritis, with an incidence of >83% and low variability in clinical signs. The development of arthritis was accompanied by a significantly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with that in the control rats. The radiographic examination revealed bone matrix resorption, considerable soft tissue swelling, periosteal new bone formation and bone erosion in the arthritic joints of the CIA rats. Histopathologically, the synovial joints of CIA rats were characterized by synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, marked cellular infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion and narrowing of the joint space. The administration of an intradermal injection of only 200 µg bovine CII emulsified in IFA at the base of the tail therefore leads to the successful development of a CIA rat model. This well-characterized CIA rat model could be specifically used to study the pathophysiology of human rheumatoid arthritis as well as to test and develop anti-arthritic agents for humans. PMID:26622511

  9. Participation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in rat alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Arduini, A; Zibellini, G; Ferrari, L; Magnanimi, L; Dottori, S; Lohninger, A; Carminati, P

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.21) in pulmonar type II pneumocyte, a lung cell responsible for the synthesis of surface active lipids. Adult type II pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung and purified by differential adherence. When these lung cells were incubated with radioactive palmitate, the percentage of radioactivity recovered into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major surface active lipid, was almost 60% with respect to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species. Cellular lysates from type II pneumocytes contained detectable amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity (1 nmol/min/mg). Most of the CPT activity found in these cells could be inhibited by incubating them for 60 min with 5 microM tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a specific and irreversible CPT inhibitor of the malonyl-CoA sensitive CPT isoform (CPT I). TDGA treatment of adult type II pneumocytes caused a significant reduction in the incorporation of radioactive palmitate into PC, though this effect did not seem to be specific for DPPC. TDGA affected the incorporation of radioactive palmitate at the sn2 rather than the sn1 position of the glycerol backbone of PC. The incorporation of radioactive palmitate into DPPC was also observed when these lung cells were incubated with palmitate-labeled palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Our data suggest that type II pneumocyte CPT may play an important role in remodelling PC fatty acid composition and hence DPPC synthesis. PMID:11330841

  10. Expression of adenosine A2b receptor in rat type II and III taste cells.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro; Dohi, Yukari; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Tsukamoto, Katsunobu; Yabu, Miharu; Ohishi, Akihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 was expressed in taste cells, suggesting the existence of an adenosine signaling system, but whether or not the expression of an adenosine receptor occurs in rat taste buds remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of adenosine receptors and evaluated their functionality in rat circumvallate papillae. Among adenosine receptors, the mRNA for an adenosine A2b receptor (A2bR) was expressed by the rat circumvallate papillae, and its expression level was significantly greater in the circumvallate papillae than in the non-taste lingual epithelium. A2bR-immunoreactivity was detected primarily in type II taste cells, and partial, but significant expression was also observed in type III ones, but there was no immunoreactivity in type I ones. The cAMP generation in isolated epithelium containing taste buds treated with 500 μM adenosine or 10 μM BAY60-6583 was significantly increased compared to in the controls. These findings suggest that adenosine plays a role in signaling transmission via A2bR between taste cells in rats. PMID:24327108

  11. Establishment of immortalized alveolar type II epithelial cell lines from adult rats.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, K E; Carter, J M; Iype, P T; Kumari, H L; Crosby, L L; Aardema, M J; Isfort, R J; Cody, D; Chestnut, M H; Burns, J L

    1995-01-01

    We developed methodology to isolate and culture rat alveolar Type II cells under conditions that preserved their proliferative capacity, and applied lipofection to introduce an immortalizing gene into the cells. Briefly, the alveolar Type II cells were isolated from male F344 rats using airway perfusion with a pronase solution followed by incubation for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Cells obtained by pronase digestion were predominantly epithelial in morphology and were positive for Papanicolaou and alkaline phosphatase staining. These cells could be maintained on an extracellular matrix of fibronectin and Type IV collagen in a low serum, insulin-supplemented Ham's F12 growth medium for four to five passages. Rat alveolar epithelial cells obtained by this method were transformed with the SV40-T antigen gene and two immortalized cell lines (RLE-6T and RLE-6TN) were obtained. The RLE-6T line exhibits positive nuclear immunostaining for the SV40-T antigen and the RLE-6TN line does not. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from the RLE-6T and RLE-6TN cells demonstrated the T-antigen gene was present only in the RLE-6T line indicating the RLE-6TN line is likely derived from a spontaneous transformant. After more than 50 population doublings, the RLE-6T cells stained positive for cytokeratin, possessed alkaline phosphatase activity, and contained lipid-containing inclusion bodies (phosphine 3R staining); all characteristics of alveolar Type II cells. The RLE-6TN cells exhibited similar characteristics except they did not express alkaline phosphatase activity. Early passage RLE-6T and 6TN cells showed a near diploid chromosome number.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8528500

  12. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  13. Hypoglycaemic role of wheatgrass and its effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Garima; Randhi, Praveen Kumar; Pajaniradje, Sankar; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Rajagopalan, Rukkumani

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency is the major factor for the prognosis of type II diabetes. Consistent high glucose level leads to multiple secondary complications in diabetic patients. Hence, hypoglycaemic drugs are of significance for reducing the risk of secondary complications in type II diabetes. Various hypoglycaemic drugs are already available in the market, but they are associated with several side effects. Therefore, traditional herbs have emerged as safer alternative for effective hypoglycaemic treatment. The juvenile grass of common wheat is known as wheatgrass (WG). It is commonly used as a health drink and has potent antioxidant efficacy. It has been used to cure DM in folk medicine. The current study was planned to test the hypoglycaemic effect and pathways regulated by WG on DM. We analysed the glucose and insulin levels in plasma, the activity of glucose oxidative enzymes, hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, in serum and glycogen levels in liver of the male albino Wistar rats. Activity of glucose oxidative enzymes and the levels of insulin and liver glycogen were decreased in rats with diabetes, but they were reversed on treatment with WG. Hence, we conclude that WG can act as a potent anti-hyperglycaemic agent. PMID:25116122

  14. Identification and properties of pathways for K+ transport in guinea-pig and rat alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, P J; Roberts, G C; Boyd, C A

    1994-01-01

    86Rb+ was used to study potassium uptake and efflux in type II pneumocytes freshly isolated from adult guinea-pig and rat lung. Both species exhibited a substantial ouabain-sensitive component of potassium influx. In rats, most of the ouabain-resistant influx was abolished by bumetanide and removal of extracellular chloride elicited no further effect. In contrast, only a proportion of the ouabain-insensitive uptake was inhibitable by bumetanide in guinea-pigs and this species showed an additional component of influx, which was chloride dependent and which was reduced by either the K(+)-H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole, or by the stilbene derivative, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS). The chloride-dependent component was also apparent in efflux experiments in guinea-pigs, but was absent in rats. Ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity was assayed in highly purified apical membranes from guinea-pig type II pneumocytes. This activity was inhibitable by omeprazole (apparent inhibition constant, Ki, was approximately 40 microM), was potassium dependent (apparent activation constant, Ka, was approximately 200 microM) and was doubled by the addition of nigericin. While potassium transport in rat type II cells is adequately accounted for by Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransport, our data suggest the additional presence of K(+)-Cl- cotransport and K(+)-H(+)-ATPase in guinea-pig type II pneumocytes. A model of how alveolar subphase acidification may occur is proposed. PMID:8046636

  15. Cell volume and shape oscillations in rat type-II somatotrophs at hypotonic conditions.

    PubMed

    Engström, K G; Sävendahl, L

    1995-05-01

    The size and shape of growth hormone (GH)-producing rat type-II somatotrophs was studied during osmotic manipulation. When somatotrophs were exposed to large osmotic stress (200 and 225 mOsm), the peak projected cell area (PCA) was 132.9% +/- 12.6% and 116.8% +/- 2.8% (P < 0.01) and triggered a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) to avoid lysis. At lower osmotic stress (250 mOsm), the rate of swelling was slower, and the volume reached a steady state at 109.4% +/- 2.4% (P < 0.05) and was without RVD. At 275 and 287 mOsm, the swelling was delayed [PCA peak at 3-4 min; 105.8% +/- 1.5% (P < 0.05) and 104.2% +/- 1.7%] and then showed repeated synchronized cycles of swelling and shrink-age (P < 0.05). The data suggest that somatotrophs may have more than one mechanism for volume regulation. One mechanism is for large swelling (classic RVD response), whereas the other represents more physiological mechanisms for regulating the cell volume within a more limited geometry range. For low osmotic stress (250-287 mOsm), the somatotrophs became less spherical during swelling and, thus, were without membrane dilation. Therefore, this type of volume regulation must work independently from membrane stress. Related volume regulation mechanisms may underlie the previously observed volume fluctuations in somatotrophs seen during secretory stimulation with GH-releasing hormone. PMID:7600901

  16. In vivo creatine kinase reaction kinetics at rest and stress in type II diabetic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Adil; Coggan, Andrew R.; Gropler, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The effects of type II diabetes on cardiac creatine kinase (CK) enzyme activity and/or flux are unknown. We therefore measured steady‐state phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and forward CK reaction kinetic parameters in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat hearts, a type II diabetes research model. At baseline the PCr to ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) was significantly lower in diabetic heart when compared with matched controls (1.71 ± 0.21 vs. 2.26 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the forward CK reaction rate constant (kf) was higher in diabetic animals (0.52 ± 0.09 s−1 vs. 0.35 ± 0.06 s−1, P < 0.01) and CK flux calculated as a product of PCr concentration ([PCr]) and kf was similar between two groups (4.32 ± 1.05 μmol/g/s vs. 4.94 ± 1.23 μmol/g/s, P = 0.20). Dobutamine administration resulted in similar increases in heart rate (~38%) and kf (~0.12 s−1) in both groups. No significant change in PCr and ATP content was observed with dobutamine. In summary, our data showed reduced PCr/ATP in diabetic myocardium as an indicator of cardiac energy deficit. The forward CK reaction rate constant is elevated at baseline which might reflect a compensatory mechanics to support energy flux through the CK shuttle and maintain constant ATP supply. When hearts were stimulated similar increase in kf was observed in both groups thus it seems that CK shuttle does not limit ATP supply for the range of workload studied. PMID:25626865

  17. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression is suppressed by angiotensin II via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuya; Li, Ying; Miao, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Nan; Su, Guohai; Cai, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) in rat primary cardiomyocytes, and to investigate the potential association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and these effects. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 3-day-old Wistar rats, and were cultured and identified. Subsequently, the expression levels of Angptl2 were detected following incubation with various concentrations of AngII for various durations using western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Finally, under the most appropriate conditions (100 nmol/l AngII, 24 h), the cardiomyocytes were divided into six groups: Normal, AngII, AngII + losartan, normal + losartan, AngII + PD123319 and normal + PD123319 groups, in order to investigate the possible function of AT1R in Angptl2 suppression. Losartan and PD123319 are antagonists of AT1R and angiotensin II type 2 receptor, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was analyzed using Student's t-test or one-way analysis of variance. The results demonstrated that Angptl2 expression was evidently suppressed (P<0.05) following incubation with 100 nmol/l AngII for 24 h. Conversely, the expression levels of Angptl2 were significantly increased in the AngII + losartan group compared with the AngII group (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was detected between the AngII + PD123319, normal + losartan or normal + PD123319 groups and the normal group. The present in vitro study indicated that AngII was able to suppress Angptl2 expression, whereas losartan was able to significantly reverse this decrease by inhibiting AT1R. PMID:27483989

  18. Oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomoea aquatica in streptozotocin-induced, diabetic wistar rats and Type II diabetics.

    PubMed

    Malalavidhane, T S; Wickramasinghe, S M D N; Perera, M S A; Jansz, E R

    2003-11-01

    Ipomoea aquatica Forsk is a common green leafy vegetable consumed in many parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of Ipomea aquatica in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats, and Type II diabetic patients. Experimental diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in Wistar rats. The rats were then divided into test and control groups. In addition to the standard feed given to both groups the test was fed with the shredded leaves of Ipomoea aquatica (3.4 g/kg) for one week. Type II diabetic patients were subjected to a glucose challenge before and after a single dose of blended I. aquatica. Patients acted as their own controls. The results revealed that consumption of the shredded, fresh, edible portion of I. aquatica for one week, effectively reduced the fasting blood sugar level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (p = 0.01). When subjected to a glucose challenge, the Type II diabetic subjects showed a significant reduction (p = 0.001) in the serum glucose concentration 2 h after the glucose load. However, it was not significantly reduced at 1 h (p < 0.09) post glucose load. There was a 29.4% decrease in the serum glucose concentration of the diabetic patients when treated with the plant extract. PMID:14595595

  19. The Angiotensin II Type 2 (AT2) Receptor Promotes Axonal Regeneration in the Optic Nerve of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Gallinat, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Herdegen, Thomas; Sievers, Jobst; Unger, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been traditionally linked to blood pressure and volume regulation mediated through the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT1) receptor. Here we report that ANG II via its ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor promotes the axonal elongation of postnatal rat retinal explants (postnatal day 11) and dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro, and, moreover, axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush in vivo. In retinal explants, ANG II (10−7–10−5 M) induced neurite elongation via its AT2 receptor, since the effects were mimicked by the AT2 receptor agonist CGP 42112 (10−5 M) and were entirely abolished by costimulation with the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123177 (10−5 M), but not by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (10−5 M). To investigate whether ANG II is able to promote axonal regeneration in vivo, we performed optic nerve crush experiments in the adult rats. After ANG II treatment (0.6 nmol), an increased number of growth-associated protein (GAP)-43–positive fibers was detected and the regenerating fibers regularly crossed the lesion site (1.6 mm). Cotreatment with the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123177 (6 nmol), but not with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (6 nmol), completely abolished the ANG II–induced axonal regeneration, providing for the first time direct evidence for receptor-specific neurotrophic action of ANG II in the central nervous system of adult mammals and revealing a hitherto unknown function of the RAS. PMID:9705948

  20. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on protein metabolism in type-I- and type-II-fibre-rich skeletal muscles of the rat.

    PubMed

    Preedy, V R; Peters, T J

    1988-09-15

    1. The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on muscles containing a predominance of either Type I (aerobic, slow-twitch) or Type II (anaerobic, fast-twitch) fibres were studied. Male Wistar rats, weighing approx. 90 g or 280 g, were pair-fed on a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing 36% of total energy as ethanol, or isovolumetric amounts of the same diet in which ethanol was replaced by isoenergetic glucose. After 6 weeks feeding, fractional rates of protein synthesis were measured with a flooding dose of L-[4-(3)H]-phenylalanine and muscles were analysed for protein, RNA and DNA. 2. Ethanol feeding decreased muscle weight, protein, RNA and DNA contents in both small and large rats. Type-II-fibre-rich muscles showed greater changes than did Type-I-fibre-rich muscles. Changes in protein paralleled decreases in DNA. 3. The capacity for protein synthesis (RNA/protein), fractional rates of protein synthesis and absolute rates of protein synthesis were decreased by ethanol feeding in both small and large rats. The amounts of protein synthesized relative to RNA and DNA were also decreased. Changes were less marked in Type-I than in Type-II-fibre-rich muscles. Loss of protein, RNA and DNA was greater in small rats, but protein synthesis was more markedly affected in large rats. 4. It was concluded that chronic ethanol feeding adversely affects protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. Fibre composition and animal size are also important factors in determining the pattern of response. PMID:2461699

  1. Gene Expression of Rat Alveolar Type II Cells during Hyperoxia Exposure and Early Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongming; Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Guo, Yujie; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Chen, Jiwang; Gao, Li; Jin, Nili; Weng, Tingting; Liu, Lin

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and repair during hyperoxia exposure and recovery have been investigated for decades, but the molecular mechanisms of these processes are not clear. To identify potentially important genes involved in lung injury and repair, we studied the gene expression profiles of isolated AEC II from control, 48-hour hyperoxia-exposed (>95% O2) and 1-7 day recovering rats using a DNA microarray containing 10,000 genes. Fifty genes showed significant differential expression between two or more time points (p<0.05, fold change >2). These genes can be classified into 8 unique gene expression patterns. Real-time PCR verified 14 selected genes in three patterns related to hyperoxia exposure and early recovery. The change in the protein level for two of the selected genes, bmp-4 and retnla, paralleled that of the mRNA level. Many of these genes were found to be involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. In an in vitro AEC trans-differentiation culture model using AEC II isolated from control and 48 hrs hyperoxia-exposed rats, the expression of the cell proliferation and differentiation genes identified above were consistent with their predicted roles in the trans-differentiation of AEC. These data indicate that a coordinated mechanism may control AEC differentiation during in vivo hyperoxia exposure and recovery as well as during in vitro AEC culture. PMID:17640573

  2. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on type II alveolar epithelial cells of the rat lung. Autoradiographic and morphometric studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Watanabe, T; Watanabe, M; Hasegawa, S; Uchiyama, Y

    1989-01-01

    Effects of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) on Type II cells of the rat lung were examined, using autoradiographic and morphometric techniques. The injection of an excess of ANP, together with [125I]ANP, significantly inhibited the uptake of radioactive ANP in the lung tissue. Following autoradiography, silver grains of [125I]ANP labelled Type II cells, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of vessels, bronchi and bronchioles. As for morphometric changes in subcellular structures of Type II cells after the injection of ANP, the volume and surface densities of the rough endoplasmic reticulum increased at 15 minutes, while those of the Golgi complex increased from 5 minutes, peaking at 30 minutes. At 15 minutes the volume and surface densities of mitochondria significantly increased. The volume and surface densities of multivesicular bodies with an electron-dense matrix also increased from 15 minutes after the injection. Lamellar bodies showed decreased volume and surface densities at 15 minutes whereas the densities showed an increase at 30 minutes and were higher at 60 minutes than those in the control. These results suggest that Type II cells provide a binding site for ANP which facilitates the production of lamellar bodies in addition to their secretion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:2533592

  3. 3-D Reconstruction of Macular Type II Cell Innervation Patterns in Space-Flight and Control Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel Dorothy; Montgomery, K.; Linton, S.; Cheng, R.; Tomko, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A semiautomated method for reconstructing objects from serial thin sections has been developed in the Biocomputation Center. The method is being used to completely, for the first time, type II hair cells and their innervations. The purposes are to learn more about the fundamental circuitry of the macula on Earth and to determine whether changes in connectivities occur under space flight conditions. Data captured directly from a transmission electron microscope via a video camera are sent to a graphics workstation. There, the digitized micrographs are mosaicked into sections and contours are traced, registered and displayed by semiautomated methods. Current reconstructions are of type II cells from the medial part of rat maculas collected in-flight on the Space Life Sciences-2 mission, 4.5 hrs post-flight, and from a ground control. Results show that typical type II cells receive processes from tip to six nearby calyces or afferents. Nearly all processes are elongated and have bouton-like enlargements; some have numerous vesicles. Multiple (2 to 4) processes from a single calyx to a type II cell are common, and approximately 1/3 of the processes innervale 2 or 3 type II cells or a neighboring cluster. From 2% to 6% of the cells resemble type I cells morphologically but have demi-calyces. Thus far, increments in synaptic number in type II cells of flight rats are prominent along processes that supply two hair cells. It is clear that reconstruction methods provide insights into details of macular circuitry not obtainable by other techniques. The results demonstrate a morphological basis for interactions between adjacent receptive fields through feed back-feed forward connections, and for dynamic alterations in receptive field range and activity during preprocessing of linear acceleratory information by the maculas. The reconstruction method we have developed will find further applications in the study of the details of neuronal architecture of more complex systems, to

