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  1. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  2. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422

  3. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  4. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  5. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  6. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  7. Artificial arterial blood pressure artifact models and an evaluation of a robust blood pressure and heart rate estimator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D

    2009-01-01

    Background Within the intensive care unit (ICU), arterial blood pressure (ABP) is typically recorded at different (and sometimes uneven) sampling frequencies, and from different sensors, and is often corrupted by different artifacts and noise which are often non-Gaussian, nonlinear and nonstationary. Extracting robust parameters from such signals, and providing confidences in the estimates is therefore difficult and requires an adaptive filtering approach which accounts for artifact types. Methods Using a large ICU database, and over 6000 hours of simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (ECG) and ABP waveforms sampled at 125 Hz from a 437 patient subset, we documented six general types of ABP artifact. We describe a new ABP signal quality index (SQI), based upon the combination of two previously reported signal quality measures weighted together. One index measures morphological normality, and the other degradation due to noise. After extracting a 6084-hour subset of clean data using our SQI, we evaluated a new robust tracking algorithm for estimating blood pressure and heart rate (HR) based upon a Kalman Filter (KF) with an update sequence modified by the KF innovation sequence and the value of the SQI. In order to do this, we have created six novel models of different categories of artifacts that we have identified in our ABP waveform data. These artifact models were then injected into clean ABP waveforms in a controlled manner. Clinical blood pressure (systolic, mean and diastolic) estimates were then made from the ABP waveforms for both clean and corrupted data. The mean absolute error for systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure was then calculated for different levels of artifact pollution to provide estimates of expected errors given a single value of the SQI. Results Our artifact models demonstrate that artifact types have differing effects on systolic, diastolic and mean ABP estimates. We show that, for most artifact types, diastolic ABP estimates are

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate during shuttle flight, entry and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Moore, T. P.; Uri, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and heart rates (HR) were recorded on a series of early Shuttle flights during preflight and pre-entry, entry, landing and egress. There were no significant differences between flight and preflight values during routine activity. Systolic blood pressure was slightly elevated in the deorbit period and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rates were all elevated with onset of gravitoinertial loads and remained so through egress. Two of seven subjects had orthostatic problems in egress but their data did not show significant differences from others except in heart rate. Comparison of this data to that from recent studies show even larger increase in HR/BP values during current deorbit and entry phases which is consistent with increased heat and weight loads imposed by added survival gear. Both value and limitations of ambulatory heart rate/blood pressure data in this situation are demonstrated.

  9. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary. PMID:26933659

  10. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary. PMID:26933659

  11. Effects of music on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit S.; Arora, Rohit; Shah, Parinda H.; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Molnar, Janos

    2012-01-01

    There are a handful of studies that have been done investigating the effect of music on various vital signs, namely systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR). Many studies have also assessed effects of music on self-reported anxiety level, attributing some degree of music-induced anxiety relief to the beneficial impacts of music on vital signs. Several randomised studies have shown varying effects of music on these vital parameters and so a metaanalysis was done to compare the effect of music on them. The fixed effects model was used as studies were homogenous. A two-sided alpha error < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Compared to those who did not receive music therapy, those who did receive music therapy had a significantly greater decrease in SBP before and after (difference in means, −2.629, confidence interval (CI), −3.914 to −1.344, P < 0.001), a significantly greater decrease in DBP (difference in means, −1.112, CI, −1.692 to −0.532, P < 0.001), and a significantly greater decrease in HR (difference in means, −3.422, CI, −5.032 to −1.812, P < 0.001). PMID:22664817

  12. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Turianikova, Zuzana; Javorka, Kamil; Baumert, Mathias; Calkovska, Andrea; Javorka, Michal

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular control acts over multiple time scales, which introduces a significant amount of complexity to heart rate and blood pressure time series. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has been developed to quantify the complexity of a time series over multiple time scales. In previous studies, MSE analyses identified impaired cardiovascular control and increased cardiovascular risk in various pathological conditions. Despite the increasing acceptance of the MSE technique in clinical research, information underpinning the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of orthostatic challenge on the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV) and the correlation between MSE (complexity measures) and traditional linear (time and frequency domain) measures. MSE analysis of HRV and BPV was performed in 28 healthy young subjects on 1000 consecutive heart beats in the supine and standing positions. Sample entropy values were assessed on scales of 1-10. We found that MSE of heart rate and blood pressure signals is sensitive to changes in autonomic balance caused by postural change from the supine to the standing position. The effect of orthostatic challenge on heart rate and blood pressure complexity depended on the time scale under investigation. Entropy values did not correlate with the mean values of heart rate and blood pressure and showed only weak correlations with linear HRV and BPV measures. In conclusion, the MSE analysis of heart rate and blood pressure provides a sensitive tool to detect changes in autonomic balance as induced by postural change. PMID:21799239

  13. Extended duration orbiter medical project variability of blood pressure and heart rate (STS-50/USML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Charles, John B.; Boettcher, Sheila W.

    1994-01-01

    Decreases in arterial baroreflex function after space flight may be related to changes in blood pressure and heart rate patterns during flight. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were measured for 24 hours, in fourteen astronauts on two occasions before flight, two to three occasions in flight, and 2 days after landing on Shuttle missions lasting 4 to 14 days. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every 20minutes during awake periods and every 30 minutes during sleep. In pre- and postflight studies, the 24-hour ambulatory measurements were followed by studies of carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Carotid baroreceptors were stimulated using a sequence of neck pressure and suction from +40 to -65 mmHg.

  14. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-based blood pressure estimation may not be sufficiently accurate because the regulation of blood pressure within the human body is a complex, multivariate physiological process. Considering the negative feedback mechanism in the blood pressure control, we introduce the heart rate (HR) and the blood pressure estimate in the previous step to obtain the current estimate. We validate this method using a clinical database. Our results show that the PTT, HR and previous estimate reduce the estimated error significantly when compared to the conventional PTT estimation approach (p<0.05). PMID:26213717

  15. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  16. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  17. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  18. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  19. Serum lipids and apolipoprotein B values, blood pressure and pulse rate in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Marcos, A; Varela, P

    1991-01-01

    Some risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) were evaluated in patients with different types of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anthropometric parameters, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and apoprotein (apo) B values, blood pressure and pulse rate were tested in 29 young female patients and 16 controls. Cholesterol, triglycerides and apo B were higher at the acute period of the illness (AN1), whereas at the chronic period the values of these parameters tended to normalize. Triglycerides were higher in patients who binge ate (bulimarexia). Systolic blood pressure decreased in all types of AN, while diastolic blood pressure decreased only in AN1; pulse rate was not altered. According to cholesterol and apo B values, AN patients may be at risk of CHD if they remain at low body weight. PMID:1855497

  20. Analysis of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Time Series Using a Two-Dimensional Autoregressive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Takata, Kazuyuki

    We analyzed the feedback relationship between short-term fluctuations in heart rate and blood pressure in healthy persons and heart failure patients. Parameters derived from the feedback relationship between heart rate and blood pressure have been proposed. The purpose of the present study is to apply these parameters in estimating autonomic function or measuring physiological and mental workload. Electrocardiographs and beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded in supine position at rest. The blood pressure was measured using arterial tonometry. The R—R interval and systolic blood pressure were fitted to two-dimensional autoregressive models, the relative power contribution in the frequency domain was calculated. The proposed parameters are the power contribution in the low-frequency range ( 0-0.15 Hz ) [ RS_LF, SR_LF ] and the power contribution in the high-frequency range ( 0.15-0.5 Hz ) [ RS_HF, SR_HF ]. RS_LF was significantly different between healthy persons and heart failure patients ( p<0.01 ). This parameter can be used to estimate autonomic depression caused by aging and heart failure. There were no correlations between the proposed parameters and the usual indices to evaluate autonomic function. It is considered that the proposed parameters can be used to evaluate physiological states that cannot be evaluated using existing methods.

  1. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Alterations through Music in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Merakou, Kyriakoula; Varouxi, Georgia; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Karageorgos, Georgios; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Koutsouri, Aristea; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. METHODS Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group). Patients stress coping skills were measured by the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC Scale). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were defined as outcome measures. RESULTS According to the SOC Scale, both groups had similar stress coping skills (mean score: 127.6 for the intervention group and 127.3 for the control group). Before entering the operating room (OR) as well as during surgery the rise in systolic and diastolic pressures was significantly lower in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy, those in the intervention group presented a lower increase only in systolic pressure (P < 0.001) at both time recordings. For those patients in the intervention group who did not receive antihypertensive treatment, lower systolic blood pressure at both time recordings was recorded (P < 0.001) while lower diastolic pressure was observed only during entry to the OR (P = 0.021). Heart rate was not altered between the two groups in any of the recordings. CONCLUSIONS Meditation music influenced patients’ preoperative stress with regard to systolic blood pressure. This kind of music can be used as an alternative or complementary method for blood pressure stabilizing in patients undergoing cataract surgery. PMID:26106264

  2. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  3. Effect of ethanol of heart rate and blood pressure in nonstressed and stressed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, M.G.; Roggendorf, H.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-06-29

    The effect of ethanol on the cardiovascular system (ECG, heart rate, blood pressure) was studied in anesthetized, nonstressed or stressed rats. In anesthetized rats, ethanol showed no effect on heart rate or ECG. In nonstressed rats, ethanol sedated the animals but increased heart rate significantly. This ethanol induced tachycardia seemed the result of a direct stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the heart. Blood pressure was not significantly affected by ethanol in these nonstressed rats. In stressed rats, marked behavioral excitation and significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure were noted. Ethanol pretreatment calmed the animals considerably during restraint. Ethanol did reduce slightly the stress-induced tachycardia but markedly reduced or antagonized stress-induced blood pressure increases. No major changes in the ECG were noted during these studies with the exception of a few individual animals which showed pathologic ECG responses to ethanol. These data show that ethanol affects cardiovascular functions differently in anesthetized, non stressed or stressed rats, and that ethanol can significantly reduce or antagonize stress-induced behavioral excitation, tachycardia and hypertension. 32 references, 4 tables.

  4. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  5. Effects of concentrated ambient particles on heart rate and blood pressure in pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Wang, Peng-Yau; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased concentrations of ambient particles are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have revealed that particulate air pollution exposure is associated with indicators of autonomic function including heart rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability. However, this association has not been clearly demonstrated in animal studies. To overcome the problems of wide variations in diseased animals and circadian cycles, we adopted a novel approach using a mixed-effects model to investigate whether ambient particle exposure was associated with changes in heart rate and blood pressure in pulmonary hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices and exposed to concentrated ambient particles generated by an air particle concentrator. The rats were held in nose-only exposure chambers for 6 hr per day for 3 consecutive days and then rested for 4 days in each week during the experimental period of 5 weeks. These animals were exposed to concentrated particles during weeks 2, 3, and 4 and exposed to filtered air during weeks 1 and 5. The particle concentrations for tested animals ranged between 108 and 338 micro g/m(3). Statistical analysis using mixed-effects models revealed that entry and exit of exposure chamber and particle exposure were associated with changes in heart rate and mean blood pressure. Immediately after particle exposure, the hourly averaged heart rate decreased and reached the lowest at the first and second hour of exposure for a decrease of 14.9 (p < 0.01) and 11.7 (p = 0.01) beats per minute, respectively. The hourly mean blood pressure also decreased after the particle exposure, with a maximal decrease of 3.3 (p < 0.01) and 4.1 (p < 0.01) mm Hg at the first and second hour of exposure. Our results indicate that ambient particles might influence blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:12573896

  6. Heart rate and blood pressure control in obesity - how to detect early dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Javorka, Michal; Turianikova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Lazarova, Zuzana; Czippelova, Barbora; Javorka, Kamil

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is accompanied by many severe complications including various cardiovascular disorders. An impairment of cardiovascular control by autonomic nervous system could be one of the possible links between obesity and cardiovascular complications development. The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous heart rate and systolic blood pressure oscillations reflecting cardiovascular autonomic control of young obese subjects with normal control subjects by linear and nonlinear methods and to find sensitive markers of early autonomic dysregulation. Continuous recordings of beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure and RR intervals from ECG were obtained from 40 obese subjects (25 female, age 14·2 [13·1-16·1] (median [interquartile range]) years) and gender and age matched non-obese control subjects. In addition to linear measures (time and frequency domain), we performed recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and multiscale entropy analysis for both signals. While no significant differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure dynamics were detected by linear measures and MSE, analysis of recurrence plots from RR intervals time series showed significant differences - indices trapping time and maximal length of vertical from RQA were significantly higher in obese compared to control group. We conclude that heart rate and blood pressure control by autonomic nervous system in young obese subjects is relatively well preserved. However, novel RQA-related measures are able to detect early subtle abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control in obese subjects indicating decreased signal complexity. PMID:25684329

  7. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. Results The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (±4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. Conclusions The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing. PMID:26391336

  8. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope-cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  11. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. Methods 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Results Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12–24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Conclusions Caffeine exposure 12–24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing. PMID:26098883

  13. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  14. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  15. Determination of Correlation Among Heart Rate Variability, Left Atrium Global Strain, and Nighttime Blood Pressure Among Patients with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Değirmenci, Hüsnü; Bakırcı, Eftal Murat; Salcan, İsmail; Demirelli, Selami; Duman, Hakan; Ceyhun, Gökhan; Küçüksu, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine the correlation among nighttime blood pressure, heart rate variability, and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain among patients with subjective tinnitus. Material/Methods Eighty patients with tinnitus were assigned to Group 1 and 80 healthy individuals were assigned to Group 2. Clinical blood pressure measurements, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and Holter electrocardiography monitoring were performed. All of the cases included in the study were examined with conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Results Mean nighttime systolic blood pressure (130.3±5.4) and mean nighttime diastolic blood pressure (82.8±3.9) in Group 1 were higher than in Group 2 (125.1±5.4 and 80.7±4.7, respectively) (p<0.05). Mean heart rate in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rate variability parameters and left atrium peak systolic global longitudinal strain values (p>0.05). Conclusions Nighttime systolic blood pressure and nighttime diastolic blood pressure were higher among the patients with tinnitus. In light of these results, we can conclude that both clinical blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are important for patients with tinnitus. PMID:25249354

  16. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  17. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  18. High blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000468.htm High blood pressure To use the sharing features on ... body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as ...

  19. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  1. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  2. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    PubMed

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  3. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  5. New model to estimate mean blood pressure by heart rate with stroke volume changing influence.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaafreh, Moha'med O; Al-Jumaily, Adel A

    2006-01-01

    Mean blood pressure (MBP) has high correlation with heart rate (HR), but such e relationship between them is ambiguous and nonlinear. This paper investigates establishing an accurate mathematical model to estimate MBP that is considering the influence of the stroke volume changing. Twenty three cases of MIMIC database till are employed; 12 cases for training and 11 cases for verification. The mean and standard deviation for all cases are calculated and compared with real results. Our suggested mathematical model achieved an encouragement results. PMID:17946482

  6. Persistent effects after trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation by mandibular extension on rat blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Lapi, D; Colantuoni, A; Del Seppia, C; Ghione, S; Tonlorenzi, D; Brunelli, M; Scuri, R

    2013-03-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex known to lead to a decrement in heart rate and blood pressure, whereas few data have been collected about its effects on the cerebral hemodynamic. In this study we assess the in vivo effects of trigeminal nerve peripheral stimulation by mandibular extension on pial microcirculation and systemic arterial blood pressure in rats. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats subjected to mandibular extension obtained inserting an ad hoc developed retractor between the dental arches. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and the pial arterioles were visualized by fluorescence microscopy to measure the vessel diameters before (15 minutes) during (5-15 minutes) and after (80 minutes) mandibular extension. While in control rats (sham-operated rats) and in rats subjected to the dissection of the trigeminal peripheral branches mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pial microcirculation did not change during the whole observation period (110 minutes), in rats submitted to mandibular extension, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and arteriolar diameter significantly decreased during stimulation. Afterward mean arterial blood pressure remained reduced as well as heart rate, while arteriolar diameter significantly increased evidencing a vasodilatation persisting for the whole remaining observation time. Therefore, trigeminal nerve proprioceptive stimulation appears to trigger specific mechanisms regulating systemic arterial blood pressure and pial microcirculation. PMID:23807620

  7. Effect of acute exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of the conscious rat

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Simomura, Y.; Yokoyama, E.

    1985-12-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure in conscious and unrestrained rats of various ages were recorded during a 3-hr exposure to filtered air or 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/). In general, heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure of rats significantly decreased during exposure to O/sub 3/, whereas these functional parameters remained almost stable during exposure to filtered air. Heart rate usually reached a plateau during the exposure to O/sub 3/. Additionally, PR interval and QRS complex significantly increased and premature atrial contraction and incomplete A-V block were frequently observed during the exposure to O/sub 3/. These circulatory effects of O/sub 3/ were more markedly manifested by rats 11 weeks old than either those 8 or 4 weeks old. On the other hand, no significant difference in the circulatory responses was observed between male and female rats. These circulatory effects of O/sub 3/ may be significant from the viewpoint of health effects, although its mechanisms remain unsolved.

  8. Effect of selective vagal nerve stimulation on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate in rats under metoprolol medication.

    PubMed

    Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Plachta, Dennis T T

    2016-02-01

    Selective vagal nerve stimulation (sVNS) has been shown to reduce blood pressure without major side effects in rats. This technology might be the key to non-medical antihypertensive treatment in patients with therapy-resistant hypertension. β-blockers are the first-line therapy of hypertension and have in general a bradycardic effect. As VNS itself can also promote bradycardia, it was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of the β1-selective blocker Metoprolol on the effect of sVNS especially with respect to the heart rate. In 10 male Wistar rats, a polyimide multichannel-cuff electrode was placed around the vagal nerve bundle to selectively stimulate the aortic depressor nerve fibers. The stimulation parameters were adapted to the thresholds of individual animals and were in the following ranges: frequency 30-50 Hz, amplitude 0.3-1.8 mA and pulse width 0.3-1.3 ms. Blood pressure responses were detected with a microtip transducer in the carotid artery, and electrocardiography was recorded with s.c. chest electrodes. After IV administration of Metoprolol (2 mg kg(-1) body weight), the animals' mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) decreased significantly. Although the selective electrical stimulation of the baroreceptive fibers reduced MAP and HR, both effects were significantly alleviated by Metoprolol. As a side effect, the rate of stimulation-induced apnea significantly increased after Metoprolol administration. sVNS can lower the MAP under Metoprolol without causing severe bradycardia. PMID:26581776

  9. Spectral evaluation of aging effects on blood pressure and heart rate variations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Vinod, K; Saxena, S C; Deepak, K K

    2006-01-01

    The background to heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), and their determinants and physiological correlates, remain obscure. The impact of age must be taken into account if HRV and BPV are used for predictive purposes in clinical settings. Healthy subjects show wide inter-individual variation in their heart rate behaviour and the factors affecting heart rate dynamics are not well known. This paper has undertaken to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in a random sample of subjects without evidence of heart disease, and to estimate the relation of HRV and BPV behaviour to age. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of ageing on HRV and BPV for simultaneous recordings of electrocardiograph (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) signals at rest in healthy subjects. We studied eight young (21-34 years old) and eight elderly (68-85 years old) rigorously screened subjects from the Fantasia Database to make the reproducibility and comparability of the results more extensive. Time- and frequency-domain analysis of HRV and BPV was performed on 5-minute ectopic-free recordings. BRS on the heart was estimated by frequency-domain analysis of spontaneous variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR interval. It has been observed that compared to young the elderly subjects have (i) diminished HRV; (ii) a shift in the power spectral density and median frequency to low frequency side for HRV and to higher frequency side for BPV; and (iii) increased low-frequency alpha index and decreased high-frequency alpha index of BRS with overall alpha index augmented. The results convey that normal ageing in the absence of disease is associated with lesser parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Thus it is concluded that the age is an important factor to be considered for prognosis and diagnosis by HRV and BPV. For reliable clinical applications, more research needs to be done on a broad spectrum of subjects. In

  10. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  11. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  12. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  13. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Seifert, John G; Nelson, Aaron; Devonish, Julia; Burke, Edmund R; Stohs, Sidney J

    2011-01-01

    Confusion and controversy exist regarding the cardiovascular effects of dietary supplements containing caffeine and Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. The primary protoalkaloidal ingredient in bitter orange extract is p-synephrine which has some structural similarities to ephedrine and nor-epinephrine, but exhibits markedly different pharmacokinetic and receptor binding properties. The goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a product containing caffeine, bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) and green tea extract in mildly overweight individuals. Fourteen female and nine male subjects (age 24.7 ±7.4 yrs, BMI: 26.6 ±3.8) volunteered in this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind designed study. On day one, subjects entered the laboratory following an overnight fast. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at 60 min. Expired air was analyzed for the next 10 min of the session. At each of three meals, subjects ingested one capsule that was either a non-caloric placebo or a dietary supplement that contained 13 mg p-synephrine and 176 mg caffeine. On the following day, the subjects returned and repeated the protocol for data collection beginning 60 min after consuming one capsule of the placebo or the dietary supplement. No effects of the dietary supplement on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure or mean arterial pressure were observed. No between or within group differences were observed when data were analyzed for gender and caffeine usage. A small but significant decrease in resting respiratory exchange ratio was observed for the low caffeine user group in response to the product containing caffeine and p-synephrine. The results of this study indicate that ingestion of a product containing bitter orange extract, caffeine and green tea extract does not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation may increase in certain populations. PMID:21448304

  14. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability on Recently Diagnosed Diabetics

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Chávez, Anaclara; Estañol, Bruno; Gien-López, José Antonio; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Huitrado-Duarte, María Elena; Moreno-Morales, René; Becerra-Luna, Brayans

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects approximately 250 million people in the world. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that leads to severe postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, and increased incidence of silent myocardial infarction. Objective To determine the variability of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in recently diagnosed diabetic patients. Methods The study included 30 patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes of less than 2 years and 30 healthy controls. We used a Finapres® device to measure during five minutes beat-to-beat HR and blood pressure in three experimental conditions: supine position, standing position, and rhythmic breathing at 0.1 Hz. The results were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Results In the HR analysis, statistically significant differences were found in the time domain, specifically on short-term values such as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and number of pairs of successive NNs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50). In the BP analysis, there were no significant differences, but there was a sympathetic dominance in all three conditions. The baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreased in patients with early diabetes compared with healthy subjects during the standing maneuver. Conclusions There is a decrease in HR variability in patients with early type 2 diabetes. No changes were observed in the BP analysis in the supine position, but there were changes in BRS with the standing maneuver, probably due to sympathetic hyperactivity. PMID:26176187

  15. Heart rate and blood pressure time courses during prolonged dry apnoea in breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Tironi, Adelaide; Gheza, Alberto; Butti, Ferdinando; Moia, Christian; Ferretti, Guido

    2008-09-01

    To define the dynamics of cardiovascular adjustments to apnoea, beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) were recorded during prolonged breath-holding in air in 20 divers. Apnoea had a mean duration of 210 +/- 70 s. In all subjects, HR attained a value 14 beats min(-1) lower than control within the initial 30 s (phase I). HR did not change for the following 2-2.5 min (phase II). Then, nine subjects interrupted the apnoea (group A), whereas 11 subjects (group B) could prolong the breath-holding for about 100 s, during which HR continuously decreased (phase III). In both groups, mean blood pressure was 8 mmHg above control at the end of phase I; it then further increased by additional 12 mmHg at the end of the apnoea. In both groups, SaO(2) did not change in the initial 100-140 s of apnoea; then, it decreased to 95% at the end of phase II. In group B, SaO(2) further diminished to 84% at the end of phase III. A typical pattern of cardiovascular readjustments was identified during dry apnoea. This pattern was not compatible with a role for baroreflexes in phase I and phase II. Further readjustment in group B may imply a role for both baroreflexes and chemoreflexes. Hypothesis has been made that the end of phase II corresponds to physiological breakpoint. PMID:18496707

  16. Interactions between breathing rate and low-frequency fluctuations in blood pressure and cardiac intervals.

    PubMed

    Horsman, H M; Peebles, K C; Tzeng, Y C

    2015-10-01

    Evidence derived from spontaneous measures of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) suggests that slow breathing at 6 breaths/min augments BRS. However, increases in BRS associated with slow breathing may simply reflect the frequency-dependent nature of the baroreflex rather than the modulation of baroreflex function by changes in breathing rate per se. To test this hypothesis we employed a crossover study design (n = 14) wherein breathing rate and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) oscillation induced via the application of oscillating lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) were independently varied at fixed frequencies. Breathing rate was controlled at 6 or 10 breaths/min with the aid of a metronome, and SAP oscillations were driven at 0.06 Hz and 0.1 Hz using OLBNP. The magnitudes of SAP and R-R interval (cardiac period) oscillations were quantified using power spectral analysis, and the transfer function gain between SAP and R-R interval was used to estimate BRS. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the main effects and interactions between breathing rate and OLBNP frequency. There was no statistical interaction between breathing and OLBNP frequency (P = 0.59), indicating that the effect of breathing rate on BRS did not differ according to OLBNP frequency (and vice versa). Additionally, there was no main effect for breathing rate (P = 0.28). However, we observed a significant main effect for OLBNP frequency (P = 0.01) consistent with the frequency-dependent nature of baroreflex. These findings suggest that increases in spectral indices of BRS reflect the frequency dependence of the baroreflex and are not due to slow breathing per se. PMID:26205543

  17. Blood pressure, pulse rate, and rhythm measurement using ionic polymer-metal composite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Amid; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Kim, Kwang J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    1999-05-01

    The need for more enhanced blood pressure (BP), pulse rate and rhythm senors has given rise to the possibility of using ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) sensors. In this study we propose to use the IPMC sensors to measure systolic and diastolic BP, pulse rate and rhythm. The proposed IPMC sensors take advantage of the endo-ionic mobility within the polymer- metal composite by converting normal and shear load inputs into an induced voltage output across the thickness of the IPMC sensor. The fabricated IPMC sensors are suitable to be installed on the inner surface of a cuff and, therefore, both systolic and diastolic BP, pulse rate, and rhythm can be measured. An added benefit is the ability of measuring 'pulse rhythm' which give a more amplified look at heart irregularities which a typical pulse rate sensor is unable to show. Our data shows IPMC sensors can produce consistent and reliable BP readings, pulse rate, and rhythm. Typically, a linear relationship between applied maximum load and induced maximum voltage was obtained. This result can be easily translated into good BP reading.