  4. Hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction in the rat: role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mączewski, M; Mączewska, J; Duda, M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodelling and heart failure, but the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This study examined whether worsening of post-MI ventricular remodelling induced by dietary hypercholesterolaemia was related to upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the rat heart. Experimental approach: MI was induced surgically in rats fed normal or high cholesterol diet. Both groups of rats were then assigned to control, atorvastatin, losartan or atorvastatin+losartan-treated subgroups and followed for 8 weeks. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with echocardiography. In isolated hearts, LV pressures were measured with a latex balloon and a tip catheter. AT1-receptor density was assessed in LV membranes with radioligand-binding assays. Key results: High cholesterol diet exacerbated LV dilation and dysfunction in post-MI hearts. Atorvastatin or losartan prevented these hypercholesterolaemia-induced effects, whereas their combination was not more effective than each drug alone. AT1 receptors were upregulated 8 weeks after MI, this was further increased by hypercholesterolaemia and restored to baseline levels by atorvastatin. Conclusions and implications: Hypercholesterolaemia exacerbated LV remodelling and dysfunction in post-MI rat hearts and upregulated cardiac AT1 receptors. All these effects were effectively prevented by atorvastatin. Thus, the pleiotropic statin effects may include interference with the renin-angiotensin system through downregulation of AT1 receptors. PMID:18536757

  5. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Mishra, Amarjit; Su, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Ayalew, Sahlu; Hartson, Steven D; Liu, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+) into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+) release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+) mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion. PMID:20169059

  6. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression is suppressed by angiotensin II via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuya; Li, Ying; Miao, Wei; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Nan; Su, Guohai; Cai, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on angiopoietin‑like protein 2 (Angptl2) in rat primary cardiomyocytes, and to investigate the potential association between angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and these effects. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from 3-day-old Wistar rats, and were cultured and identified. Subsequently, the expression levels of Angptl2 were detected following incubation with various concentrations of AngII for various durations using western blotting, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence. Finally, under the most appropriate conditions (100 nmol/l AngII, 24 h), the cardiomyocytes were divided into six groups: Normal, AngII, AngII + losartan, normal + losartan, AngII + PD123319 and normal + PD123319 groups, in order to investigate the possible function of AT1R in Angptl2 suppression. Losartan and PD123319 are antagonists of AT1R and angiotensin II type 2 receptor, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was analyzed using Student's t‑test or one‑way analysis of variance. The results demonstrated that Angptl2 expression was evidently suppressed (P<0.05) following incubation with 100 nmol/l AngII for 24 h. Conversely, the expression levels of Angptl2 were significantly increased in the AngII + losartan group compared with the AngII group (P<0.01). However, no significant difference was detected between the AngII + PD123319, normal + losartan or normal + PD123319 groups and the normal group. The present in vitro study indicated that AngII was able to suppress Angptl2 expression, whereas losartan was able to significantly reverse this decrease by inhibiting AT1R. PMID:27483989

  7. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea; Haller, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456-C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (I(AL)) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca(2+)-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an I(AL) in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between I(AL) and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca(2+) was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca(2+) entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the I(AL), but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  8. Interfacial stress affects rat alveolar type II cell signaling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Nina; Ravasio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Previous work from our group (Ravasio A, Hobi N, Bertocchi C, Jesacher A, Dietl P, Haller T. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300: C1456–C1465, 2011.) showed that contact of alveolar epithelial type II cells with an air-liquid interface (IAL) leads to a paradoxical situation. It is a potential threat that can cause cell injury, but also a Ca2+-dependent stimulus for surfactant secretion. Both events can be explained by the impact of interfacial tensile forces on cellular structures. Here, the strength of this mechanical stimulus became also apparent in microarray studies by a rapid and significant change on the transcriptional level. Cells challenged with an IAL in two different ways showed activation/inactivation of cellular pathways involved in stress response and defense, and a detailed Pubmatrix search identified genes associated with several lung diseases and injuries. Altogether, they suggest a close relationship of interfacial stress sensation with current models in alveolar micromechanics. Further similarities between IAL and cell stretch were found with respect to the underlying signaling events. The source of Ca2+ was extracellular, and the transmembrane Ca2+ entry pathway suggests the involvement of a mechanosensitive channel. We conclude that alveolar type II cells, due to their location and morphology, are specific sensors of the IAL, but largely protected from interfacial stress by surfactant release. PMID:22610352

  9. Brain Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade Improves Dairy Blood Pressure Variability via Sympathoinhibition in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood pressure (BP) elevation in early morning is known to cause cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that one of the reasons in abnormal dairy BP variability is sympathoexcitation. We have demonstrated that brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) causes sympathoexcitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether central AT1R blockade attenuates the excess BP elevation in rest-to-active phase in hypertensive rats or not. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with intracerebroventricular infusion (ICV) of AT1R receptor blocker (ARB), oral administration of hydralazine (HYD), or ICV of vehicle (VEH). Telemetric averaged mean BP (MBP) was measured at early morning (EM), after morning (AM), and night (NT). At EM, MBP was significantly lower in ARB to a greater extent than in HYD compared to VEH, though MBP at AM was the same in ARB and HYD. At NT, MBP was also significantly lower in ARB than in HYD. These results in MBP were compatible to those in sympathoexcitation and suggest that central AT1R blockade attenuates excess BP elevation in early active phase and continuous BP elevation during rest phase independent of depressor response in hypertensive rats. PMID:25918643

  10. Cerivastatin induces type-I fiber-, not type-II fiber-, predominant muscular toxicity in the young male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Hisakuni; Nezu, Yoshikazu; Yokota, Hatsue; Kiyosawa, Naoki; Mori, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Tani, Yoshiro; Manabe, Sunao; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are associated with adverse skeletal muscle toxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the pathological mechanism of statin-induced myotoxicity, cerivastatin (20 ppm; corresponding to 2 mg/kg/day) was dietarily administered to young male F344 rats for 10 days, and time-course clinical observations, measurement of plasma creatine kinase activity, and light and electron microscopy of type I fiber-predominant skeletal muscle (soleus) or type II fiber-predominant skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior), were performed. Clinical symptoms including weakness of hind limbs, staggering gait and body weight loss, accompanied by marked plasma creatinine kinase elevation in rats fed cerivastatin at around Day 6 to 8. Interestingly, microscopic examination revealed that cerivastatin-induced muscle damages characterized by hypercontraction (opaque) and necrosis of the fibers were of particular abundance in the soleus muscle at Day 8, whereas these histological lesions in the extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior were negligible, even at Day 9. Prior to manifestation of muscle damage, swollen mitochondria and autophagic vacuoles in the soleus were observed as the earliest ultra structural changes at Day 6; then activated lysosomes, disarray of myofibril and dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles became ubiquitous at Day 8. These results demonstrate that cerivastatin induces type I fiber-predominant muscles injury, which is associated with mitochondrial damage, in young male F344 rats. Since the rat exhibiting type I fiber-targeted injury is a unique animal model for statin-induced myotoxicity, it will be useful for gaining insight into mechanisms of statin-induced myotoxicity. PMID:21804308

  11. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cell Dysfunction in Rat Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Fallon, Michael B.; Zhang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064) induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25419825

  12. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  13. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II Diabetes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for Society of Toxicology, March 22-25, 2015, San Diego, CAAcute Ozone (O3) Exposure Accelerates Diet-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Metabolic Alterations in a Rat Model of Type II DiabetesS.J. Snow1,3, D. Miller2, V. Bass2, M. Schladweiler3, A. Ledbetter3, J. Richards3, C...

  14. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  15. Cell-specific regulation of type II phospholipase A2 expression in rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Konieczkowski, M; Sedor, J R

    1993-01-01

    IL-1 stimulates mesangial cells to synthesize specific proteins, including a non-pancreatic (Type II) phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We have studied the regulation of PLA2 by proinflammatory mediators, implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis, and have assessed whether the activation of second messenger systems modulates or mimics PLA2 gene expression by cytokines. IL-1 alpha and beta, TNF alpha, and LPS, but not serum, IL-2, or PDGF, potently induce PLA2 mRNA, and enzyme expression. IL-1-stimulated mesangial cells express a 1.0 kB PLA2 mRNA transcript that is induced in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-1-stimulated increases in steady-state PLA2 mRNA abundance result from a moderate increase in PLA2 transcription rate that is amplified by the prolonged persistence of the transcript. Forskolin and dibutyryl cAMP potentiate IL-1-induced PLA2 mRNA and enzyme expression, but have no effect in the absence of cytokine. 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate, sn-1, 2-dioctanoyl glycerol or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol fail to induce PLA2 expression or to alter the effect of IL-1 when coincubated with the cytokine. In contrast, serum deprivation for 24 h specifically enhances IL-1-stimulated PLA2. Genistein potentiates PLA2 mRNA expression in cells exposed to both IL-1 and serum. The inhibitory effect of serum on IL-1-induced PLA2 mRNA abundance is reproduced by PDGF but not dexamethasone. These data demonstrate that the signaling pathways directly engaged by IL-1 to induce PLA2 expression in mesangial cells interact with several second messenger systems in a cell-specific manner. We speculate that IL-1 induces specialized changes in mesangial cell structure and function through direct activation of a transcription factor(s), that result in induction of a specific gene set. Images PMID:8227365

  16. High-salt intake induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in rats in response to local angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Isis A; Pereira, Rafael C; Dopona, Ellen P B; Shimizu, Maria H M; Furukawa, Luzia N S; Oliveira, Ivone B; Heimann, Joel C

    2014-10-01

    Many studies have shown that risk factors that are independent of blood pressure (BP) can contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy (CH). Among these factors, high-salt (HS) intake was prominent. Although some studies have attempted to elucidate the role of salt in the development of this disease, the mechanisms by which salt acts are not yet fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of CH and interstitial fibrosis (IF) caused by HS intake. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups according to diet [normal salt (NS; 1.27% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl)] and treatment [losartan (LOS) (HS+LOS group), hydralazine (HZ) (HS+HZ group), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (HS+NAC group)], which was given in the drinking water. Tail-cuff BP, transverse diameter of the cardiomyocyte, IF, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) gene and protein expression, serum aldosterone, cardiac angiotensin II, cardiac thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and binding of conformation-specific anti-AT1 and anti-angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) antibodies in the 2 ventricles were measured. Based on the left ventricle transverse diameter data, the primary finding was the occurrence of significant BP-independent CH in the HS+HZ group (96% of the HS group) and a partial or total prevention of such hypertrophy via treatment with NAC or LOS (81% and 67% of the HS group, respectively). The significant total or partial prevention of IF using all 3 treatments (HS+HZ, 27%; HS+LOS, 27%; and HS+NAC, 58% of the HS group, respectively), and an increase in the AT1 gene and protein expression and activity in groups that developed CH, confirmed that CH occurred via the AT1 in this experimental model. Thus, this study unveiled some relevant previously unknown mechanisms of CH induced by chronic HS intake in Wistar rats. The link of oxidative stress with CH in our experimental model is very interesting and stimulates further evaluation for its full comprehension

  17. In vitro effects of cytosolic inhibitor and opiates on the binding of [3H]oestradiol to nuclear type II binding sites of rat uterus and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Garai, J; Vértes, M; Kovács, S

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cytosolic ultrafiltrates prepared from intact rat uteri, brain hemispheres and hypothalami and of some opiate analogues on oestradiol binding to nuclear type II sites in rat uterus and hypothalamus was studied. Opiate binding in nuclear fraction of rat uteri was also evaluated. Both uterine and hypothalamic low affinity nuclear oestradiol binding was inhibited by filtrate from uteri, while only hypothalamic nuclear binding was decreased in presence of hypothalamic filtrate. Filtrate from brain was ineffective on nuclear oestradiol binding of the studied tissues. Concentration dependent inhibition of uterine nuclear oestradiol binding could be demonstrated by some opiate analogues in vitro. Specific low affinity nuclear binding of opiate antagonist naloxone and agonist dihydromorphine was observed in rat uteri which could be inhibited by uterine filtrate and oestradiol but not by hypothalamic filtrate or other steroids. Present findings support the probable intracellular interplay of opiates and oestradiol action and suggest that cytosolic inhibitor factor might be involved. PMID:2704239

  18. Type I and Type II Pyrethroid alterations in Spontaneous Bursting Parameters in Rat Cortical Networks measured Using Multielectrode Array Recordings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are widely used in agricultural, industrial and residential settings to control insect pests. Pyrethroids prolong sodium channel inactivation, although their complete mode of action is not fully understood. We previously reported that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) ...

  19. Measurement of the release of inflammatory mediators from rat alveolar macrophages and alveolar type II cells following lipopolysaccharide or silica exposure: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kanj, R S; Kang, J L; Castranova, V

    2005-02-13

    Evidence suggests that hyperproduction of reactive oxidants and inflammatory mediators plays a critical role in adverse pulmonary responses to silica or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar epithelial type II cells (TII) in the induction of pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to these pulmonary toxicants. To support this objective, the release of several inflammatory mediators from primary rat AMs and TII cells was compared under similar culture and exposure conditions. The responsiveness of RLE-6TN, a rat type II cell line, was also compared to primary rat TII cells under the same culture conditions, following exposure to LPS or silica. The following findings were made. (1) Although AMs were generally found to release more inflammatory mediators than TII cells following LPS or silica exposure, primary TII cells clearly produced significant levels of mediators that could be capable of contributing considerably to lung inflammation and injury. (2) Since the responses of the RLE-6TN cell line to LPS or silica exposure were generally considerably less intense and required higher concentrations of stimulant than those measured in primary rat TII cells, RLE-6TN cells may not be an ideal substitute for primary TII cells in studying pulmonary inflammation. (3) LPS was more potent than silica in inducing inflammatory cytokine release from the three cell types. However, compared to LPS, silica exhibited equal or greater potency as an inducer of cellular oxidant generation, especially from primary TII cells. PMID:15762179

  20. Angiotensin II Type 2-Receptor Agonist C21 Reduces Proteinuria and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of High-Salt-Fed Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered subcutaneously via osmotic pump, 1 mg/kg per day. Compared with normal sodium diet controls, HSD rats exhibited increase in cortical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, urinary H2O2, and 8-isoprostanes, which were associated with severe glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and an increase in urinary leak and activity ofN-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme and a marker of tubular damage. These changes were improved by C21 treatment. Cortical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser(1177)), and plasma nitrites were reduced after HSD intake, whereas nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and enzymatic defense (superoxide dismutase-to-catalase activity) remained unaltered. However, C21 preserved plasma nitrites in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat. C21 treatment reduced protein-to-creatinine, albumin-to-creatinine, as well as fractional excretion of protein and albumin in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat, which is independent of changes in protein recycling receptors, megalin, and cubilin. HSD intake also altered renal excretory and reabsorptive capacity as evident by elevated plasma urea nitrogen-to-creatinine and fractional excretion of urea nitrogen, and reduced urine-to-plasma creatinine, which were modestly, but insignificantly, improved by C21 treatment. Together results demonstrate that angiotensin II type 2-receptor activation protects against HSD-induced kidney damage in obesity plausibly by reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and

  1. Effect of glucocorticoids on the activity, expression and proximal promoter of type II deiodinase in rat brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-deMena, Raquel; Calvo, Rosa-Maria; Garcia, Laura; Obregon, Maria Jesus

    2016-06-15

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is important for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Type II deiodinase (DIO2) produces T3 required for intracellular needs in BAT. Brown adipocytes in culture require T3 for the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2. Glucocorticoids induce adipocyte differentiation (lipogenesis). We investigated the regulation of DIO2 activity, Dio2 mRNA and Dio2 promoter activity by glucocorticoids in primary cultures of rat brown adipocytes using dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC). DEX and HC regulated the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibiting DIO2 activity at short treatment times and large doses (1-10 μM) and stimulating DIO2 at low HC doses (1-100 nM) and longer times (DEX). Insulin depletion reduced DIO2 activity but the response to glucocorticoids remained unchanged. DEX and HC inhibited basal DIO2 activity. DEX had no effect on DIO2 half-life, whereas HC stabilized DIO2 activity. DEX and HC inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 mRNA expression (100-10000 nM, 14-96 h), but stabilized Dio2 mRNA, particularly DEX. DEX increased basal Dio2 mRNA levels, possibly through stabilization of Dio2 mRNA. An 807 bp construct of the murine Dio2 proximal promoter showed maximal reporter activity, with the cAMP response element (CRE) essential for transcriptional activity. DEX caused inhibition in most constructs containing the CRE element whereas HC stimulated reporter activity in the 807 bp construct. Glucocorticoids inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 at the transcriptional level in brown adipocytes, although DIO2 activity increased with HC, possibly due to stabilization of Dio2 activity and mRNA. The CRE and cEBP elements of the Dio2 promoter seem involved in the regulation by glucocorticoids. PMID:26994513

  2. Involvement of central angiotensin II type 1 receptors in LPS-induced systemic vasopressin release and blood pressure regulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumihiro; Kasai, Toshihiro; Takamata, Akira

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of central angiotensin II (ANG II) and ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors in systemic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and blood pressure regulation during endotoxemia. LPS (150 microg/kg) was injected intravenously 30 min after intracerebroventricular (icv) losartan (50 microg), an AT(1) receptor antagonist, or subcutaneous (sc) captopril (50 mg/kg), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Rats with icv and sc saline injections served as control. LPS administration increased plasma AVP concentration from 2.1 +/- 0.2 to 15.2 +/- 2.5 pg/ml (60 min after LPS injection) without significant changes in plasma osmolality or hematocrit. LPS-induced AVP secretion was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with icv losartan (2.3 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.5 pg/ml) but was not attenuated after peripheral captopril treatment (2.2 +/- 0.6 to 17.6 +/- 4.2 pg/ml). LPS administration significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 22.7 +/- 5.4 mmHg after intravenous LPS injection in icv losartan-treated rats, while SBP remained unchanged in vehicle-treated or sc captopril-treated rats by intravenous LPS. These results indicate that central AT(1) receptors, not responsive to peripheral ANG II, play an important role in systemic AVP secretion and maintenance of blood pressure during endotoxemia. PMID:19359612

  3. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  4. Cell shrinkage evoked by Ca2+-free solution in rat alveolar type II cells: Ca2+ regulation of Na+-H+ exchange.

    PubMed

    Murao, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Hosoi, Keita; Iwagaki, Akitaka; Min, Kyong-Yob; Kishima, Gen-ichi; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Kubota, Takahiro; Kato, Masumi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Nakahari, Takashi

    2005-03-01

    The effects of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, on the volume of rat alveolar type II cells (AT-II cells) were examined. Perfusion with a Ca2+-free solution induced shrinkage of the AT-II cell volume in the absence or presence of amiloride (1 microm, an inhibitor of Na+ channels); however, it did not in the presence of 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA, an inhibitor of Na+-H+ exchange). MIA decreased the volume of AT-II cells. Inhibitors of Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange, 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) also decreased the volume of AT-II cells. This indicates that the cell shrinkage induced by a Ca2+-free solution is caused by a decrease in NaCl influx via Na+-H+ exchange and Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange. Addition of ionomycin (1 microm), in contrast, induced cell swelling when AT-II cells were pretreated with quinine and amiloride. This swelling of the AT-II cells is not detected in the presence of MIA. Intracellular pH (pHi) measurements demonstrated that the Ca2+-free solution or MIA decreases pHi, and that ionomycin increases it. Ionomycin stimulated the pHi recovery after an acid loading (NH4+ pulse method), which was not noted in MIA-treated AT-II cells. Ionomycin increased [Ca2+]i in fura-2-loaded AT-II cells. In conclusion, the Na+-H+ exchange activities of AT-II cells, which maintain the volume and pHi, are regulated by [Ca2+]i. PMID:15640277

  5. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 allosteric potentiators prevent sodium lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-vulnerable rats

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Engleman, Eric A; Svensson, Kjell A; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    Rats with chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis by infusion of l-allyglycine, a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor, into their dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus are anxious and exhibit panic-like cardio-respiratory responses to treatment with intravenous (i.v.) sodium lactate (NaLac) infusions, in a manner similar to what occurs in patients with panic disorder. We previously showed that either NMDA receptor antagonists or metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2/3 receptor agonists can block such a NaLac response, suggesting that a glutamate mechanism is contributing to this panic-like state. Using this animal model of panic, we tested the efficacy of CBiPES and THIIC, which are selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators (at 10–30mg/kg i.p.), in preventing NaLac-induced panic-like behavioral and cardiovascular responses. The positive control was alprazolam (3mg/kg i.p.), a clinically effective anti-panic benzodiazepine. As predicted, panic-prone rats given a NaLac challenge displayed NaLac-induced panic-like cardiovascular (i.e. tachycardia and hypertensive) responses and “anxiety” (i.e. decreased social interaction time) and “flight” (i.e. increased locomotion) -associated behaviors; however, systemic injection of the panic-prone rats with CBiPES, THIIC or alprazolam prior to the NaLac dose blocked all NaLac-induced panic-like behaviors and cardiovascular responses. These data suggested that in a rat animal model, selective group II metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor allosteric potentiators show an anti-panic efficacy similar to alprazolam. PMID:22914798

  6. Effects of in vivo static compressive loading on aggrecan and type II and X collagens in the rat growth plate extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Cancel, Mathilde; Grimard, Guy; Thuillard-Crisinel, Delphine; Moldovan, Florina; Villemure, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Mechanical loads are essential to normal bone growth, but excessive loads can lead to progressive deformities. In addition, growth plate extracellular matrix remodelling is essential to regulate the normal longitudinal bone growth process and to ensure physiological bone mineralization. In order to investigate the effects of static compression on growth plate extracellular matrix using an in vivo animal model, a loading device was used to precisely apply a compressive stress of 0.2 MPa for two weeks on the seventh caudal vertebra (Cd7) of rats during the pubertal growth spurt. Control, sham and loaded groups were studied. Growth modulation was quantified based on calcein labelling, and three matrix components (type II and X collagens, and aggrecan) were assessed using immunohistochemistry/safranin-O staining. As well, extracellular matrix components and enzymes (MMP-3 and -13, ADAMTS-4 and -5) were studied by qRT-PCR. Loading reduced Cd7 growth by 29% (p<0.05) and 15% (p=0.07) when compared to controls and shams respectively. No significant change could be observed in the mRNA expression of collagens and the proteolytic enzyme MMP-13. However, MMP-3 was significantly increased in the loaded group as compared to the control group (p<0.05). No change was observed in aggrecan and ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression. Low immunostaining for type II and X collagens was observed in 83% of the loaded rats as compared to the control rats. This in vivo study shows that, during pubertal growth spurt, two-week static compression reduced caudal vertebrae growth rates; this mechanical growth modulation occurred with decreased type II and X collagen proteins in the growth plate. PMID:18849019

  7. [Neonatal mucolipidosis type II].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Oulmaati, A; Bouharrou, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (ML II, OMIM 252,500) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by facial dysmorphia similar to Hurler syndrome and pronounced gingival hypertrophy. The disorder is caused by a defect in targeting acid hydrolases on the surface of lysosomes, which impede their entry and lead to accumulation of undigested substrates in lysosomes. The onset of the symptoms is usually in infancy, beginning in the 6th month of life. Early onset, at birth or even in utero, is a sign of severity and involves the specific dysmorphia as well as skeletal dysplasia related to hyperparathyroidism. We report on a severe neonatal form of this disorder revealed by respiratory distress with severe chest deformity. The dysmorphic syndrome, combining coarse features, pronounced gingival hypertrophy, with diffuse bone demineralization and secondary hyperparathyroidism associating significant elevation of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase with normal levels of vitamin D and calcium were characteristics of mucolipidosis type II. Recognizing this specific association of anomalies helps eliminate the differential diagnosis and establish appropriate diagnosis and care. PMID:26552632

  8. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Markert, T; Vaandrager, A B; Gambaryan, S; Pöhler, D; Häusler, C; Walter, U; De Jonge, H R; Jarchau, T; Lohmann, S M

    1995-01-01

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia. Images PMID:7543493

  9. Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin-Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1-7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

  10. Leptin and Its Relation to Obesity and Insulin in the SHR/N-corpulent Rat, A Model of Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bhathena, Sam J.; Hansen, Carl T.

    2001-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive/NIH-corpulent (SHR/N-cp) rat is a genetic animal model that exhibits obesity, metabolic features of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia, which are characteristic of type II diabetes and mild hypertension. To determine the role of leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, in the development of obesity and diabetes in this model, we measured steady-state circulating levels of leptin in obese and lean SHR/N-cp rats and examined the relation between plasma leptin levels and metabolic variables at the stage of established obesity in these animals. Mean fasting plasma leptin concentration was 8-fold higher in obese than in lean rats (p<0.01). This was associated with a 6-fold elevation in plasma insulin in the obese group. Fasting levels of plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride were all significantly higher in obese rats than in lean controls. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between plasma leptin concentration and body weight among the animals (r=0.73, p<0.01). Similarly, plasma insulin concentration was significantly correlated with BW in all animals (r=0.54, p<0.05). There was also a significant positive.correlation between plasma leptin and plasma insulin in the entire group (r=0.70, p<0.01). However, this relationship was significant only for lean rats but not for obese rats (r=0.59, p<0.05 for lean rats, and r=0.23, p=NS, for obese rats). Plasma leptin also correlated positively with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.75, p<0.05), total cholesterol (r=0.63, p<0.05), and triglyceride (r=0.67, p <0.05). The marked elevation of plasma leptin in obese SHR/N-cp rats suggests that obesity in this animal model is related to up-regulation of the ob gene. Circulating leptin appears to be one of the best biological markers of obesity and that hyperleptinemia is closely associated with several metabolic risk factors related to insulin resistance in the diabesity syndrome. PMID:12369710

  11. An improved method for the isolation of rat alveolar type II lung cells: Use in the Comet assay to determine DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a cause of serious diseases, including lung cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and heart disease. DNA damage is thought to be one of the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) initiates disease in the lung. Indeed, CS induced DNA damage can be measured in vitro and in vivo. The potential of the Comet assay to measure DNA damage in isolated rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II) was explored as a means to include a genotoxicity end-point in rodent sub-chronic inhalation studies. In this study, published AEC II isolation methods were improved to yield viable cells suitable for use in the Comet assay. The improved method reduced the level of basal DNA damage and DNA repair in isolated AEC II. CS induced DNA damage could also be quantified in isolated cells following a single or 5 days CS exposure. In conclusion, the Comet assay has the potential to determine CS or other aerosol induced DNA damage in AEC II isolated from rodents used in sub-chronic inhalation studies. PMID:25846365

  12. In vitro time- and dose-effect response of JP-8 and S-8 jet fuel on alveolar type II epithelial cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Robb, Tiffany M; Rogers, Michael J; Woodward, Suann S; Wong, Simon S; Witten, Mark L

    2010-07-01

    This study was designed to characterize and compare the effects of jet propellant-8 (JP-8) fuel and synthetic-8 (S-8) on cell viability and nitric oxide synthesis in cultured alveolar type II epithelial cells of rats. Exposure times varied from 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 6 hours at the following concentrations of jet fuel: 0.0, 0.1, 0.4, and 2.0 microg/mL. Data indicate that JP-8 presents a gradual decline in cell viability and steady elevation in nitric oxide release as exposure concentrations increase. At a 2.0 microg/mL concentration of JP-8, nearly all of the cells are not viable. Moreover, S-8 exposure to rat type II lung cells demonstrated an abrupt fall in percentage cell viability and increases in nitric oxide measurement, particularly after the 2.0 microg/mL was reached at 1 and 6 hours. At 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4 microg/mL concentrations of S-8, percentage viability was sustained at steady concentrations. The results suggest different epithelial toxicity and mechanistic effects of S-8 and JP-8, providing further insight concerning the impairment imposed at specific levels of lung function and pathology induced by the different fuels. PMID:20504826

  13. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyank A.; Parikh, Mihir P.; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. Results: MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27313423

  14. Food-restricted and dehydrated-induced anorexic rats present differential TRH expression in anterior and caudal PVN. Role of type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, E; Aceves, C; Anguiano, B; Uribe, R M; García-Luna, C; Sánchez, E; de Gortari, P

    2012-08-01

    TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVN TRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a 2.5% NaCl solution for 7 d present body weight reduction; despite their negative energy balance, they avoid food and have increased PVN TRH expression and TSH serum levels. These findings support an inhibiting role of PVN TRH in feeding control. We compared TRH expression by in situ hybridization in PVN subdivisions of 7-d dehydrated male rats to those of a pair-fed group (forced food-restricted) with similar metabolic changes than DIA, but motivated to eat, and to controls. We measured peripheral deiodinase activities, and expression and activity of medial basal hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II, to understand their regulating role in PVN TRH changes between food restriction and anorexia. TRH mRNA levels increased in anterior (aPVN) and medial-caudal subdivisions in DIA rats, whereas it decreased in medial PVN in both experimental groups. We confirmed the nonhypophysiotropic nature of aPVN TRHergic cells by injecting ip fluorogold tracer. Findings support a subspecialization of TRHergic hypophysiotrophic cells that responded differently between anorexic and food-restricted animals; also, that aPVN TRH participates in food intake regulation. Increased type 2 deiodinase activity seemed responsible for low medial PVN TRH synthesis, whereas increased medial basal hypothalamic pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II activity in DIA rats might counteract their high TRH release. PMID:22719053

  15. Molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in rat lung surfactant and different pools of pneumocytes type II.

    PubMed Central

    Schlame, M; Casals, C; Rüstow, B; Rabe, H; Kunze, D

    1988-01-01

    It is not yet completely understood how a cell is able to export specific phospholipids, like dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (dipalmitoyl-PC), which is secreted by pneumocytes type II, into pulmonary surfactant. The acyl species composition of [3H]PC which was synthesized in type II cells in the presence of [2-3H]glycerol resembled the species composition of PC localized in intracellular pneumocyte membranes. This species pattern was different from the pattern of PC of lamellar bodies, i.e., intracellularly stored surfactant, by a higher proportion of dipalmitoyl-PC mainly at expense of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. Lamellar body PC in turn showed the same species distribution as surfactant PC. The data suggest that subcellular compartmentation and/or intracellular transfer of PC destined to storage in lamellar bodies, but not secretion of lamellar bodies, involves an enrichment of dipalmitoyl-PC and a depletion of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC. In contrast, the acyl species pattern of phosphatidylglycerol does not seem to undergo gross changes on the path from synthesis to secretion. PMID:3421943

  16. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors. PMID:20021572

  17. Morphologic Damage of Rat Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cells Induced by Bile Acids Could Be Ameliorated by Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibitor Z-Guggulsterone In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yaowei; Hou, Xusheng; Wu, Wenyu; Nie, Lei; Tian, Yinghong; Lu, Yanmeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bile acids (BAs) affect respiratory functions through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) expressed in the lungs and to explore the possible mechanisms of BAs-induced respiratory disorder. Methods. Primary cultured alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECIIs) of rat were treated with different concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in the presence or absence of FXR inhibitor Z-guggulsterone (GS). Then, expression of FXR in nuclei of AECIIs was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. And ultrastructural changes of the cells were observed under transmission electron microscope and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software. Results. Morphologic damage of AECIIs was exhibited in high BAs group in vitro, with high-level expression of FXR, while FXR inhibitor GS could attenuate the cytotoxicity of BAs to AECIIs. Conclusions. FXR expression was related to the morphologic damage of AECIIs induced by BAs, thus influencing respiratory functions. PMID:27340672

  18. Evaluation of cellular affinity and compatibility to biodegradable polyesters and Type-II collagen-modified scaffolds using immortalized rat chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Tsai, Ching-Lin; Tang, Cheng-Ming

    2002-07-01

    Immortalized rat chondrocytes (IRCs) were employed to evaluate the cytocompatibility of different biodegradable polyester scaffolds for chondrocyte seeding and cartilage tissue engineering in vitro due to the limitation of using freshly harvested chondroctyes. Cells were seeded onto the films and the porous substrates as well as into the three-dimensional scaffolds made of the biodegradable polyesters including poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and two poly(lactide-co-glycolide)s (PLGAs). The materials were characterized by water contact angle, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and microscopy. PLGA50/50, one of the PLGAs, had the largest cell numbers at 24 h and 96 h (close to the tissue culture polystyrene control), possibly due to its lower contact angle, higher oxygen/carbon (O/C) atomic ratio, and larger degradation rate. When the surface was further modified by cross-linked Type-II collagen, cell population was significantly enhanced (two- to fourfold). The adhesion and proliferation behavior of IRCs on different materials was parallel to that of rabbit chondrocytes, but was more reproducible in general. IRCs are thus suitable for evaluation of different polymer scaffolds. Despite the favorable cytocompatibility of PLGA50/50, blending with a small portion of PLLA is required for easy fabrication and collagen modification. Scaffolds made of blended materials by freeze-drying procedure with the surface modified by cross-linked Type-II collagen were demonstrated as the ideal templates for chondrocyte seeding in our study. PMID:12081523

  19. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  20. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Laghmani, El Houari; Chen, Xueyu; Lindeboom, Melissa P. H. A.; Roks, Anton J. M.; Folkerts, Gert; Walther, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signaling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg−1·day−1) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2–3 (5 μg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg·kg−1·day−1) in two models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10 days and late treatment starting on day 6 in rat pups exposed postnatally to hyperoxia for 9 days, followed by a 9-day recovery period in room air. Parameters investigated included lung and heart histopathology, fibrin deposition, vascular leakage, and differential mRNA expression. Ten days of coadministration of LP2–3 and PD123319 abolished the beneficial effects of LP2–3 on RVH in experimental BPD. In the early treatment model PD123319 attenuated cardiopulmonary injury by reducing alveolar septal thickness, pulmonary influx of inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, medial wall thickness of small arterioles, and extravascular collagen III deposition, and by preventing RVH. In the late treatment model PD123319 diminished PAH and RVH, demonstrating that PAH is reversible in the neonatal period. At high concentrations PD123319 blocks the beneficial effects of the AT2-agonist LP2–3 on RVH. At low concentrations PD123319 attenuates cardiopulmonary injury by reducing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and preventing PAH-induced RVH but does not affect alveolar and vascular development in newborn rats with experimental BPD. PMID:24951776

  1. Quercetin-Rich Guava (Psidium guajava) Juice in Combination with Trehalose Reduces Autophagy, Apoptosis and Pyroptosis Formation in the Kidney and Pancreas of Type II Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Fa; Kuo, Yen-Ting; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We explored whether the combination of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory guava (Psidium guajava) and trehalose treatment protects the kidney and pancreas against Type II diabetes (T2DM)-induced injury in rats. We measured the active component of guava juice by HPLC analysis. T2DM was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin and combination with high fructose diets for 8 weeks. The rats fed with different dosages of guava juice in combination with or without trehalose for 4 weeks were evaluated the parameters including OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance) and HOMA-β (β cell function and insulin secretion). We measured oxidative and inflammatory degrees by immunohistochemistry stain, fluorescent stain, and western blot and serum and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a chemiluminescence analyzer. High content of quercetin in the guava juice scavenged H2O2 and HOCl, whereas trehalose selectively reduced H2O2, not HOCl. T2DM affected the levels in OGTT, plasma insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, whereas these T2DM-altered parameters, except HbA1c, were significantly improved by guava and trehalose treatment. The levels of T2DM-enhanced renal ROS, 4-hydroxynonenal, caspase-3/apoptosis, LC3-B/autophagy and IL-1β/pyroptosis were significantly decreased by guava juice and trehalose. The combination with trehalose and guava juice protects the pancreas and kidney against T2DM-induced injury. PMID:26978332

  2. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis in fetal rat type II alveolar epithelial cells by microRNA-26a.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qin; Liang, Hong-Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a unique developmentally regulated, phospholipid-rich lipoprotein, is synthesized by the type II epithelial cells (AECII) of the pulmonary alveolus, where it is stored in organelles termed lamellar bodies. The synthesis of pulmonary surfactant is under multifactorial control and is regulated by a number of hormones and factors, including glucocorticoids, prolactin, insulin, growth factors, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines acting through beta-adrenergic receptors, and cAMP. While there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and physiological process, the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis remains unknown. miRNA-26a (miR-26a) has been predicted to target SMAD1, one of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins that plays a key role in differentiation of lung epithelial cells during lung development. In this study, we explored the regulation role of miR-26a in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. An adenoviral miR-26a overexpression vector was constructed and introduced into primary cultured fetal AECII. GFP fluorescence was observed to determinate the transfection efficiency and miR-26a levels were measured by RT-PCR. MTT was performed to analyze AECII viability. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of SMAD1 and surfactant-associated proteins. The results showed that miR-26a in fetal AECII was overexpressed after the transfection, and that the overexpression of miR-26a inhibited pulmonary surfactant synthesis in AECII. There was no significant change in cell proliferation. Our results further showed that overexpression of miR-26a reduced the SMAD1 expression both in mRNA and protein level in fetal AECII. These findings indicate that miR-26a regulates surfactant synthesis in fetal AECII through SMAD1. PMID:24395810

  3. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  4. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and restores adipocyte size in high-fat/high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Shum, Michaël; Pinard, Sandra; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Labbé, Sébastien M; Roberge, Claude; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Langlois, Marie-France; Alterman, Mathias; Wallinder, Charlotta; Hallberg, Anders; Carpentier, André C; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2013-01-15

    This study was aimed at establishing whether specific activation of angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) modulates adipocyte differentiation and function. In primary cultures of subcutaneous (SC) and retroperitoneal (RET) preadipocytes, both AT2R and AT1R were expressed at the mRNA and protein level. Cells were stimulated with ANG II or the AT2R agonist C21/M24, alone or in the presence of the AT1R antagonist losartan or the AT2R antagonist PD123,319. During differentiation, C21/M24 increased PPARγ expression in both RET and SC preadipocytes while the number of small lipid droplets and lipid accumulation solely increased in SC preadipocytes. In mature adipocytes, C21/M24 decreased the mean size of large lipid droplets. Upon abolishment of AT2R expression using AT2R-targeted shRNAs, expressions of AT2R, aP2, and PPARγ remained very low, and cells were unable to differentiate. In Wistar rats fed a 6-wk high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF) diet, a significant shift toward larger adipocytes was observed in RET and SC adipose tissue depots. C21/M24 treatments for 6 wk restored normal adipocyte size distribution in both these tissue depots. Moreover, C21/M24 and losartan decreased hyperinsulinemia and improved insulin sensitivity impaired by HFHF diet. A strong correlation between adipocyte size area and glucose infusion rate during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was observed. These results indicate that AT2R is involved in early adipocyte differentiation, while in mature adipocytes and in a model of insulin resistance AT2R activation restores normal adipocyte morphology and improves insulin sensitivity. PMID:23149621

  5. Expression of cyclin D{sub 1} during endotoxin-induced aleveolar type II cell hyperplasia in rat lung and the detection of apoptotic cells during the remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Wood, M.B.; Johnson, N.F.