  18. Association between Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Autonomic Activity in Cyclic Alternating Pattern during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Design: Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Ten healthy males. Measurements and Results: The increase in HR (median [first quartile – third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P < 0.001, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). The increase in BP for each subtype was as follows: A1, 1.23 (-2.04 to 5.75), A2, 1.76 (-1.46 to 9.32), and A3, 12.51 (4.75 to 19.94) mm Hg (A1 vs. A2 P = 0.249, A1 vs. A3 P < 0.001, A2 vs. A3 P < 0.001). In all of phase A, the peak values for HR and BP appeared at 4.2 (3.5 to 5.4) and 8.4 (7.0 to 10.3) seconds, respectively, after the onset of phase A. The area under the curve for low-frequency and high-frequency amplitude significantly increased after the onset of CAP phase A (P < 0.001) and was higher in the order of subtype A3, A2, and A1 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: All phase A subtypes were accompanied with increased heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1. Citation: Kondo H; Ozone M; Ohki N; Sagawa Y; Yamamichi K; Fukuju M; Yoshida T; Nishi C; Kawasaki; Mori; Kanbayashi T; Izumi M; Hishikawa Y; Nishino S; Shimizu T. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep

  19. The effects of hemolyzed blood on pulmonary and systemic arterial pressure and heart rate of the dog.

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, J D; Pendery, G B; Camp, B J; Clark, D R; Smith, B P; Davis, R H; Moody, G M

    1978-01-01

    The injection of hemolyzed blood into the venous system of the dog produced a rise in the pulmonary arterial pressure and a fall in the systemic arterial pressure. There were variable changes in the heart rate. Comparison with serotonin injections indicated that the above responses were produced by factors other than serotonin. Images Fig. 1. PMID:647460

  20. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  1. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...

  2. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

  3. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, ... failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  4. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...

  5. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  6. Natriuretic Peptides as Cardiovascular Safety Biomarkers in Rats: Comparison With Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Weight.

    PubMed

    Engle, Steven K; Watson, David E

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is an important cause of failure during drug development. Blood-based biomarkers can be used to detect CV toxicity during preclinical development and prioritize compounds at lower risk of causing such toxicities. Evidence of myocardial degeneration can be detected by measuring concentrations of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase in blood; however, detection of functional changes in the CV system, such as blood pressure, generally requires studies in animals with surgically implanted pressure transducers. This is a significant limitation because sustained changes in blood pressure are often accompanied by changes in heart rate and together can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial degeneration in animals, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in humans. Increased concentrations of NPs in blood correlate with higher risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and MACE in humans. Their utility as biomarkers of CV function and toxicity in rodents was investigated by exploring the relationships between plasma concentrations of NTproANP and NTproBNP, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart weight in Sprague Dawley rats administered compounds that caused hypotension or hypertension, including nifedipine, fluprostenol, minoxidil, L-NAME, L-thyroxine, or sunitinib for 1-2 weeks. Changes in NTproANP and/or NTproBNP concentrations were inversely correlated with changes in blood pressure. NTproANP and NTproBNP concentrations were inconsistently correlated with relative heart weights. In addition, increased heart rate was associated with increased heart weights. These studies support the use of natriuretic peptides and heart rate to detect changes in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in short-duration rat studies. PMID:26609138

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  8. Effects of Swedish Massage Therapy on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Inflammatory Markers in Hypertensive Women

    PubMed Central

    Supa'at, Izreen; Zakaria, Zaiton; Maskon, Oteh; Aminuddin, Amilia; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Swedish Massage Therapy (SMT) is known for its therapeutic relaxation effects. Hypertension is associated with stress and elevated endothelial inflammatory markers. This randomized control trial measured the effects of whole body SMT (massage group) or resting (control group) an hour weekly for four weeks on hypertensive women. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after each intervention and endothelial inflammatory markers: vascular endothelial adhesion molecules 1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1) were measured at baseline and after the last intervention. Massage group (n=8) showed significant systolic BP (SBP) reduction of 12 mmHg (P=0.01) and diastolic BP (DBP) reduction of 5 mmHg (P=0.01) after four sessions with no significant difference between groups. Reductions in HR were also seen in massage group after sessions 1, 3, and 4 with significant difference between groups. VCAM-1 showed significant reduction after four sessions: the massage group showed reduction of 998.05 ng/mL (P=0.03) and the control group of 375.70 ng/mL (P=0.01) with no significant differences between groups. There were no changes in ICAM-1. In conclusion, SMT or resting an hour weekly has effects on reducing BP, HR, and VCAM-1 in hypertensive women. PMID:24023571

  9. Autonomic control of heart rate and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats during aversive classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hatton, D C; Buchholz, R A; Fitzgerald, R D

    1981-12-01

    An examination was made of the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses of 7-9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and genetical control Wistar/Kyoto (WKY) rats during aversive classical conditioning. Subsequent to the development of conditioned responding (CRs), assessments were made of the effects of selective autonomic blockade by methyl atropine (10 mg/kg), phentolamine (2 mg/kg), and propranolol (2 mg/kg). The CR complex in the two strains consisted of pressor BP CRs in conjunction with vagally mediated decelerative HR CRs in the SHR strain and sympathetically mediated accelerative HR CRs in the WKY strain. The decelerative SHR HR CR did not appear to be secondary to baroreceptor reflex activity, although such activity did appear to be involved in the pressor BP and decelerative HR orienting response (OR) and unconditioned response (UR) complex of the SHRs on the initial application of the CS and the US, respectively. Augmented pressor BP ORs, CRs, and URs in the SHRs relative to the WKYs and differential drug effects on BP and HR baselines of the two strains suggested the presence of enhanced sympathetic activity in the SHRs that was not reflected in the SHR decelerative HR CR. Phentolamine unmasked evidence of reflex beta 2-vasodilation deficiency in the SHRs that could have contributed to the enhancement of their BP OR and CR. PMID:7320284

  10. Aneroid Blood Pressure Manometer Calibration Rates of Devices Used in Home Health.

    PubMed

    Arena, Sara K; Bacyinski, Andrew; Simon, Lee; Peterson, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with cardiovascular disease, stroke, and a range of other medical sequelae. Accurate blood pressure (BP) readings, which depend on the integrity and calibration of the measuring device, are essential to identifying suboptimal BP. This study describes calibration rates of aneroid BP devices (a) utilized in home healthcare (HHC) and (b) having the needle resting within the zero accuracy indicator. BP devices from one branch of a home care agency were inspected and checked for calibration according to the protocol set forth by the European Society of Hypertension. Of the 125 devices measured, 78.4% were in calibration. Of the 94 devices with the gauge needle resting in the zero accuracy indicator, 11.7% were not in calibration; whereas, 51.6% of the 31 devices with the gauge needle resting outside the zero accuracy indicator were found not in calibration. Twenty-one devices were not checked for calibration due to inflation bulb malfunction, tubing tears, or excessive wear. Furthermore, visual inspection of the needle placement did not confirm a device as being in or out of calibration. Proper maintenance and routine calibration of BP equipment is foundational to assuring accuracy of BP readings obtained by HHC providers. PMID:26645840

  11. Outdoor Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Chinese Adults: Effect Modification by Individual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Liang, Xin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    We collected data from Kailuan cohort study from 2006 to 2011 to examine whether short-term effects of ambient temperature on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) are non-linear or linear, and their potential modifying factors. The HR, BP and individual information, including basic characteristics, life style, socio-economic characteristics and other characteristics, were collected for each participant. Daily mean temperature and relative humidity were collected. A regression model was used to evaluate associations of temperature with HR and BP, with a non-linear function for temperature. We also stratified the analyses in different groups divided by individual characteristics. 47,591 residents were recruited. The relationships of temperature with HR and BP were “V” shaped with thresholds ranging from 22 °C to 28 °C. Both cold and hot effects were observed on HR and BP. The differences of effect estimates were observed among the strata of individual characteristics. The effect estimate of temperature was higher among older people. The cold effect estimate was higher among people with lower Body Mass Index. However, the differences of effect estimates among other groups were inconsistent. These findings suggest both cold and hot temperatures may have short-term impacts on HR and BP. The individual characteristics could modify these relationships. PMID:26876040

  12. Clonidine reduces blood pressure and heart rate oscillations in the conscious rat.

    PubMed

    Grichois, M L; Japundzic, N; Head, G A; Elghozi, J L

    1990-09-01

    We investigated the effects of clonidine on the fluctuations that underlie the spontaneous variability of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in conscious rats. Analog-to-digital conversion of the intrafemoral BP was used to determine systolic, diastolic, and mean BP and HR every 200 ms. The equidistant sampling allowed a direct spectral analysis using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. An i.v. dose of 10 micrograms/kg of clonidine markedly reduced the variability of BP and HR after 20 min as indicated by a reduction in the variances by approximately one-half of the control value for BP and to one-third of the control value for HR. At this time, clonidine had not significantly altered BP or HR. Spectral profiles of systolic BP and HR illustrated the alterations in the spontaneous oscillations underlying these variance changes. Clonidine dramatically reduced the amplitude of BP and HR oscillations in the frequency region of 195-605 mHZ, which depends on the activity of the autonomic nervous system. We suggest that an increased sensitivity of the baroreflex is responsible for the apparent better control of BP and HR with clonidine. PMID:1700217

  13. The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness

    PubMed Central

    NIELSON, CAMILLA M.; LOCKHART, BARBARA D.; HAGER, RONALD L.; GEORGE, JAMES D.; EGGETT, DENNIS L.; STEFFEN, PATRICK R.; MITCHELL, ULRIKE H.; BAILEY, BRUCE W.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120–139/80–89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness. PMID:27182421

  14. Does exposure to an artificial ULF magnetic field affect blood pressure, heart rate variability and mood?

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Gen; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Oinuma, Sachiko; Ferguson, Ian; Cornélissen, Germaine; Wanliss, James; Halberg, Franz

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an artificial magnetic field with an amplitude and frequency equivalent to those of geomagnetic pulsations during geomagnetic storms could affect physiology and psychology. Three healthy volunteers wore anambulatory BP monitor and an ECG recorder around the clock for 12 consecutive weekends in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In a room shielded against ELF and VLF waves, they were exposed for 8 hours per week to either a 50 nT 0.0016 Hz or a sham magnetic field at one of six circadian stages. Real exposure randomly alternated with sham exposure. They provided saliva and recorded mood and reaction time every 4 hours while awake. Systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 30 minutes. Spectral analysis of HR variability (HRV) was performed using the maximum entropy method and a complex demodulation method. For these variables, daily means were compared between real and sham exposure, using paired t-tests. Their circadian MESOR, amplitude, and acrophase were analyzed and summarized using single cosinor and population-mean cosinor. Circadian rhythms were demonstrated for HR, SBP, DBP for sham exposure, salivary flow rate, positive affect, vigor, and subjective alertness (p < 0.001, -0.02). One participant showed higher HR, lower LF, HF, and VLF powers, and a steeper power-law slope (p < 0.005, -0.0001) in an early night exposure to the real magnetic field, but not in other circadian stages. There was no significant difference between circadian responses to real and sham exposure in any variable at any circadian stage. PMID:15754834

  15. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and DBPIA (4.4 ± 1.5 vs. 1.0 ± 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the anxiety group than in the no-anxiety group. The SBPIA/DBPIA and HRIA showed a similar profile also(9.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9 bpm, P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between the SAS score and BPIA and HRIA both in the review and exam period. The smoking group and family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase. PMID:21787237

  16. The effects of occupational noise on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in an automotive parts industry

    PubMed Central

    Kalantary, Saba; Dehghani, Ali; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Omidi, Leila; Rahimzadeh, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the most important impacts of industrial noise is physiological and psychological effects. The increases in workers’ blood pressure and heart rate were detected during and after exposure to high levels of noise. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the noise exposures have any effects on blood pressure and heart rate of workers in the automotive parts industry. METHODS This case study was done in 2011 at different units of an automotive parts manufacturing in Tehran. Sound pressure level was measured at different units of the factory with a calibrated instrument. Demographic features of workers were gathered with an appropriate questionnaire. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured twice in a day in the start time of work day (before exposure to noise) and middle shift hours (during exposure to noise) in the occupational physician office. For analyzing data, chi-square, independent sample t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used. P < 0.050 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The average age of workers in the case and control groups was 35.71 ± 8.10 and 33.40 ± 10.41 years, respectively. There was no difference between the average age of case and control groups (P = 0.436). The results of ANCOVA revealed the significant differences between the mean changes of heart rate F (1, 37) = 26.68, P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 21.70, P < 0.001, and diastolic blood pressure F (1, 37) = 26.20, P < 0.001 of workers in the case and control groups. CONCLUSION Exposure to industrial noise may increase the heart rate of workers. Although rises in heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure of workers in the case group were observed after exposure to noise, the values of heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were in the normal range. Further experimental investigations are needed to determine the relationships between these variables. PMID:26478728

  17. Variations in 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate of type 2 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Shipra; Verma, Narsingh; Anjum, Baby; Bhardwaj, Kshitij

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Diabetes has profound consequences on the cardiovascular system leading to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Blood pressure (BP) has a characteristic and reproducible circadian pattern, with high values during the day and low values at night. A 7-day timed analysis of BP through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been used not only to diagnose day and night dipping patterns of blood pressure, but also to measure day-to-day variability and the circadian hyper-amplitude-tension, a condition in which excessive circadian BP amplitude precedes the chronic established hypertension. Our objective was to assess the 7-day/24-h circadian pattern of BP and heart rate in diabetic patients, as it could be helpful in the diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular morbidity. Materials and Methods A total of 50 diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes and 50 non-diabetic participants were recruited for the study. General health records were individually maintained, and 7-day/24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor was carried out. Results The rhythmic parameters of systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, double amplitude, acrophase and 3-h fractionated hyperbaric index were found to be significantly high in diabetic patients. A total of 12 participants were diagnosed with circadian hyper-amplitude-tension. These data suggest that diabetic patients have certain variations in the circadian pattern of blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in disturbed vascular events, and thus are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion Seven-day/24-h monitoring might be useful as an early predictive tool in assessing future cardiovascular risk, guiding treatment and management of these patients. PMID:25422775

  18. Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform

    PubMed Central

    Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia

  19. Blood pressure check (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more often referred to as a blood pressure cuff. The cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated ... flow of blood in your artery. As the cuff is slowly deflated, your doctor uses a stethoscope ...

  20. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure in awake humans

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Judith M; Aziz, Tipu; Schlugman, David; Paterson, David J

    2002-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus, basal ganglia or pedunculopontine nucleus in decorticate animals results in locomotion and a cardiorespiratory response resembling that seen during exercise. This has led to the hypothesis that parallel activation of cardiorespiratory and locomotor systems from the midbrain could form part of the ‘central command’ mechanism of exercise. However, the degree to which subcortical structures play a role in cardiovascular activation in awake humans has not been established. We studied the effects on heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of electrically stimulating the thalamus and basal ganglia in awake humans undergoing neurosurgery for movement disorders (n = 13 Parkinson's disease, n = 1 myoclonic dystonia, n = 1 spasmodic torticollis). HR and MAP increased during high frequency (> 90 Hz) electrical stimulation of the thalamus (HR 5 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.002, MAP 4 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.05, n = 9), subthalamic nucleus (HR 5 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.002, MAP 5 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.006, n = 8) or substantia nigra (HR 6 ± 3 beats min−1, P = 0.001, MAP 5 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.005, n = 8). This was accompanied by the facilitation of movement, but without the movement itself. Stimulation of the internal globus pallidus did not increase cardiovascular variables but did facilitate movement. Low frequency (< 20 Hz) stimulation of any site did not affect cardiovascular variables or movement. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain in awake humans can cause a modest increase in cardiovascular variables that is not dependent on movement feedback from exercising muscles. The relationship between this type of response and that occurring during actual exercise is unclear, but it indicates that subcortical command could be involved in ‘parallel activation’ of the locomotor and cardiovascular systems and thus contribute to the neurocircuitry of ‘central command’. PMID:11882692

  1. Responses of heart rate and blood pressure to KC-135 hyper-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Hirotaka; Matsunami, Ken'ichi; Reschke, Millard F.

    1992-01-01

    Many investigators have clarified the effects of hyper gravitational-inertial forces (G) upon the cardiovascular system, using the centrifugal apparatus with short rotating radius. We investigated the cardiovascular responses to KC-135 hyper-G flight with negligibly small angular velocity. Six normal, healthy subjects 29 to 40 years old (5 males and 1 female) took part in this experiment. Hyper gravitational-inertial force was generated by the KC-135 hyper-G flight, flown in a spiral path with a very long radius of 1.5 miles. Hyper-G was sustained for 3 minutes with 1.8 +Gz in each session and was repeatedly exposed to very subject sitting on a chair 5 times. The preliminary results of blood pressure and R-R interval are discussed. An exposure of 1.8 +Gz stress resulted in a remarkable increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while the pulse pressure did not change and remained equal to the control level regardless of an exposure of hyper-G. These results in blood pressure indicate an increase of resistance in the peripheral vessels, when an exposure of hyper-G was applied. The R-R interval was calculated from ECG. R-R interval in all subjects was changed but not systematically, and R-R interval became obviously shorter during the hyper-G period than during the 1 +Gz control period although R-R interval varied widely in some cases. The coefficient of variation of R-R interval was estimated to determine the autonomic nerve activity, but no significant change was detectable.

  2. Blood pressure and heart rate effects, weight loss and maintenance during long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Ed J; Greenway, Frank L; Westman, Eric C; Gupta, Alok K

    2011-12-01

    There is a perception that phentermine pharmacotherapy for obesity increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR), exposing treated patients to increased cardiovascular risk. We collected data from phentermine-treated (PT) and phentermine-untreated (P0) patients at a private weight management practice, to examine blood pressure, HR, and weight changes. Records of 300 sequential returning patients were selected who had been treated with a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet if their records included complete weight, blood pressure, and HR data from seven office examinations during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The mean time in therapy, time range, and mode was 92 (97.0), 12-624, and 52 weeks. 14% were normotensive, 52% were prehypertensive, and 34% were hypertensive at their first visit or had a previous diagnosis of hypertension. PT subjects systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) declined from baseline at all data points (SBP/DBP -6.9/-5.0 mm Hg at 26, and -7.3/-5.4 at 52 weeks). P0 subjects' declines of SBP/DBP at both 26 and 52 weeks were -8.9/-6.3 but the difference from the treated cohort was not significant. HR changes in treated/untreated subjects at weeks 26 (-0.9/-3.5) and 52 (+1.2/-3.6) were not significant. Weight loss was significantly greater in the PT cohort for week 1 through 104 (P = 0.0144). These data suggest phentermine treatment for obesity does not result in increased SBP, DBP, or HR, and that weight loss assisted with phentermine treatment is associated with favorable shifts in categorical blood pressure and retardation of progression to hypertension in obese patients. PMID:21527891

  3. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels. PMID:26499850

  4. Gender differences in the relationship between resting heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Friedman, Bruce H; Koenig, Julian

    2016-02-01

    The study explored the relationship between time- and frequency-domain indices of cardiac autonomic control and 24 h blood pressure variability (BPV) in a sample of healthy men and women. Vagally mediated cardiac control was inversely related to 24 h BPV, and measures of cardiac autonomic control were better predictors of systolic BPV in men and better predictors of diastolic BPV in women. These findings may help researchers to understand the disparity in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality between men and women. PMID:26415550

  5. Respiratory rate estimation from the oscillometric waveform obtained from a non-invasive cuff-based blood pressure device.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, M A F; Santos, M D; Arteta, C; Domingos, J S; Maraci, M A; Clifford, G D

    2014-01-01

    The presence of respiratory activity in the electrocardiogram (ECG), the pulse oximeter's photoplethysmo-graphic and continuous arterial blood pressure signals is a well-documented phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information is also present in the oscillometric signal acquired from automatic non-invasive blood pressure monitors, and may be used to estimate the vital sign respiratory rate (RR). We propose a novel method that combines the information from the two respiratory-induced variations (frequency and amplitude) via frequency analysis to both estimate RR and eliminate estimations considered to be unreliable because of poor signal quality. The method was evaluated using data acquired from 40 subjects containing ECG, respiration and blood pressure waveforms, the latter acquired using an in-house built blood pressure device that is able to connect to a mobile phone. Results demonstrated a good RR estimation accuracy of our method when compared to the reference values extracted from the reference respiration waveforms (mean absolute error of 2.69 breaths/min), which is comparable to existing methods in the literature that extract RR from other physiological signals. The proposed method has been implemented in Java on the Android device for use in an mHealth platform. PMID:25570824

  6. Fuzzy blood pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuce, Antonino; Di Guardo, Mario; Sicurella, Gaetano

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, an intelligent system for blood pressure measurement is posed together with a possible implementation using an eight bit fuzzy processor. The system can automatically determine the ideal cuff inflation level eliminating the discomfort and misreading caused by incorrect cuff inflation. Using statistics distribution of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in the inflation phase, a fuzzy rule system determine the pressure levels at which checking the presence of heart beat in order to exceed the systolic pressure with the minimum gap. The heart beats, characterized through pressure variations, are recognized by a fuzzy classifier.

  7. A preliminary report relating frequency of vaginal intercourse to heart rate variability, Valsalva ratio, blood pressure, and cohabitation status.

    PubMed

    Brody, S; Veit, R; Rau, H

    2000-04-01

    The relationship between recalled frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI) and resting heart rate variability (HRV; an index of parasympathetic tone), resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) response to the Valsalva maneuver was examined in 51 healthy adults aged 20-47 (subjects scoring above the 86th percentile on the Lie scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) were excluded). As hypothesized, greater HRV and lower DBP were both associated with greater FSI (but not masturbation or non-coital sex with a partner) in cohabiting subjects, but not in non-cohabiting subjects. Valsalva ratio was unrelated to sexual behavior. Results are discussed in terms of both the modulating role of blood pressure on a number of psychological functions and the role of parasympathetic tone in HRV, FSI, and possibly pair-bonding. PMID:10725567

  8. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  9. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. PMID:26780148

  10. Why continued surveillance? Intermittent blood pressure and heart rate abnormality under treatment

    PubMed Central

    Katinas, G. S.; Cornélissen, G.; Otsuka, K.; Haus, E.; Bakken, E. E.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Several opinion leaders have monitored their blood pressure systematically a sufficient number of times a day for chronomic (time structural) analyses, from the time of encountering chronobiology until their death; they set an example for others who also may not wish to base treatment on single spotchecks in a health care office. Such self-measurements, while extremely helpful, were not readily feasible without a noteworthy interruption of activities during waking as well as of sleep. New, relatively unobtrusive instrumentation now makes monitoring possible and cost-effective and will save lives. Illustrative results and problems encountered in an as-one-goes self-survey by GSK, a physician-scientist, are presented herein. Both MESOR-hypertension and CHAT (circadian hyper-amplitude-tension) can be intermittent conditions even under treatment, and treatment is best adjusted based on monitoring, rather than “flying blind”. PMID:16275483

  11. BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE AND MELATONIN CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE SEASON, EARTH MAGNETISM AND SOLAR FLARES.