    1995-12-01

    Our studies have shown that endotoxin intratracheally instilled into the rat lung induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cells. In that study, the alveolar type II cell hyperplasia occurred 2 d after instillation of endotoxin and persisted for a further 2 d. After hyperplasia, the lung remodeled and returned to a normal state within 24-48 h. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the remodeling process of this transient hyperplasia may be useful to identify molecular changes that are altered in neoplasia. The purpose of the present study was to corroborate induction of epithelial cell hyperplasia by endotoxin and to delineate mechanisms involved in tissue remodeling after endotoxin-induced alveolar type II cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, immonostaining with cyclin D1 and cytokeratin shows that endotoxin induced epithelial cell proliferation and resulted in hyperplasia in the lung which persisted through 4 d post-instillation.

  6. Effects of candesartan, an angiotensin II receptor type I blocker, on atrial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Choisy, Stéphanie C.; Kim, Shang‐Jin; Hancox, Jules C.; Jones, Sandra A.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension‐induced structural remodeling of the left atrium (LA) has been suggested to involve the renin–angiotensin system. This study investigated whether treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan, regresses atrial remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Effects of treatment with candesartan were compared to treatment with a nonspecific vasodilatator, hydralazine. Thirty to 32‐week‐old adult male SHR were either untreated (n = 15) or received one of either candesartan cilexetil (n = 9; 3 mg/kg/day) or hydralazine (n = 10; 14 mg/kg/day) via their drinking water for 14 weeks prior to experiments. Untreated age‐ and sex‐matched Wistar‐Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 13) represented a normotensive control group. Untreated SHR were hypertensive, with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) compared to WKY, but there were no differences in systolic pressures in excised, perfused hearts. LA from SHR were hypertrophied and showed increased fibrosis compared to those from WKY, but there was no change in connexin‐43 expression or phosphorylation. Treatment with candesartan reduced systolic tail artery pressures of conscious SHR below those of normotensive WKY and caused regression of both LVH and LA hypertrophy. Although hydralazine reduced SHR arterial pressures to those of WKY and led to regression of LA hypertrophy, it had no significant effect on LVH. Notably, LA fibrosis was unaffected by treatment with either agent. These data show that candesartan, at a dose sufficient to reduce blood pressure and LVH, did not cause regression of LA fibrosis in hypertensive rats. On the other hand, the data also suggest that normalization of arterial pressure can lead to the regression of LA hypertrophy. PMID:25626873

  7. Insulin-induced activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase by a chiro-inositol-containing insulin mediator is defective in adipocytes of insulin-resistant, type II diabetic, Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed Central

    Farese, R V; Standaert, M L; Yamada, K; Huang, L C; Zhang, C; Cooper, D R; Wang, Z; Yang, Y; Suzuki, S; Toyota, T

    1994-01-01

    Type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were insulin-resistant in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. We therefore examined insulin signaling systems in control Wistar and diabetic GK rats. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT), which is activated by headgroup mediators released from glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI), was activated by insulin in intact and cell-free adipocyte preparations of control, but not diabetic, rats. A specific chiro-inositol-containing inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) mediator, prepared from beef liver, bypassed this defect and comparably activated G3PAT in cell-free adipocyte preparations of both diabetic GK and control rats. A myo-inositol-containing IPG mediator did not activate G3PAT. Relative to control adipocytes, labeling of GPI by [3H]glucosamine was diminished by 50% and insulin failed to stimulate GPI hydrolysis in GK adipocytes. In contrast to GPI-dependent G3PAT activation, insulin-stimulated hexose transport was intact in adipocytes and soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the GK rat, as was insulin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C. We conclude that (i) chiro-inositol-containing IPG mediator activates G3PAT during insulin action, (ii) diabetic GK rats have a defect in synthesizing or releasing functional chiro-inositol-containing IPG, and (iii) defective IPG-regulated intracellular glucose metabolism contributes importantly to insulin resistance in diabetic GK rats. PMID:7972005

  8. In vitro cytokine release from rat type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages following exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjun; Young, R Scotte; Sun, Nina N; Witten, Mark L

    2002-05-01

    Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AIIE) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) are involved in pulmonary toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel exposure. To further elucidate their inflammatory mechanisms, the effect(s) of JP-8 jet fuel on cytokine secretion were examined in a transformed rat AIIE cell line (RLE-6TN) culture alone, primary PAM (from Fischer 344 rats) culture alone, and the co-culture of AIIE and primary PAM. A series of JP-8 jet fuel concentrations (0-0.8 microg/ml), which may actually be encountered in alveolar space of lungs exposed in vivo, were placed in cell culture for 24 h. Cultured AIIE alone secreted spontaneously interleukin (IL)-1beta and -6 [below detectable limits for IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)], whereas cultured PAM alone secreted IL-1beta, -10, and TNF-alpha, in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that the release of cytokines, not only from PAM but also from AIIE cells, may contribute to JP-8 jet fuel-induced inflammatory response in the alveolar space. However, the co-cultures of AIIE and PAM showed no significant changes in IL-1beta, -6, and TNF-alpha at any JP-8 jet fuel concentration compared to control values. These cytokine levels in co-cultures of AIIE and PAM were inversely related to these of cultured AIIE or PAM alone. Interestingly, IL-10 levels in the co-culture system were concentration-dependently increased up to 1058% at JP-8 concentrations of 0.8 microg/ml, although under detectable limits in cultured AIIE alone and no significant concentration change in cultured PAM alone. It appears that PAM may possibly act via paracrine and/or autocrine pathways to signal AIIE cells to regulate cytokine release. PMID:11960674

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene isolated from Chlorella marina on type II collagen induced arthritis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Renju, G L; Muraleedhara Kurup, G; Saritha Kumari, C H

    2013-04-01

    The role of commercially available lycopene (all-trans) from tomato in controlling arthritis has been reported. Even though many reports are available that the cis form of lycopene is more biologically active, no report seems to be available on lycopene (cis and trans) isolated from an easily available and culturable sources. In the present study, the anti-arthritic effect of lycopene (cis and trans) from the algae Chlorella marina (AL) has been compared with lycopene (all-trans) from tomato (TL) and indomethacin (Indo). Arthritis (CIA) was developed in male Sprague dawley rats by collagen and the following parameters were studied. The activities of inflammatory marker enzymes like cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were found to be decreased on treatment with AL when compared to TL and Indo. Changes in Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), and ceruloplasmin levels observed in the blood of arthritic animals were brought back to normal by AL when compared to TL and Indo. Histopathology of paw and joint tissues showed marked reduction in edema on supplementation of AL. Thus these results indicate the potential beneficiary effect of algal lycopene on collagen induced arthritis in rats when compared to TL and even to the commonly used anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. Therefore lycopene from C. marina would be recommended as a better natural source with increased activity and without side effects in the treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases. PMID:23237458

  10. Central Infusion of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist Compound 21 Attenuates DOCA/NaCl-Induced Hypertension in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Peng, Wei; Shen, Ying; He, Jing-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether central activation of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2-R) attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/NaCl-induced hypertension in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats and whether female sex hormone status has influence on the effects of AT2-R activation. DOCA/NaCl elicited a greater increase in blood pressure in OVX females than that in intact females. Central infusion of compound 21, a specific AT2-R agonist, abolished DOCA/NaCl pressor effect in intact females, whereas same treatment in OVX females produced an inhibitory effect. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that DOCA/NaCl enhanced the mRNA expression of hypertensive components including AT1-R, ACE-1, and TNF-α in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus in both intact and OVX females. However, the mRNA expressions of antihypertensive components such as AT2-R, ACE-2, and IL-10 were increased only in intact females. Central AT2-R agonist reversed the changes in the hypertensive components in all females, while this agonist further upregulated the expression of ACE2 and IL-10 in intact females, but only IL-10 in OVX females. These results indicate that brain AT2-R activation plays an inhibitory role in the development of DOCA/NaCl-induced hypertension in females. This beneficial effect of AT2-R activation involves regulation of renin-angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26783414

  11. EXPRESS: Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane M; Traub, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stressinduced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  12. Histone hyperacetylation modulates spinal type II metabotropic glutamate receptor alleviating stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Bai, Guang; Ji, Yaping; Karpowicz, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Stress is often a trigger to exacerbate chronic pain including visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome, a female predominant functional bowel disorder. Epigenetic mechanisms that mediate stress responses are a potential target to interfere with visceral pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, on visceral hypersensitivity induced by a subchronic stressor in female rats and to investigate the involvement of spinal glutamate receptors. Three daily sessions of forced swim induced visceral hypersensitivity. Intrathecal suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid prevented or reversed the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity, increased spinal histone 3 acetylation and increased mGluR2 and mGluR3 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed enrichment of H3K9Ac and H3K18Ac at several promoter Grm2 and Grm3 regions. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 reversed the inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. In surprising contrast, stress and/or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid had no effect on spinal NMDA receptor expression or function. These data reveal histone modification modulates mGluR2/3 expression in the spinal cord to attenuate stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. HDAC inhibitors may provide a potential approach to relieve visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:27385724

  13. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces. PMID:26607545

  14. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  15. Blockage of angiotensin II type I receptor decreases the synthesis of growth factors and induces apoptosis in C6 cultured cells and C6 rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, O; Guevara, P; Escobar, E; García-Navarrete, R; Pineda, B; Sotelo, J

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a main effector peptide in the renin–angiotensin system and participates in the regulation of vascular tone. It also has a role in the expression of growth factors that induce neovascularisation which is closely associated to the growth of malignant gliomas. We have shown that the selective blockage of the AT1 receptor of angiotensin inhibites tumour growth, cell proliferation and angiogenesis of C6 rat glioma. The aim of this study was to study the effects of the blockage of AT1 receptor on the synthesis of growth factors, and in the genesis of apoptosis in cultured C6 glioma cells and in rats with C6 glioma. Administration of losartan at doses of 40 or 80 mg kg−1 to rats with C6 glioma significantly decreased tumoral volume and production of platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. It also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Ang II increased cell proliferation of cultured C6 cells which decreased by the administration of losartan. Our results suggest that the selective blockage of AT1 diminishes tumoral growth through inhibition of growth factors and promotion of apoptosis. PMID:15785746

  16. Protective effects of scutellarin on type II diabetes mellitus-induced testicular damages related to reactive oxygen species/Bcl-2/Bax and reactive oxygen species/microcirculation/staving pathway in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Long, Lingli; Wang, Jingnan; Lu, Xiaofang; Xu, Yuxia; Zheng, Shuhui; Luo, Canqiao; Li, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study is to evaluate the effect of Scutellarin on type II diabetes-induced testicular disorder and show the mechanism of Scutellarin's action. We used streptozotocin and high-fat diet to establish type II diabetic rat model. TUNEL and haematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate the testicular apoptotic cells and morphologic changes. Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and blood vessel density in testes. Oxidative stress in testes and epididymis was tested by fluorescence spectrophotometer and ELISA. The expression of Bcl-2/Bax and blood flow rate in testicular vessels were measured by western blot and Doppler. Our results for the first time showed that hyperglycemia induced apoptotic cells and morphologic impairments in testes of rats, while administration of Scutellarin can significantly inhibit these damages. This effect of Scutellarin is controlled by two apoptotic triggers: ROS/Bcl-2/Bax and ROS/microcirculation/starving pathway. PMID:25861655

  17. Protective Effects of Scutellarin on Type II Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Testicular Damages Related to Reactive Oxygen Species/Bcl-2/Bax and Reactive Oxygen Species/Microcirculation/Staving Pathway in Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lingli; Wang, Jingnan; Lu, Xiaofang; Xu, Yuxia; Zheng, Shuhui; Luo, Canqiao; Li, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study is to evaluate the effect of Scutellarin on type II diabetes-induced testicular disorder and show the mechanism of Scutellarin's action. We used streptozotocin and high-fat diet to establish type II diabetic rat model. TUNEL and haematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate the testicular apoptotic cells and morphologic changes. Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and blood vessel density in testes. Oxidative stress in testes and epididymis was tested by fluorescence spectrophotometer and ELISA. The expression of Bcl-2/Bax and blood flow rate in testicular vessels were measured by western blot and Doppler. Our results for the first time showed that hyperglycemia induced apoptotic cells and morphologic impairments in testes of rats, while administration of Scutellarin can significantly inhibit these damages. This effect of Scutellarin is controlled by two apoptotic triggers: ROS/Bcl-2/Bax and ROS/microcirculation/starving pathway. PMID:25861655

  18. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  19. Inflammatory mediators accelerate metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in rat alveolar type II cells: the role of enhanced cytochrome P450 1B1 expression.

    PubMed

    Smerdová, Lenka; Neča, Jiří; Svobodová, Jana; Topinka, Jan; Schmuczerová, Jana; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav; Vondráček, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Long-term deregulated inflammation represents one of the key factors contributing to lung cancer etiology. Previously, we have observed that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, enhances genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in rat lung epithelial RLE-6TN cells, a model of alveolar type II cells. Therefore, we analyzed B[a]P metabolism in RLE-6TN cells under inflammatory conditions, simulated using either recombinant TNF-α, or a mixture of inflammatory mediators derived from activated alveolar macrophage cell line. Inflammatory conditions significantly accelerated BaP metabolism, as evidenced by decreased levels of both parent B[a]P and its metabolites. TNF-α altered production of the metabolites associated with dihydrodiol-epoxide and radical cation pathways of B[a]P metabolism, especially B[a]P-dihydrodiols, and B[a]P-diones. We then evaluated the role of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), which is strongly up-regulated in cells treated with B[a]P under inflammatory conditions, in the observed effects. The siRNA-mediated CYP1B1 knock-down increased levels of B[a]P and reduced formation of stable DNA adducts, thus confirming the essential role of CYP1B1 in B[a]P metabolism under inflammatory conditions. TNF-α also reduced expression of aldo-keto reductase 1C14, which may compete with CYP1B1 for B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol and divert it from the formation of ultimate B[a]P dihydrodiol epoxide. Together, the present data suggests that the CYP1B1-catalyzed metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might contribute to their enhanced bioactivation and genotoxic effects under inflammatory conditions. PMID:24025706

  20. Effect of nuclear factor-κB and angiotensin II receptor type 1 on the pathogenesis of rat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dao-Yu; Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Chang-Ping; Zhong, Xiao-Ling; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Forty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (normal diet), the model group, and the intervention group (10 wk of a high-fat diet feeding, followed by an intraperitoneal injection of PDTC); 6 rats in each group were sacrificed at 6, 10, and 14 wk. After sacrifice, liver tissue was taken, paraffin sections of liver tissue specimens were prepared, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed, and pathological changes in liver tissue (i.e., liver fibrosis) were observed by light microscopy. NF-κB expression in liver tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of AT1R in the liver tissue was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data are expressed as mean ± SD. A two-sample t test was used to compare the control group and the model group at different time points, paired t tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention group and the model group, and analysis of variance was used to compare the model group with the control group. Homogeneity of variance was analyzed with single factor analysis of variance. H variance analysis was used to compare the variance. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The NAFLD model was successful after 6 wk and 10 wk. Liver fibrosis was found in four rats in the model group, but in only one rat in the intervention group at 14 wk. Liver steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were gradually increased throughout the model. In the intervention group, the body mass, rat liver index, serum lipid, and transaminase levels were not increased compared to the model group. In the model group, the degree of liver steatosis was increased at 6, 10, and 14 wk, and was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0

  1. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  2. Histochemical type I fibres in the soleus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Dekleva, A; Sirca, A

    1978-12-01

    Based on oxidative enzyme activity levels, fibres exhibiting moderate and high levels may be identified in the soleus of the rat. Fibres showing moderate activity are classified as Type I fibres, while those showing high activity may belong to Type I or Type II. According to the level of ATPase activity in fixed sections, we can distinguish three types of fibres in the soleus of the rat (IA, IB and II) and, by application of acid pre-incubation, also sub-classes of Type II (IIA and IIC). Type IB fibres possess high oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities, moderate ATPase activity after fixation, and behave in the same way as Type I fibres after alkaline and acid pre-incubation. For the histochemical classificationof fibre types, we should consider not only reactions to ATPase, and after acid pre-incubation, but also reactions to the enzymes of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. PMID:154494

  3. Histochemical type I fibres in the soleus of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Dekleva, A; Sirca, A

    1978-01-01

    Based on oxidative enzyme activity levels, fibres exhibiting moderate and high levels may be identified in the soleus of the rat. Fibres showing moderate activity are classified as Type I fibres, while those showing high activity may belong to Type I or Type II. According to the level of ATPase activity in fixed sections, we can distinguish three types of fibres in the soleus of the rat (IA, IB and II) and, by application of acid pre-incubation, also sub-classes of Type II (IIA and IIC). Type IB fibres possess high oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities, moderate ATPase activity after fixation, and behave in the same way as Type I fibres after alkaline and acid pre-incubation. For the histochemical classificationof fibre types, we should consider not only reactions to ATPase, and after acid pre-incubation, but also reactions to the enzymes of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:154494

  4. Xuebijing attenuates hypotension through the upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein 1 in rats suffering from heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhiguo; Shao, Yu; Dong, Wenpeng; Liu, Chenxi; Chen, Yi; Jin, Hui; Tang, Liqun; Qiu, Junming; Su, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that Xuebijing (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine, attenuates hypotension in rats suffering from heatstroke (HS). However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was carried out to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of XBJ on hypotension n rats suffering from HS. For this purpose, 72 anesthetized rats were randomized into 3 groups and intravenously injected twice daily for 3 days with XBJ (4 ml/kg body weight, XBJ group) or phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) (HS and sham-operated groups). Models of HS were established in the HS and XBJ groups by placing the rats in a simulated climate chamber with a temperature of 40˚C and a humidity of 60%. Rectal temperature, arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded. Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) levels were increased during HS (shown by ELISA), and XBJ had no apparent effect on Ang Ⅱ levels. The levels of Ang Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor surface expression and AT1 receptor-associated protein 1 (Arap1) were decreased during HS; however, these effects were attenuated by pre-treatment with XBJ (shown by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis). For in vitro experiments, rat macrophages pre-treated with XBJ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pre-treatment with XBJ induced a marked inhibitory effect on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, XBJ inhibited the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) induced by LPS in the macrophages. Taken together, our data demonstrate that XBJ promotes Arap1 expression by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be the molecular mechanisms through which XBJ alleviates blood pressure reduction in rats suffering from HS. PMID:25270312

  5. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholines in ozone-exposed alveolar type II cells isolated from adult rat lung: is glycerolphosphate acyltransferase a rate-limiting enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Haagsman, H.P.; Schuurmans, E.A.; Batenburg, J.J.; van Golde, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Type II cells were exposed to ozone by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. The rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by type II cells, monitored by the incorporation of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline, was impaired by ozone at concentrations that did not affect other cellular parameters. The enzymes choline kinase and cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase were not susceptible to inactivation by ozone at concentrations at which the activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase was decreased. The enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased after ozone exposure. The specific activity of choline kinase in the cytosolic fraction of type II cells was fivefold that in whole lung. The metabolism of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline was studied as a function of the choline concentration. Maximal rates of phosphatidylcholine synthesis were already attained at a concentration of 20 microM choline. Exposure of type II cells to ozone did not affect the recovery of label from (Me-/sup 14/C)choline in choline phosphate and CDP choline. However, the maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis decreased after ozone exposure, which indicates that the decreased apparent activity of glycerolphosphate acyltransferase limits the supply of diacylglycerols and thereby the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. If the flux through the diacylglycerol pathway was stimulated by the addition of palmitic acid, a higher maximal rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis was observed. The uptake of (Me-/sup 14/C)choline and the recovery of label in CDPcholine were not altered by the addition of different concentrations of palmitate. It is concluded that type II cells take up choline very efficiently, probably due to the high specific activity of choline kinase. At low choline concentrations the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis is determined by the supply of CDPcholine.

  6. Exercise training attenuates age-dependent elevation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and Nox2 signaling in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Hord, Jeff; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lawler, John M

    2015-10-01

    Fibrosis of the aging heart impedes cardiac function and increases the risk of arrhythmias and heart disease. Previously, we demonstrated that exercise-induced reduction of collagen I in the aging heart was linked to a suppression of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). The renin-angiotensin II system (RAS) increases oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2) and thus elevates TGF-ß and collagen accumulation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training would alleviate age-related upregulation of the angiotensin II receptor I (AT1R) and NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2), concomitant with suppression of TGF-β and fibrosis. Young (3 months, n=20) and old (31 months, n=20) Fischer 344 ×B rown Norway F1 (FBNF1) hybrid rats were assigned into sedentary and exercise groups, with exercise training rats training on a treadmill 45 min/day, 5 days/week for the next 12 weeks. Exercise training mitigated age-related upregulation of AT1R, Nox2 activity, and Nox2 subunits gp91phox and p47phox. Exercise training also attenuated TGF-ß positive staining and downstream effectors of fibrosis in the aging heart: connective tissue growth factor, phosphorylation of Smad2 at Ser423, myofibroblast proliferation, and collagen I-positive staining. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exercise training protects against age-dependent cardiac fibrosis by suppressing AT1R and Nox2 as part of a RAS-Nox2-TGF-β pathway. PMID:26239262

  7. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  8. Crystal structure of rat carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Jogl, Gerwald; Esser, Victoria; Tong, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Å resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria. PMID:16781677

  9. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  11. Cigarette smoke extract induces apoptosis of rat alveolar Type II cells via the PLTP/TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Ke; Cui-Zhao, Lv; Qiang-Wen, Fu; Feng-Zeng, Xue; Ping-Wu, Feng; Liang-Guo, Shu; Juan-Chen, Ya

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may play a role in apoptosis. In the present study, the effect of the novel function of PLTP in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and the possible mechanism were examined. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n=10/exposure) for 6h/day on 3 consecutive days, then the lungs were sectioned and examined. To investigate effects on alveolar epithelial cells, rat alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) were treated with different concentrations of CSE for various times. siRNA for PLTP was transfected into cells and an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) type I receptor was administered prior to CSE exposure. Apoptosis was measured, and mRNA expression of PLTP and TGF-β1 and protein levels of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were analyzed. The results showed that apoptosis, as well as expression of PLTP, TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 were all significantly increased after CSE stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of TGF-β1, p-Smad2 and cleaved caspase-3 induced by CSE could be partly abrogated by knockdown of PLTP. The expression of PLTP showed no significant change as a result of TGF-β1 receptor inhibition, while cleaved caspase-3 showed a remarkable reduction. PLTP may act as an upstream signal molecule of the TGF-β1/Smad2 pathway and is likely to be involved in CSE-induced apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:26258626

  12. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Won Seok; Moon, In Seok

    2016-07-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  13. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  14. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  15. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  16. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 activation is required for cutaneous sensory hyperinnervation and hypersensitivity in a rat hind paw model of inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Many pain syndromes are associated with abnormal proliferation of peripheral sensory fibers. We showed previously that angiotensin II, acting through its type 2 receptor (AT2), stimulates axon outgrowth by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. In this study, we assessed whether AT2 mediates nociceptor hyperinnervation in the rodent hind paw model of inflammatory pain. Plantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), but not saline, produced marked thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity through 7 days. This was accompanied by proliferation of dermal and epidermal PGP9.5- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) axons, and dermal axons immunoreactive for GFRα2 but not tyrosine hydroxylase or neurofilament H. Continuous infusion of the AT2 antagonist PD123319 beginning with CFA injection completely prevented hyperinnervation as well as hypersensitivity over a 7 day period. A single PD123319 injection 7 days after CFA also reversed thermal hypersensitivity and partially reversed mechanical hypersensitivity 3 hours later, without affecting cutaneous innervation. Angiotensin II synthesizing proteins renin and angiotensinogen were largely absent after saline but abundant in T-cells and macrophages in CFA-injected paws with or without PD123319. Thus, emigrant cells at the site of inflammation apparently establish a renin-angiotensin system, and AT2 activation elicits nociceptor sprouting and heightened thermal and mechanical sensitivity. Perspective Short-term AT2 activation is a potent contributor to thermal hypersensitivity, while long-term effects (such as hyperinnervation) also contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity. Pharmacological blockade of AT2 signaling represents a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at biological mechanisms underlying chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:23726047

  17. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from /sup 35/S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol.

  18. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  19. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  20. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  1. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  2. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  3. Gliomatosis cerebri type II: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Pietro Ivo; Marsigliante, Santo; Storelli, Carlo; Distante, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cimmino, Antonia; Luzi, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Ciappetta, Pasqualino

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two types of gliomatosis cerebri exist: Type I and Type II. We report the results of a histological and genetic study of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri Type II, correlating these results with therapy and prognosis. Case presentation Two patients, a 52-year-old man (Patient 1) and a 76-year-old man (Patient 2) with gliomatosis cerebri II were admitted to our institution; they underwent surgical treatment and received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 24-month follow-up, Patient 1 was still alive, while Patient 2 had died. The poor prognosis of Patient 2 was underlined by molecular analysis which showed that the angiogenesis related genes VCAM1 and VEGF were overexpressed, reflecting the high degree of neovascularization. Conclusion Genes involved in drug resistance and metallothioneins were highly expressed in Patient 2 and this, associated with unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, can explain the lack of response to chemotherapy. PMID:19830138

  4. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  5. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  6. Biology of alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the many metabolic properties of alveolar type II cells, their production of surfactant, their role in innate immunity, and their importance in the repair process after lung injury. The review is based on the medical literature and results from our laboratory. Type II cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant and for that purpose they need to synthesize the lipids of surfactant. One of the regulators of lipogenesis is the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). This is a key transcription factor regulating fatty acid synthesis. Type II cells also proliferate to restore the epithelium after lung injury, clear alveolar fluid by transporting sodium from the apical to the basolateral surface, and participate in the innate immune response to inhaled materials and organisms. The type II cell is, in many ways, the defender of the alveolus. However, the type II cells work in concert with the other cells in the gas exchange regions of the lung to keep the alveoli open and reduce inflammation due to irritants in the air we breathe. PMID:16423262

  7. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  8. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  9. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  10. Maternal Treatment with Agonistic Autoantibodies against Type-1 Angiotensin II Receptor in Late Pregnancy Increases Apoptosis of Myocardial Cells and Myocardial Susceptibility to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Offspring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofang; Zheng, Yanqian; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhi, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that offspring born to mothers preeclampsia (PE) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases after birth, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Angiotensin II receptor type 1 autoantibody (AT1-AA), an agonist acting via activation of the AT1 receptor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of both PE and fetal growth restriction. The aim of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that prenatal AT1-AA exposure increases the heart susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in the offspring in an AT1-AA-induced animal model of PE, and determine whether or not the increase of maternal AT1-AA level is a factor contributing to sustained abnormalities of the heart structure during infancy. The hearts of 45-day-old offspring rats were studied using Langendorff preparation to determine the susceptibility of the heart to IRI. The results showed that the body weight of the maternal rats was not significantly different between the study and control groups, but the body weight of their offspring in AT1-AA group was decreased slightly at day 21 of gestational age, and at day 3 after birth. Although the heart weight index was not significantly affected at all ages examined, AT1-AA significantly increased the size of myocardial cells of the left ventricle (LV) at the age of 45 days. AT1-AA gained access to fetal circulation via the placenta and induced apoptosis of fetal myocardial cells. AT1-AA also significantly delayed recovery from IRI and affected the LV function of 45-day-old offspring. This was associated with a significant increase in IRI-induced LV myocardial infarct size. These results suggest that AT1-AA induced abnormal apoptosis of fetal myocardial cells during the fetal period and increased the cardiac susceptibility to IRI in adult offspring. PMID:24278308

  11. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears. PMID:26517164

  12. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges. PMID:8685014

  13. 12-Lipoxygenase Inhibition on Microalbuminuria in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes Is Associated with Changes of Glomerular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Zhao; Cheng, Yan-Li; Wang, Wan-Ning; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Chong-Sen; Xu, Zhong-Gao

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles were isolated and used in this study. Kidney histological changes were confirmed by periodic-acid Schiff staining; mRNA expression was detected by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; and the protein level was determined by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively; (3) Results: The inhibition of 12-LO attenuated microalbuminuria (MAU) increases in type-2 diabetic rats, but not in type-1 diabetic rats. Infusion of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but decreased the expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP) in rat glomeruli, compared to the control. An in vitro study revealed that both 12(S)-HETE and insulin upregulated AT1R expression in rat mesangial cells. In the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB202190, the 12(S)-HETE-induced ATRAP reduction was significantly abolished. Interestingly, 12-LO inhibition did not influence AT1R expression in type-1 diabetic rats, but significantly abolished the increased AT1R and Ang II expression in glomeruli of type-2 diabetic rats. Furthermore, the inhibition of 12-LO significantly corrected impaired insulin sensitivity and fast serum insulin level, as well as the p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reduction in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats; (4) Conclusion: The inhibition of 12-LO potentially ameliorated MAU by preventing IR through the downregulation of glomerular AT1R expression in T2DN. PMID:27164093

  14. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  15. Microclimate in two types of rat cages.

    PubMed

    Hirsjärvi, P A; Väliaho, T U

    1987-04-01

    The microclimate in two types of rat cages (a Makrolon type IV with a solid floor and a stainless steel cage with a wire mesh floor (five rats per cage)) placed in the same macro-environment was compared. The temperature, relative humidity and ammonia concentration in the cages were measured twice a day for 8 days. The cages were cleaned every 4 days. The greatest difference between the cage types was in the ammonia build-up. In Makrolon cages the ammonia concentration never reached 5 ppm, whereas in steel cages it showed a constant increase and already exceeded the threshold limit for man (25 ppm for 8 h per day) on the third day after cleaning. PMID:3599880

  16. Therapeutic failure in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Witters, L A; Herbert, P N; Shulman, R S; Krauss, R M; Levy, R I

    1976-09-01

    The extended use of diet and cholestyramine therapy in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia was examined in patients who previously participated in a short-term, double-blind trial. A striking secondary failure in therapeutic response during 4 yr of use of this therapy was noted with plasma cholesterol rising an average of 15%. A 3 mo, out-patient, follow-up study designed to reinforce patient motivation and dietary and drug adherence resulted in a prompt but partial reversal of this therapeutic deterioration in 16 patients. Additional inpatient studies confirmed that patient noncompliance with the dietary regimen was the major factor responsible for the secondary failure. Cholestyramine together with a low cholesterol diet can be an effective agent in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia, given a comprehensive program of out-patient follow-up with continued emphasis on dietary principles and drug adherence. PMID:183084

  17. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  18. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  19. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES II, V, AND VI. II.

    PubMed Central

    Rebers, Paul A.; Hurwitz, Esther; Heidelberger, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Rebers, Paul A. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J.), Esther Hurwitz, and Michael Heidelberger. Immunochemistry of pneumococcal types II, V, and VI. II. Inhibition tests in the type VI precipitating system. J. Bacteriol. 82:920–926. 1961.—As in other immune systems involving polysaccharides, rabbit antibodies but not those engendered in the horse were found sensitive to degradation of type VI pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide (SVI), and were readily inhibited by fragments of SVI. Large amounts, 30 to 111 μmoles, of most sugars gave up to 15% inhibition, while sugar and polyol phosphates inhibited as much as 25%, with little relation to their presence or absence in SVI. The phosphate-free repeating unit of SVI was a good inhibitor, its phosphate monoester was better, and the “trimer” still better. The “trimer” precipitated most of the antibodies from horse anti-Pn VI. Although inhibition of precipitation of SVI anti-Pn horse sera could not be demonstrated with fragments of SVI, cross-reactions of antibodies in the horse sera could be inhibited. Precipitation of SII was inhibited by low concentrations of l-rhamnose, while even high concentrations of the other sugar components of SII and SVI were ineffective. Precipitation by guar gum was inhibited by galactose and α- and β-methyl-galactopyranosides, also by rhamnose, although guar gum does not contain this sugar, while SVI, the antigenic determinant, does. PMID:14490831

  20. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  1. Over-expression and characterization of active recombinant rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II using baculovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T M; Mann, W R; Dragland, C J; Anderson, R C; Nemecek, G M; Bell, P A

    1995-01-01

    The cDNA encoding rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) was heterologously expressed using a recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system. Unlike Escherichia coli, the baculovirus-infected insect cells expressed mostly soluble active recombinant CPT-II (rCPT-II). CPT activity from crude lysates of recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells was maximal between 50 and 72 h post-infection, with a peak specific activity of 100-200 times that found in the mock- or wild-type-infected control lysates. Milligram quantities (up to 1.8 mg/l of culture) of active rCPT-II were chromatographically purified from large-scale cultures of insect cells infected with the recombinant baculovirus. The rCPT-II was found to be: (1) similar in size to the native rat liver enzyme (approximately 70 kDa) as judged by SDS/PAGE; (2) immunoreactive with a polyclonal serum raised against rat liver CPT-II; and (3) not glycosylated. Kinetic analysis of soluble rCPT-II revealed Km values for carnitine and palmitoyl-CoA of 950 +/- 27 microM and 34 +/- 5.6 microM respectively. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7626037

  2. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  3. Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  4. A novel mutation in type II methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Michelle P; Joseph, Sumy; Holden, Kenton R

    2010-01-01

    Type II methemoglobinemia is a somatic deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase with severe global neurologic impairment. We report a novel mutation in exon 3 of the CYB5R3 gene on chromosome 22 consisting of homozygous 1-base pair (bp) deletion noted as c.215delG; p.Gly72AlafsX100. The patient had improvement of gross motor skills, chewing, and swallowing that may be due to the initiation of daily ascorbic acid therapy. We hypothesize that a possible response to ascorbic acid may be related to the effect of making additional ferrous iron available for its role as a cofactor in carnitine synthesis. PMID:19471045

  5. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  6. Genetics Home Reference: microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions MOPDII microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II ( MOPDII ) is a condition characterized by ...