    PubMed

    Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F; Sothern, R B; Hillman, D C; Siegelová, J

    2010-01-01

    Three spectral components with periods of about (~) 0.41, ~0.5 and ~1.0 year had been found with serially independent sampling in human circulating melatonin. The time series consisted of around-the-clock samples collected for 24 hours at 4-hour intervals from different patients over several years. Some of these components had been found to be circadian stage-dependent, the daytime measurements following mostly a circannual variation, whereas a half-year characterized the nighttime samples. The latter were incorporated into a circasemiannual map. The relative brevity of the series prevented a check for the coexistence of all three spectral components, even if each component seemed to have a raison d'être. In time series of transdisciplinary data, a 1.00-year synchronized component is interpreted as representing the seasons. The half-year may qualify the circannual waveform, but it is also a signature of geomagnetics. An ~0.41-year (~5-month) component is the signature of solar flares. It has been called a cis-half-year (cis = on this side of a half-year) and may be detected only intermittently. Charles L. Wolff predicted the existence, among others, of ~0.42- and ~0.56-year components as beat periods of rotations at different solar latitudes.The multiple components characterizing circulating melatonin could also be found in a (to our knowledge unique) data set of a clinically healthy scientist (RBS). Herein, we focus on vascular data self-measured by RBS as he aged from ~20 to ~60 years. A multi-component model consisting of cosine curves with periods of 0.41, 0.50 and 1.00 year was fitted to weekly means of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) collected ~5 times a day over 39 years by RBS. All three components can coexist for a while, although all of them are nonstationary in their characteristics and come and go by the criterion of statistical significance.Intermittently, BP and HR are synchronized selectively with one or the

  12. BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE AND MELATONIN CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION WITH THE SEASON, EARTH MAGNETISM AND SOLAR FLARES

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Sothern, R.B.; Hillman, D.C.; Siegelová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three spectral components with periods of about (~) 0.41, ~0.5 and ~1.0 year had been found with serially independent sampling in human circulating melatonin. The time series consisted of around-the-clock samples collected for 24 hours at 4-hour intervals from different patients over several years. Some of these components had been found to be circadian stage-dependent, the daytime measurements following mostly a circannual variation, whereas a half-year characterized the nighttime samples. The latter were incorporated into a circasemiannual map. The relative brevity of the series prevented a check for the coexistence of all three spectral components, even if each component seemed to have a raison d’être. In time series of transdisciplinary data, a 1.00-year synchronized component is interpreted as representing the seasons. The half-year may qualify the circannual waveform, but it is also a signature of geomagnetics. An ~0.41-year (~5-month) component is the signature of solar flares. It has been called a cis-half-year (cis = on this side of a half-year) and may be detected only intermittently. Charles L. Wolff predicted the existence, among others, of ~0.42- and ~0.56-year components as beat periods of rotations at different solar latitudes. The multiple components characterizing circulating melatonin could also be found in a (to our knowledge unique) data set of a clinically healthy scientist (RBS). Herein, we focus on vascular data self-measured by RBS as he aged from ~20 to ~60 years. A multi-component model consisting of cosine curves with periods of 0.41, 0.50 and 1.00 year was fitted to weekly means of systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) collected ~5 times a day over 39 years by RBS. All three components can coexist for a while, although all of them are nonstationary in their characteristics and come and go by the criterion of statistical significance. Intermittently, BP and HR are synchronized selectively with one or

  13. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Aug 26,2016 High blood pressure, also ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  14. The improvement effect of Modern Balinese Baris Dancing Exercise on body composition, blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Adiputra, I N

    1994-12-01

    Sixty healthy males, adult Balinese, aged from 18 to 22 years old, were studied to estimate the effect of Modern Balinese Baris Dancing Exercise (MBBDE) on body composition, heart rate, and blood pressure at rest. Based on their physical fitness level, the subjects were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). The EG had 8 weeks of practicing the MBBDE which consisted of 73-87% of estimated maximum heart rate level, 3 x 50 min per week. Significant reductions in fat tissue weight (-0.25 +/- 0.22 kg in EG and -0.02 +/- 0.51 kg in CG; p < 0.05), and percent body fat (-0.53 +/- 0.37% in EG and -0.20 +/- 2.05% in CG; p < 0.05) were found after 8 weeks of exercise. This exercise also significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (-7.1 +/- 6.78 mmHg in EG and -1.8 +/- 4.63 mmHg in CG; p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-4.5 +/- 5.14 mmHg in EG and -0.5 +/- 3.03 mmHg in CG; p < 0.001), and mean blood pressure (-5.3 +/- 5.96 mmHg in EG and -0.9 +/- 3.83 in CG; p < 0.001) at rest. There was also a significant reduction in resting heart rate (-8.8 +/- 6.42 bpm in EG and -2.2 +/- 4.82 bpm in CG; p < 0.001). It is concluded that 8 weeks of practicing the MBBDE improved body composition and cardiovascular function as well. PMID:7730602

  15. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomisation Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K.; Skaaby, Tea; Taylor, Amy E.; Fluharty, Meg E.; Jeppesen, Jørgen L.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Kumari, Meena; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Palotie, Aarno; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Ford, Ian; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Christiansen, Lene; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kuh, Diana; Eriksson, Johan G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Mbarek, Hamdi; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Jukema, J. Wouter; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Preisig, Martin; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Korhonen, Tellervo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H.; Hayward, Caroline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thuesen, Betina H.; Sattar, Naveed; Morris, Richard W.; Romundstad, Pål R.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. Methods and Results Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 beats/minute/allele; 95% CI 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with DBP, SBP, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 beats/minute higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day. Conclusions This MR meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate. PMID:26538566

  16. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time. PMID:1801007

  17. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... to major health problems. Make a point of learning what blood pressure should be. And, remember: High ...

  18. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Sablone, Andrea; Civino, Paola; D’Angelo, Emanuele; Gallina, Sabina; Ripari, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank ergometer and a cross trainer were compared. RM-ANOVA showed both a higher RPE (p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.001) response to the arm exercise that were shown significantly correlated (r = 0.883; p = 0.008). Linear regression analysis (p = 0.001) confirmed the ability to predict the time course of DBP by knowing the RPE on the arm crank ergometer. Even if people use the recommended relative intensity, the HR method is not always safe for health without pre-participation screening because exercise characteristics can negatively influence physiological responses. The HR method could be substituted by the RPE method. Key points Arm Crank Ergometer elicits a higher diastolic blood pressure response respect to Cross Trainer when people exercise at the same heart rate. Arm Crank Ergometer elicits a higher ratings of perceived exertion respect to Cross trainer when people exercise at the same heart rate. Indirect determined working heart rate is not always safe even if the theoretical intensity is that recommended for health. Rating of perceived exertion method should be used instead of heart rate method to avoid the dangerous physiological responses observed. PMID:24150004

  19. Effects of a complex housing environment on heart rate and blood pressure of rats at rest and after stressful challenges.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Jody; Azar, Toni; Lawson, David

    2014-01-01

    Housing enrichment for rodents continues to be a discussion topic within the animal care community. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a complex housing environment affects heart rate, blood pressure, and activity of rats when undisturbed and after exposure to stressful challenges and whether autonomic controls of heart rate would be affected. Male and female Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats with radiotelemetry transmitters were evaluated under nonenriched single-housing conditions and after acclimation to a complex environment of dim light and cohabitation with 3 conspecifics in large cages with hiding, food foraging, and nesting items. Telemetry data were collected when rats were undisturbed, after acute challenges (cage change, intraperitoneal injections, restraint), during a forced running protocol, and after cholinergic or adrenergic blockade. The complex environment reduced heart rate and increased activity in undisturbed rats but did not affect blood pressure. Heart rate responses to challenges were unaffected, decreased, or increased by complex housing, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Forced running was either unaffected or decreased, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Heart rate responses to cholinergic or β1-adrenergic blockade were not affected. We conclude that the complex housing did not reduce indices of stress (for example, heart rate) as compared with simpler housing. However, the possibility that some environmental elements interact negatively with each other must be considered in future studies. PMID:24411780

  20. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After showing your blood pressure, the cuff will deflate on its own. ... again. A digital blood pressure monitor will not be as accurate ...

  1. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  2. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... health of you and your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ... Some pregnant women with high blood pressure develop preeclampsia. It's a sudden increase in blood pressure after ...

  3. Automated Blood Pressure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.

  4. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    PubMed Central

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T; Visser, Sipke T; de Jong, Paul E; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W

    2007-01-01

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are, however, not available. We therefore studied whether the start and cessation of HC induce changes in BP, UAE and GFR. Methods We used data from the PREVEND Study, a prospective cohort of subjects aged 28–75 years. Eligible were women aged ≤ 45 years with complete clinical and pharmacy data on baseline and follow-up screening (4 years later). Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of HC on BP, UAE and GFR in those who started (n = 73), stopped (n = 117) or continued (n = 183) with those who never used HC (n = 286) as the reference group. Results BP increased among starters and fell in stoppers. These changes compared with never-users were statistically significant, even after adjustment for relevant variables. UAE increased by 14.2% in starters (P = 0.074) and fell by 10.6% in stoppers (P = 0.021), while GFR fell by 6.3% in starters (P < 0.001) and did not change in stoppers. The effects of stopping HC on UAE and GFR were significantly different compared with changes among never-users, even after adjustment for other variables (P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively). Conclusions The start of HC was independently associated with worsening of BP, UAE and GFR, while stopping HC use resulted in an improvement. These data suggest that long-term HC use (aged 28–45 years) may be deleterious from the cardiovascular and renal point of view, but stopping may result in correction of these effects. PMID:17274790

  5. Blood pressure, heart rate, and tubuloglomerular feedback in A1AR-deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Mi; Mizel, Diane; Qin, Yan; Huang, Yuning; Schnermann, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    Aim Differences in genetic background between control mice and mice with targeted gene mutations have been recognized as a potential cause for phenotypic differences. In the present study we have used A1AR-deficient mice in a C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic background to assess the influence of background on the effect of A1AR-deficiency on cardiovascular and renal functional parameters. Methods In A1AR+/+ and A1AR−/− mice in C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic backgrounds we assessed blood pressure and heart rate using radio-telemetry, plasma renin concentrations, and tubuloglomerular feedback. Results We did not detect significant differences in arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rates (HR) between A1AR+/+ and A1AR−/− mice in either C57Bl/6, SWR/J, or mixed backgrounds. MAP and HR were significantly higher in SWR/J than in C57Bl/6 mice. A high NaCl intake increased MAP in A1AR−/− mice on C57Bl/6 background while there was less or no salt sensitivity in the SWR/J background. No significant differences in plasma renin concentration were detected between A1AR−/− and A1AR+/+ mice in any of the strains. Tubuloglomerular feedback was found to be absent in A1AR−/− mice with SWR/J genetic background. Conclusions While this study confirmed important differences between inbred mouse strains, we did not identify phenotypic modifications of A1AR-related effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma renin by differences in genetic background. PMID:25182861

  6. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation.

    PubMed

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B

    2016-01-01

    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  7. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  8. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  9. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  11. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  12. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Sagara, Miki; Njelekela, Marina; Teramoto, Takanori; Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Mari; Armitage, Lesley; Birt, Nina; Birt, Christopher; Yamori, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on coronary heart disease risks in 38 middle-aged men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia in Scotland, a five-week double-blind placebo-controlled dietary supplementation with either 2 g of DHA or active placebo (1 g of olive oil) was conducted. Percent composition of DHA in plasma phospholipids increased significantly in DHA group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in DHA group, but not in placebo group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly, and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios decreased significantly in both groups. There was no change in TC and non-HDL-C. We conclude that 2 g/day of DHA supplementation reduced coronary heart disease risk factor level improving blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid profiles in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic Scottish men who do not eat fish on a regular basis. PMID:21423683

  13. University biology and music majors' emotional ratings of musical stimuli and their physiological correlates of heart, rate, finger temperature, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Vanderark, S D; Ely, D

    1994-12-01

    Physiological responses associated with the ratings of musical stimuli were investigated. For 101 university music and biology students in the experimental group, heart rate, blood pressure, and finger temperature were measured before and after listening to about 10 min. of music (Venus and Jupiter from Holst's The Planets) in an anechoic chamber. They also served as their own controls by sitting in silence for about 10 min. No significant differences were found on the three measures for the two musical stimuli between the musical or control conditions or between the two majors. PMID:7899024

  14. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension. Home monitoring has good reproducibility, is well tolerated and relatively inexpensive. It is superior to blood pressure taken in the clinic in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality. Twice-daily measurements are recommended, usually in the morning and evening for a minimum of five days. The threshold for defining hypertension is an average home blood pressure of 135/85 mmHg or above. Patients are engaged with their management when they monitor their own blood pressure. This results in increased adherence to therapy and lower blood pressure. PMID:26648605

  15. Effects of short- and long-term exposure to ozone on heart rate and blood pressure of emphysematous rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, I.; Yokoyama, E.

    1989-02-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure of elastase-treated emphysematous rats (E rats) and saline-treated control rats (S rats) were recorded continuously during exposure to either 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 3 hr or 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6 hr. The heart rates (HRs) of both groups decreased to about 50 and 65% of the initial levels at the end of 1 ppm and 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ exposure, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) also decreased to about 76 and 82%, respectively. There was no significant difference in these responses between E and S rats, although the levels of HRs and MAPs of the E rats were always a little lower than those of the S rats. Another group of E and S rats was continuously exposed to 0.2 ppm O/sub 3/ for 4 weeks. The HRs of both E and S groups decreased to about 81 and 88% of the initial levels on the first day, respectively, although they recovered completely by the third day. No significant difference in the variation of HRs during exposure was noted between E and S rats. However, the HR responses of these rats to a challenge exposure of 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr appeared to be different. That is, S rats were more tolerant of the challenge exposure to O/sub 3/ for 1.5 hr than the E rats.

  16. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.

  17. Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure variability as indicators of physiological compensation to hemorrhage before shock.

    PubMed

    Scully, Christopher G; Kramer, George C; Strauss, David G

    2015-05-01

    Individual responses to hemorrhage vary, with varying periods of compensation before the development of shock. We characterized heart rate and blood pressure variability measures during hemorrhage of 25 mL/kgBody Weight for 15 min in conscious sheep (N = 7, 14 total hemorrhages) as markers of the transition from compensated to decompensated shock using the continuous wavelet transform. Heart rate-low frequency (HR-LF) and systolic blood pressure-low frequency (SBP-LF) indices were developed to represent the change in spectral power during hemorrhage as low-frequency (0.06 - 0.15 Hz) power divided by the sum of high (0.15 - 1.0 Hz)- and very low (0.02 - 0.06 Hz) frequency power. Heart rate rose from 96.3 (22.2) beats/min (mean [SD] across all trials) to a peak of 176.0 (25.4) beats/min occurring at a minimum time of 5.3 min to a maximum of 22.1 min (11.7 [1.6] min), depending on the trial, after the start of hemorrhage. During the HR-compensated response to hemorrhage, there was elevated HR-LF and SBP-LF in five of the seven animals. In these animals, HR-LF and SBP-LF dropped to below baseline levels around the time of the peak HR. The results from this conscious-animal study suggest that HR and SBP low-frequency power rise during the compensation phase of the response to hemorrhage in conscious sheep. Use of variability monitoring could aid in describing an individual's current response to hemorrhage and anticipation of impending decompensation; however, individual differences in the response limit this potential. PMID:25692248

  18. A review of methods for the signal quality assessment to improve reliability of heart rate and blood pressures derived parameters.

    PubMed

    Gambarotta, Nicolò; Aletti, Federico; Baselli, Giuseppe; Ferrario, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The assessment of signal quality has been a research topic since the late 1970s, as it is mainly related to the problem of false alarms in bedside monitors in the intensive care unit (ICU), the incidence of which can be as high as 90 %, leading to alarm fatigue and a drop in the overall level of nurses and clinicians attention. The development of efficient algorithms for the quality control of long diagnostic electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings, both single- and multi-lead, and of the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signal is therefore essential for the enhancement of care quality. The ECG signal is often corrupted by noise, which can be within the frequency band of interest and can manifest similar morphologies as the ECG itself. Similarly to ECG, also the ABP signal is often corrupted by non-Gaussian, nonlinear and non-stationary noise and artifacts, especially in ICU recordings. Moreover, the reliability of several important parameters derived from ABP such as systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure is strongly affected by the quality of the ABP waveform. In this work, several up-to-date algorithms for the quality scoring of a single- or multi-lead ECG recording, based on time-domain approaches, frequency-domain approaches or a combination of the two will be reviewed, as well as methods for the quality assessment of ABP. Additionally, algorithms exploiting the relationship between ECG and pulsatile signals, such as ABP and photoplethysmographic recordings, for the reduction in the false alarm rate will be presented. Finally, some considerations will be drawn taking into account the large heterogeneity of clinical settings, applications and goals that the reviewed algorithms have to deal with. PMID:26906277

  19. Heart rate variability in shift workers: responses to orthostatism and relationships with anthropometry, body composition, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  20. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Maya J; Dorn, Joan; Chernega, Nicholas J; McCarthy, Thomas F; Roemmich, James N

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and oxygen (O(2)) consumption were measured during a graded exercise test on one day and during psychological stress reactivity (star tracing, speech) on another day. Predicted HR and SBP values during psychological stress were calculated based on HR-O(2) and SBP-O(2) relationships calculated during graded exercise. At a given O(2) consumption, actual HR was greater (p<0.02) than predicted for all stress tasks. Actual SBP was greater (p<0.001) than predicted for all stress tasks. This was the first study to demonstrate that cardiovascular responses were in excess of what would be expected based on metabolic demand in youth. PMID:22634388

  1. Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Responses to Orthostatism and Relationships with Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Monteze, Nayara Mussi; Souza, Breno Bernardes; Alves, Henrique José de Paula; de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Pereira; de Oliveira, José Magalhães; de Freitas, Silvia Nascimento; do Nascimento Neto, Raimundo Marques; Sales, Maria Lilian; Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the response of heart rate variability (HRV) components to postural change and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in shift workers, a cross-sectional study with 438 Brazilian males rotating shift workers was done. Anthropometric, body composition, and clinical measures were collected. Electrocardiogram was recorded for 3 minutes, in the supine and orthostatic position, and HRV components were extracted. Descriptive analyses showed that mean values of body mass index, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), and blood pressure (BP) were higher than the reference values. In the regression model, age, WC, VFA, and systolic BP showed negative association with HRV components. These findings suggest the need for determining effective strategies for the evaluation and promotion of health among shift workers focused on the altered variables. PMID:26495293

  2. Effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on heart rate and blood pressure in intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOYAN; WANG, RUILAN; LU, JIAN; JIN, WEI; QIAN, YONGBIN; HUANG, PEIJIE; TIAN, RUI; LI, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe and compare the sedative effect of different doses of DEX on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). The study included patients that were retained in ICUs and required sedation between January and March 2014. Patients were excluded if they had a BP of >200 mmHg, a HR of <60 bpm or were in a state of shock. The included patients were randomized into three groups: Group A, 1.0 µg/kg/10 min DEX; group B, 0.5 µg/kg/10 min DEX; and group C, 0.4 µg/kg/h DEX. After receiving these initial designated doses of DEX via an intravenous (IV) infusion pump for 10 min, the patients were maintained continuously at an identical dose of 0.4 µg/kg/h DEX. Ramsay score, HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), breathing rate (BR) and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded prior to the IV pump infusion and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min following infusion. Patients in groups A and B achieved sedation more rapidly compared with those in group C (P<0.05). HR decreased more significantly at 8 and 60 min after the initial IV pump infusion with DEX in groups A and B compared with group C (P<0.05). SBP decreased significantly at 10 min after IV pump infusion in group A compared with groups B and C (P<0.05). No significant difference existed in the SBP reduction trend between the three groups during the maintenance period. Therefore, the routine dose of DEX (0.4 µg/kg/h) provides an ideal sedative effect in ICU patients. The recommended loading dose for a more rapid sedation is 0.5 µg/kg/h. High loading doses of DEX via IV pump infusion should be avoided in elderly individuals, patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and anemic patients, in whom combination medication, such as midazolam or propofol, may be considered when necessary. PMID:26889269

  3. Oral contraceptives alter circadian rhythm parameters of cortisol, melatonin, blood pressure, heart rate, skin blood flow, transepidermal water loss, and skin amino acids of healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, A E; Touitou, Y; Soudant, E; Bernard, D; Bazin, R; Mechkouri, M

    1996-08-01

    Sixteen healthy women users and nonusers of oral contraceptives (OC) volunteered to document a set of circadian rhythms. Nine were taking OC providing ethynyl estradiol (0.03-0.05 mg/24h, 21 days/month) combined with DL- or L-norgestrel or norethisterone. There was no group difference (p > 0.05) in median age (22 years), weight (57 kg), and height (162) cm). Data were obtained at fixed hours, 5 times/24h, during a 48-h span, in November. (Day activity from approximately 08:00 to approximately 23:00 h and night rest). Environmental conditions were controlled, using air-conditioned rooms of constant temperature (26 degrees +/- 0.5) and relative humidity 45% +/- 1. Both cosinor and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses. All circadian rhythms were validated with one exception: that of salivary melatonin was not detected in OC users. The 24h mean (M) exhibited group differences for certain variables: M was greater in OC than non-OC users for systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), heart rate (p < 0.01), skin blood flow (p < 0.04), and transepidermal water loss (p < 0.02). M was lower in OC than non-OC users in salivary cortisol (p < 0.04) and skin amino acids (p < 0.003). No group difference was detected in any other documented rhythms: diastolic blood pressure, grip strength of both hands, oral temperature, self-rated fatigue, and the skin variables of urea, lactate, triglycerides, and acid phosphatase activity. PMID:8874983

  4. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice M; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects' heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces' emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  5. Non-expert listeners show decreased heart rate and increased blood pressure (fear bradycardia) in response to atonal music

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M.; Manfrin, Luigi; Arcari, Laura A.; De Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzola, Martina; Guardamagna, Matteo; Lozano Nasi, Valentina; Zani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that listening to different types of music may modulate differently psychological mood and physiological responses associated with the induced emotions. In this study the effect of listening to instrumental classical vs. atonal contemporary music was examined in a group of 50 non-expert listeners. The subjects’ heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were measured while they listened to music of different style and emotional typologies. Pieces were selected by asking a group of composers and conservatory professors to suggest a list of the most emotional music pieces (from Renaissance to present time). A total of 214 suggestions from 20 respondents were received. Then it was asked them to identify which pieces best induced in the listener feelings of agitation, joy or pathos and the number of suggested pieces per style was computed. Atonal pieces were more frequently indicated as agitating, and tonal pieces as joyful. The presence/absence of tonality in a musical piece did not affect the affective dimension of pathos (being touching). Among the most frequently cited six pieces were selected that were comparable for structure and style, to represent each emotion and style. They were equally evaluated as unfamiliar by an independent group of 10 students of the same cohort) and were then used as stimuli for the experimental session in which autonomic parameters were recorded. Overall, listening to atonal music (independent of the pieces’ emotional characteristics) was associated with a reduced heart rate (fear bradycardia) and increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), possibly reflecting an increase in alertness and attention, psychological tension, and anxiety. This evidence fits with the results of the esthetical assessment showing how, overall, atonal music is perceived as more agitating and less joyful than tonal one. PMID:26579029

  6. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: Home Your doctor's office Your local fire station Some pharmacies Your doctor may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. Make ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  9. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  10. Heart rate and blood pressure responses during hypoxic cycles of a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in patients at risk for or with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Haider, Thomas; Linser, Tobias; Netzer, Nikolaus; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on heart rate and blood pressure responses during a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in COPD patients. Sixteen participants with COPD symptoms were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or control group and completed a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program (five sessions per week, each consisting of three to five breathing cycles, each cycle lasting 3-5 minutes with 3-minute breaks between cycles). During the breathing cycles, the hypoxia group received hypoxic air (inspired fraction of oxygen 15%-12%), whereas the control group received normal air (sham hypoxia). During the breaks, all participants breathed normoxic room air. Arterial oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during the normoxic and hypoxic/sham hypoxic periods. For each breathing cycle, changes from normoxia to hypoxia/sham hypoxia were calculated, and changes were averaged for each of the 15 sessions and for each week. Changes in arterial oxygen saturation were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences in weeks 1, 2, and 3. During the course of the intermittent hypoxia application, no between-group differences were detected for blood pressure or rate pressure product values. Changes in heart rate were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences only in week 3. Averages over all 15 sessions were significantly higher in the hypoxia group for heart rate and rate pressure product, and tended to be increased for systolic blood pressure. The applied intermittent hypoxia breathing program resulted in specific and moderate heart rate and blood pressure responses, and did not provoke a progressive increase in blood pressure during the hypoxic cycles in the course of the application. PMID

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure responses during hypoxic cycles of a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in patients at risk for or with mild COPD

    PubMed Central

    Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Haider, Thomas; Linser, Tobias; Netzer, Nikolaus; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on heart rate and blood pressure responses during a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program in COPD patients. Sixteen participants with COPD symptoms were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or control group and completed a 3-week intermittent hypoxia breathing program (five sessions per week, each consisting of three to five breathing cycles, each cycle lasting 3–5 minutes with 3-minute breaks between cycles). During the breathing cycles, the hypoxia group received hypoxic air (inspired fraction of oxygen 15%–12%), whereas the control group received normal air (sham hypoxia). During the breaks, all participants breathed normoxic room air. Arterial oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during the normoxic and hypoxic/sham hypoxic periods. For each breathing cycle, changes from normoxia to hypoxia/sham hypoxia were calculated, and changes were averaged for each of the 15 sessions and for each week. Changes in arterial oxygen saturation were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences in weeks 1, 2, and 3. During the course of the intermittent hypoxia application, no between-group differences were detected for blood pressure or rate pressure product values. Changes in heart rate were significantly different between groups in the course of the 3 weeks (two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures), with post hoc differences only in week 3. Averages over all 15 sessions were significantly higher in the hypoxia group for heart rate and rate pressure product, and tended to be increased for systolic blood pressure. The applied intermittent hypoxia breathing program resulted in specific and moderate heart rate and blood pressure responses, and did not provoke a progressive increase in blood pressure during the hypoxic cycles in the course of the application. PMID

  12. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability during Yoga-Based Alternate Nostril Breathing Practice and Breath Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Telles, Shirley; Sharma, Sachin Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown a reduction in blood pressure (BP) immediately after the practice of alternate nostril yoga breathing (ANYB) in normal healthy male volunteers and in hypertensive patients of both sexes. The BP during ANYB has not been recorded. Material/Methods Participants were 26 male volunteers (group mean age ±SD, 23.8±3.5 years). We assessed (1) heart rate variability, (2) non-invasive arterial BP, and (3) respiration rate, during (a) ANYB and (b) breath awareness (BAW) sessions. Each session was 25 minutes. We performed assessments at 3 time points: Pre (5 minutes), during (15 minutes; for ANYB or BAW) and Post (5 minutes). A naïve-to-yoga control group (n=15 males, mean age ±SD 26.1±4.0 years) were assessed while seated quietly for 25 minutes. Results During ANYB there was a significant decrease (repeated measures ANOVA) in systolic BP and respiration rate; while RMSSD (the square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals) and NN50 (the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50 ms) significantly increased. During BAW respiration rate decreased. In contrast, respiration rate increased during the control state. ANYB and BAW were significantly different (2-factor ANOVA) in RMSSD and respiration rate. BAW and control were different with respect to respiration rate. Conclusions The results suggest that vagal activity increased during and after ANYB, which could have contributed to the decrease in BP and changes in the HRV. PMID:25408140

  13. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  14. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  15. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  16. Association of ambulatory heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors with blood pressure in young non-hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to assess the association between 24 h ambulatory heart rate (HR), atherosclerosis risk factors and blood pressure (BP) in young non-hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 186 participants aged 18–45 years from a large urban academic Family Medicine outpatient practice, serving 40 000 individuals for this observational study. The main analyses were based on multiple linear regression, with mean 24 h BP (systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP)) as the outcomes, mean 24 h HR as the main predictor of interest, and controlling for age, gender, race, insulin sensitivity/resistance and endothelial function measured by strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. Results HR was independently associated with mean 24 h SBP and DBP (SBP and DBP: p=0.042 and 0.001, respectively). In our analyses, associations were markedly stronger for ambulatory compared with office BP measurements. Endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher SBP (p=0.013); plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly associated with both SBP and DBP (p=0.041 and 0.015, respectively), while insulin resistance was not associated with either SBP or DBP. Insulin resistance and C reactive protein were significant predictors of HR (p=0.013 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that HR may be a potential marker of elevated cardiovascular risk in young asymptomatic individuals, prior to the development of clinical hypertension or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26925242

  17. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  18. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  19. Effect of head-down-tilt bed rest and hypovolemia on dynamic regulation of heart rate and blood pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaki, K. I.; Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Pawelczyk, J. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Adaptation to head-down-tilt bed rest leads to an apparent abnormality of baroreflex regulation of cardiac period. We hypothesized that this "deconditioning response" could primarily be a result of hypovolemia, rather than a unique adaptation of the autonomic nervous system to bed rest. To test this hypothesis, nine healthy subjects underwent 2 wk of -6 degrees head-down bed rest. One year later, five of these same subjects underwent acute hypovolemia with furosemide to produce the same reductions in plasma volume observed after bed rest. We took advantage of power spectral and transfer function analysis to examine the dynamic relationship between blood pressure (BP) and R-R interval. We found that 1) there were no significant differences between these two interventions with respect to changes in numerous cardiovascular indices, including cardiac filling pressures, arterial pressure, cardiac output, or stroke volume; 2) normalized high-frequency (0.15-0.25 Hz) power of R-R interval variability decreased significantly after both conditions, consistent with similar degrees of vagal withdrawal; 3) transfer function gain (BP to R-R interval), used as an index of arterial-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, decreased significantly to a similar extent after both conditions in the high-frequency range; the gain also decreased similarly when expressed as BP to heart rate x stroke volume, which provides an index of the ability of the baroreflex to alter BP by modifying systemic flow; and 4) however, the low-frequency (0.05-0.15 Hz) power of systolic BP variability decreased after bed rest (-22%) compared with an increase (+155%) after acute hypovolemia, suggesting a differential response for the regulation of vascular resistance (interaction, P < 0.05). The similarity of changes in the reflex control of the circulation under both conditions is consistent with the hypothesis that reductions in plasma volume may be largely responsible for the observed changes in cardiac

  20. Cuff-occluded rate of rise of peripheral venous pressure: a new, highly sensitive technique for monitoring blood volume status during hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, W M; Snyder, C L; Porter, J; Saltzman, D A; Chen, S; Leonard, A S

    1987-03-01

    We investigated the cuff-occluded rate of rise of peripheral venous pressure (CORRP)--a new, nearly noninvasive peripheral hemodynamic monitoring parameter--in dogs subjected to hemorrhage and resuscitation. Twelve adult mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were subjected to hemorrhage of 30% of their estimated total blood volume (TBV) for 30 minutes; after this time the extracted blood was reinfused. Arterial pressure (AP), central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary venous pressure (PWP), heart rate, and CORRP were continuously monitored. A "clinically significant change" (CSC) in CORRP and CO was defined as a change that exceeded two standard deviations from the mean of five baseline measurements made before the onset of hemorrhage, whereas a CSC in PWP or CVP was conservatively defined as a change that exceeded 2 mm Hg from the average of five baseline measurements, and a CSC in PAP and AP was defined as a change that exceeded 3 mm Hg and 5 mm Hg, respectively from the average of the baseline measurements. There was no consistent change in heart rate during hemorrhage. Thus defined, a CSC in CORRP occurred after an average extraction of 9.2% +/- 4.7% TBV, whereas a CSC was not seen until an average loss of 16.5% +/- 8.1% TBV for AP, 21% +/- 13% TBV for PWP, 15.5% +/- 7% TBV for PAP, and 35% +/- 3% TBV for CVP. These average blood losses are all significantly different from the average blood loss required to effect a CSC in CORRP. The blood loss required to effect a CSC in CO averaged 9.7% +/- 6%. We conclude that in these anesthetized dogs, CORRP detected blood loss earlier than other commonly used hemodynamic parameters, including several invasive parameters such as CVP, PAP, and PWP; CORRP and CO were equivalent in their ability to detect early stages of blood loss. PMID:3824158

  1. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... MANUAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS Manual devices include a cuff that wraps around your arm, a rubber squeeze ... needle moves around and the pressure in the cuff rises or falls. When used correctly, manual devices ...

  2. Effect of blood pH on pulmonary artery pressure, left atrial pressure and fluid filtration rate in isolated rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Plata, V M; Pozo-Parilli, J C; Baum-Agay, A; Curiel, C; Sánchez de León, R

    1995-09-01

    To determine the effects of pH changes on Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP), 18 isolated rabbit lung preparations, perfused with autologous blood mixture and constant PaCO2 have been studied. Each preparation was studied under 3 conditions: Baseline: 30 minutes equilibration period. Acidosis: pH was decreased by 0.2 N HCl infusion, the ventilatory rate was changed and different CO2 mixtures were used to maintain the PCO2 within the initial parameters. Compensated Acidosis (CA): pH was returned to normal values by 0.7 N NaHCO3 infusion maintaining PCO2 in its initial values. The decrease in pH (acidosis) from 7.36 +/- 0.05 to 7.18 +/- 0.06 at constant PCO2, generated a significant increase in PAP (13.6 +/- 3.2 cm H2O to 18.8 +/- 5.2 cm H2O, p < 0.01). The pH increase (CA) from 7.18 +/- 0.06 to 7.40 +/- 0.09 caused the PAP to decrease (18.8 +/- 5.2 cm H2O to 15.9 +/- 4.2 cm H2O); the fluid filtration rate remained unchanged during the whole experiment. It is concluded that blood pH changes at constant PCO2 result in significant changes of PAP. Acidemia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction, which may be a contributing factor in the genesis of pulmonary hypertension in clinical conditions with increased hydrogen ion concentration [H+]. PMID:8606988

  3. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. PMID:22265230

  4. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  5. The characteristics of coarse particulate matter air pollution associated with alterations in blood pressure and heart rate during controlled exposures

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Masako; Bard, Robert L.; Wang, Lu; Das, Ritabrata; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Sun, Qinghua; Harkema, Jack R.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Although fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, the potential health effects of coarse PM (2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM10–2.5) remain less clearly understood. We aimed to elucidate the components within coarse PM most likely responsible for mediating these hemodynamic alterations. Thirty-two healthy adults (25.9 ± 6.6 years) were exposed to concentrated ambient coarse PM (CAP) (76.2 ± 51.5 μg/m3) and filtered air (FA) for 2 h in a rural location in a randomized double-blind crossover study. The particle constituents (24 individual elements, organic and elemental carbon) were analyzed from filter samples and associated with the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes occurring throughout CAP and FA exposures in mixed model analyses. Total coarse PM mass along with most of the measured elements were positively associated with similar degrees of elevations in both systolic BP and HR. Conversely, total PM mass was unrelated, whereas only two elements (Cu and Mo) were positively associated with and Zn was inversely related to diastolic BP changes during exposures. Inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location rapidly elevates systolic BP and HR in a concentration-responsive manner, whereas the particulate composition does not appear to be an important determinant of these responses. Conversely, exposure to certain PM elements may be necessary to trigger a concomitant increase in diastolic BP. These findings suggest that particulate mass may be an adequate metric of exposure to predict some, but not all, hemodynamic alterations induced by coarse PM mass. PMID:25227729

  6. The association of resting state heart rate variability and 24-hour blood pressure variability in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Julian F; Sollers, John J; Clamor, Annika; Koenig, Julian; Hagglund, Kristofer J

    2016-02-15

    Patients with high cervical complete spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) sustain damage to the autonomic neural pathways that influence cardiovascular functioning and produce variability in the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). In non-injured individuals, an inverse relationship exists between resting autonomic control of the heart (as evidenced by HR variability (HRV)) and BP variability (BPV). This study examined the relationship between HRV, BP and BPV in individuals with tetraplegic (n=10) and paraplegic (n=10) spinal cord injuries, and a group of healthy controls (n=14). Resting HRV at baseline and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements were collected from electrocardiogram measures of each participant. HRV was quantified using time- and frequency-domain measures. The standard deviation of the BP measurements was used as an index of BPV. Multivariate analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences for laboratory-based and 24-h dependent variables. The MANOVAs for HRV parameters (λ(14,50)=.352, p=.010, η(2)=.407) and for BP indices and HR (λ(16,48)=.318, p=.013, η(2)=.436) were significant. Furthermore, in line with existing evidence, we found that vagally mediated HRV was inversely related to BPV in healthy controls. However, this relationship did not hold for the tetraplegia group (ρ<|.42|), and mixed results were found for the paraplegia group (e.g., ρ<|.29| for time domain HRV, ρ>|.65| for low-frequency power). These results support the conclusion that the damage to the spinal sympathetic pathways to the heart found in people with tetraplegia causes a significant disruption in baroreflex control of BP. PMID:26810517

  7. Ambulatory 24-hour cardiac oxygen consumption and blood pressure-heart rate variability: effects of nebivolol and valsartan alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L; Khan, Safi U; Saleem, Osman; Osmond, Peter J

    2015-07-01

    We compared an angiotensin receptor blocker (valsartan; VAL), a beta-blocker (nebivolol; NEB) and the combination of NEB/VAL with respect to 24-hour myocardial oxygen consumption (determined by 24-hour ambulatory heart rate-central systolic pressure product [ACRPP]) and its components. Subjects with hypertension (systolic blood pressure >140 or diastolic blood pressure >90; n = 26) were studied in a double-blinded, double-dummy, forced-titration, crossover design with 3 random-order experimental periods: VAL 320 mg, NEB 40 mg, and NEB/VAL 320/40 mg daily. After 4 weeks of each drug, ambulatory pulse wave analysis (MobilOGraph) was performed every 20 minutes for 24 hours. All three treatments resulted in nearly identical brachial and central systolic blood pressures. NEB alone or in combination with VAL resulted in lower ACRPP (by 11%-14%; P < .001 each) and heart rate (by 18%-20%; P < .001 each) compared with VAL, but stroke work (ACRPP per beat) was lower with VAL. Relative and adjusted variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of heart rate were also lower with NEB and NEB/VAL than VAL. Results in African Americans, the majority subpopulation, were similar to those of the entire treatment group. We conclude that the rate-slowing effects of NEB cause ambulatory cardiac myocardial oxygen consumption to be lower with NEB monotherapy or NEB/VAL combination therapy than with VAL monotherapy. NEB/VAL is not superior to NEB alone in controlling heart rate, blood pressure, or ACRPP. Heart rate variability but not ACRPP variability is reduced by NEB or the combination NEB/VAL. There is no attenuation of beta-blocker-induced rate-slowing effects of in African Americans. PMID:26116459

  8. Excess heart rate and systolic blood pressure during psychological stress in relation to metabolic demand in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular responses during exercise are matched to the increased metabolic demand, but this may not be the case during psychological stress. No studies to date have tested this hypothesis in youth. Fifty-four youth, ages 13-16 years completed two visits. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressu...

  9. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood Pressure and Heart Rate via Sympathetic Nervous System Dependent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, B; Oyeniyi, Y J; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Isezuo, S A; Alada, A R A

    2014-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has been validated in animals and man. This study tested the hypothesis that its hypotensive effect may be sympathetically mediated. The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in 20 healthy subjects before and after the oral administration of 15mg/Kg HS. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured digitally. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; taken as representative BP) was calculated. Results are expressed as mean ±SEM. P<0.05 was considered significant. CPT without HS resulted in a significant rise in MAP and HR (111.1±2.1mmHg and 100.8±2.0/min) from the basal values (97.9±1.9mmHg and 87.8±2.1/min; P<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS, CPT-induced changes (ΔMAP=10.1±1.7mmHg; ΔHR= 8.4±1.0/min) were significantly reduced compared to its absence (ΔMAP= 13.2±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 13.8±1.6/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The HGE done without HS also resulted in an increase in MAP and HR (116.3±2.1mmHg and 78.4±1.2/min) from the basal values (94.8±1.6mmHg and 76.1±1.0/min; p<0.0001 respectively). In the presence of HS the HGE-induced changes (ΔMAP= 11.5±1.0mmHg; ΔHR= 3.3±1.0/min) were significantly decreased compared to its absence (ΔMAP=21.4±1.2mmHg; ΔHR= 12.8±2.0/min; P<0.0001 respectively). The CPT and HGE -induced increases in BP and HR suggest Sympathetic nervous system activation. These increases were significantly dampened by HS suggesting, indirectly, that its hypotensive effect may be due to an attenuation of the discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:26196579

  10. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  11. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  12. Paediatric blood pressure and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mather, C M

    1991-05-01

    One percent of children have appreciably and consistently raised arterial blood pressure. A 7-year-old girl admitted for routine tonsillectomy, had unrecognised hypertension which put her at increased risk. Should anaesthetic practice take more note of paediatric blood pressures? PMID:2035786

  13. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Controlling hypertension ... when you wake up. For people with very high blood pressure, this is when they are most at risk ... 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed ...

  14. Interchangeability of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs, and the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power [linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs [lower 95% confidence intervals (CI) >0.75] and narrow limits of agreement in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used interchangeably in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs. PMID:26664979

  15. Effects of Methadone on the Minimum Anesthetic Concentration of Isoflurane, and Its Effects on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Ventilation during Isoflurane Anesthesia in Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pypendop, Bruno Henri; Zangirolami Filho, Darcio; Sousa, Samuel Santos; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the temporal effects of intramuscular methadone administration on the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in hens, and to evaluate the effects of the isoflurane-methadone combination on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure and ventilation. Thirteen healthy adult hens weighing 1.7 ± 0.2 kg were used. The MAC of isoflurane was determined in each individual using the bracketing method. Subsequently, the reduction in isoflurane MAC produced by methadone (3 or 6 mg kg-1, IM) was determined by the up-and-down method. Stimulation was applied at 15 and 30 minutes, and at 45 minutes if the bird had not moved at 30 minutes. Isoflurane MAC reduction was calculated at each time point using logistic regression. After a washout period, birds were anesthetized with isoflurane and methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM was administered. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood gas values and invasive blood pressure were measured at 1.0 and 0.7 isoflurane MAC, and during 45 minutes after administration of methadone once birds were anesthetized with 0.7 isoflurane MAC. Fifteen minutes after administration of 3 mg kg-1 of methadone, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 2 (-9 to 13)% [logistic regression estimate (95% Wald confidence interval)]. Administration of 6 mg kg-1 of methadone decreased isoflurane MAC by 29 (11 to 46)%, 27 (-3 to 56)% and 10 (-8 to 28)% after 15, 30 and 45 minutes, respectively. Methadone (6 mg kg-1) induced atrioventricular block in three animals and ventricular premature contractions in two. Methadone caused an increase in arterial blood pressure and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, while heart rate and pH decreased. Methadone, 6 mg kg-1 IM significantly reduced isoflurane MAC by 30% in hens 15 minutes after administration. At this dose, methadone caused mild respiratory acidosis and increase in systemic blood pressure. PMID:27018890

  16. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...

  17. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  18. Influence of mercury exposure on blood pressure, resting heart rate and heart rate variability in French Polynesians: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Populations which diet is rich in seafood are highly exposed to contaminants such as mercury, which could affect cardiovascular risk factors Objective To assess the associations between mercury and blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) among French Polynesians Methods Data were collected among 180 adults (≥ 18 years) and 101 teenagers (12-17 years). HRV was measured using a two-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (Holter) and BP was measured using a standardized protocol. The association between mercury and HRV and BP parameters was studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) Results Among teenagers, the high frequency (HF) decreased between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (380 vs. 204 ms2, p = 0.03) and a similar pattern was observed for the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD) (43 vs. 30 ms, p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the ratio low/high frequency (LF/HF) increased between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (2.3 vs. 3.0, p = 0.04). Among adults, the standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) tended to decrease between the 1st and 2nd tertile (84 vs. 75 ms, p = 0.069) after adjusting for confounders. Furthermore, diastolic BP tended to increase between the 2nd and 3rd tertile (86 vs. 91 mm Hg, p = 0.09). No significant difference was observed in resting HR or pulse pressure (PP) Conclusions Mercury was associated with decreased HRV among French Polynesian teenagers while no significant association was observed with resting HR, BP, or PP among teenagers or adults PMID:22078280

  19. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  20. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on muscle metaboreflex control of cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Doreen; Aldred, Sarah; Fisher, James P

    2013-01-01

    We sought to determine whether menstrual cycle phase influences muscle metaboreflex control of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Twenty-three young women not taking oral contraceptives were studied during the early (EF; low oestrogen, low progesterone) and late follicular menstrual phases (LF; high oestrogen, low progesterone). Protocol 1 consisted of leg cycling at low (21 ± 2 W) and moderate workloads (71 ± 3 W) in free-flow conditions and with partial flow restriction (bilateral thigh-cuff inflation at 100 mmHg) to activate the muscle metaboreflex. Protocol 2 consisted of rhythmic hand-grip exercise with incremental upper arm-cuff inflation (0, 80, 100 and 120 mmHg) to elicit graded metaboreflex activation. Both protocols were followed by post-exercise ischaemia. Leg cycling decreased cBRS (EF, 20 ± 5, 6 ± 1 and 1 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1); and LF, 19 ± 3, 6 ± 0.4, 1 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1) during rest, low- and moderate-intensity leg cycling, respectively) and increased HR in an intensity-dependent manner, while BP remained unchanged. Partial flow restriction during leg cycling decreased cBRS, and increased HR and BP. During post-exercise ischaemia, HR and BP remained elevated, while cBRS remained suppressed (EF, 4.2 ± 0.6 ms mmHg(-1); and LF, 4.7 ± 0.5 ms mmHg(-1); P < 0.05 versus rest). Cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was unchanged during hand-grip with and without partial flow restriction and post-exercise ischaemia. No differences in cBRS, HR or BP responses were observed between EF and LF at any time during either protocol. These data indicate that endogenous fluctuations in oestrogen between the EF and LF phases of the menstrual cycle do not influence muscle metaboreflex control of cBRS, BP or HR in young women. PMID:22613743

  1. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hypertension tends to worsen with age and you cannot ...

  2. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhibitors These medications reduce blood pressure by blocking neurotransmitters in the brain. This blocks the smooth muscles ... Monitoring of HBP • Prevention & Treatment of HBP Introduction Diet - Shaking the Salt Habit - Potassium - Alcohol Physical Activity ...

  3. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood pressure to certain patterns of food consumption. For example, the D.A.S.H. (Dietary Approaches ... are good natural sources of potassium. Potassium-rich foods include: Sweet ... Levels Mean * ...

  4. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 230 researchers across 6 continents scanned the genomes of over 200,000 European people to identify ... blood pressure. They followed up by analyzing the genomes of 70,000 people of East Indian, South ...

  5. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  6. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... you have high blood pressure. How can I control or prevent high blood pressure? High blood pressure ...

  7. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ... Read more about the DASH eating plan. Heart-Healthy Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart- ...

  8. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  9. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  10. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater risk ... may suffer complications of high blood pressure can benefit from intensive blood pressure lowering and it is ...

  11. Dissociation between blood pressure and heart rate response to hypoxia after bilateral carotid body removal in men with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Niewinski, Piotr; Janczak, Dariusz; Rucinski, Artur; Tubek, Stanislaw; Engelman, Zoar J; Jazwiec, Przemyslaw; Banasiak, Waldemar; Sobotka, Paul A; Hart, Emma C J; Paton, Julian F R; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    While the ventilatory response to hypoxia is known to be mediated by the carotid bodies, the origin of the haemodynamic alterations evoked by hypoxia is less certain. Bilateral carotid body removal (CBR) performed to treat congestive heart failure may serve as a model to improve our understanding of haemodynamic responses to hypoxia in humans. We studied six congestive heart failure patients before and 1 month after CBR [median (interquartile range): age, 58.5 (56-61) years old; and ejection fraction, 32 (25-34)%]. Peripheral chemosensitivity (hypoxic ventilatory response) was equated to the slope relating lowest oxygen saturation to highest minute ventilation following exposures to hypoxia. Likewise, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) slopes were calculated as slopes relating the lowest oxygen saturations to the highest SBP, DBP and HR responses. We found that CBR reduces the hypoxic ventilatory response (91%, P < 0.05), SBP (71%, P < 0.05) and DBP slopes (59%, P = 0.07). In contrast, the HR slope remained unchanged. The dissociation between the blood pressure and HR responses after CBR shows involvement of a different chemoreceptive site(s) maintaining the response to acute hypoxia. We conclude that carotid bodies are responsible for ventilatory and blood pressure responses, while the HR response might be mediated by the aortic bodies. The significant reduction of the blood pressure response to hypoxia after CBR suggests a decrease in sympathetic tone, which is of particular clinical relevance in congestive heart failure. PMID:24243836

  12. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  13. MedlinePlus: High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure (Hypertension) (Food and Drug Administration) Also in Spanish High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Questions and Answers about High Blood ...

  14. High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Metabolic Syndrome Updated:Aug 12,2014 Metabolic ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  15. The use of the RESPeRATE device to lower blood pressure in inner city obese adolescents and children: a pilot feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Geissler, Jillian D; Stokes, Christina W; Heyman, Melvin B; Tran, C T

    2013-06-01

    The RESPeRATE device was tested for feasibility of use in a population of overweight and obese children and adolescents (n = 10) in San Francisco, CA. After a 2-week and then a 2-month period, participants were interviewed on their frequency of use and attitudes towards the device. A high percentage stated that they enjoyed using the device at 2 months (90%) and 80% stated that they would recommend use to a friend or relative. Future studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the RESPeRATE device in lowering blood pressure and helping with weight loss/weight management in obese and overweight children. PMID:23653175

  16. Poor elevated-blood-pressure recognition in the outpatient setting

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Tammy M.

    2016-01-01

    Question Among pediatric outpatient care centers, what is the rate of elevated blood pressure recognition? Design Retrospective single cohort study. Setting Single tertiary-care pediatric outpatient center. Participants 20 000 patients (2–17 years old). Intervention Blood pressure measurement. Outcomes Recognition rate of elevated blood pressures. Main Results Among those with ≥3 elevated blood pressure measurements, the median frequency of identification by division/service was 17%. Conclusions The identification of patients with elevated blood pressure measurements was low. PMID:26319926

  17. Immediate responses of arterial blood pressure and heart rate to sudden inhalation of high concentrations of isoflurane in normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Nishino, T; Hiraga, K

    1993-11-01

    Inhalation of pungent volatile anesthetics elicits respiratory reflex responses. To clarify whether an upper airway irritation produced by pungent anesthetics can also induce circulatory reflex responses that are clinically significant, a sudden administration of 5% isoflurane by mask was performed during continuous measurement of arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in eight normotensive and eight hypertensive patients anesthetized with thiamylal and paralyzed with vecuronium. The sudden administration of 5% isoflurane caused immediate increases in BP, HR, and rate pressure products (RPP) in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. The responses observed were more pronounced in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. The circulatory changes in hypertensive patients were sufficient to be clinically significant. Our findings suggest that sudden administration of a high concentration of pungent volatile anesthetics may be associated with transient hypertensive responses in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:8214702

  18. Multiscale Joint Symbolic Transfer Entropy for Quantification of Causal Interactions Between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability Under Postural Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Saini, B. S.; Singh, D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, joint symbolic transfer entropy (JSTE) is explored to quantify causal interactions between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR intervals (peak-to-peak distance between consecutive R-peaks) at multiple time scales. SBP→RR coupling (Cs-r) and RR→SBP coupling (Cr-s) coupling is analyzed at multiple time scales and delays. The ability of the approach based on JSTE to detect SBP-RR causal coupling is tested on 42 healthy subjects in supine and upright position along with 21 subjects of EUROBAVAR dataset. In addition, lack of causal coupling from SBP to RR was assessed on 20 post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Results demonstrate that (i) standard deviation (SD) of RR interval series and SBP series decreases with time scale τ = 1 to 10 for all types of subjects. (ii) SD in supine is more than that of upright position at each time scale irrespective of types of subjects. (iii) JSTE decreases with time delay for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for baroflex sensitivity BRS failure patients. (iv) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position irrespective of time delay. (v) JSTE decreases with time scale for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for BRS failure patients. (vi) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position only at finer scales. (vii) Enhanced feed-forward (FF) coupling and suppressed feedback (FB) coupling found at supine position within low frequency band (0.04-0.15 Hz) as well as high frequency band (0.151-0.4 Hz) indicated prevalence on non-baroreflex mechanisms. (viii) FB coupling recovered in the upright position which was stronger than FF coupling. Upon comparison with cross conditional entropy (CCE), it is found that JSTE provides more significant differences between supine and upright position.