  7. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  8. Effects of Type II diabetes on capillary hemodynamics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Danielle J; McDonough, Paul; Behnke, Brad J; Kano, Yutaka; Hageman, K Sue; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2006-11-01

    Microcirculatory red blood cell (RBC) hemodynamics are impaired within skeletal muscle of Type I diabetic rats (Kindig CA, Sexton WL, Fedde MR, and Poole DC. Respir Physiol 111: 163-175, 1998). Whether muscle microcirculatory dysfunction occurs in Type II diabetes, the more prevalent form of the disease, is unknown. We hypothesized that Type II diabetes would reduce the proportion of capillaries supporting continuous RBC flow and RBC hemodynamics within the spinotrapezius muscle of the Goto-Kakizaki Type II diabetic rat (GK). With the use of intravital microscopy, muscle capillary diameter (d(c)), capillary lineal density, capillary tube hematocrit (Hct(cap)), RBC flux (F(RBC)), and velocity (V(RBC)) were measured in healthy male Wistar (control: n = 5, blood glucose, 105 +/- 5 mg/dl) and male GK (n = 7, blood glucose, 263 +/- 34 mg/dl) rats under resting conditions. Mean arterial pressure did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Sarcomere length was set to a physiological length ( approximately 2.7 mum) to ensure that muscle stretching did not alter capillary hemodynamics; d(c) was not different between control and GK rats (P > 0.05), but the percentage of RBC-perfused capillaries (control: 93 +/- 3; GK: 66 +/- 5 %), Hct(cap), V(RBC), F(RBC), and O(2) delivery per unit of muscle were all decreased in GK rats (P < 0.05). This study indicates that Type II diabetes reduces both convective O(2) delivery and diffusive O(2) transport properties within muscle microcirculation. If these microcirculatory deficits are present during exercise, it may provide a basis for the reduced O(2) exchange characteristic of Type II diabetic patients. PMID:16844923

  9. Angiotensin II induced release of prostaglandins from rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Campos, G A; Guerra, F A; Israel, E J

    1983-08-01

    The effect of Angiotensin II (A-II) on 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin F (PGF) production by the rat uterus was studied using a novel superfusion technique. The method of superfusion used allows prostaglandin synthesis in the myometrium and endometrium to be measured independently while their anatomical relationship is undisturbed. Prostaglandins were measured by radioimmunoassay. In uterine horns from castrated, estrogen treated rats, A-II (10(-6)M) stimulated the production rate of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the myometrium nd PGF in the endometrium. Sterile horns and pregnant horns coexisting in the same animals showed different responses when superfused with culture medium containing A-II (10(-6)M). In the sterile horns A-II failed to stimulate prostaglandin synthesis whereas in the pregnant horns there was a significant increase in the production rate of both 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGF in the decidua (endometrium) and of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the myometrium. Our results suggests that the effect of A-II on prostaglandin synthesis by the rat uterus appears to be dependent of the hormonal milieu of the experimental animal. Estrogen stimulated A-II induced PG synthesis. Progesterone inhibited the synthesis of PGs caused by A-II in non-decidualized uterus but stimulated the release of PG in the decidualized uterus. The apparent differential effect of A-II in stimulating prostaglandin synthesis in the whole uterus indicates that there are different pathways for prostaglandin production in both the endometrium and myometrium. PMID:6689628

  10. Icariside II, a novel phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, attenuates streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Caixia; Deng, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jianmei; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Yuangui; Gong, Qihai

    2016-07-22

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neuroinflammation are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurodegeneration with cognitive deficits. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors have recently been studied as a potential target for cognitive enhancement by reducing inflammatory responses and Aβ levels. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariside II (ICS II), a novel PDE5 inhibitor derived from the traditional Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum, on cognitive deficits, Aβ levels and neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rats. The results demonstrated that ICV-STZ exhibited cognitive deficits and neuronal morphological damage, along with Aβ increase and neuroinflammation in the rat hippocampus. ICS II improved cognitive deficits, attenuated neuronal death, and decreased the levels of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 and PDE5 in the hippocampus of STZ rats. Furthermore, administration of ICS II at the dose of 10mg/kg for 21days significantly suppressed the expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), beta-secretase1 (BACE1) and increased the expressions of neprilysin (NEP) together with inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. In addition, ICS II exerted a beneficial effect on inhibition of IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation induced by STZ. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ICS II was a potential therapeutic agent for AD treatment. PMID:27109920

  11. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.

  12. Type II supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuy, Mario Andres

    I report photometry and spectroscopy for 16 Type II supernovae (SNe) observed during the Calan/Tololo, SOIRS, and CTIO SN programs, a valuable resource for astrophysical studies. I perform a detailed assessment of the performance of the "expanding photosphere method" (EPM) in the determination of extragalactic distances. EPM proves very sensitive to the many steps involved in the analysis which can make it an art instead of an objective measurement tool. To minimize biases I implement objective procedures to compute synthetic magnitudes, measure true photospheric velocities, interpolate velocities, estimate dust extinction and realistic errors. While EPM performs well during the initial phases of SN evolution, I find distance residuals as large as 50% as the photosphere approaches the H recombination temperature. Despite the effort to lend credence to EPM, it proves necessary to exercise great care to avoid biasing the results. The main sources of uncertainties are observational errors (8%), dilution factors (11%), velocity interpolations (12%), and dust extinction (14%). The EPM Hubble diagram suggests the true error in an individual EPM distance is 20%. I find values of 63 +/- 8 and 67 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant, depending on the redshift sample chosen for the analysis. This result is independent of the extragalactic distance scale which yields 65 +/- 5 from Cepheid/SNe la distances. From four objects the comparison of EPM and Tully-Fisher yields D(EPM)/D(TF) = 0.82 +/- 0.12. I derive bolometric corrections for plateau SNe (SNe II-P) that permit me to obtain reliable bolometric luminosities from BVI photometry. Despite the great diversity displayed by SNe II-P, the duration of the plateau is approximately the same and the luminosities and expansion velocities measured in the middle of the plateau prove highly correlated. From the luminosity of the exponential tail I obtain 56Co masses ranging between 0.02 and 0.28 M⊙ , and some evidence that SNe

  13. Demonstration of efficient full aperture Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.J.; Henesian, M.A.; Marchi, F.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1987-11-19

    Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion has been implemented at the 74 cm aperture of the Nova laser system. We discuss the performance capabilities and alignment issues of this scheme for Nova relative to conventional Type II/Type II conversion. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Identification of the angiotensin II receptor in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, J; Murray, G D; Semple, P F

    1984-01-01

    Specific binding sites of high affinity and low capacity for 125I-angiotensin II have been identified in a membrane fraction derived from arterial arcades of the rat mesentery. Heterogeneity of binding sites and extensive tracer degradation necessitated the use of nonlinear regression methods for the analysis of radioligand binding data. Forward and reverse rate constants for the high affinity sites obtained by three experimental approaches were in good agreement and gave a dissociation equilibrium constant (Kd) of 19-74 pM (95% confidence interval). Affinities for a number of angiotensin-related peptides calculated from competitive binding curves were in the order 125I-angiotensin II = angiotensin II greater than angiotensin III greater than [Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II greater than [Sar1,Gly8]angiotensin II. Angiotensin I and biochemically unrelated peptides had virtually no effect on binding of tracer angiotensin II. The divalent cations Mn2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ stimulated 125I-angiotensin II binding at concentrations of 2-10 mM, as did Na+ at 50-100 mM. In the presence of Na+ or Li+, K+ had a biphasic effect. The chelating agents EDTA and EGTA were inhibitory, as were the thiol reagents dithiothreitol and cysteine. This study defined angiotensin II binding sites in a vascular target tissue of sufficiently high affinity to interact rapidly with plasma angiotensin II at physiological concentrations. PMID:6095806

  15. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of two novel type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tracey, W R; Nakane, M; Basha, F; Carter, G

    1995-05-01

    Selective type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have several potential therapeutic applications, including treatment of sepsis, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The ability of two novel, selective inhibitors of type II NOS, S-ethylisothiourea (EIT) and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), to inhibit type II NOS function in vivo was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Type II NOS activity was assessed by measuring changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations ([NOx]). Both EIT and AMT elicited a dose-dependent and > 95% inhibition of the LPS-induced increase in plasma [NOx]. The ED50 values for EIT and AMT were 0.4 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the administration of LPS and either NOS inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in animal mortality; neither compound was lethal when administered alone. Pretreatment with L-arginine (but not D-arginine) prevented the mortality, while not affecting the type II NOS-dependent NO production, suggesting the toxicity may be due to inhibition of one of the other NOS isoforms (endothelial or neuronal). Thus, although EIT and AMT are potent inhibitors of type II NOS function in vivo, type II NOS inhibitors of even greater selectivity may need to be developed for therapeutic applications. PMID:7585335

  16. Norepinephrine uptake by rat jejunum: Modulation by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Suvannapura, A.; Levens, N.R. )

    1988-02-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is believed to stimulate sodium and water absorption from the small intestine by enhancing sympathetic nerve transmission. This study is designed to determine whether ANG II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission within the small intestine by inhibition norepinephrine (NE) uptake. Intracellular NE accumulation by rat jejunum was concentration dependent and resolved into high- and low-affinity components. The high-affinity component (uptake 1) exhibited a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 1.72 {mu}M and a maximum velocity (V{sub max}) of 1.19 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. The low-affinity component (uptake 2) exhibited a K{sub m} of 111.1 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 37.1 nmol {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} 10 min{sup {minus}1}. Cocaine, an inhibitor of neuronal uptake, inhibited the intracellular accumulation of label by 80%. Treatment of animals with 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals, also attenuated NE uptake by 60%. Thus accumulation within sympathetic nerves constitutes the major form of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake into rat jejunum. ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. At a dose of 1 mM, ANG II inhibited intracellular ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation by 60%. Cocaine failed to potentiate the inhibition of ({sup 3}H)NE uptake produced by ANG II. Thus ANG II appears to prevent ({sup 3}H)NE accumulation within rat jejunum by inhibiting neuronal uptake.

  17. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  18. Recent concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis: type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells. PMID:24868556

  19. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  20. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  1. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  2. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  3. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  4. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia. PMID:7469190

  5. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  6. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  7. [Osteochondrodysplasia determined genetically by a collagen type II gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Czarny-Ratajczak, M; Rogala, P; Wolnik-Brzozowska, D; Latos-Bieleńska, A

    2001-01-01

    Chondrodysplasias are a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias, affecting the growing cartilage. The main part of chondrodysplasias is caused by mutations in various types of collagen genes. The current classification within this group of disorder relies on clinical, histological and radiographic features. Type II collagenopathies comprise part of chondrodysplasias, consisting of hereditary disorders caused by defects in the type II collagen. Collagen type II is coded by a large gene--COL2A1. The chromosomal location for the human COL2A1 gene is 12q13.11-q13.12. Defects in collagen type II are caused by point mutations in the COL2A1 gene. Type II collagenopathies form a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from lethal achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, through severe forms like spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia congenita, Marshall syndrome, to the mild forms--Stickler syndrome and early osteoarthritis. The pathological changes in the patients are observed in the growth plate, nucleus pulposus and vitreous body, where the abnormal collagen type II is distributed. This article presents the genetic background of collagenopathies type II and the results of current molecular studies of the patients. Both the molecular and the clinical studies may promise a better understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype. We present the patients, who were diagnosed at the Department of Medical Genetics and in the Orthopaedic Department in Poznań. PMID:11481990

  8. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out. PMID:27218611

  9. Biomarkers of Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions. PMID:24868555

  10. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Elcoro, L.; Tasci, E.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  11. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B

    1994-02-01

    With the application of molecular techniques the aetiopathogenesis of skeletal dysplasias is gradually elucidated. Recent advances show that some bone dysplasias result from defects in the biosynthesis of type II (cartilage) collagen. Clinical entities caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene coding for type II collagen comprise achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler arthroophthalmopathy and mild dominant spondyloarthropathy. The mutations are expressed in the heterozygous state, and inheritance of type II collagenopathies is autosomal dominant. The wide range of clinical manifestations is not well understood but characterization of the basic defect may provide clues to establish specific genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:8157027

  12. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes, including MPS II, are called lysosomal storage disorders. ...

  13. [Polyamines antagonizing angiotensin II contractile effects in isolated rat aorta].

    PubMed

    Costuleanu, Natalia; Foia, Liliana; Slătineanu, Simona Mihaela; Indrei, L L; Costuleanu, M; Petrescu, Gh

    2003-01-01

    Our study showed that the administration in pre-treatment of some polyamines (especially spermine and spermidine and almost null agmatine, putrescine and cadaverine) reduced the contractile effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) in isolated rat aorta. These effects might not be associated to the interference of clathrin coated vesicles (coated pits) formation or caveolae interaction (and thus to Ang II internalization through AT1 receptors). In contrast, these effects seem to be due to the interaction with voltage-gated membrane Ca2+ channels. Therefore, the alteration of transmembrane Ca2+ fluxes does not exclude the involvement of internalization process through coated pits or caveolae, since the endocytosis mediated by these phenomena essentially needs Ca2+. In addition, the inhibitory effects are dependent on the number of positive charges of the polyamine molecules. PMID:14755941

  14. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction. PMID:23409423

  15. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF II) receptor from rat brain is of lower apparent molecular weight than the IGF II receptor from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Poronnik, P.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    The binding subunits of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF I) receptors from rat brain are of lower molecular weight than the corresponding receptor in rat liver, possibly due to variations in sialic acid content. We have compared the IGF II receptor from rat brain and rat liver. The brain receptor is of smaller apparent mol wt (about 10 K) on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This size difference is independent of ligand binding as it persists in iodinated and specifically immunoprecipitated receptors. From studies of wheat germ agglutinin binding and the effect of neuraminidase on receptor mobility, we conclude that this difference is not simply due to variations in sialic acid content. Treatment with endoglycosidase F results in reduction in the molecular size of both liver and brain receptors and after this treatment the aglycoreceptors are of similar size. We conclude that in rat brain tissue the IGF II receptor like the binding subunits of the insulin and IGF I receptors is of lower molecular size than the corresponding receptors in rat liver. This difference is due to differences in N-linked glycosylation.

  17. Systematic distribution of muscle fibre types in the rat and rabbit diaphragm: a morphometric and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kilarski, W; Sjöström, M

    1990-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of the adult rat and rabbit costal diaphragm were investigated. On the basis of enzyme histochemistry, the rat diaphragm was found to contain 42% and 39% Type I, 24% and 25% Type II A and 33% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. The rabbit costal diaphragm contained 18% and 26% Type I, 46% and 39% Type II A and 35% and 34% Type II B fibres on the thoracic and abdominal surfaces respectively. Differences in the proportion of each muscle fibre type were also observed between diaphragmatic regions (ventral, medial and dorsal) in the rat as well as in the rabbit. Differences in muscle architecture were also noted on the basis of stereological analysis in estimation of volume density, surface density, numerical density and cross-sectional areas of each muscle fibre type. The fine structural analysis of all three fibre types also showed significant differences in the width of the A-bands and Z-lines between the muscle fibre types of the rat and rabbit costal diaphragm. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2139020

  18. Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, acoustic information is carried to the brain by the predominant (95%) large-diameter, myelinated type I afferents, each of which is postsynaptic to a single inner hair cell. The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. This response depends on both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors, binding ATP released from nearby supporting cells in response to hair cell damage. Selective activation of P2Y receptors increased type II afferent excitability by the closure of KCNQ-type potassium channels, a potential mechanism for the painful hypersensitivity (that we term “noxacusis” to distinguish from hyperacusis without pain) that can accompany hearing loss. Exposure to the KCNQ channel activator retigabine suppressed the type II fiber’s response to hair cell damage. Type II afferents may be the cochlea’s nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. PMID:26553995

  19. A Low-Protein Diet Enhances Angiotensin II Production in the Lung of Pregnant Rats but Not Nonpregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Tanchico, Daren Tubianosa; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary angiotensin II production is enhanced in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Here we assessed if LP diet induces elevations in angiotensin II production in nonpregnant rats and whether Ace expression and ACE activity in lungs are increased. Nonpregnant rats were fed a normal (CT) or LP diet for 8, 12, or 17 days and timed pregnant rats fed for 17 days from Day 3 of pregnancy. Plasma angiotensin II, expressions of Ace and Ace2, and activities of these proteins in lungs, kidneys, and plasma were measured. These parameters were compared among nonpregnant rats or between nonpregnant and pregnant rats fed different diets. Major findings are as follows: (1) plasma angiotensin II levels were slightly higher in the LP than CT group on Days 8 and 12 in nonpregnant rats; (2) expression of Ace and Ace2 and abundance and activities of ACE and ACE2 in lungs, kidneys, and plasma of nonpregnant rats were unchanged by LP diet except for minor changes; (3) the abundance and activities of ACE in lungs of pregnant rats fed LP diet were greater than nonpregnant rats, while those of ACE2 were decreased. These results indicate that LP diet-induced increase in pulmonary angiotensin II production depends on pregnancy. PMID:27195150

  20. Cinnamomin: a multifunctional type II ribosome-inactivating protein.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2003-07-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a group of toxic proteins that can irreversibly inactivate ribosomes by specifically removing the conserved adenine base from the "Sarcin/Ricin domain" of the 28S RNA in ribosome. Cinnamomin is a novel type II RIP isolated in our laboratory from the mature seeds of camphor tree. Besides site-specific deadenylation of the A4324 in the Sarcin/Ricin domain of rat ribosome, this protein could also release the adenine base from DNA molecules at multiple sites and from AMP, ADP, dAMP and adenosine. Furthermore, cinnamomin displays cytotoxicity to carcinoma cells and insect larvae by modifying their ribosomal RNA. These functions possessed by cinnamomin shed a new light on the possible application of cinnamomin in the field of immunotoxin design and transgenic reagents. In this review, we introduce the major recent results on cinnamomin obtained in our laboratory, including purification of this protein, characterization of its enzymatic mechanism, structure and function, gene pattern, physiological role and its biological implications in cytotoxicity. PMID:12672471

  1. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes in rat renal preglomerular vessels.