  19. Effect of the data sampling rate on accuracy of indices for heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex function in resting rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Vivek; Rarick, Kevin R; Stauss, Harald M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal sampling rate (SR) required for blood pressure (BP) waveform recordings to accurately determine BP and heart rate (HR) variability indices and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in rats and mice. We also determined if an 8-bit (versus 12-bit) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution is sufficient to accurately determine these hemodynamic parameters and if spline interpolation to 1000 Hz of BP waveforms sampled at lower SRs can improve accuracy. BP and ECG recordings (1000 Hz SR, 12-bit ADC resolution) from two strains of rats and BP recordings (1000 Hz SR, 12-bit ADC resolution) from two strains of mice were mathematically converted to lower SRs and/or 8-bit ADC resolution. Time-domain HR variability and frequency-domain HR and BP variability indices and baroreflex sensitivity (using the sequence technique) were determined and the results obtained from the original files were compared to the results obtained from the mathematically altered files. Our results demonstrate that an ADC resolution of 8 bit is not sufficient to determine HR and BP variability in rats and mice and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in mice. Average values for systolic, mean and diastolic BP and HR can be accurately derived from BP waveforms recorded at a minimal SR of 200 Hz in rats and mice. Spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz prior to extracting derived parameters reduces this minimal SR to 50 Hz in rats but still requires 200 Hz in mice. Frequency-domain BP variability (very low and low frequency spectral powers) can be estimated accurately at a minimum SR of 100 Hz in rats and mice and spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz reduces this minimal SR to 50 Hz in rats but does not reduce the minimal SR in mice. Time- and frequency-domain HR variability parameters require at least a SR of 1000 Hz in rats and mice. Spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz reduces this minimal SR to 100 Hz in rats and to 200 Hz in

  20. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  1. Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure Variability in the Time Domain in Patients with Recent and Long-Standing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Estañol, Bruno; Sentíes-Madrid, Horacio; Fossion, Ruben; Toledo-Roy, Juan C.; Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Morales, Irving O.; Landa, Emmanuel; Robles-Cabrera, Adriana; Moreno, Rene; Frank, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) affects the cardiovascular response of patients. To study this effect, interbeat intervals (IBI) and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability of patients during supine, standing and controlled breathing tests were analyzed in the time domain. Simultaneous noninvasive measurements of IBI and SBP for 30 recently diagnosed and 15 long-standing DM patients were compared with the results for 30 rigorously screened healthy subjects (control). A statistically significant distinction between control and diabetic subjects was provided by the standard deviation and the higher moments of the distributions (skewness, and kurtosis) with respect to the median. To compare IBI and SBP for different populations, we define a parameter, α, that combines the variability of the heart rate and the blood pressure, as the ratio of the radius of the moments for IBI and the same radius for SBP. As diabetes evolves, α decreases, standard deviation of the IBI detrended signal diminishes (heart rate signal becomes more “rigid”), skewness with respect to the median approaches zero (signal fluctuations gain symmetry), and kurtosis increases (fluctuations concentrate around the median). Diabetes produces not only a rigid heart rate, but also increases symmetry and has leptokurtic distributions. SBP time series exhibit the most variable behavior for recently diagnosed DM with platykurtic distributions. Under controlled breathing, SBP has symmetric distributions for DM patients, while control subjects have non-zero skewness. This may be due to a progressive decrease of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity to the heart and blood vessels as diabetes evolves. PMID:26849653

  2. Prehospital heart rate and blood pressure increase the positive predictive value of the Glasgow Coma Scale for high-mortality traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andrew; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-05-15

    We hypothesized that vital signs could be used to improve the association between a trauma patient's prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and his or her clinical condition. Previously, abnormally low and high blood pressures have both been associated with higher mortality for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We undertook a retrospective analysis of 1384 adult prehospital trauma patients. Vital-sign data were electronically archived and analyzed. We examined the relative risk of severe head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 5-6 as a function of the GCS, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR). We created multi-variate logistic regression models and, using DeLong's test, compared their area under receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC AUCs) for three outcomes: head AIS 5-6, all-cause mortality, and either head AIS 5-6 or neurosurgical procedure. We found significant bimodal relationships between head AIS 5-6 versus SBP and HR, but not RR. When the GCS was <15, ROC AUCs were significantly higher for a multi-variate regression model (GCS, SBP, and HR) versus GCS alone. In particular, patients with abnormalities in all parameters (GCS, SBP, and HR) were significantly more likely to have high-mortality TBI versus those with abnormalities in GCS alone. This could be useful for mobilizing resources (e.g., neurosurgeons and operating rooms at the receiving hospital) and might enable new prehospital management protocols where therapies are selected based on TBI mortality risk. PMID:24372334

  3. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine restores systemic nitric oxide availability and corrects depressions in arterial blood pressure and heart rate in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengyuan; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R; Guo, Zhixin; Zhang, Wei; McNeill, John H

    2006-02-01

    Increased oxidative stress and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity are key features of diabetes mellitus that eventually result in cardiovascular abnormalities. We assessed whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, could prevent the hyperglycaemia induced increase in oxidative stress, restore NO availability and prevent depression of arterial blood pressure and heart rate in vivo in experimental diabetes. Control (C) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (D) rats were treated or not treated with NAC in drinking water for 8 weeks, initiated 1 week after induction of diabetes. At termination, plasma levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane, a specific marker of oxygen free radical induced lipid peroxidation, was increased while the plasma total antioxidant concentration was decreased in untreated diabetic rats as compared to control rats (P<0.05). This was accompanied by a significant reduction of plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite, stable metabolites of NO, (P<0.05, D vs. C) and a reduced endothelial NO synthase protein expression in the heart and in aortic and mesenteric artery tissues. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures (SBP, DBP and MAP) and heart rate (HR) were reduced in diabetic rats (P<0.05 vs. C) and NAC normalised the changes that occurred in the diabetic rats. The protective effects may be attributable to restoration of NO bioavailability in the circulation. PMID:16390827

  4. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  5. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  6. Elderly Benefit from Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158958.html Elderly Benefit From Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment No greater risk of complications such as ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive treatment of high blood pressure reduces older adults' risk of heart disease without ...

  7. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... below to read more. High Blood Pressure and Edema : You may notice swelling in some parts of ... blood pressure. This buildup of fluids, called peripheral edema, usually occurs in your ankles, feet, lower legs, ...

  8. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ...

  9. Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159115.html Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar: Studies Pay attention to air quality, researchers ... with increased risk of developing dangerous high blood pressure. The findings stem from a review of 17 ...

  10. [Effect of changes in airway pressure and the inspiratory volume on the fluid filtration rate and pulmonary artery pressure in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with blood and acellular solution].

    PubMed

    Crespo, Astrid; Novoa, Eva; Urich, Daniela; Trejo, Humberto; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Sznajder, Jacob I; Livia, Fernández; Sánchez-de León, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    It has been reported that ventilation with large tidal volumes causes pulmonary edema in rats by the stimulation and release of proinflammatory mediators. Our objective was to determine the level at which volutrauma induced by changes in Airway Pressure (PAW) and Inspiratory Volume (VI) produce significant changes on the Fluid Filtration Rate (FFR) and Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP) in lungs perfused with blood (cellular groups) or with a buffer-albumin solution (acellular groups), with a Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) 0 or 2 cmH2O and to study the effect of a vasodilator with antiinflammatory properties (fenoterol) in blood-perfused groups. Three experimental groups were used: the cellular groups studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood and PEEP 0 and 2; the acellular groups studied the increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with a buffer-albumin solution and PEEP 0 and 2; The fenoterol group studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood + fenoterol and PEEP 2. The results show that an increase of FFR is produced earlier in acellular groups than in cellular ones and that the damage in cellular groups is microscopically and macroscopically inferior when compared to acellular groups. Fenoterol did not inhibit edema formation, and that PEEP 2, both in the cellular and the acellular groups, has a protective effect. We propose the possible existence of mediators with protective effects against the formation of pulmonary edema in the blood. These data suggest that volutrauma induced pulmonary edema has a predominantly traumatic origin when the lungs are perfused with blood. PMID:17176901

  11. Perioperative Blood Pressure Control and Management.

    PubMed

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Carr, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure monitoring and management is a vital part of the perianesthetic period. Disturbances in blood pressure, especially hypotension, can have significant impacts on the well-being of small animal patients. There are a variety of mechanisms present to control blood pressure, including ultra-short-, short-, and long-term mechanisms. Several conditions can contribute to decreased blood pressure, including anesthetics, tension pneumothorax, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, surgical positioning, and abdominal distension. If hypotension is encountered, the initial response is to provide appropriate fluid therapy. If this is inadequate, other interventions can be used to increase blood pressure and thereby increase perfusion. PMID:26076581

  12. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  13. Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Sachiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Yoneda, Hirotsugu; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers. PMID:17341828

  14. Correlates of blood pressure in Yanomami Indians of northwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J

    1993-01-01

    We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood

  15. Blood pressure reprogramming adapter assists signal recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.

  16. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  17. Dual rate pressure relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeneken, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Multiple-input nonlinear modelling of cerebral haemodynamics using spontaneous arterial blood pressure, end-tidal CO2 and heart rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Marmarelis, V Z; Mitsis, G D; Shin, D C; Zhang, R

    2016-05-13

    In order to examine the effect of changes in heart rate (HR) upon cerebral perfusion and autoregulation, we include the HR signal recorded from 18 control subjects as a third input in a two-input model of cerebral haemodynamics that has been used previously to quantify the dynamic effects of changes in arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2upon cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) measured at the middle cerebral arteries via transcranial Doppler ultrasound. It is shown that the inclusion of HR as a third input reduces the output prediction error in a statistically significant manner, which implies that there is a functional connection between HR changes and CBFV. The inclusion of nonlinearities in the model causes further statistically significant reduction of the output prediction error. To achieve this task, we employ the concept of principal dynamic modes (PDMs) that yields dynamic nonlinear models of multi-input systems using relatively short data records. The obtained PDMs suggest model-driven quantitative hypotheses for the role of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (corresponding to distinct PDMs) in the underlying physiological mechanisms by virtue of their relative contributions to the model output. These relative PDM contributions are subject-specific and, therefore, may be used to assess personalized characteristics for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27044989

  20. Lipids, blood pressure and kidney update 2014.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Aronow, Wilbert S; Serban, Corina; Sahabkar, Amirhossein; Rysz, Jacek; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an effort to review all the most important studies and guidelines in the topics of lipid, blood pressure and kidney published in 2014. Irrespective of advances, the options for improving simultaneous hypercholesterolemia and hypertension management (as well as its complication - chronic kidney disease) remain a problem. Recommending hypolidemic, hypotensive and kidney disease drugs to obtain therapy targets in cardiovascular, diabetic, elderly and kidney disease (=high risk) patients might strengthen risk factor control, improve compliance and the therapy efficacy, and in the consequence reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality rate. That is why the authors have decided to summary and discuss the recent scientific achievements in the field of lipid, blood pressure and kidney. PMID:25819754

  1. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160306.html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  2. Blood Pressure Measurements Taken by Patients are Similar to Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pierin, Angela M. G.; Ignez, Edna C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Barbato, Alfonso Júlio Guedes; Mion, Décio

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare blood pressure measurements taken at home by physicians, nurses, and patients with office blood pressure measurement , ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure measurement. METHODS A total of 44 patients seen by a home care program were studied. Protocol 1 a) blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician and a nurse during a regular home visit (Home1); b) home blood pressure measurement was measured for 4 days (HBPM1); c) office blood pressure measurement was measured by a physician, a nurse, and the patient; and by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Protocol 2 blood pressure was measured by the patient, a physician, and a nurse during a special home visit in the presence of a physician and a nurse only (Home2); and b) home blood pressure measurement was taken for the second time (HBPM2). Echocardiography, guided by a two-dimensional echocardiograph, was performed. RESULTS Protocol 1: a) office blood pressure measurement and Home1 were significantly higher than ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, except for systolic and diastolic office blood pressure measurement taken by the patient or a family member, systolic blood pressure taken by a nurse, and diastolic blood pressure taken by a physician. b) ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and HBPM1 were similar. Protocol 2: a) HBPM2 and Home2 were similar. b) Home2 was significantly lower than Home1, except for diastolic blood pressure taken by a nurse or the patient. There were significant relationships between: a) diastolic blood pressure measured by the patient and the thickness of the interventricular septum, posterior wall, and left ventricular mass; and b) ambulatory and HBPM2 diastolic and systolic blood pressure taken by a physician (home2) and left ventricular mass. Therefore, the data indicate that home blood pressure measurement and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring had good prognostic values relative to “office measurement.” CONCLUSION

  3. Accuracy of the blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rabbia, F; Del Colle, S; Testa, E; Naso, D; Veglio, F

    2006-08-01

    Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone for the diagnosis, the treatment and the research on arterial hypertension, and all of the decisions about one of these single aspects may be dramatically influenced by the accuracy of the measurement. Over the past 20 years or so, the accuracy of the conventional Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff technique of blood pressure measurement has been questioned and efforts have been made to improve the technique with automated devices. In the same period, recognition of the phenomenon of white coat hypertension, whereby some individuals with an apparent increase in blood pressure have normal, or reduced, blood pressures when measurement is repeated away from the medical environment, has focused attention on methods of measurement that provide profiles of blood pressure behavior rather than relying on isolated measurements under circumstances that may in themselves influence the level of blood pressure recorded. These methodologies have included repeated measurements of blood pressure using the traditional technique, self-measurement of blood pressure in the home or work place, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement using innovative automated devices. The purpose of this review to serve as a source of practical information about the commonly used methods for blood pressure measurement: the traditional Riva-Rocci method and the automated methods. PMID:17016412

  4. Reduced short-term complexity of heart rate and blood pressure dynamics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: multiscale entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Trunkvalterova, Z; Javorka, M; Tonhajzerova, I; Javorkova, J; Lazarova, Z; Javorka, K; Baumert, M

    2008-07-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis provides information about complexity on various time scales. The aim of this study was to test whether MSE is able to detect autonomic dysregulation in young patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We analyzed heart rate (HR) oscillations, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) signals in 14 patients with DM type 1 and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. SampEn values (scales 1-10) and linear measures were computed. HR: among the linear measures of heart rate variability significant differences between groups were only found for RMSSD (p = 0.043). MSE was significantly reduced on scales 2 and 3 in DM (p = 0.023 and 0.010, respectively). SBP and DBP: no significant differences were detected with linear measures. In contrast, MSE analysis revealed significantly lower SampEn values in DM on scale 3 (p = 0.039 for SBP; p = 0.015 for DBP). No significant correlations were found between MSE and linear measures. In conclusion, MSE analysis of HR, SBP and DBP oscillations is able to detect subtle abnormalities in cardiovascular control in young patients with DM and is independent of standard linear measures. PMID:18583725

  5. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  6. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  7. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Asystasia gangetica on the blood pressure and heart rate in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asystasia gangentica (A. gangetica) belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is used to treat hypertension, rheumatism, asthma, diabetes mellitus, and as an anthelmintic in South Africa, India, Cameroun, Nigeria, and Kenya respectively. It has also been reported to inhibit the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in-vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the in-vivo effect of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of A. gangetica on the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in anaesthetized male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) by which it acts. Methods The ALE of A. gangetica (10–400 mg/kg), angiotensin I human acetate salt hydrate (ANG I, 3.1–100 μg/kg) and angiotensin II human (ANG II, 3.1–50 μg/kg) were administered intravenously. The BP and HR were measured via a pressure transducer connecting the femoral artery to a Powerlab and a computer for recording. Results A. gangetica significantly (p<0.05), and dose-dependently reduced the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP. The significant (p<0.05) reductions in HR were not dose-dependent. Both ANG I and ANG II increased the BP dose-dependently. Co-infusion of A. gangetica (200 mg/kg) with either ANG I or ANG II significantly (p<0.05) suppressed the hypertensive effect of both ANG I and ANG II respectively, and was associated with reductions in HR. Conclusions A. gangetica ALE reduced BP and HR in the SHR. The reduction in BP may be a result of actions of the ALE on the ACE, the ANG II receptors and the heart rate. PMID:24160568

  8. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet Updated:Apr 8, ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  9. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  10. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health. Normal blood flow delivers nutrients and oxygen to all parts of your body, including important ...

  11. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization What are the risks for my baby if ... blood cells. Hypertension: High blood pressure. In Vitro Fertilization: A procedure in which an egg is removed ...

  12. Influence of Rest Interval Length Between Sets on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability After a Strength Training Session Performed By Prehypertensive Men.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; Machado Reis, Victor; Freitas de Salles, Belmiro; Simão, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Figueiredo, T, Willardson, JM, Miranda, H, Bentes, CM, Machado Reis, V, Freitas de Salles, B, and Simão, R. Influence of rest interval length between sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session performed by prehypertensive men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1813-1824, 2016-The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of 2 different rest interval lengths between sets and exercises during strength training (ST) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in prehypertensive trained men, and to verify how HRV influences BP. Eleven volunteer subjects (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 7.9 kg; height: 172.1 ± 4.1 cm; % body fat: 18.3 ± 6.3; ST experience: 1.7 ± 0.8 years) participated in this study. After assessing one repetition maximum (1RM) loads for the free weight bench press, lat pull-down, shoulder press, biceps curl, triceps extension, leg press, leg extension, and leg curl exercises; subjects performed 2 sessions with different rest intervals between sets and exercises in random order and 72 hours apart. Each ST session consisted of performing 3 sets of eight to 10 repetitions at 70% of a 1RM for each exercise, with either 1-minute (sequence 1 [SEQ1]) or 2-minute (sequence 2 [SEQ2]) rest intervals between sets and exercises, respectively. Before and after each session, BP and HRV (low frequency band, high frequency [HF] band, and square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR-interval index) were tracked for 60 minutes. The results demonstrated a postexercise hypotensive response (PEH) after both rest interval conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, increases in cardiac stress were noted after SEQ1, with a greater withdrawal in parasympathetic activity vs. baseline as noted in the HF band at 1-, 10-, and 20-minute postexercise (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that both sequences provided an effective stimulus for a PEH. Therefore, strength and conditioning professionals may

  13. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  14. Pressure natriuresis and the renal control of arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Jessica R; Bailey, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of extracellular fluid volume by renal sodium excretion lies at the centre of blood pressure homeostasis. Renal perfusion pressure can directly regulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This acute pressure natriuresis response is a uniquely powerful means of stabilizing long-term blood pressure around a set point. By logical extension, deviation from the set point can only be sustained if the pressure natriuresis mechanism is impaired, suggesting that hypertension is caused or sustained by a defect in the relationship between renal perfusion pressure and sodium excretion. Here we describe the role of pressure natriuresis in blood pressure control and outline the cascade of biophysical and paracrine events in the renal medulla that integrate the vascular and tubular response to altered perfusion pressure. Pressure natriuresis is impaired in hypertension and mechanistic insight into dysfunction comes from genetic analysis of blood pressure disorders. Transplantation studies in rats show that blood pressure is determined by the genotype of the kidney and Mendelian hypertension indicates that the distal nephron influences the overall natriuretic efficiency. These approaches and the outcomes of genome-wide-association studies broaden our view of blood pressure control, suggesting that renal sympathetic nerve activity and local inflammation can impair pressure natriuresis to cause hypertension. Understanding how these systems interact is necessary to tackle the global burden of hypertension. PMID:25107929

  15. Blood pressure and blood lead concentration in bus drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.S.; Osterloh, J.; Becker, C.E.; Bernard, B.; Smith, A.H.; Fisher, J.M.; Syme, S.L.; Holman, B.L.; Johnston, T.

    1988-06-01

    San Francisco bus drivers have an increased prevalence of hypertension. This study examined relationships between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in 342 drivers. The analysis reported in this study was limited to subjects not on treatment for hypertension (n = 288). Systolic and diastolic pressure varied from 102 to 173 mm Hg and from 61 to 105 mm Hg, respectively. The blood lead concentration varied from 2 to 15 ..mu..g/dL. The relationship between blood pressure and the logarithm of blood lead concentration was examined using multiple regression analysis. Covariates included age, body mass index, sex, race, and caffeine intake. The largest regression coefficient relating systolic blood pressure and blood lead concentration was 1.8 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). The coefficient for diastolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg/ln (..mu..g/dL). These findings suggest effects of lead exposure at lower blood lead concentrations than those concentrations that have previously been linked with increases in blood pressure.

  16. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fixler, D E; Wallace, J M; Thornton, W E; Dimmitt, P

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to identify youths with chronic blood pressure elevation. Nineteen adolescent boys were studied, ten had 5-year average systolic or diastolic pressures above the 95th percentile, nine had normal pressure. A Del Mar Avionics Pressurometer III system recorded an average of 121 readings on each subject. The coefficients of variation for pressure were similar for hypertensive and normotensive individuals. During classes, eight of the ten hypertensive youths had elevated pressures in over half of the measurements. Also during these classes eight of ten hypertensive boys had average systolic or diastolic pressure above the 95th percentile, whereas only one of nine normotensive boys had average pressures above this level. We suggest that schooltime ambulatory pressures may be most useful in classifying the blood pressure trend in a youth. PMID:2346634

  17. Effects of polymorphisms in beta1-adrenoceptor and alpha-subunit of G protein on heart rate and blood pressure during exercise test. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimäki, Terho; Laiho, Jarno; Rontu, Riikka; Niemelä, Kari; Kööbi, Tiit; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2006-02-01

    We tested whether the Arg389Gly and Ser49Gly polymorphisms of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene ADRB1 and the T393C polymorphism of the G protein alpha-subunit gene GNAS1 modulate heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses during an exercise stress test. The study population comprised 890 participants (563 men and 327 women, mean age 58.1 +/- 12.6 yr) of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study. Their HR, systolic (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressures (DAP) at rest, during exercise, and 4 min after the test were measured and analyzed by repeated-measurement ANOVA (RANOVA). Genotypes were detected by TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. In all subjects, and in men and women separately, the T393C of GNAS1 was the only polymorphism with genotype x time interaction in HR over the three study phases (P = 0.04, RANOVA). None of the polymorphisms presented genotype x time interaction in SAP or DAP responses (P > 0.10, RANOVA). In all subjects at rest, the Ser49Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 tended (P = 0.06, ANOVA) to differentiate HR. Arg389Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 affected maximal SAP during exercise (P = 0.04, ANOVA) and the change in SAP from rest to maximal (P = 0.03, ANOVA). Arg389 homozygotes, particularly men, were less likely to have ventricular extrasystoles during the exercise (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.91, P = 0.009, and odds ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.86, P = 0.006, respectively) than did Gly389 carriers. In conclusion, polymorphisms examined appear to have modulatory effects on hemodynamics in a clinical exercise test setting. However, the effects in absolute numbers were minor and clinically possibly insignificant. PMID:16210433

  18. Comparison of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure with Toe Pinch and Bispectral Index for Monitoring the Depth of Anesthesia in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Samer M; Sullivan, Sarah; Hankenson, F Claire; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Margulies, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Determining depth of anesthesia (DOA) is a clinical challenge in veterinary medicine, yet it is critical for the appropriate oversight of animals involved in potentially painful experimental procedures. Here, we investigated various parameters used to monitor conscious awareness during surgical procedures and refined the application of noxious stimuli to anesthetized animals. Specifically we used a common stimulus, a compressive toe pinch (TP), to determine physiologic changes that accompanied a positive or negative motion response in isoflurane-anesthetized piglets. A positive response was defined as any reflexive withdrawal, whereas a negative response was defined as the absence of motion after stimulation. We also assessed the utility of the bispectral index (BIS) for its ability to predict a motion response to TP. The average of BIS values over 1 min (BISmean) was recorded before and after TP. In piglets with a positive response to TP, heart rate (HR), but not blood pressure (BP), increased significantly, but receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that HR was not a sensitive, specific predictor of TP motion response. Both before and after TP, BISmean was a strong predictor of a positive motion response. We conclude that HR and noninvasive BP changes are not clinically reliable indicators of anesthetic depth when assessed immediately after a peripherally applied compressive force as an indicator stimulus; however, BISmean and response TP are acceptable for assessing DOA in piglets maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26424252

  19. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians

    PubMed Central

    Malek, F.; Rani, K. A.; Rahim, H. A.; Omar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipseTM) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P’s > 0.05). PMID:26286015

  20. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05). PMID:26286015

  1. Non-β-blocking R-carvedilol enantiomer suppresses Ca2+ waves and stress-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia without lowering heart rate or blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingqun; Zhou, Qiang; Smith, Chris D; Chen, Haiyan; Tan, Zhen; Chen, Biyi; Nani, Alma; Wu, Guogen; Song, Long-Sheng; Fill, Michael; Back, Thomas G; Chen, S R Wayne

    2015-09-01

    Carvedilol is the current β-blocker of choice for suppressing ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). However, carvedilol's benefits are dose-limited, attributable to its potent β-blocking activity that can lead to bradycardia and hypotension. The clinically used carvedilol is a racemic mixture of β-blocking S-carvedilol and non-β-blocking R-carvedilol. We recently reported that novel non-β-blocking carvedilol analogues are effective in suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves and stress-induced VT without causing bradycardia. Thus, the non-β-blocking R-carvedilol enantiomer may also possess this favourable anti-arrhythmic property. To test this possibility, we synthesized R-carvedilol and assessed its effect on Ca(2+) release and VT. Like racemic carvedilol, R-carvedilol directly reduces the open duration of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), suppresses spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, Ca(2+) waves in cardiomyocytes in intact hearts and stress-induced VT in mice harbouring a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)-causing RyR2 mutation. Importantly, R-carvedilol did not significantly alter heart rate or blood pressure. Therefore, the non-β-blocking R-carvedilol enantiomer represents a very promising prophylactic treatment for Ca(2+)- triggered arrhythmia without the bradycardia and hypotension often associated with racemic carvedilol. Systematic clinical assessments of R-carvedilol as a new anti-arrhythmic agent may be warranted. PMID:26348911

  2. Comparison of Heart Rate and Blood Pressure with Toe Pinch and Bispectral Index for Monitoring the Depth of Anesthesia in Piglets.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Samer M; Sullivan, Sarah; Hankenson, F Claire; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Margulies, Susan S

    2015-09-01

    Determining depth of anesthesia (DOA) is a clinical challenge in veterinary medicine, yet it is critical for the appropriate oversight of animals involved in potentially painful experimental procedures. Here, we investigated various parameters used to monitor conscious awareness during surgical procedures and refined the application of noxious stimuli to anesthetized animals. Specifically we used a common stimulus, a compressive toe pinch (TP), to determine physiologic changes that accompanied a positive or negative motion response in isoflurane-anesthetized piglets. A positive response was defined as any reflexive withdrawal, whereas a negative response was defined as the absence of motion after stimulation. We also assessed the utility of the bispectral index (BIS) for its ability to predict a motion response to TP. The average of BIS values over 1 min (BISmean) was recorded before and after TP. In piglets with a positive response to TP, heart rate (HR), but not blood pressure (BP), increased significantly, but receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that HR was not a sensitive, specific predictor of TP motion response. Both before and after TP, BISmean was a strong predictor of a positive motion response. We conclude that HR and noninvasive BP changes are not clinically reliable indicators of anesthetic depth when assessed immediately after a peripherally applied compressive force as an indicator stimulus; however, BISmean and response TP are acceptable for assessing DOA in piglets maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:26424252

  3. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  4. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension. PMID:26362125

  5. [Ambulatory invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, K; Wortmann, A; Engels, G

    1989-08-01

    Indirect arterial blood pressure measurement has not changed substantially since its introduction by Riva-Rocci in 1986, Korotkoff in 1905 and Recklinghausen in 1906. Random measurements in the clinic or practice reflect only incompletely the dynamic nature of the blood pressure. Blood pressure recordings by patients themselves have provided more information through better temporal resolution, however, exact characterization of the pressure response throughout the entire day and, in particular, during physical exertion are not enabled; the latter are especially important with regard to diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In 1966, therefore, radiotelemetric transmission of direct, continuously-measured arterial blood pressure was developed which enabled beat-to-beat registration of blood pressure, outside the laboratory, during normal daily life and sport activities. The initial results showed a marked variability of the blood pressure during the course of the day (Figure 1). Excessive blood pressure increases were observed during exposure to cold, static and dynamic exercise and to a lesser degree during automobile driving and exposure to heat (Figure 3). Recording of the pressure curves via transmission by radiotelemetry shows a high degree of accuracy and temporal resolution, spatial and situational freedom but is invasive and costly in terms of personnel. The same holds true for direct continuous blood pressure registration and storage on a portable tape recorder. Portable, automatic blood pressure measuring units for ambulatory monitoring employ indirect auscultatory or oscillometric recording with a cuff. As compared with the radiotelemetric direct continuous blood pressure measuring method, the indirect method has subordinate temporal resolution, that is, the measurements are only intermittent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2676813

  6. Automatic Blood Pressure Measurements During Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.

  7. Systolic Blood Pressure Lower than Heart Rate upon Arrival at and Departure from the Emergency Department Indicates a Poor Outcome for Adult Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wei-Hung; Wu, Shao-Chun; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable trauma death. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the hemodynamic stability of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI < 1) may indicate hemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess the associated complications in trauma patients with an RSI < 1 upon arrival at the emergency department (ED) (indicated as (A)RSI) and at the time of departure from the ED (indicated as (L)RSI) to the operative room or for admission. Methods: Data obtained from all 16,548 hospitalized patients recorded in the trauma registry system at a Level I trauma center between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 10,234 adult trauma patients aged ≥20 were enrolled and subsequently divided into four groups: Group I, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 9827); Group II, (A)RSI ≥ 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 76); Group III, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI ≥ 1 (n = 251); and Group IV, (A)RSI < 1 and (L)RSI < 1 (n = 80). Pearson’s χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test, or independent Student’s t-test was conducted to compare trauma patients in Groups II, III, and IV with those in Group I. Results: Patients in Groups II, III, and IV had a higher injury severity score and underwent a higher number of procedures, including intubation, chest tube insertion, and blood transfusion, than Group I patients. Additionally, patients of these groups had increased hospital length of stay (16.3 days, 14.9 days, and 22.0 days, respectively), proportion of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (48.7%, 43.0%, and 62.5%, respectively), and in-hospital mortality (19.7%, 7.6%, and 27.5%, respectively). Although the trauma patients who had a SBP < 90 mmHg either upon arrival at or departure from the ED also present a more severe injury and poor outcome, those patients who had a SBP ≥ 90 mmHg but an RSI < 1 had

  8. Determinants of Blood Pressure in Navajo Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulehan, John L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Among 580 Navajo adolescents, 11.1 percent of males and 1.6 percent of females had high blood pressure. Blood pressure was related to age in males and to body mass index in females but was not related to level of acculturation or traditionality. Contains 17 references. (SV)

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension. PMID:18423650

  10. A Discussion on the Regulation of Blood Flow and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christopher B; Collier, David J; Shah, Mussadiq; Saxena, Manish; Brier, Timothy J; Kapil, Vikas; Green, David; Lobo, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two kinds of regulation essential to the circulatory system: namely the regulation of blood flow and that of (systemic) arterial blood pressure. It is pointed out that blood flow requirements sub-serve the nutritional needs of the tissues, adequately catered for by keeping blood flow sufficient for the individual oxygen needs. Individual tissue oxygen requirements vary between tissue types, while highly specific for a given individual tissue. Hence, blood flows are distributed between multiple tissues, each with a specific optimum relationship between the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Previous work has illustrated that the individual tissue blood flows are adjusted proportionately, where there are variations in metabolic rate and where arterial oxygen content (CaO2) varies. While arterial blood pressure is essential for the provision of a sufficient pressure gradient to drive blood flow, it is applicable throughout the arterial system at any one time. Furthermore, It is regulated independently of the input resistance to individual tissues (local arterioles), since they are regulated locally, that being the means by which the highly specific adequate local requirement for DO2 is ensured. Since total blood flow is the summation of all the individually regulated tissue blood flows cardiac inflow (venous return) amounts to total tissue blood flow and as the heart puts out what it receives cardiac output is therefore determined at the tissues. Hence, regulation of arterial blood pressure is independent of the distributed independent regulation of individual tissues. It is proposed here that mechanical features of arterial blood pressure regulation will depend rather on the balance between blood volume and venous wall tension, determinants of venous pressure. The potential for this explanation is treated in some detail. PMID:26782204

  11. The effects of feedback on blood pressure discrimination.

    PubMed Central

    Cinciripini, P M; Epstein, L H; Martin, J E

    1979-01-01

    Discrimination of blood pressure in the natural environment as a function of feedback was assessed. Seventeen normotensives screened for blood pressure lability were randomly assigned to two groups. These subjects were then asked to estimate their systolic and diastolic blood pressure values two times per day over a 4-week period. Feedback for accuracy of blood pressure discriminations was implemented across the two groups in a multiple baseline fashion, using a feedback withdrawal condition in Group I to assess maintenance effects over time. Results showed improvement in discrimination accuracy for subjects in both groups when feedback was used, and no decrement in performance over a 2-week period after feedback was removed for subjects in Group I. Discrimination of systolic pressures improved at a slightly faster rate than discrimination of diastolic pressures. PMID:511803

  12. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of ... Articles "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease / Women and Heart Disease / Blood Pressure ...

  13. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  14. An alternative approach to approximate entropy threshold value (r) selection: application to heart rate variability and systolic blood pressure variability under postural challenge.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Saini, B S; Singh, D

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an alternative approach to approximate entropy (ApEn) threshold value (r) selection. There are two limitations of traditional ApEn algorithm: (1) the occurrence of undefined conditional probability (CPu) where no template match is found and (2) use of a crisp tolerance (radius) threshold 'r'. To overcome these limitations, CPu is substituted with optimum bias setting ɛ opt which is found by varying ɛ from (1/N - m) to 1 in the increments of 0.05, where N is the length of the series and m is the embedding dimension. Furthermore, an alternative approach for selection of r based on binning the distance values obtained by template matching to calculate ApEnbin is presented. It is observed that ApEnmax, ApEnchon and ApEnbin converge for ɛ opt = 0.6 in 50 realizations (n = 50) of random number series of N = 300. Similar analysis suggests ɛ opt = 0.65 and ɛ opt = 0.45 for 50 realizations each of fractional Brownian motion and MIX(P) series (Lu et al. in J Clin Monit Comput 22(1):23-29, 2008). ɛ opt = 0.5 is suggested for heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) signals obtained from 50 young healthy subjects under supine and upright position. It is observed that (1) ApEnbin of HRV is lower than SBPV, (2) ApEnbin of HRV increases from supine to upright due to vagal inhibition and (3) ApEnbin of BPV decreases from supine to upright due to sympathetic activation. Moreover, merit of ApEnbin is that it provides an alternative to the cumbersome ApEnmax procedure. PMID:26253284

  15. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Figen Kir; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Ural, Ulku Mete; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Senturk, Senol; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Balik, Gulsah; Cure, Erkan; Yuce, Suleyman; Kirbas, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1) may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR).This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS) were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram.The levels of N1 (p < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.036), homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001), systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP and HR (p < 0.001) in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004). N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone.Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects.  N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR. PMID:26295295

  16. Influence of local anesthetics with or without epinephrine 1/80000 on blood pressure and heart rate: A randomized double-blind experimental clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Mohammad; Shamami, Mehrnaz Sadighi; Alaie, Maryam; Shamami, Mehrnoosh Sadighi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Local anesthesia (LA) with epinephrine have an important role in pain and bleeding control. However, most clinicians believe LA + epinephrine may cause rapid raise in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The aim of this research was to compare the changes in HR and BP after administration of lidocaine with and without epinephrine 1/80000 in two infiltration (INF) and inferior alveolar nerve block methods (IANB). Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized double-blind experimental clinical trial. Forty subjects were divided into two equal groups and two subgroups. In one group, INF and in the other group, IANB were used and, further, in one subgroup lidocaine and in another subgroup, lidocaine plus epinephrine were used. BP and HR were recorded before and 10 min after. The paired t-test for intragroup differences and independent t-test for intergroup analysis were used at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: The mean BP and HR values were reduced after injection of lidocaine in both INF and IANB compared with baseline. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), but, on comparing these values between the two injection methods, the differences were not statically significant (P = 0.089 and 0.066, respectively). The mean BP and HR values were increased after injection of lidocaine plus epinephrine in both INF and IANB compared with baseline, and these were statistically significant (P < 0.05) but, on comparing these values between the two methods, the differences were not statically significant (P = 0.071 and 0.092, respectively). Conclusion: The rise in BP and HR following injection of lidocaine plus epinephrine was statistically significant compared with baseline in both INF and IANB, but this was not clinically and numerically considerable. PMID:23162585

  17. Nesfatin-1 and Vitamin D levels may be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and hearth rate in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Figen Kir; Sahin, Serap Baydur; Ural, Ulku Mete; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Senturk, Senol; Tekin, Yesim Bayoglu; Balik, Gulsah; Cure, Erkan; Yuce, Suleyman; Kirbas, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hyperandrogenism may lead to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypertension. Nesfatin-1 (N1) may be related to IR, obesity, and hypertension. Furthermore, a vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with hypertension and PCOS. We aimed to investigate N1 and VD levels in PCOS that have an effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study included 54 patients with PCOS and 48 age-body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. PCOS was diagnosed according to clinical practice guidelines. Ferriman-Gallwey scores (FGS) were calculated, while N1, VD, and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were measured for all subjects. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured as well. HR was calculated using an electrocardiogram. The levels of N1 (p < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.036), homeostasis model assessment as an index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001), systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) BP and HR (p < 0.001) in the PCOS group were significantly higher than in the control group. However, the VD levels of the PCOS group were lower than the control group (p = 0.004). N1 had a strong positive correlation with BMI, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, luteinizing hormone, systolic and diastolic BP, and HR. VD levels were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR and luteinizing hormone. Elevated N1 and decreased VD levels may be related to the presence of high-normal BP or hypertension in PCOS subjects. N1 level may be associated with an increased BP due to its relation to inflammation and IR. PMID:26295295

  18. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations. PMID:23161271

  19. Effects of maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Chinese women on children's heart rate and blood pressure response to stress.

    PubMed

    Fan, F; Zou, Y; Tian, H; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Ma, X; Meng, Y; Yue, Y; Liu, K; Dart, A M

    2016-03-01

    Psychological disturbances, including anxiety and depression, are common during human pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether these maternal disturbances influence cardiovascular responses of the offspring. The psychological status of 231 pregnant women was determined. Offspring (216) of these women were subsequently exposed to a video challenge stress when aged 7-9 years. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) of the children were determined at rest, in response to video stress and during subsequent recovery. Children's resting and stress-induced increases in HR (bpm), systolic (SBP, mm Hg) and diastolic (DBP, mm Hg) BP were all greater in children whose mothers reported anxiety during pregnancy. Values (mean±s.d.) for resting HR, SBP and DBP were 75.15±5.87, 95.37±2.72 and 66.39±4.74 for children whose mothers reported no anxiety and an average of 81.62±6.71, 97.26±2.90 and 68.86±2.82 for children whose mothers reported anxiety at any level. Respective values for stress-induced increments in HR, SBP and DBP were 14.83.±2.14, 16.41±1.97 and 12.72±2.69 for children whose mothers reported no anxiety and 17.95±3.46, 18.74±2.46 and 14.86±2.02 for children whose mothers reported any level of anxiety. Effects of maternal depression were less consistent. The effects of maternal anxiety remained in multivariate analyses, which also included children's birth weight. The results indicate a long-term influence of maternal psychological status during pregnancy on the cardiovascular responses to stress among offspring. These effects may contribute to prenatal influences on subsequent health of the offspring. PMID:26084653

  20. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jia; Chewning, Betty A; Johnson, Heather M; Vanness, David J; Young, Henry N; Kreling, David H

    2015-01-01

    Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05). We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing blood pressure

  1. Blood pressure and the perception of illusive pain.

    PubMed

    Scheuren, Raymonde; Duschek, Stefan; Schulz, André; Sütterlin, Stefan; Anton, Fernand

    2016-08-01

    Numerous studies have documented an inverse relationship between blood pressure and sensitivity to experimental nociceptive stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate possible associations between blood pressure and the occurrence and intensity of paradoxical pain induced by the thermal grill paradigm. Thirty-one healthy subjects were stimulated three times for 1 min with the nonnoxious temperatures of 15°C and 41°C set at the interlaced cold and warm bars of a water bath-driven thermal grill. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded concomitantly. On account of previous observations of an association between the sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex and pain perception, this parameter was additionally obtained. Numerical rating scales were used to quantify subjective pain intensity and pain unpleasantness; subjects were classified as responders and nonresponders to thermal grill stimulation based on pain intensity ratings. Responders exhibited lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than nonresponders, and inverse linear associations arose between blood pressure and pain intensity and unpleasantness. Baroreflex sensitivity was unrelated to pain ratings. The findings confirmed the hypothesis of a blood pressure dependence of paradoxical pain and support the notion that the cardiovascular and pain regulatory systems interact not only in the processing of pain elicited by noxious input, but also in nonnoxiously generated illusive pain. While this finding is not consistent with the assumption of an involvement of the baroreflex system in mediating the observed interaction, psychological traits and neurochemical factors are alternatively considered. PMID:27079150

  2. Blood Pressure in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Robert W.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Moore, Charity G.; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. RESULTS The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril–telmisartan group and the lisinopril–placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P = 0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (−1.17 vs. −0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly

  3. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps. PMID:24983758

  4. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    PubMed Central

    Kantarci, Gülçin

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016

  5. Twenty four hour intermittent, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Egger, M; Bianchetti, M G; Gnädinger, M; Kobelt, R; Oetliker, O

    1987-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 30 minutes during the day and every hour during the night in 43 children (20 girls and 23 boys, aged 10 to 16) with a portable automated monitor. The apparatus was better accepted in girls than in boys, and the failure rate was lower during the day. The overall failure rate was 22%, which corresponds with comparable studies in adults. During the night blood pressure and heart rate fell by 10% and 14% of the daytime values, respectively. Mean (SD) blood pressure was significantly higher in boys than in girls (126/72 (17/8) v 109/64 (9/5) mm Hg) and measurements correlated positively with age, body weight, and height of the subjects. Heart rate was not significantly influenced by gender or age. A positive correlation between heart rate and blood pressure was found when expressed as standard normal deviations or hourly variations. In children intermittent monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate is a suitable method for measuring individual diurnal patterns. PMID:3688917

  6. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV. PMID:26619673

  7. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-20

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26923351

  8. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Center National Kidney Foundation Smokefree.gov MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Page Content On this page: What is ...

  9. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... in New York City. Until published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, the results should be considered preliminary. One-third of U.S. adults have high blood pressure, also called hypertension. It contributes to more than ...

  10. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field. PMID:23054892

  11. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... when the sounds disappear. When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic ...

  13. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158828.html Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix Study links moderate drinking to heart damage in people with hypertension To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  14. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158731.html Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk Odds increase with rapid rise in middle ... overall pattern to predict a patient's risk of stroke or early death, new research suggests. "Our study ...

  15. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. High blood pressure is the number one risk ... of epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Andrew Rogove, M.D., Ph.D., medical director, ...

  16. Principles and techniques of blood pressure measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Pickering, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Although the mercury sphygmomanometer is widely regarded as the “gold standard” for office blood pressure measurement, the ban on use of mercury devices continues to diminish their role in office and hospital settings. To date, mercury devices have largely been phased out in US hospitals. This has led to the proliferation of non-mercury devices and has changed (probably for ever) the preferable modality of blood pressure measurement in clinic and hospital settings. In this article, the basic techniques of blood pressure measurement and the technical issues associated with measurements in clinical practice are discussed. The devices currently available for hospital and clinic measurements and their important sources of error are presented. Practical advice is given on how the different devices and measurement techniques should be used. Blood pressure measurements in different circumstances and in special populations such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly persons, and obese subjects are discussed. PMID:20937442

  17. Correlates of Blood Pressure in Elementary Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Christopher L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This cross-sectional study determined which anthropometric, dietary, and physical fitness variables were the best predictors of blood pressure in 323 white elementary school children. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  18. Pragmatic Method Using Blood Pressure Diaries to Assess Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, James E.; Blizzard, Leigh; Kosmala, Wojciech; Nelson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Twenty-four–hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the reference standard of blood pressure control. Home blood pressure (HBP) is superior to clinic blood pressure for assessing control, but a barrier to its use is the need for physicians to calculate average blood pressure from patient diaries. We sought to develop a quick and pragmatic method to assess blood pressure control from patients’ HBP diaries. METHODS Seven-day HBP and 24-hour ABP were measured in 286 patients with uncomplicated treated hypertension (aged 64 ± 8 years; 53% female). We determined the optimal ratio of home systolic blood pressure readings above threshold (≥135 mm Hg) for the last 10 recorded that would best predict elevated 24-hour ABP. Uncontrolled blood pressure was defined as 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or 24-hour ABP daytime systolic blood pressure ≥135 mm Hg. Validation by corroborative evidence was tested by association with markers of end-organ disease. RESULTS The best predictor of 24-hour ABP systolic blood pressure above treatment/target threshold was having 3 or more (≥30%) of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure readings ≥135 mm Hg (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.71). Importantly, patients meeting this criterion had evidence of target organ disease, with significantly higher aortic stiffness, left ventricular relative wall thickness, and left atrial area, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction, compared with those who did not meet this criterion. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate uptake of HBP monitoring, we propose that physicians can determine the percentage of the last 10 home systolic blood pressure values ≥135 mm Hg for a patient and tailor management accordingly. PMID:26755785

  19. Influence of genetic variance on sodium sensitivity of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Luft, F C; Miller, J Z; Weinberger, M H; Grim, C E; Daugherty, S A; Christian, J C

    1987-02-01

    To examine the effect of genetic variance on blood pressure, sodium homeostasis, and its regulatory determinants, we studied 37 pairs of monozygotic twins and 18 pairs of dizygotic twins under conditions of volume expansion and contraction. We found that, in addition to blood pressure and body size, sodium excretion in response to provocative maneuvers, glomerular filtration rate, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system are influenced by genetic variance. To elucidate the interaction of genetic factors and an environmental influence, namely, salt intake, we restricted dietary sodium in 44 families of twin children. In addition to a modest decrease in blood pressure, we found heterogeneous responses in blood pressure indicative of sodium sensitivity and resistance which were normally distributed. Strong parent-offspring resemblances were found in baseline blood pressures which persisted when adjustments were made for age and weight. Further, mother-offspring resemblances were observed in the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction. We conclude that the control of sodium homeostasis is heritable and that the change in blood pressure with sodium restriction is familial as well. These data speak to the interaction between the genetic susceptibility to hypertension and environmental influences which may result in its expression. PMID:3553721

  20. Effects of music composed by Mozart and Ligeti on blood pressure and heart rate circadian rhythms in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Björn

    2008-11-01

    There is continuing discussion on the effect of music ("Mozart effect") on numerous functions in man and experimental animals. Radiotelemetry now allows one to monitor cardiovascular functions in freely-moving unrestrained experimental animals. Radiotelemetry was used to monitor systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) in male normotensive WKY and hypertensive SHR animals. Rats were synchronized to a 12 h light (L): 12 h dark (D) regimen in an isolated, ventilated, light-controlled, sound-isolated animal container. Music (Mozart, Symphony # 40; Ligeti, String Quartet # 2) were played for 2 h at 75 dB in the animal cabin starting at the onset of L or D in a cross-over design. Data were collected every 5 min for 24 h under control conditions and during and after music. In addition, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) were determined in unrestrained animals at 3 h intervals over 24 h. In both WKY and SHR, highly significant circadian rhythms were obtained in SBP, DBP, HR, and MA under control conditions; HR was lower and BP higher in SHR than in WKY. NE was circadian rhythmic in both strains with higher values in D; the increase in NE with immobilization was much more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. The music of Mozart had no effect on either parameter in WKY, neither in L nor in D. In contrast, in SHR, the music of Mozart presented in L significantly decreased HR and left BP unaffected, leading to a small decrease in cardiac output. The music of Ligeti significantly increased BP both in L and in D and reflexively reduced HR in L, the effects being long-lasting over 24 h. Interestingly, white noise at 75 dB had no effect at all on either function in both strains. The effects of both Mozart and Ligeti cannot be attributed to a stress reaction, as stress due to cage switch increased HR and BP both in WKY and SHR. The study clearly demonstrates that music of different character (tempo, rhythm, pitch, tonality) can

  1. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158860.html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... doctors spot black people with "masked," or undetected, high blood pressure, a new study suggests. "Masked" high blood pressure ...

  2. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  3. The cumulative effect of coffee and a mental stress task on heart rate, blood pressure, and mental alertness is similar in caffeine-naïve and caffeine-habituated females.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael D; Galloway, Ashley V; Dickau, Leanne J; Hudson, Megan K

    2008-09-01

    Most North American workers drink coffee throughout their workday, although the cumulative effect of job stress and coffee is not well known. Research has shown that coffee affects the cardiovascular system and mental alertness primarily through the active ingredient caffeine; however, the dose of caffeine used in these studies is greater than a normal cup of coffee. In addition, these changes have been mostly determined in male caffeine-habituated consumers. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a normal cup of coffee on the cardiovascular and mental alertness response both before and after a mental stress task in 10 caffeine-naïve (23 +/- 5.0 years) and 10 caffeine-habituated (25 +/- 6 years) females. Blood pressure, heart rate, and mental alertness were taken at baseline (before coffee), 50 minutes after finishing coffee and immediately after a 9-minute mental stress task. The volume of coffee ingested for a 15-minute period was 350 mL (12 oz), which is equivalent to 140 mg of caffeine. The combined effect of coffee and mental stress significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure (Delta8 mm Hg) and increased heart rate (Delta6 beats per minute) and mental alertness (Delta67.3%) in caffeine-naïve and caffeine-habituated females, whereas systolic blood pressure (Delta10.3 mm Hg) only increased in the caffeine-naïve participants. Our results indicate that a normal cup of coffee can effect changes in blood pressure and mental alertness and that mental stress may alter the magnitude of change; however, the transient increase in systolic blood pressure after drinking coffee in caffeine-naïve participants requires further investigation. PMID:19083466

  4. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work. PMID:8899576

  5. Growth Rate and Turgor Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Green, Paul B.; Cummins, W. Raymond

    1974-01-01

    Because turgor pressure is regarded as the driving force for cell extension, any general theory of plant growth requires quantitative information on the relationship between steady irreversible growth rate and turgor pressure. To investigate contrasting views of this relation an automated apparatus was constructed which perfused both the outer and inner epidermis of a single coleoptile while its growth rate was continuously recorded. Turgor was altered abruptly by perfusing with solutions of varying tonicity. With specially grown rye coleoptiles the half-time of the osmo-elastic response was reduced to 2 minutes or less. After decay of this response, however, rate continued to change (so as to partially compensate the effects of the turgor shift in question) for 30 to 60 minutes. Only then could a steady rate be taken. A characterization of steady rate versus turgor covering five turgor values for a single coleoptile thus required many hours. The conclusions are as follows. (a) The change in steady rate, per unit change in turgor, was much greater +IAA than −IAA. (b) Both auxin and turgor act to reset an apparent stabilizing system whose presence is shown in the partial compensation of the initial response to turgor shifts. The above “extensibility” changes are operational only. They need not reflect changes in the immediate physical extensibility of the wall; they could reflect changes in a process acting on the wall. (c) The growth rate versus turgor relation shows some hysteresis. PMID:16658991

  6. [Clinical significance of nocturnal blood pressure and blood pressure variability: analysis of 522 cases].