    PubMed

    De León, H; Garcia, R

    1992-01-01

    A simple technique to isolate rat renal preglomerular vessels is described. Kidneys were pressed against a 0.3 mm stainless steel grid. The whole vascular tree, including the interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries, as well as the afferent arterioles, remained on the grid surface from where they were recovered. Extensive washing yielded a highly pure preparation of renal microvessels. Radioligand binding experiments were performed to characterize 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]-ANG II binding sites in preglomerular microvessel membranes. Equilibrium saturation binding experiments revealed the presence of one group of high affinity receptors (Kd = 1.22 +/- 0.171 nM; Bmax = 209 +/- 14 fmol/mg protein). Competitive inhibition experiments with two highly specific nonpeptide ANG II antagonists, losartan (DuP 753), which is specific for the AT1 receptor subtype, and PD123319, which is specific for the AT2 subtype, demonstrated that the large majority of, if not all, ANG II receptors in rat renal preglomerular vessels correspond to the AT1 subtype. PMID:1299411

  2. Casein kinase II stimulates rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Thomas M; Haldar, Dipak

    2002-09-01

    Rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase (mtGAT) possesses 14 consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. To study the functional relevance of phosphorylation to the activity of mtGAT, we treated isolated rat liver mitochondria with CKII and found that CKII stimulated mtGAT activity approximately 2-fold. Protein phosphatase-lambda treatment reversed the stimulation of mtGAT by CKII. Labeling of both solubilized and non-solubilized mitochondria with CKII and [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in a 32P-labeled protein of 85kDa, the molecular weight of mtGAT. Our findings suggest that CKII stimulates mtGAT activity by phosphorylation of the acyltransferase. The significance of this observation with respect to hormonal control of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:12207885

  3. RAT CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION DEPLETES MHC II IN BONE MARROW DERIVED DENDRITIC CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Baca Jones, Carmen C.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Vomaske, Jennifer; McCartney, Erin; Orloff, Susan L.; Nelson, Jay A.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    While cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects and replicates in a multitude of cell types, the ability of the virus to replicate in antigen presenting cells (APCs) is believed to play a critical role in the viral dissemination and latency. CMV infection of APCs and manipulation of their function is an important area of investigation. CMV down regulation of MHC II is reportedly mediated by the HCMV proteins US2, US3, UL83, UL111a (vIL10) or through the induction of cellular IL10. In this study, we demonstrate that rat CMV (RCMV) significantly reduces MHC II expression by mechanisms that do not involve orthologues of the known HCMV genes nor by an increase in cellular IL10. Rat bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) were highly susceptible to infection with RCMV and a recombinant RCMV expressing eGFP. RCMV infection of BMDCs depleted both surface and intracellular MHC II to nearly undetectable levels as well as reduced surface expression of MHC I. The effect on MHC II only occurred in the infected GFP positive cells and is mediated by an immediate early or early viral gene product. Furthermore, treatment of uninfected immature DCs with virus-free conditioned supernatants from infected cells failed to down regulate MHC II. RCMV depletion of MHC II was sensitve to treatment with lysosomal inhibitors but not proteasomal inhibitors suggesting that the mechanism of RCMV mediated down-regulation of MHC II occurs through endocytic degradation. Since RCMV does not encode homologues of US2, US3, UL83 or UL111a, these data indicate a novel mechanism for RCMV depletion of MHC II. PMID:19349057

  4. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  5. Angiotensin type 2 receptor in pancreatic islets of adult rats: a novel insulinotropic mediator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunhong; Zucker, Irving H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the relative abundance of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein in various tissues of adult rats. We found that pancreatic islets expressed the highest AT2R protein compared with all other tissues. Accordingly, we then determined the functional significance of AT2R in the endocrine pancreas in in vivo and in vitro experiments by using angiotensin II (ANG II) alone, losartan (Los; AT1R antagonist), compound 21 (C21; AT2R agonist), and PD-123319 (PD; AT2R antagonist). Experiments carried out in rats indicated that, 1) ANG II treatment significantly increased plasma insulin concentration (1.51 ± 0.20 vs. 0.82 ± 0.14 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.05) in the fed state. This insulinotropic effect was further augmented by combined treatment with ANG II + Los (2.31 ± 0.25 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01). C21 also elevated insulin levels (2.13 ± 0.20 ng/ml, n = 7, P < 0.01), which was completely abolished by PD. 2) ANG II impaired glucose tolerance, whereas ANG II + Los or C21 improved this function. 3) All treated rats displayed an enhanced insulin secretory response to a glucose challenge. 4) All treated rats displayed upregulated proinsulin 2 mRNA and insulin protein expression in the pancreas. In in vitro experiments using INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets, we found that AT2R activation significantly improved insulin biosynthesis and secretion. These results suggest that the AT2R functions as an insulinotropic mediator. AT2R and its downstream signaling pathways may be potential therapeutic targets for diabetes. PMID:24085035

  6. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  7. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  8. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  9. SN 2014G is a Type II-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eenmae, Tonis; Martin, John C.; Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    We report a revised spectroscopic classification of Type II-L for SN 2014G. The initial classification of SN 2014G was Type IIn (CBET 3787). That early spectrum showed a blue continuum with no clear absorption and several very narrow emission lines, which in retrospect may be from an H II region near the SN. More recent spectra taken several weeks after peak brightness with the Tartu Observatory 1.5 m Telescope and with the ASP-32 spectrograph on 18 Feb 2014 UT and the Multiple Mirror Telescope Hectospec MOS on 25 Feb 2014 UT reveal a spectrum of a regular Type II supernova.

  10. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. PMID:3057886

  11. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  12. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage. PMID:7829510

  13. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  14. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  15. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  16. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  17. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  18. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  19. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis. PMID:8798967

  20. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  1. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695

  2. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  3. Isolation and Culture of Human Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Witherden, I R; Tetley, T D

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar type II pneumocytes (alveolar type II cells; TII cells) play an important role in the homeostasis of the alveolar unit. They are the progenitor cells to the type I pneumocyte and are therefore responsible for regeneration of alveolar epithelium following alveolar epithelial cell damage. The type I cell covers over 90% of the alveolar surface, reflecting its capacity to stretch into a flattened cell with very little depth (approx. 0.1 µm), but with a large surface area, to facilitate gas exchange. Nevertheless, the type II cell outnumbers type I cells, estimated to be by 2:1 in rodents. Most of the type II cell lies buried in the interstitium of the alveolus, with only the apical tip of the cell reaching into the airspace, through which another crucial function, provision of alveolar surfactant, occurs. Surfactant synthesis and secretion is a unique feature of type II cells; surfactant consists of a high proportion of phospholipids (approx. 90%) and a small proportion of protein (approx. 10%), which contains surfactant apoprotein (SP), of which four have so far been described, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D (1,2). Surfactant is highly surface active and is essential to prevent alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant has many other roles, including pulmonary host defense. Compromised surfactant synthesis and function are believed to be a feature of numerous disease states (1,2), including infant respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar proteinosis, and microbial infection. PMID:21336897

  4. Period-Luminosity Relation for Type II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Feast, Michael W.; Menzies, John W.

    2009-09-01

    We have estimated JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity for LMC type II Cepheids found in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity relations (PLRs) are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. The BL Her stars (P<4 d) and the W Vir stars (P = 4 to 20 d) are co-linear in these PLRs. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus of 18.46+/-0.10 mag, uncorrected for any metallicity effects. We have now established the PLR of type II Cepheids as a distance indicator by confirming that (almost) the same PLR satisfies the distributions in the PL diagram of type II Cepheids in (at least) two different systems, i.e. the LMC and Galactic globular clusters, and by calibrating the zero point of the PLR. RV Tau stars in the LMC, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PLRs in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. We note differences in period distribution and infrared colors for RV Tau stars in the LMC, globular clusters and Galactic field. We also compare the PLR of type II Cepheids with that of classical Cepheids.

  5. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  6. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-jae; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Results Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats. PMID:26566500

  7. Angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism attenuates cardiac oxidative stress in angiotensin II-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Minas, Jacqueline N; Thorwald, Max A; Conte, Debra; Vázquez-Medina, Jose-Pablo; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2015-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone contribute to hypertension, oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage, but the contributions of aldosterone during Ang II-dependent hypertension are not well defined because of the difficulty to assess each independently. To test the hypothesis that during Ang II infusion, oxidative and nitrosative damage is mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1), five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: (i) control; (ii) Ang II infused (80 ng/min × 28 days); (iii) Ang II + AT1 receptor blocker (ARB; 10 mg losartan/kg per day × 21 days); (iv) Ang II + mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist (Epl; 100 mg eplerenone/day × 21 days); and (v) Ang II + ARB + Epl (Combo; × 21 days). Both ARB and combination treatments completely alleviated the Ang II-induced hypertension, whereas eplerenone treatment only prolonged the onset of the hypertension. Eplerenone treatment exacerbated the Ang II-mediated increase in plasma and heart aldosterone 2.3- and 1.8-fold, respectively, while ARB treatment reduced both. Chronic MR blockade was sufficient to ameliorate the AT1-mediated increase in oxidative damage. All treatments normalized protein oxidation (nitrotyrosine) levels; however, only ARB and Combo treatments completely reduced lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal) to control levels. Collectively, these data suggest that receptor signalling, and not the elevated arterial blood pressure, is the principal culprit in the oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular damage in Ang II-dependent hypertension. PMID:26234762

  8. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl{sub 4} was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [{sup 3}H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin.

  9. Propionibacterium acnes Types I and II Represent Phylogenetically Distinct Groups

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Valanne, Susanna; Ramage, Gordon; Tunney, Michael M.; Glenn, Josephine V.; McLorinan, Gregory C.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Lodes, Michael; Persing, David H.; Patrick, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Although two phenotypes of the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes (types I and II) have been described, epidemiological investigations of their roles in different infections have not been widely reported. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) QUBPa1 and QUBPa2, specific for types I and II, respectively, we investigated the prevalences of the two types among 132 P. acnes isolates. Analysis of isolates from failed prosthetic hip implants (n = 40) revealed approximately equal numbers of type I and II organisms. Isolates from failed prosthetic hip-associated bone (n = 6) and tissue (n = 38) samples, as well as isolates from acne (n = 22), dental infections (n = 8), and skin removed during surgical incision (n = 18) were predominately of type I. A total of 11 (8%) isolates showed atypical MAb labeling and could not be conclusively identified. Phylogenetic analysis of P. acnes by nucleotide sequencing revealed the 16S rRNA gene to be highly conserved between types I and II. In contrast, sequence analysis of recA and a putative hemolysin gene (tly) revealed significantly greater type-specific polymorphisms that corresponded to phylogenetically distinct cluster groups. All 11 isolates with atypical MAb labeling were identified as type I by sequencing. Within the recA and tly phylogenetic trees, nine of these isolates formed a cluster distinct from other type I organisms, suggesting a further phylogenetic subdivision within type I. Our study therefore demonstrates that the phenotypic differences between P. acnes types I and II reflect deeper differences in their phylogeny. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing provides an accurate method for identifying the type status of P. acnes isolates. PMID:15634990

  10. Activin A increases arterial pressure in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in rats by angiotension II.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingyan; Fan, Yuqi; Lu, Yaqiong; Qi, Yan; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Zhonghui

    2016-06-15

    Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, plays an important role in the central nervous system as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the central nervous system is characterized as an important integrative site to regulate arterial pressure (AP). However, whether activin A in the PVN is involved in the regulation of AP is not well characterized. This study aimed to determine the effect of activin A on AP in the PVN in rats. The results showed that activin βA, activin type IIA and IIB receptors (ActRIIA and ActRIIB), and Smad2 and Smad3 mRNA expressions were detectable in the PVN of WKY rats by reverse-transcription PCR, and the expression of ActRIIA protein in the PVN was further confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. A microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) (0.1 nmol/100 nl) or activin A (2 ng/100 nl) into the PVN increased AP significantly in WKY rats (P<0.05). Moreover, activin A (5 ng/ml) promoted AngII release from the primary cultured PVN neurons that can increase AP and upregulated the expressions of ActRIIA and Smad3 mRNA in the primary cultured PVN neurons (P<0.05). These data suggest that activin A can regulate AP in the PVN in an autocrine or a paracrine manner, which is related to AngII release and the ActRIIA-Smad3 signal pathway. PMID:27138952

  11. Subchronic toxicity study of Caramel Colour II in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, K M; Carter, J L; Petsel, S R; Chappel, C I; Emerson, J L; Stanley, J

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour II is a distinct type of colourant with a pronounced reddish hue. It is made with sulphite reactants but without ammonia. The red colour and a high alcohol solubility provide functional characteristics that are important in foods or beverages containing natural flavour extractives. Caramel Colour II is widely used in ice creams and liqueurs; however, it represents less than 1% of total caramel colour manufacture. The toxicity of Caramel Colour II was evaluated in a 13-wk study in Fischer-344 (F344) rats. The test material was mixed with demineralized water and the solutions were given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid. The concentrations of caramel colour in the drinking fluid were adjusted periodically to achieve the desired caramel colour intake/kg body weight/day. Groups of 20 rats/sex were given Caramel Colour II at levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16 g/kg for at least 13 wk. There were no deaths in any of the groups fed Caramel Colour II. All rats fed caramel colour had soft faeces. All treated groups also had lower fluid consumption that was attributed to poor palatability of the high concentrations of caramel colour that were fed. A number of changes observed (reduced food consumption in all treatment groups except males given 4 g/kg; significantly lower body weights for males given 12 g/kg or more and for females given 8 g/kg or more; lower urine volume and higher specific gravity) were attributed to the reduced water intake and not considered to be toxicologically significant. There were no consistent treatment-related alterations in haematology or blood chemistry variables, and random changes noted were not associated with macroscopic or microscopic pathological alterations. There were no toxicologically important pathological findings. Based on this study, Caramel Colour II was not toxic in F344 rats treated for 13 wk. The highest dose level tested in this study (16 g/kg) was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level. PMID

  12. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Hogan, Brigid L M; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging type I cells. In vivo, type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here we show that Hopx becomes restricted to type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labelled Hopx(+) cells both proliferate and generate type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx(+) type I cells generate organoids composed of type I and type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signalling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of type I cells and a bidirectional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single-cell culture. PMID:25865356

  13. Plasticity of Hopx+ Type I alveolar cells to regenerate Type II cells in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E.; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J.; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar Type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging Type I cells. In vivo, Type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here, we show that Hopx becomes restricted to Type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labeled Hopx+ cells both proliferate and generate Type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx+ Type I cells generate organoids composed of Type I and Type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signaling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of Type I cells and a bi-directional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single cell culture. PMID:25865356

  14. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  15. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  16. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  17. The Novel Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Azilsartan Medoxomil Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by Chronic Angiotensin II Treatment in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lastra, Guido; Santos, Fernando R.; Hooshmand, Payam; Hooshmand, Paria; Mugerfeld, Irina; Aroor, Annayya R.; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Sowers, James R.; Henriksen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor (type 1) blockers (ARBs) can reduce both hypertension and insulin resistance induced by local and systemic activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The effectiveness of azilsartan medoxomil (AZIL-M), a novel imidazole-based ARB, to facilitate metabolic improvements in conditions of angiotensin II (Ang II)-associated insulin resistance is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic AZIL-M treatment on glucose transport activity and key insulin signaling elements in red skeletal muscle of Ang II-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 8 weeks with or without Ang II (200 ng/kg/min) combined with either vehicle or AZIL-M (1 mg/kg/day). Ang II induced significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood pressure, which were completely prevented by AZIL-M. Furthermore, Ang II reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport activity in incubated soleus muscle, and AZIL-M co-treatment increased this parameter. Moreover, AZIL-M treatment of Ang II-infused animals increased the absolute phosphorylation of insulin signaling molecules, including Akt [both Ser473 (81%) and Thr308 (23%)] and AS160 Thr642 (42%), in red gastrocnemius muscle frozen in situ. Absolute AMPKα (Thr172) phosphorylation increased (98%) by AZIL-M treatment, and relative Thr389 phosphorylation of p70 S6K1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, decreased (51%) with AZIL-M treatment. These results indicate that ARB AZIL-M improves the in vitro insulin action on glucose transport in red soleus muscle and the functionality of the Akt/AS160 axis in red gastrocnemius muscle in situ in Ang II-induced insulin-resistant rats, with the latter modification possibly associated with enhanced AMPKα and suppressed p70 S6K1 activation. PMID:23922555

  18. Microarray analysis of thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-04-01

    It is well known that diabetes imparts high sensitivity to numerous hepatotoxicants. Previously, we have shown that a normally non-lethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats due to inhibited tissue repair allowing progression of liver injury. On the other hand, DB rats exposed to 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed tissue repair and delayed recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of impaired tissue repair and progression of liver injury in TA-treated DB rats by using cDNA microarray. Gene expression pattern was examined at 0, 6, and 12 h after TA challenge, and selected mechanistic leads from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and further investigated at protein level over the time course of 0 to 36 h after TA treatment. Diabetic condition itself increased gene expression of proteases and decreased gene expression of protease inhibitors. Administration of 300 mg TA/kg to DB rats further elevated gene expression of proteases and suppressed gene expression of protease inhibitors, explaining progression of liver injury in DB rats after TA treatment. Inhibited expression of genes involved in cell division cycle (cyclin D1, IGFBP-1, ras, E2F) was observed after exposure of DB rats to 300 mg TA/kg, explaining inhibited tissue repair in these rats. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibit delayed expression of genes involved in cell division cycle, explaining delayed tissue repair in these rats. In conclusion, impaired cyclin D1 signaling along with increased proteases and decreased protease inhibitors may explain impaired tissue repair that leads to progression of liver injury initiated by TA in DB rats.

  19. The interaction of disrupted type II neuregulin 1 and chronic adolescent stress on adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S B; Taylor, A R; Koenig, J I

    2013-09-26

    The incidence of anxiety, mood, substance abuse disorders and schizophrenia increases during adolescence. Epidemiological evidence confirms that exposure to stress during sensitive periods of development can create vulnerabilities that put genetically predisposed individuals at increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a frequently identified schizophrenia susceptibility gene that has also been associated with the psychotic features of bipolar disorder. Previously, we established that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neurocircuitry. We also found, using a line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)), that genetic disruption of Type II NRG1 results in altered HPA axis function and environmental reactivity. The present studies used the Nrg1(Tn) rats to test whether Type II NRG1 gene disruption and chronic stress exposure during adolescence interact to alter adult anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Male and female Nrg1(Tn) and wild-type rats were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during mid-adolescence and then tested for anxiety-like behavior, cued fear conditioning and basal corticosterone secretion in adulthood. The disruption of Type II NRG1 alone significantly impacts rat anxiety-related behavior by reversing normal sex-related differences and impairs the ability to acquire cued fear conditioning. Sex-specific interactions between genotype and adolescent stress also were identified such that CVS-treated wild-type females exhibited a slight reduction in anxiety-like behavior and basal corticosterone, while CVS-treated Nrg1(Tn) females exhibited a significant increase in cued fear extinction. These studies confirm the importance of Type II NRG1 in anxiety and fear behaviors and point to adolescence as a time when stressful experiences can shape adult behavior and HPA axis function. PMID:23022220

  20. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, F A; Quirion, R; Saavedra, J M; Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1984-01-01

    The 125I-labeled agonist analog [1-sarcosine]-angiotensin II ( [Sar1]AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (Ka = 2 X 10(9) M-1) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Images PMID:6324205

  1. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The /sup 125/I-labeled agonist analog (1-sarcosine)-angiotensin II ((Sar/sup 1/)AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures.