    PubMed

    Palatini, P; Mormino, P; Martina, S; Businaro, R; Penzo, M; Racioppa, A; Guzzardi, G; Anaclerio, M; Pessina, A C

    1990-03-01

    Purpose of the study was to investigate whether and to what extent blood pressure variability and average night-time blood pressure are related to cardiovascular complications in hypertension. To this aim 60 normotensive and 462 hypertensive subjects were studied by means of non-invasive 24 hour blood pressure monitoring, using either the Avionics, or the ICR Spacelabs, or the Takeda system. Each subject was attributed a target organ damage score on the basis of 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and fundoscopy, starting from 0 (no damage) up to 5 (maximum degree of damage). The 522 subjects were subsequently subdivided into 5 classes of increasing average daytime diastolic blood pressure. In each class a higher degree of cardiovascular complications was present in the subjects with the higher blood pressure variability and the higher average night-time blood pressure. From these results it may be inferred that both blood pressure variability and night-time blood pressure are related to the degree of target organ damage in hypertension. This stresses the importance of recording blood pressure throughout the 24 hours. PMID:2147124

  7. Longitudinal study (32 years) of exercise tolerance, breathing response, blood pressure, and blood lipids in young men.

    PubMed

    Gillum, R F; Taylor, H L; Anderson, J; Blackburn, H

    1981-01-01

    Changes in exercise tolerance, blood lipids, and blood pressure from youth to middle age was studied in 106 subjects followed 32 years. In addition, the responses to cold pressor and CO2 stress were studied as correlates of future lipids and blood pressure. Treadmill exercise test, cold pressor test, response to breathing a mixture of 6% CO2, and 21% O2, for 5 minutes, blood pressure, and lipid measurements were performed in 1947 when subjects were 20 +/- 2 years old. Exercise, blood pressure and lipid tests were repeated in 1979. Tracking of blood pressure and pulse response to exercise over the period was demonstrated. Baseline exercise response correlated with future blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high density lipoproteins. Change in exercise pulse rate over the period correlated with change in cholesterol. Cold pressor systolic blood pressure response correlated with future systolic blood pressure and triglycerides. Pulse and blood pressure response to CO2 breathing correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein 32 years later. These correlations were independent of baseline values of the variables and body mass index. Individuals who were judged "fit" (exercise pulse rise less than median) at both baseline and follow-up had the best cardiovascular risk profile (blood pressure and lipids). Blood pressure and pulse response to exercise tracked between ages 20 and 50. Exercise, cold pressor, and CO2 responses in youth correlated with blood lipid levels in middle age. PMID:6810858

  8. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  9. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... mean? Blood pressure is measured by two numbers. systolic pressure 120 80 diastolic pressure Your provider will ... 120 over 80” The first (or top) number—“systolic”—is the pressure in your blood vessels when ...

  10. `Sausage string' patterns in blood vessels at high blood pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dialtations formed in blood vessels at high blood pressure conditions. Our theory involves the nonlinear stress-strain characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the normal cylindrical geometry of a blood vessel becomes unstable. The theory explains key features observed experimentally, e.g. the limited occurrence of the sausage-string pattern to small arteries and large arterioles, and only in those with small wall-to-lumen ratios.

  11. Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M

    1987-01-01

    Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706

  12. Lipids, blood pressure and kidney update 2015.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Aronow, Wilbert S; Serban, Maria-Corina; Rysz, Jacek; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The most important studies and guidelines in the topics of lipid, blood pressure and kidney published in 2015 were reviewed. In lipid research, the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial revalidated the concept "lower is better" for low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol as a target for therapy, increasing the necessity of treatment the high-risk patients to achieve LDL-C goals. After these results, ezetimibe might become the preferred additional drug in the combination therapy of lipid disorders because of oral dosage form and lower acquisition cost. However, for the statin-intolerant patients and those patients requiring essential reductions in LDL-C to achieve their goals, new therapies, including PCSK9 inhibitors remain promising drugs. In blood pressure research, American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) 2015 guidelines recommended a target for blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg in stable or unstable coronary artery disease patients and below 150/90 mmHg in patients older than 80 years of age, however the recent results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) trial have suggested that there might be significant benefits, taking into account cardiovascular risk, for hypertensive patients over 50 without diabetes and blood pressure levels <120/80. In kidney research, reducing the progression of chronic kidney disease and related complications such as anemia, metabolic acidosis, bone and mineral diseases, acute kidney injury and cardiovascular disease is still a goal for clinicians. PMID:26718096

  13. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  14. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  15. Oscillometric blood pressure: a review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Bruce S; Quinn, David; Gallick, David

    2014-12-01

    Oscillometric devices for the non-invasive estimation of blood pressure (BP) have become the "clinical standard" because of training requirements for determination of BP by auscultation, cost, and the phasing-out/banning of mercury in many states and countries. Analysis of recent publications reveals a lack of understanding of the "meaning" of oscillometric blood pressure (OBP) measurements by authors, journal editors, and clinicians. We were invited to submit a review of OBP methodology written for clinicians. We hope that the material contained herein will clarify how clinicians should interpret OBP values for their patients. PMID:25492837

  16. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  17. Verapamil buffering effect on the abrupt elevation in blood pressure, linkage with microcirculatory blood flow.

    PubMed

    Gmitrov, J

    2008-01-01

    1 We studied the effects of verapamil on sudden elevation in blood pressure, microcirculation and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). 2 Thirty experiments (10 controls and 20 with verapamil) were performed in rabbits sedated using pentobarbital infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). 3 BRS, mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured during 30 min of verapamil infusion (20 mug kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from HR and MAP responses to intravenous phenylephrine (Ph) and by power spectral analysis using transfer function (TF) from MAP to the HR (BRS(Ph,TF)). 4 Verapamil significantly increased microcirculatory blood flow, and decreased BRS(Ph,TF) and phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (MAP(AE)). 5 A significant inverse correlation was found between verapamil-induced changes in MAP(AE), BRS and in microcirculatory blood flow, measured before phenylephrine blood pressure ramps (DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaBRS(TF), r = -0.47, P < 0.036; DeltaMAP(AE) with DeltaMPPG, r = -0.49, P < 0.025). 6 These results suggest involvement of the arterial baroreflex and vascular blood pressure-buffering mechanisms, their enhancement by verapamil, and thus a potential benefit of verapamil in cardiovascular conditions where patients present with abrupt high elevations in blood pressure. PMID:18598288

  18. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  19. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  20. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  1. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  2. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  3. Blood Pressure in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Arthur J.

    1981-01-01

    In infants the flush and Doppler methods of blood pressure measurement are usually used. The flush method measures mean pressure; the Doppler method, systolic and diastolic pressures. Normal flush values from 1 to 12 months of age do not exceed 100 mm of mercury; Doppler systolic levels do not exceed 113 mm of mercury. Data concerning normal limits for children and adolescents are conflicting. For practical purposes, a persistent pressure of 140 mm of mercury systolic or 90 mm of mercury diastolic in patients more than 10 years of age is indicative of hypertension. In those younger than 10 years, systolic pressure does not normally exceed 130 mm of mercury and diastolic pressure does not normally exceed 85 mm of mercury. Primary hypertension is relatively infrequent in pediatric patients and diagnosis should be made with deliberation and caution. Antihypertensive drug therapy is indicated only for severe hypertension and in selected cases of moderate hypertension. PMID:7245735

  4. Could Spuds Be Bad for Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158878.html Could Spuds Be Bad for Blood Pressure? Eating potatoes 4 or more ...

  5. Blood pressure measurement and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    System is described that employs solid state circuitry to transmit visual display of patient's blood pressure. Response of sphygmomanometer cuff and microphone provide input signals. Signals and their amplitudes, from turn-on time to turn-off time, are continuously fed to data transmitter which transmits to display device.

  6. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  7. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Karanja N, Lin PH; DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med . 2001 Jan 4;344( ...

  8. The use of ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, James A; Tucker, Katherine L; Martin, Una; Beesley, Louise; McManus, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Measurement of ambulatory blood pressure is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension in the UK. This article describes the use of ambulatory devices, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of their use in clinical practice. PMID:26551492

  9. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed. PMID:9650629

  10. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, N

    2003-07-31

    Safety and effect intrapulmonary administration (by inhalation) of 60 % honey solution, 10% dextrose or distill water on blood sugar, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate, and peaked expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in normal or diabetic subjects were studied. - Twenty-four healthy subjects, 16 patients with type 11 diabetes mellitus and six patients with hypertension were entered for study. They were underwent complete physical examination and laboratory investigations. Twelve healthy subjects were subjected for distill water inhalation for 10 min, and after one week they received inhalation of honey solution (60% wt/v) for 10 min. Another 12 healthy subjects received inhalation of 10% dextrose for 10 min. Blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate and PEFR were estimated before inhalation and during 2-3 hrs after inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Random blood glucose level was estimated in eight patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and repeated 30 min after honey inhalation. One week later, fasting blood glucose level was estimated in each patient and blood glucose level was re-estimated during three hrs after honey inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Glucose tolerance test was performed in another eight patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and after one week the procedure was repeated with inhalation of honey, which was started immediately after ingestion of glucose. Six hypertensive patients received honey inhalation for 10 min; supine blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after inhalation. - Results showed that in normal subjects distill water caused mild elevation of blood glucose level, mild lowering of plasma insulin, and significant reduction of plasma C-peptide. 10% dextrose inhalation caused mild reduction of plasma insulin and C-peptide and unremarkable changes in blood glucose level. No significant changes were obtained in blood pressure, heart rate or PEFR after distill

  11. Clinical Assessment of Central Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (CBP) is increasingly considered a better cardiovascular prognostic marker than conventional cuff brachial blood pressure. Because CBP cannot be directly measured noninvasively, it has to be estimated from peripheral pressure pulses. To assess estimated CBP appropriately, the accuracy and features of the estimation method should be considered. The aim of this review is to provide basic knowledge and information useful for interpreting and assessing estimated CBP from a methodological point of view. Precise peripheral pressure pulse recording has been enabled by the introduction of arterial applanation tonometry, for which the radial artery may be the optimal site. An automated tonometry device utilizing a sensor array is preferable in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. Calibration of a peripheral pressure waveform has unresolved problems for any estimation method, due to imperfect brachial sphygmomanometry. However, if central and peripheral pressure calibrations are equivalent, two major methods to estimate CBP—those based on generalized pressure transfer function or radial late systolic pressure—may be comparable in their accuracy of CBP parameter estimation. PMID:22866025

  12. The Effect of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjian; Bo, Yacong; Wang, Xi; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Xule; Han, Zhanying; Qiu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The findings of clinical studies concerning the association between anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent. In order to provide a more precise estimate of the overall effect of anthocyanins on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials about anthocyanins supplementation and BP. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (until October 2015) were searched to identify potential studies with information on anthocyanins extract supplementation and arterial BP. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a summary statistic. Net changes in SBP and DBP between anthocyanins supplementation and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta regression was used to explore the potential moderators of effect size. The publication bias was assessed using Begger's Funnel plots and Egger's tests; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Finally, 6 clinical studies with 472 participants for the effect of anthocyanins consumption on BP were included in the present meta-analysis. There is no significant effect on either SBP (WMD: 1.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: −3.17 to 5.47, I2 = 56%) or DBP (WMD: 1.06 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.71 to 2.83, I2 = 0%) following supplementation with anthocyanins. In summary, results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of supplementation with anthocyanins in improving blood pressure. Further well-designed large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long follow-up period are needed to verify the association of anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure. PMID:27082604

  13. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  14. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  15. Blood Pressure Modifies Retinal Susceptibility to Intraocular Pressure Elevation

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Nguyen, Christine T. O.; Armitage, James A.; Vingrys, Algis J.; Bui, Bang V.

    2012-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine) Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion), moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline), or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II) of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5–10 per group) were subjected to IOP challenge (10–120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes). Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave) and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR). Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow. PMID:22359566

  16. Changes in blood lipids and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, T J; Rodgers, M; Hedley, A J; Mitchell, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 625 adolescents from three general practices participated in a cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease risk factors. The girls had higher serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations than the boys, while the boys had higher serum triglyceride concentrations. Smoking (equally prevalent in both sexes) was associated with lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, particularly in boys, while in girls use of oral contraceptives was associated with higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations showed striking associations with age, height, and sexual maturation in boys, but not in girls. Triglyceride concentrations were associated with age in boys. Systolic blood pressure and serum urate concentrations were higher in boys and rose steeply with age, but no age association was seen for urate concentrations or systolic blood pressure in girls or for diastolic pressures in either sex. Girls, however, had higher diastolic pressures. There was a strong association between urate concentration and the other cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially HDL cholesterol. Adolescence is associated with considerable changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors, and there are striking sex differences in these changes. PMID:6968612

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  2. Engineering studies of vectorcardiographs in blood pressure measuring systems, appendix 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a cardiovascular monitoring system to noninvasively monitor the blood pressure and heart rate using pulse wave velocity was described. The following topics were covered: (1) pulse wave velocity as a measure of arterial blood pressure, (2) diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity in humans, (3) transducer development for blood pressure measuring device, and (4) cardiovascular monitoring system. It was found, in experiments on dogs, that the pulse wave velocity is linearly related to diastolic blood pressure over a wide range of blood pressure and in the presence of many physiological perturbations. A similar relationship was observed in normal, young human males over a moderate range of pressures. Past methods for monitoring blood pressure and a new method based on pulse wave velocity determination were described. Two systems were tested: a Doppler ultrasonic transducer and a photoelectric plethysmograph. A cardiovascular monitoring system was described, including operating instructions.

  3. Elevated blood pressure among Southeast Asian refugee children in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Munger, R G; Gomez-Marin, O; Prineas, R J; Sinaiko, A R

    1991-06-15

    The blood pressures and body sizes of children aged 10-15 years in the Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, public schools were measured during 1986 and 1987. The sample consisted of 1,680 Southeast Asian refugees--including 219 Cambodians, 1,086 Hmong, 149 Lao, and 226 Vietnamese--and 3,424 blacks and 11,336 whites. Mean systolic blood pressure in Hmong boys was higher than that in black boys and white boys. Mean systolic blood pressures of Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese girls were lower than those of black girls and white girls. The mean diastolic blood pressures of Hmong boys and of Cambodian and Hmong girls were greater than those of blacks and whites of the same sexes. Southeast Asian children were shorter and weighed less than black children and white children. Body size may confound associations between ethnic groups and blood pressures and may obscure the problem of hypertension among the smaller Southeast Asian children. Southeast Asian boys had greater mean systolic blood pressures than did black and white boys across all weight strata; a similar contrast among girls did not reveal this difference. The risk of hypertension, defined by US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines, was assessed in multiple logistic regression analyses that controlled for differences in weight, height, age, and pulse rate. The odds ratios for hypertension, relative to blacks and whites of the same sexes, were 2.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-3.65) in Hmong boys, 2.89 (95% CI 1.35-6.21) in Lao boys, 2.10 (95% CI 1.03-4.28) in Cambodian girls, and 1.49 (95% CI 1.00-2.20) in Hmong girls. Hypertension and subsequent cardiovascular disease may emerge as a significant problem among Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. PMID:2063833

  4. Association of maternal blood pressure in pregnancy with blood pressure of their offspring through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Royal-Thomas, Tamika; McGee, Daniel; Sinha, Debajyoti; Osmond, Clive; Forrester, Terrence

    2015-11-01

    This article looks at the association of maternal blood pressure with the blood pressure of the offspring from birth to childhood. The Barker hypothesis states that maternal and "in utero" attributes during pregnancy affect a child's cardiovascular health throughout life. We present an analysis of a unique dataset that consists of three distinct developmental processes: maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy; fetal development; and child's cardiovascular health from birth to 14 years. This study explored whether a mother's blood pressure reading in pregnancy predicts fetal development and determines if this in turn is related to the future cardiovascular health of the child. This article uses data that have been collected prospectively from a Jamaican cohort which involves the following three developmental processes: (1) maternal cardiovascular health during pregnancy which is the blood pressure and anthropometric measurements at seven time-points on the mother during pregnancy; (2) fetal development which consists of ultrasound measurements of the fetus taken at six time-points during pregnancy; and (3) child's cardiovascular health which consists of the child's blood pressure measurements at 24 time-points from birth to 14 years. The inter-relationship of these three processes was examined using linear mixed effects models. Our analyses indicated that attributes later in childhood development, such as child's weight, child's baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), age and sex, predict the future cardiovascular health of children. The results also indicated that maternal attributes in pregnancy, such as mother's baseline SBP and SBP change, predicted significantly child's SBP over time. PMID:25178900

  5. Utility of home blood pressure monitoring to evaluate postprandial blood pressure in treated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Alfie, José

    2015-08-01

    Postprandial hypotension, defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 20 mmHg or greater within 2 hours after a meal, is a risk factor for stroke, coronary events and mortality. The clinical suspicion is typically raised by episodes of postprandial syncope or falls, whereas asymptomatic postprandial hypotension is mostly neglected. The magnitude of the postprandial fall in SBP, as detected by 24-hour recording in apparently healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects, was proportional to the severity of the silent cerebrovascular damage. Postprandial hypotension can also be detected by self-measured blood pressure before and within 2 hours after meals using automatic devices. The review highlights the value of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) as a screening test for asymptomatic postprandial hypotension in hypertensive patients. Using a HBPM protocol that included duplicated blood pressure measurements before and after three consecutive lunches, we detected unsuspected postprandial hypotension in 27.4% of the 230 hypertensive patients screened. The prevalence of postprandial hypotension was 13.2% in controlled and 42.2% in uncontrolled hypertensive patients (p < 0.001), raising the dilemma of further lowering blood pressure in the setting of postprandial hypotension. The inclusion of preprandial and postprandial measurements in the protocol of HBPM is useful to identify hypertensive patients with postprandial hypotension and may guide adjustments in antihypertensive treatment according to postprandial blood pressure. PMID:26187907

  6. Health Instruction Packages: How to Take a Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Carolyn; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach dental hygiene students, nursing students, and the general public how to measure blood pressure. The first module, "Can You Take a Blood Pressure?" by Carolyn Lancaster, defines blood pressure, distinguishes between systolic and diastolic pressure and lists the…

  7. Numerical simulation of noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satoru; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi; Maruyama, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a simulation model based on the partially pressurized collapsible tube model for reproducing noninvasive blood pressure measurement is presented. The model consists of a collapsible tube, which models the pressurized part of the artery, rigid pipes connected to the collapsible tube, which model proximal and distal region far from the pressurized part, and the Windkessel model, which represents the capacitance and the resistance of the distal part of the circulation. The blood flow is simplified to a one-dimensional system. Collapse and expansion of the tube is represented by the change in the cross-sectional area of the tube considering the force balance acting on the tube membrane in the direction normal to the tube axis. They are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. This simple model can easily reproduce the oscillation of inner fluid and corresponding tube collapse typical for the Korotkoff sounds generated by the cuff pressure. The numerical result is compared with the experiment and shows good agreement. PMID:16995754

  8. [Reducing blood pressure with Dipyron (novaminsulfone sodium)].

    PubMed

    Zoppi, M; Hoigné, R; Keller, M F; Streit, F; Hess, T

    1983-11-26

    A fall in systolic blood pressure without other symptoms of anaphylactic shock has been described following the administration of drugs containing dipyrone. This adverse reaction was first observed in 4 patients by the same team in 1972-1973. Ten further cases with a fall in systolic blood pressure by at least 20 mm Hg occurring within minutes to 6 hours after intravenous administration of dipyrone are presented in this paper. In each of them this adverse reaction was considered to be probable or even definite. During the years 1976-1981 drug exposure was registered for all 15 678 patients of the two medical divisions of Comprehensive Hospital Drug Monitoring Berne. This adverse reaction was found in 7, representing 0.34% of the 2053 patients who received intravenous treatment with a dipyrone preparation. PMID:6658424

  9. [Blood pressure control in eldery hypertension].

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Case of diabetes mellitus associated with essential hypertension are mostly type 2 diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in elderly patients. In the JNC VI and JSH 2004, it is recommended that the therapeutic target blood pressure level should be lower then 130/80 mmHg in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus, and this target has recently obtained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the target blood pressure in elderly is recommended below 140/90 mmHg. Accordingly, diabetes mellitus in elderly hypertensives should be treated similarly as in the young and middle-aged. Because ACE inhibitors/ARBs or Ca blockers increase insulin sensitivity, these drugs should be used as the first choice in cases of elderly hypertensive patients complicated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:16408451

  10. Optimal perioperative management of arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lonjaret, Laurent; Lairez, Olivier; Minville, Vincent; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative blood pressure management is a key factor of patient care for anesthetists, as perioperative hemodynamic instability is associated with cardiovascular complications. Hypertension is an independent predictive factor of cardiac adverse events in noncardiac surgery. Intraoperative hypotension is one of the most encountered factors associated with death related to anesthesia. In the preoperative setting, the majority of antihypertensive medications should be continued until surgery. Only renin-angiotensin system antagonists may be stopped. Hypertension, especially in the case of mild to moderate hypertension, is not a cause for delaying surgery. During the intraoperative period, anesthesia leads to hypotension. Hypotension episodes should be promptly treated by intravenous vasopressors, and according to their etiology. In the postoperative setting, hypertension predominates. Continuation of antihypertensive medications and postoperative care may be insufficient. In these cases, intravenous antihypertensive treatments are used to control blood pressure elevation. PMID:25278775

  11. Multiscale analysis of blood pressure signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrone, A.; Polosa, A. D.; Scioscia, G.; Stramaglia, S.; Zenzola, A.

    1999-07-01

    We describe the multiresolution wavelet analysis of blood pressure waves in vasovagal syncope-affected patients compared with those in healthy people, using Haar and Gaussian bases. A comparison between scale-dependent and scale-independent measures discriminating the two classes of subjects is made. What emerges is a sort of equivalence between these two methodological approaches, that is, both methods reach the same statistical significance of separation between the two classes.

  12. Blood Pressure Management Controversies in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    McNett, Molly; Koren, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) management is essential in neurocritical care settings to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion and prevent secondary brain injury. Despite consensus on the importance of BP monitoring, significant practice variations persist regarding optimal methods for monitoring and treatment of BP values among patients with neurologic injuries. This article provides a summary of research investigating various approaches for BP management in neurocritical care. Evidence-based recommendations, areas for future research, and current technological advancements for BP management are discussed. PMID:26873756

  13. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in daily clinical practice - the Spanish ABPM Registry experience.

    PubMed

    Gorostidi, Manuel; Banegas, José R; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Many patients are hypertensive at the medical settings but show normal blood pressure out of the doctor's office, and are classified as white-coat hypertensives. On the other hand, many patients with controlled hypertension at the clinic show ambulatory blood pressure levels above the thresholds considered for an adequate blood pressure control, known as having masked hypertension. Using data from the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry (Spanish ABPM Registry), a national program developed to promote the use of the ambulatory technique for hypertension management in daily practice, we have reviewed the main strengths of this approach, that is the ability to detect discrepancies of blood pressure status with respect to office blood pressure measurement, and to better assess accurate rates of hypertension control. White-coat hypertension within patients with elevated office blood pressure, and masked hypertension within office-controlled patients affected one of three patients in each office status. On the other hand, rates of ambulatory blood pressure control (50%) doubled those of office blood pressure control (25%), still remaining half the patients uncontrolled. We think that a systematic use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and strategies to improve blood pressure control constitute key priorities in hypertension management. PMID:26541761

  15. The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-08-21

    The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern. PMID:20645853

  16. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  17. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  18. Effect of Occupational Exposure on Blood Cell Counts, Electrocardiogram and Blood Pressure in Rice Mill Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aithala, Manjunatha; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems interact to regulate the heart rate of about 70 beats per minute. Activation of sympathetic nervous system by emotional or physical stress increases heart rate and the force of heart beat. There are many factors which alter the heart rate. The chemical and mechanical stimulation of receptors can also cause change in blood pressure through autonomic nervous system. Exposure to dust also causes alteration in blood cell counts. This can be due to allergic reactions and inflammation which in turn evoked by dust entering the lungs. Objectives Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and cardiovascular parameters of rice mill workers by analysing Blood Cell Counts, ECG and Blood Pressure. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried on 134 rice mill workers and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individual. The blood cell counts were determined by automated cell counter machine, ECG was recorded by using ECG machine and Blood Pressure was measured by using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Results Neurtrophil, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte count among haematological parameters were significantly increased in exposed individuals. Marked variation was seen in ECG and Blood pressure among cardiovascular parameters of exposed individuals compared with control group. Conclusion The findings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. It is due to high oxidative stress. There are abnormalities seen in cardiovascular system. PMID:26674852

  19. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  20. Effect of migration on blood pressure: the Yi People Study.

    PubMed

    He, J; Tell, G S; Tang, Y C; Mo, P S; He, G Q

    1991-03-01

    The Yi People Study was conducted in Puge County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Four population groups were surveyed for risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Included were two groups of Yi farmers living either in a high mountainous area in extremely remote villages at or above 2,750 meters elevation, or in a mountainside area at about 1,800 meters elevation. A third study group consisted of Yi farmers who migrated to the county seat during the 1950s. Local residents of the county seat, the Han people, constituted the fourth group. Blood pressure rises very little with age after puberty in Yi farmers, but there was a trend of increasing blood pressure with age in Yi migrants and Han. Mean body mass index (kg/m2) and heart rate were higher in Yi migrants than in Yi farmers. For men, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were greater among Yi migrants than among Yi farmers. These differences persisted after adjusting for age and body mass index. Among women, after adjusting for age, BMI, and altitude, only diastolic blood pressure was lower among Yi farmers than Yi migrants. Yi migrants and Han had similar blood pressures. In 1986, a sample of men participated in more detailed studies of diet, serum, and urine. The proportion of energy from fat ranged from less than 10% among high-mountain Yi farmers to almost 40% among Yi migrants and Han. Compared with Yi farmers, Yi migrants consumed more sodium and less potassium, calcium, and magnesium, had lower serum potassium, and a greater sodium/potassium ratio. Urinary excretion of sodium, calcium, and the sodium/potassium ratio were all greater in Yi migrants than in Yi farmers, while the reverse was seen for potassium. These data suggest that changes in life-style, including dietary changes, contribute importantly to the higher blood pressure among Yi migrants. PMID:1932320

  1. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  2. Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159580.html Blood Pressure Problems During Pregnancy, Heart Trouble Later? Spotting risk ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who have blood pressure in the high-normal range may have an ...