  2. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Anpalakan; Garibaldi, Luigi; Murphy, Robyn; Ibrahim, Jennifer

    2006-06-01

    The phenotype of mucolipidosis type II (ML II), a disorder of lysosomal enzyme transport, includes mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome)-like features and dysostosis multiplex, usually apparent after 6 months of age. We describe here the natural history of neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a recently described presentation of ML II. A female neonate presented with multiple fractures and radiological features of osteopenia and 'rickets-like' changes. Longitudinal evaluation, while the patient was treated with vitamin D 800-3,000 IU/day orally, indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism which resolved, biochemically and radiologically, by age 4 months. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism in ML II is severe, transient, and probably secondary to impaired placental calcium transport, simulating a condition observed in the offspring of chronically hypocalcemic mothers. PMID:16886594

  3. The Use of Divalent Metal Ions by Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  4. The use of divalent metal ions by type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-07-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  5. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    PubMed

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  6. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU. PMID:26260249

  7. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  8. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  9. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  10. Therapeutic effects of estradiol benzoate on development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in the Lewis rat are mediated via suppression of the humoral response against denatured collagen type II (CII)

    PubMed Central

    WAKSMAN, Y.; HOD, I.; FRIEDMAN, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the development of anti-CII antibodies and their pathogenic potential were studied during the progress of established CIA in the rat. CIA was induced in mature female Lewis rats by two subcutaneous inoculations containing bovine native CII (BCIIn), emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Clinical arthritis fully developed by day 18 and then EB (1 mg/kg body wt per day, diluted in corn oil (CO)) was administered intramuscularly every second day thereafter. Antibodies binding four different CIIs (bovine or rat, either native or heat-denatured) were detected in sera and joint tissue extracts by means of solid-phase ELISA. Pharmacological doses of EB (>0·2 mg/kg body wt per day) caused significant remission of established CIA 5-7 days after treatment, and selectively suppressed the production of antibodies specific for denatured CII. To evaluate the arthritogenic potential of circulating anti-CIId IgG, transfer experiments were performed. IgG anti-CIIn, purified from EB-treated CIA rats, was not arthritogenic, whereas IgG anti-denatured (CIId), purified from CO-treated CIA rats, caused severe passive arthritis. Furthermore, pretreatment with rat CIId protected against subsequent induction of CIA, and this protection was associated with suppressed antibody production against CIId. Collectively, our results indicate that antibodies specific for CIId are involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, and that oestrogen-related remission of clinical arthritis may be caused by a selective suppression of antibodies produced against degraded/denatured CII. PMID:8608634

  11. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  12. Angiotensin II prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and vascular changes in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Mullen, M.; Rosenberg, H.C.; Maruyama, K.; O'Brodovich, H.; Olley, P.M. )

    1988-03-01

    Angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, has been previously demonstrated to produce a secondary vasodilatation due to release of prostaglandins. Because of this effect, the authors investigated whether infusion of exogenous angiotensin II via miniosmopumps in rats during a 1-wk exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia might prevent pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes. They instrumented the rats with indwelling cardiovascular catheters and compared the hemodynamic and structural response in animals given angiotensin II, indomethacin in addition to angiotensin II (to block prostaglandin production), or saline with or without indomethacin. They then determine whether angiotensin II infusion also prevents acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. They observed that exogenous angiotensin II infusion abolished the rise in pulmonary artery pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy, and the vascular changes induced during chronic hypoxia in control saline-infused rats with or without indomethacin. The protective effects of angiotensin II was lost when indomethacin was given to block prostaglandin synthesis. During acute hypoxia, both antiotensin II and prostacyclin infusion similarly prevented the rise in pulmonary artery pressure observed in saline-infused rats and in rats given indomethacin or saralasin in addition to angiotensin II. Thus exogenous angiotensin II infusion prevents chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, associated right ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular changes and blocks acute hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, and this is likely related to its ability to release vasodilator prostaglandins.

  13. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s‑1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  14. Kinetic Simulations of Solar Type II Radio Burst Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Burkart, Thomas; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2010-03-25

    Using our kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation code, we have examined the behavior of different plasma modes in the environment close to a CME shock front, with special focus on the modes that may contribute to the formation of type II radio bursts. Apart from electron velocity spectra, numerical dispersion plots obtained from simulation data allow for analysis of wave modes in the simulated plasma, especially showing growth and damping of these modes over time. These plots reveal features at 2omega{sub p} which are not predicted by linear wave theory, that may be results of nonlinear three wave interaction processes as theoretically predicted for type II emission processes.

  15. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2016-08-01

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence.

  16. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-12

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence. PMID:27563994

  17. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  18. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible. PMID:11069003

  19. Fundus changes in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type II: vitreous fluorophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Raines, M F; Duvall-Young, J; Short, C D

    1989-01-01

    We have described a complex abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) type II. Patients with MCGN type II were examined by vitreous fluorophotometry which reveals that there is a breakdown of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) in those patients with the typical fundus lesions. The function of this barrier was calculated as a penetration ratio and was statistically greater in these patients when compared with a group of (a) normal persons, (b) patients with drusen, and (c) patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:2605145

  20. Ricci inheritance collineations in Bianchi type II spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tahir; Akhtar, Sumaira Saleem; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Suhail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a complete classification of Bianchi type II spacetime according to Ricci inheritance collineations (RICs). The RICs are classified considering cases when the Ricci tensor is both degenerate as well as non-degenerate. In case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor, it is found that Bianchi type II spacetime admits 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-dimensional Lie algebra of RICs. In the case when the Ricci tensor is degenerate, majority cases give rise to infinitely many RICs, while remaining cases admit finite RICs given by 4, 5 or 6.

  1. Qiliqiangxin inhibits angiotensin II-induced transdifferentiation of rat cardiac fibroblasts through suppressing interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingmin; Jiang, Kun; Ding, Xuefeng; Fu, Mingqiang; Wang, Shijun; Zhu, Lingti; He, Tao; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Aijun; Hu, Kai; Chen, Li; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin (QL), a traditional Chinese medicine, had long been used to treat chronic heart failure. Recent studies revealed that differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) into myofibroblasts played an important role in cardiac remodelling and development of heart failure, however, little was known about the underlying mechanism and whether QL treatment being involved. This study aimed to investigate the effects of QL on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced CFs transdifferentiation. Study was performed on in vitro cultured CFs from Sprague–Dawley rats. CFs differentiation was induced by AngII, which was attenuated by QL through reducing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Our data showed that AngII-induced IL-6 mRNA as well as typeI and typeIII collagens were reduced by QL. IL-6 deficiency could suppress TGF-β1 and α-SMA, and both IL-6 siRNA and QL-mediated such effect was reversed by foresed expression of recombined IL-6. Increase in actin stress fibres reflected the process of CFs differentiation, we found stress fibres were enhanced after AngII stimulation, which was attenuated by pre-treating CFs with QL or IL-6 siRNA, and re-enhanced after rIL-6 treatment. Importantly, we showed that calcineurin-dependent NFAT3 nuclear translocation was essential to AngII-mediated IL-6 transcription, QL mimicked the effect of FK506, the calcineurin inhibitor, on suppression of IL-6 expression and stress fibres formation. Collectively, our data demonstrated the negative regulation of CFs differentiation by QL through an IL-6 transcriptional mechanism that depends on inhibition of calcineurin/NFAT3 signalling. PMID:25752645

  2. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Qing; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-02-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring aromatic feature. And the best HypoRefine model Hypo1_II for type II kinase inhibitors, which was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.976032) and the lowest RMSD (0.74204), consists of two hydrogen-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and two general hydrophobic features, as well as two excluded volumes. These pharmacophore models have been validated by using either or both test set and cross validation methods, which shows that both the Hypo1_I and Hypo1_II have a good predictive ability. The space arrangements of the pharmacophore features in Hypo1_II are consistent with the locations of the three portions making up a typical type II kinase inhibitor, namely, the portion occupying the ATP binding region (ATP-binding-region portion, AP), that occupying the hydrophobic region (hydrophobic-region portion, HP), and that linking AP and HP (bridge portion, BP). Our study also reveals that the ATP-binding-region portion of the type II kinase inhibitors plays an important role to the bioactivity of the type II kinase inhibitors. Structural modifications on this portion should be helpful to further improve the inhibitory potency of type II kinase inhibitors. PMID:19138543

  3. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  4. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase expression: transcriptional regulation of the type I and type II genes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Gu, J J; Spychala, J; Mitchell, B S

    1996-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide synthetic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP. Enzyme activity is accounted for by the expression of two distinct but closely related genes termed IMPDH I and II. Increased IMPDH activity has been linked to both cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation and generally ascribed to an increase in the expression of the type II gene. We have characterized the type I and type II genes and identified elements important in the transcriptional regulation of both genes. The type II IMPDH gene contains a 466 bp 5' flanking region spanning the translation start site that contains several transcription factor binding sites and mediates increased transcription of a CAT reporter gene in peripheral blood T lymphocytes when these cells are induced to proliferate. The single functional IMPDH type I gene contains exon-intron boundaries and exon structures that are nearly identical to those in the type II gene. In contrast to the type II gene, however, it contains two putative promoter sites, each with the potential for transcriptional regulation. We conclude that these two genes most probably arose from an early gene duplication event and that their highly conserved structures and differential regulation at the transcriptional level argue strongly for a significant role for each gene in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation. PMID:8869741

  5. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  6. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  7. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  8. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-07-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of /sup 125/I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of /sup 125/I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of /sup 125/I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence (/sup 3/H) norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors.

  9. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  10. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  11. Soft vortex matter in a type-I/type-II superconducting bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendová, L.; Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multibody interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes, or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft-matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current, and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses, and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other, configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.

  12. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  13. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  14. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  15. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain.

  16. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths <=50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are ~150-460 km s-1, horizontally localized within ~2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are ~20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached ~100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) × 1022 ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ~100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be ~0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of ~106 ergs cm-2 s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  17. Erythropoietin ameliorates hyperglycemia in type 1-like diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ho-Shan; Chang, Chin-Hong; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lee, Kung-Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO) is widely used in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. The role of EPO in glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EPO on hyperglycemia in rats with type 1-like diabetes. Methods Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1-like diabetes (STZ rats) were used to estimate the blood glucose-lowering effects of EPO, and changes in the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and the hepatic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were identified by Western blot analysis. Results EPO attenuated the hyperglycemia in the STZ rats in a dose-dependent manner without altering the hematopoietic parameters, including the hematocrit and number of red blood cells. The involvement of the EPO receptor (EPOR) was identified using EPOR-specific antibodies. In addition, injection of EPO enhanced the glucose utilization, which was assessed using an intravenous glucose tolerance test in rats. However, blood insulin was not changed by EPO in this assay, showing the insulinotropic action of EPO. Moreover, EPO treatment increased the insulin sensitivity. Western blots indicated that the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase was enhanced by EPO to support the signaling caused by EPOR activation. Furthermore, the decrease in the GLUT4 level in skeletal muscle was reversed by EPO, and the increase in the PEPCK expression in liver was reduced by EPO, as shown in STZ rats. Conclusion Taken together, the results show that EPO injection may reduce hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through activation of EPO receptors. Therefore, EPO is useful for managing diabetic disorders, particularly hyperglycemia-associated changes. In addition, EPO receptor will be a good target for the development of antihyperglycemic agent(s) in the future. PMID:27350742

  18. Homocysteine Metabolism in ZDF (Type 2) Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wijekoon, Enoka P.; Hall, Beatrice; Ratnam, Shobhitha; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Brosnan, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. We determined the effects of insulin resistance and of type 2 diabetes on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism using Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF/Gmi fa/fa and ZDF/Gmi fa/?). Plasma total Hcy was reduced in ZDF fa/fa rats by 24% in the pre-diabetic insulin-resistant stage, while in the frank diabetic stage there was a 59% reduction. Hepatic activities of several enzymes that play a role in the removal of Hcy: cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase, and betaine:Hcy methyltransferase (BHMT) were increased as was methionine adenosyltransferase. CBS and BHMT mRNA levels and the hepatic level of S-adenosylmethionine were also increased in the ZDF fa/fa rats. Studies with primary hepatocytes showed that Hcy export and the transsulfuration flux in cells from ZDF fa/fa rats were particularly sensitive to betaine. Interestingly, liver betaine concentration was found to be significantly lower in the ZDf fa/fa rats at both 5 and 11 weeks. These results emphasize the importance of betaine metabolism in determining plasma Hcy levels in type 2 diabetes. PMID:16249451

  19. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520857

  20. The Luminosities of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2010-02-01

    Recent work on the luminosities of type II Cepheids (CephIIs) and RR Lyrae variables is reviewed. In the near infrared (JHK_{s}) the CephIIs in globular clusters show a narrow, linear, period-luminosity relation over their whole period range (˜ 1 to 100 days). The CephIIs in the general field of the LMC follow this relation for periods shorter than ˜ 20 days. At longer period (the region of the RV Tau stars), the LMC field stars have a significant scatter and in the mean are more luminous than the PL relation. The OGLEIII optical data for the LMC field variables show similar trends. Infrared colours of stars in the RV Tau period range show marked mean differences between three groupings; the Galactic field, the LMC field, and globular clusters. In the case of the Galactic field, at least, this may be strongly influenced by selection effects. In the period range ˜ 4 to 20 days (the W Vir range) there are stars lying above the PL relation which may be recognized by their light curves and are all likely to be binaries. The bright Galactic variable, κ Pav probably belongs to this group. There is evidence that CephIIs in the general field (LMC and Galaxy) have a wider range of masses than those in globular clusters. At present the CephII PL zero-point depends on the pulsation parallaxes of two stars. Zero-points of RR Lyrae M_{V}-[Fe/H] and K_{s}-log P relations can be obtained from trigonometrical, statistical and pulsation parallaxes. These zero-points are compared with those for CephIIs and with the classical Cepheid scale using variables of these three types in the LMC. Within the uncertainties (˜ 0.1m) the various scales are in agreement.

  1. Preventive effect of taurine on experimental type II diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been verified that taurine has some preventive effects on diabetes and its complications when used alone or together with other drugs, but there are few reports about taurine on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy, the mechanisms of which are still unknown. Methods Taurine was administered to type Ⅱ diabetic rats induced by high fat high sugar diet combined with STZ injection. The preventive effect of taurine on diabetic nephropathy was investigated by detecting blood glucose, lipid metabolism, kidney function and glomerular basement membrane metabolism. Results Taurine could lower blood glucose, TG, TC, BUN, Scr, NAG, U-PRO, the expression of laminin B1( LBN1) mRNA, and increase HDL-C of diabetic rats. Conclusions The results indicated that taurine could prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose, improving lipid metabolism, glomerular basement membrane metabolism, and kidney function. PMID:20804623

  2. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  3. Cognitive, Medical, and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yund, Brianna; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Kovac, Victor; Nestrasil, Igor; Raiman, Julian; Mamak, Eva; Harmatz, Paul; Steiner, Robert; Lau, Heather; Vekaria, Pooja; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Delaney, Kathleen; Whitley, Chester; Shapiro, Elsa G.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also called Hunter syndrome, has not been previously studied in systematic manner. In contrast to the “severe” phenotype, the “attenuated” phenotype does not present with behavioral or cognitive impairment; however the presence of mild behavior and cognitive impairment that might impact long term functional outcomes is unknown. Previously, significant MRI abnormalities have been found in MPS II. Recent evidence suggests white matter abnormalities in many MPS disorders. Methods As the initial cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal study, we studied the association of brain volumes and somatic disease burden with neuropsychological outcomes, including measures of intelligence, memory and attention in 20 patients with attenuated MPS II with a mean age of 15.8. MRI volumes were compared to 55 normal controls. Results While IQ and memory were average, measures of attention were one standard deviation below the average range. Corpus callosum volumes were significantly different from age-matched controls, differing by 22%. Normal age-related volume increases in white matter were not seen in MPS II patients as they were in controls. Somatic disease burden and white matter and corpus callosum volumes were significantly associated with attention deficits. Neither age at evaluation nor age at starting treatment predicted attention outcomes. Conclusions Despite average intelligence, attention is compromised in attenuated MPS II. Results confirm an important role of corpus callosum and cortical white matter abnormality in MPS II as well as the somatic disease burden in contributing to attention difficulties. Awareness by the patient and caregivers with appropriate management and symptomatic support will benefit the attenuated MPS II patient. PMID:25541100

  4. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianyi; Chang, Qingxuan; Wang, Di; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8weeks high fat diet (HFD) feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds. PMID:27028201

  5. Effects of endotoxin and dexamethasone on group I and II phospholipase A2 in rat ileum and stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Lilja, I; Dimberg, J; Sjödahl, R; Tagesson, C; Gustafson-Svärd, C

    1994-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) is a key enzyme in inflammation and is thought to play an important part in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the nature and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa, the distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for group II phospholipase A2 in various parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract was studied, as well as the influence of endotoxin or dexamethasone, or both, on the group I and II phospholipase A2 mRNA expression and activity in the rat glandular stomach and distal ileum. The results show that (a) group II phospholipase A2 is present along the whole gastrointestinal tract, but in particularly large amounts in the distal ileum, (b) endotoxin increases group II, but not group I, phospholipase A2 mRNA expression in the glandular stomach and distal ileum, and (c) dexamethasone reduces the endotoxin induced increases in group II phospholipase mRNA expression and activity in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These findings suggest that phospholipase A2 of type II is a mediator of endotoxin effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa and that its expression at the mRNA level can be inhibited by corticosteroids. Images Figure 1 PMID:8307447

  6. Physiological regulation of extracellular matrix collagen and elastin in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Dab, Houcine; Kacem, Kamel; Hachani, Rafik; Dhaouadi, Nadra; Hodroj, Wassim; Sakly, Mohsen; Randon, Jacques; Bricca, Giampiero

    2012-03-01

    The interactions between the effects of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis were determined in rats. The mRNA and protein content of collagen I, collagen III and elastin in the abdominal aorta (AA) and femoral artery (FA) was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto rats treated for 5 weeks with guanethidine, a sympathoplegic, losartan, an ANG II AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, or both. The effects of noradrenaline (NE) and ANG II on collagen III and elastin mRNA, and the receptor involved, were tested in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Guanethidine increased collagen types I and III and decreased elastin, while losartan had an opposite effect, although without effect on collagen III. The combination of treatments abrogated changes induced by simple treatment with collagen I and elastin, but increased collagen III mRNA in AA and not in FA. NE stimulated collagen III mRNA via β receptors and elastin via α1 and α2 receptors. ANG II stimulated collagen III but inhibited elastin mRNA via AT1R. Overall, SNS and ANG II exert opposite and antagonistic effects on major components of ECM in the vascular wall. This may be of relevance for the choice of a therapeutic strategy in vascular diseases. PMID:21729992

  7. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  8. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  9. Gender Difference in Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin II Administration after Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats: The Role of AT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the major causes of kidney failure, and it may interact with renin angiotensin system while angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression is gender dependent. We examined the role of AT2R blockade on vascular response to Ang II after I/R in rats. Methods. Male and female rats were subjected to 30 min renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Two groups of rats received either vehicle or AT2R antagonist, PD123319. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), and renal blood flow (RBF) responses were assessed during graded Ang II (100, 300, and 1000 ng/kg/min, i.v.) infusion at controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Results. Vehicle or antagonist did not alter MAP, RPP, and RBF levels significantly; however, 30 min after reperfusion, RBF decreased insignificantly in female treated with PD123319 (P = 0.07). Ang II reduced RBF and increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) in a dose-related fashion (Pdose < 0.0001), and PD123319 intensified the reduction of RBF response in female (Pgroup < 0.005), but not in male rats. Conclusion. The impact of the AT2R on vascular responses to Ang II in renal I/R injury appears to be sexually dimorphic. PD123319 infusion promotes these hemodynamic responses in female more than in male rats. PMID:27034657

  10. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924