  3. Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) and Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Order Free Materials Today Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Callers to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation (PDF) National ... known as orthostatic hypotension (OH), or low blood pressure. If you have experienced it, you may already ...

  4. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Constant blood pressure monitoring could help doctors spot black people with " ...

  5. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  6. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  7. Methods of Blood Pressure Measurement in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Li-wei H.; Saeed, Mohammed; Talmor, Daniel; Mark, Roger; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minimal clinical research has investigated the significance of different blood pressure monitoring techniques in the ICU and whether systolic vs. mean blood pressures should be targeted in therapeutic protocols and in defining clinical study cohorts. The objectives of this study are to compare real-world invasive arterial blood pressure with noninvasive blood pressure, and to determine if differences between the two techniques have clinical implications. Design We conducted a retrospective study comparing invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure measurements using a large ICU database. We performed pairwise comparison between concurrent measures of invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure. We studied the association of systolic and mean invasive arterial blood pressure and noninvasive blood pressure with acute kidney injury, and with ICU mortality. Setting Adult intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital. Patients Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Pairwise analysis of 27,022 simultaneously measured invasive arterial blood pressure/noninvasive blood pressure pairs indicated that noninvasive blood pressure overestimated systolic invasive arterial blood pressure during hypotension. Analysis of acute kidney injury and ICU mortality involved 1,633 and 4,957 patients, respectively. Our results indicated that hypotensive systolic noninvasive blood pressure readings were associated with a higher acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.008) and ICU mortality (p < 0.001) than systolic invasive arterial blood pressure in the same range (≤70 mm Hg). Noninvasive blood pressure and invasive arterial blood pressure mean arterial pressures showed better agreement; acute kidney injury prevalence (p = 0.28) and ICU mortality (p = 0.76) associated with hypotensive mean arterial pressure readings (≤60 mm Hg) were independent of

  8. Lipid, blood pressure and kidney update 2013.

    PubMed

    Banach, Maciej; Serban, Corina; Aronow, Wilbert S; Rysz, Jacek; Dragan, Simona; Lerma, Edgar V; Apetrii, Mugurel; Covic, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The year 2013 proved to be very exciting as far as landmark trials and new guidelines in the field of lipid disorders, blood pressure and kidney diseases. Among these are the International Atherosclerosis Society Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia, European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension, American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults, the Joint National Committee Expert Panel (JNC 8) Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults, the American Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community, the American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline on Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Stage 1-3 CKD and many important trials presented among others during the ESC Annual Congress in Amsterdam and the American Society of Nephrology Annual Meeting--Kidney Week in Atlanta, GA. The paper is an attempt to summarize the most important events and reports in the mentioned areas in the passing year. PMID:24573394

  9. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed.

  10. Cross-cultural variation in blood pressure: a quantitative analysis of the relationships of blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Nowotarski, M; Freimer, M; Henry, J P; Post, N; Witten, C

    1982-01-01

    This study has analyzed the relationships of cross-cultural variation in blood pressure to cultural characteristics, salt consumption and body weight. The data used were blood pressures for adults in 84 groups, ratings of cultural characteristics (based on anthropological data and made by raters who had no knowledge of the blood pressure data) and, where available, salt consumption and body mass index (weight/height2). Blood pressures were higher and the slopes of blood pressure with age were greater in groups which had greater involvement in a money economy, more economic competition, more contact with people of different culture or beliefs, and more unfulfilled aspirations for a return to traditional beliefs and values. Blood pressures were also higher in groups for which the predominant family type was a nuclear or father-absent family, as opposed to an extended family. For Negroes, groups who were descended from slaves had higher blood pressures than other groups. The correlations between blood pressures and involvement in a money economy were substantial and significant even after controlling for level of salt consumption and, for men, also after controlling for body mass index. For men there were also significant partial correlations between blood pressure and salt consumption, controlling for type of economy. For women there were significant partial correlations between blood pressure and body mass index, controlling for type of economy. In conclusion, cross-cultural variation in blood pressure appears to be due to multiple factors. One contributory factor appears to be psychosocial stress due to cultural disruption, including the disruption of cooperative relationships and traditional cultural patterns which frequently occurs during economic modernization. In addition, both the protective effects of very low salt consumption in some groups and differences in body weight appear to contribute to cross-cultural variation in blood pressure. PMID:7079796

  11. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  1. From blood pressure to physical disability: the role of cognition.

    PubMed

    Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Davey, Adam; Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Penelope K

    2010-06-01

    We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N=1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking, and turning tests. A best-fit path model including blood pressure and multiple demographic and cardiovascular disease covariates was used. Paths from systolic blood pressure to global performance, verbal memory, and abstract reasoning (Similarities test) were significant (P<0.05), as were paths from diastolic blood pressure to global performance, executive functioning, visual spatial organization/memory, verbal memory, working memory, and abstract reasoning. Regardless of the blood pressure predictor, lower cognitive performance (intermediate variable) was related to lower PA (outcome) in the path from blood pressure to PA. The direct path from blood pressure to PA was significant only for systolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance mediates between blood pressure and PA. As compared with systolic blood pressure, more domains of cognitive functioning intervene between diastolic blood pressure and PA. PMID:20404216

  2. Real-Life Stories about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall ... who’s getting back in control!” For more real-life stories about high blood pressure, visit www.nhlbi. ...

  3. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Stroke More Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure Updated:Oct 22,2015 There are several harmful ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  5. Results of Blood Pressure Screening in White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)

  6. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  7. Nursing student caring behaviors during blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mary Kay; Blazovich, Linda; Schug, Vicki; Schulenberg, Cathy; Daniels, Jessie; Neal, Diana; Pearson, Gloria; Preston, Sara; Ridgeway, Sharon; Simones, Joyce; Swiggum, Paula; Wenkel, Linda; Smith, MaryJo O

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this multisite, nonexperimental study was to examine, using a repeated measures design, the effects of a teaching intervention designed to promote caring behaviors as students learn the psychomotor skill of blood pressure measurement. Watson's theory of human caring and a combination of cognitive and connectionist learning theories were used as the organizing construct. Baccalaureate nursing student participants were videotaped and evaluated at two points in time while performing the psychomotor skill of blood pressure measurement on a role-player. Role-players rated the students' caring behaviors using the Role Player Survey of Caring Behaviors During Blood Pressure Measurement instrument. Between these data collection points, students learned about caring behaviors through analysis of a videotaped role-play and required readings. An evaluator randomly selected 10 student videotapes from each of the 6 baccalaureate nursing program study sites and noted the presence or absence of caring behaviors on the Caring Behaviors During Blood Pressure Measurement instrument. Pretest and posttest scores on both subjective and objective research instruments were compared using descriptive statistics and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Students demonstrated a significant improvement in objective and subjective caring behaviors between the two performance examinations. The findings support further investigation of teaching interventions to promote the development of caring behaviors during nursing psychomotor skill development. PMID:18380262

  8. Rare genetic variant analysis on blood pressure in related samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variants associated with blood pressure identified so far explain only a small proportion of the total heritability of this trait. With recent advances in sequencing technology and statistical methodology, it becomes feasible to study the association between blood pressure and rare genetic variants. Using real baseline phenotype data and imputed dosage data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 18, we performed a candidate gene association analysis. We focused on 8 genes shown to be associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure to identify the association with both common and rare genetic variants, and then did a genome-wide rare-variant analysis on blood pressure. We performed association analysis for rare coding and splicing variants within each gene region and all rare variants in each sliding window, using either burden tests or sequence kernel association tests accounting for familial correlation. With a sample size of only 747, we failed to find any novel associated genetic loci. Consequently, we performed analyses on simulated data, with knowledge of the underlying simulating model, to evaluate the type I error rate and power for the methods used in real data analysis. PMID:25519320

  9. The relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S T; Muñoz, A; Stein, A; Sparrow, D; Speizer, F E

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure. PMID:3485920

  10. Relationship of blood lead to blood pressure in a longitudinal study of working men

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    The relationship of lead exposure to blood pressure has been examined in a longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 Boston, Massachusetts, policemen. At the baseline examination, subjects had a blood lead determination and three consecutive blood pressure measurements. Triplicate blood pressure measurements were also taken at years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after correction for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and smoking, a high level of blood lead was a significant predictor of subsequent elevation of systolic pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed associations. These data suggest that lead exposure can significantly affect systolic pressure.

  11. Blood pressure management in mechanical circulatory support

    PubMed Central

    Adatya, Sirtaz

    2015-01-01

    Durable mechanical support has become widely available for end stage heart failure as destination therapy and as bridge to transplantation. The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) as well as the recognition and management of hypertension in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) is an essential component of optimal clinical care. Strategies for the control of BP in CF-VAD patients are increasingly important as there is an evolving understanding of the connection between hypertension, pump output, and adverse outcomes. As clinical experience grows, optimal BP targets, as well as methods to measure BP in CF-VAD patients have been further defined. PMID:26793332

  12. Clinical aspects of blood pressure autorhythmometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.; Halberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Self-measurements made by a 55-year-old physician with mild to moderate hypertension of ten years' duration are considered. The physician had been in excellent health until age 45 when sustained elevation of blood pressure up to 180/100 mmHg and a slight aortic diastolic murmur were noted. On the basis of the investigation it is suggested that physical and mental performance measures provide an objective basis for assessing the desirability of a given physiological change. Such studies will have to be complemented by a search for long-term effects.

  13. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  14. Hypertension syndrome and cardiovascular events. High blood pressure is only one risk factor.

    PubMed

    Glasser, S P

    2001-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that high blood pressure is not the sole cause of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates associated with hypertension. Reduction of blood pressure is of utmost importance, but many other factors contribute significantly to the risk of adverse cardiovascular events and death. In this article, Dr Glasser reviews hypertension as a syndrome, emphasizing therapy to improve blood pressure control, increase arterial compliance, and inhibit or reverse vascular remodeling. PMID:11727651

  15. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  16. E-health blood pressure control program.

    PubMed

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care. PMID:23167022

  17. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  18. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose. PMID:24110067

  19. Relationship of blood lead to systolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of policemen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.T.; Munoz, A.; Stein, A.; Sparrow, D.; Speizer, F.E.

    1988-06-01

    We examined the relationship of blood lead level to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a longitudinal study of 89 Boston, MA, policemen. At the second examination blood lead level and blood pressure were measured in triplicate. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a similar fashion in years 3, 4, and 5. Multivariate analysis using a first-order autoregressive model revealed that after adjusting for previous systolic blood pressure, body mass index, age, and cigarette smoking, an elevated blood lead level was a significant predictor of subsequent systolic blood pressure. Bootstrap simulations of these models provided supporting evidence for the observed association. These data suggest that blood lead level can influence systolic blood pressure even within the normal range.

  20. The importance of penile blood pressure in cases of impotence

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Peter

    1971-01-01

    It appears that the normal penile systolic blood pressure, as measured by a spectroscopic method, is equal to or greater than the calculated brachial mean blood pressure. A pressure definitely lower than this in impotent patients indicates obstruction to blood flow in the main vessels supplying the penis. On this basis, obstruction to blood flow was identified as a cause of impotence in patients with little other evidence of peripheral vascular disease. PMID:5150208

  1. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Bassem Abou; Al-Hajj, Fatima; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Ziade, Fouad; El-Rajab, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls), and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively) (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately), was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure. PMID:22540059

  2. [Riva-Rocci and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2013-01-01

    Scipione Riva-Rocci (1863-1937) was educated in Turin as a physician and later as a doctor of internal medicine. In 1896 and 1897 he published a series of four articles (in Italian) on a new method for measuring blood pressure. Previous non-invasive methods were all based on compression of the radial pulse, in keeping with centuries of medical tradition, but they were cumbersome and unreliable. Riva-Rocci's innovation consisted in compressing the brachial artery instead, at the level of the upper arm. For this purpose he devised an inflatable rubber tube, which was rigid on the outside. Disappearance of the radial pulse on palpation indicated the systolic arterial pressure, as Riva-Rocci confirmed by calibration experiments in animals and with human cadavers. His instrument was introduced world-wide after a chance visit by the American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing (1869-1939). The Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920) was the first to apply auscultation of the artery below the cuff (in 1905), a method that allowed determination of diastolic arterial pressure. Riva-Rocci was Chief of Medicine at the municipal hospital in Varese from 1900 to 1928, where he developed a special interest in paediatrics. PMID:23328024

  3. THE VAPOR PRESSURE OF DOG'S BLOOD AT BODY TEMPERATURE.

    PubMed

    Grollman, A

    1928-05-20

    The vapor pressures of dog's blood and blood plasma were determined at 37.5 degrees by the dynamic method and the osmotic pressures calculated from the experimental data. The vapor pressures calculated from experimentally determined freezing point data agreed, within the experimental error, with the values obtained from direct measurement. The vapor pressure lowering produced by the colloid constituents of the blood was also determined and found to be minimal compared to that of the other constituents. PMID:19872415

  4. [Realization of mobile phone based wireless blood pressure monitoring system and its preliminary implementation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Gong, Eenhao; Yu, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    A novel system which could measure blood pressure wirelessly through mobile phone has been proposed and developed. It consisted of a blood pressure signal recorder based on MCU (Micro Control Unit), which could transmit measured data via Bluetooth, and a software embedded on mobile phone, which could calculate the value of blood pressure and the rate of heart beat. The measurement results could easily be stored in text documents or in picture format. Detailed scheme and design of each module in the system was illustrated and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the reliability and stability of the device. A series of new conceptual explorations into blood pressure related issues were conducted with this system, including the variational blood pressure at different time periods in a day, the effect of posture on the measurement results and the impact of movements on blood pressure. PMID:22379764

  5. Blood pressure regulation IV: adaptive responses to weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Norsk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    During weightlessness, blood and fluids are immediately shifted from the lower to the upper body segments, and within the initial 2 weeks of spaceflight, brachial diastolic arterial pressure is reduced by 5 mmHg and even more so by some 10 mmHg from the first to the sixth month of flight. Blood pressure thus adapts in space to a level very similar to that of being supine on the ground. At the same time, stroke volume and cardiac output are increased and systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas sympathetic nerve activity is kept surprisingly high and similar to when ground-based upright seated. This was not predicted from simulation models and indicates that dilatation of the arteriolar resistance vessels is caused by mechanisms other than a baroreflex-induced decrease in sympathetic nervous activity. Results of baroreflex studies in space indicate that compared to being ground-based supine, the carotid (vagal)-cardiac interaction is reduced and sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance response more pronounced during baroreflex inhibition by lower body negative pressure. The future challenge is to identify which spaceflight mechanism induces peripheral arteriolar dilatation, which could explain the decrease in blood pressure, the high sympathetic nerve activity and associated cardiovascular changes. It is also a challenge to determine the cardiovascular risk profile of astronauts during future long-duration deep space missions. PMID:24390686

  6. Stress, Heredity and Black-White Blood Pressure Differences. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harburg, Ernest; And Others

    The facts that black Americans at all ages have higher blood pressure levels and higher mortality rates from hypertension than whites provided the impetus for this study. In their efforts to discover whether the level of blood pressure within and between black and white groups is related more to stress or to genetic factors, the researchers…

  7. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  8. How to measure blood pressure manually.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Melanie; Smith, Joyce

    2016-01-20

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to measure blood pressure (BP) manually using an aneroid sphygmomanometer. ▶ BP measurement is an essential clinical skill, and nurses must be competent in performing this procedure and taking accurate readings. ▶ Nurses should be aware of manual BP measurement techniques and understand the patient and environmental factors that may result in inaccurate readings that could compromise patient care. ▶ Nurses should regularly undertake manual BP measurement to ensure they remain competent to perform the procedure. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. Further learning needs to extend your professional development. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26786460

  9. Dysregulated Blood Pressure: Can Regulating Emotions Help?

    PubMed

    Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Gilsanz, Paola; Mittleman, Murray A; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-12-01

    Despite having identified key physiological and behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of hypertension continues to rise, affecting two thirds of American adults 60 years or older. An important condition in its own right, hypertension is also a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; thus, identifying additional modifiable determinants remains a public health priority. Psychological states and negative emotions more specifically have been proposed as risk factors, but the research findings are inconsistent. Additional prospective studies have recently been published increasing the availability of longitudinal data. The aim of this literature review is to evaluate these findings focusing on those from the last 3 years. We synthesize current research on whether negative (e.g., depression, anxiety) or positive (e.g., optimism) emotion-related factors are associated with high blood pressure onset. We discuss discrepant findings and propose considering emotion regulation as a novel approach to explain inconsistencies. Finally, we provide thoughts on future research directions. PMID:26520446

  10. Increases in intramuscular pressure raise arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Smith, S. A.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the role of intramuscular pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors and chemically sensitive metaboreceptors in affecting the blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in humans. Sixteen subjects performed incremental (20 W/min) cycle exercise to fatigue under four conditions: control, exercise with thigh cuff occlusion of 90 Torr (Cuff occlusion), exercise with lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 45 Torr, and a combination of thigh cuff occlusion and LBPP (combination). Indexes of central command (heart rate, oxygen uptake, ratings of perceived exertion, and electromyographic activity), cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were not significantly different between the four conditions. Mechanical stimulation during LBPP and combination conditions resulted in significant elevations in intramuscular pressure and mean arterial pressure from control at rest and throughout the incremental exercise protocol (P < 0.05). Conversely, there existed no significant changes in mean arterial pressure when the metaboreflex was stimulated by cuff occlusion. These findings suggest that under normal conditions the mechanoreflex is tonically active and is the primary mediator of exercise pressor reflex-induced alterations in arterial blood pressure during submaximal dynamic exercise in humans.

  11. Blood Pressure: Return of the Sympathetics?

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2016-01-01

    This brief review highlights new ideas about the role of the sympathetic nervous system in human blood pressure regulation. We emphasize how this role varies with age and sex and use our findings to raise questions about the sympathetic nervous system and hypertension in humans. We also focus on three additional areas, including (1) novel ideas about the carotid body and sympathoexcitation as it relates to hypertension, (2) clinical trials of renal denervation that attempted to treat hypertension by reducing ongoing sympathoexcitation, and (3) new ideas about resistant hypertension and cerebral blood flow. We further highlight that success of device-based therapy to modulate the sympathetic nervous system relies heavily on patient selection. Furthermore, data suggest that the majority of patients respond to anti-hypertensive therapy and the major cause of "resistant" hypertension is poor patient adherence. While the enthusiasm for device therapy or perhaps even "precision medicine" is high, it is likely that by far the most benefit to the most patients will occur via better screening, more aggressive therapy, and the development of strategies that improve patient adherence to medication regimens and lifestyle changes. PMID:26743069

  12. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure load.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, P K; Sheps, S G; Bailey, K R; Wiltgen, C M; Moore, A G

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-two hypertensive patients were monitored during two separate drug-free occasions with a Del Mar Avionics ambulatory device. Blood pressure loads (percentage of systolic and diastolic readings more than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively) and mean BP were measured both to determine their reproducibility and to examine how they correlate with each other. The systolic and diastolic mean awake BPs for day 1 and day 2 were 140/93 mmHg and 140/91 mmHg, respectively, and BP loads were 45%/55% and 43%/54%. Moreover, mean BP loads correlated highly (r = 0.93) with mean BP values taken on the same day. Both ambulatory mean SBP and BP load were highly reproducible (r = 0.87 and 0.80, respectively, during the awake hours), and mean DBP and load were fairly reproducible (r = 0.59 and 0.39, respectively, during the awake hours). Clinically, however, both were consistent from day 1 to day 2. Mean and individual standard deviations also were reproducible for both systolic and diastolic pressures and loads. PMID:2096203

  13. Identifying common genetic variants in blood pressure due to polygenic pleiotropy with associated phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, Ole A.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Wang, Yunpeng; Reppe, Sjur; Schork, Andrew J.; Zuber, Verena; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Gautvik, Kaare; Aukrust, Pål; Karlsen, Tom H.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Desikan, Rahul S.; Dale, Anders M.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure is a critical determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is affected by environmental factors, but has a strong heritable component. Despite recent large genome-wide association studies, few genetic risk factors for blood pressure have been identified. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between blood pressure and several diseases and traits, which may partly arise from a shared genetic basis (genetic pleiotropy). Using genome-wide association studies summary statistics and a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate method, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between systolic blood pressure and 12 co-morbid traits and diseases. We found significant ‘enrichment’ of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with systolic blood pressure as a function of their association with body mass index, low density lipoprotein, waist hip ratio, schizophrenia, bone mineral density, type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. In contrast, the magnitude of enrichment due to shared polygenic effects was smaller with the other phenotypes (triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and height). Applying the conditional False Discovery Rate method to the enriched phenotypes, we identified 62 loci associated with systolic blood pressure (False Discovery Rate < 0.01), including 42 novel loci. The observed polygenic overlap between systolic blood pressure and several related disorders indicates that the epidemiological associations are not mediated solely via lifestyle factors, but also reflect an etiological relation that warrants further investigation. The new gene loci identified implicate novel genetic mechanisms related to lipid biology and the immune system in systolic blood pressure. PMID:24396023

  14. A novel SCFA receptor, the microbiota, and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pluznick, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis is a complex process which is carefully regulated by a variety of inputs. We recently identified two sensory receptors (Olfactory receptor 78 and G protein couple receptor 41) as novel regulators of blood pressure. Both Olfr78 and Gpr41 are receptors for short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and we showed that propionate (a SCFA) modifies blood pressure in a manner which is differentially modulated by the absence of either Olfr78 or Gpr41. In addition, propionate modifies renin release in an Olfr78-dependent manner. Our study also demonstrated that antibiotic treatment modulates blood pressure in Olfr78 null mice, indicating that SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota likely influence blood pressure regulation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of our recent study and provide a perspective on the implications of the interactions between the gut microbiota and blood pressure control. PMID:24429443

  15. Prediction of mean arterial blood pressure with linear stochastic models.

    PubMed

    Genc, Sahika

    2011-01-01

    A model-based approach that integrates known portion of the cardiovascular system and unknown portion through a parameter estimation to predict evolution of the mean arterial pressure is considered. The unknown portion corresponds to the neural portion that acts like a controller that takes corrective actions to regulate the arterial blood pressure at a constant level. The input to the neural part is the arterial pressure and output is the sympathetic nerve activity. In this model, heart rate is considered a proxy for sympathetic nerve activity. The neural portion is modeled as a linear discrete-time system with random coefficients. The performance of the model is tested on a case study of acute hypotensive episodes (AHEs) on PhysioNet data. TPRs and FPRs improve as more data becomes available during estimation period. PMID:22254409

  16. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Kiers, H D; Hofstra, J M; Wetzels, J F M

    2008-12-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as displayed by the device. In this study we have analysed measured and calculated MAP, obtained by two different oscillometric BP measurement devices in two different patient cohorts. The first cohort included 242 healthy subjects (male 40.5%, 50+/-13 years). BP measurements were performed with a Welch Allyn 5300P device. We found a small but significant difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (MAP(m-c:) -1.8 mmHg, range -5.7 to 12.9 mmHg, p < 0.001). MAP(m-c) showed a significant, but weak correlation with DBP and SBP. The second cohort included included 134 patients with glomerular diseases (male 63%, 50+/14 years). BP measurements were performed with a Dinamap 487210 device. In this group we also observed a small difference between measured MAP and calculated MAP (+1.7 mmHg, range -15.3 to 28.2 mmHg, p<0.001). MAP (m-c) correlated with age, all blood pressure indices and heart rate. An overall analysis showed that age, SBP, DBP, and type of device are all independently related to MAP (m-c). There is a significant difference between measured and calculated MAP. The difference is small on average; however, this MAP(m-c) can be large in the individual patient. Moreover, there are differences of reported MAP between devices. Our data suggest that calculated and measured MAP cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:19075313

  17. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2). PMID:27227822

  18. [Student diagnostic vignette. How to measure office blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Krzesinski, J-M; Saint-Remy, A

    2012-09-01

    Routinely measuring blood pressure is still performed according to the auscultatory method using recognition of Korotkoff sounds. This usual technique is, however, often mishandled and is thus a source of error in the estimation of the true blood pressure level. Accuracy of such measure is, however, of paramount importance to be useful in daily medical practice. This methodology paper more specifically written for medical students recalls the essential principles of blood pressure measurement at the medical office, but also at home. PMID:23115851

  19. Blood pressure and social class in a Jamaican community.

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, W W; Grell, G A; Gallagher, P N; Viteri, F E

    1988-01-01

    A study of social factors and blood pressure was conducted in a Jamaican community among a sample of 199 persons ages 30 to 50. After controlling for obesity, age, and respondent tension (and other covariates), interaction effects of social class x sex for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. Blood pressure increased with increasing social class for males and decreased with increasing social class for females. PMID:3369609

  20. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urine. A urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio above 30 mg/g may be a sign of kidney disease. Blood Test A blood test involves having blood drawn at a health care provider’s office or a commercial facility and sending the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood ...

  1. Self-Organization of Blood Pressure Regulation: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Levrard, Thibaud; Courcinous, Sandrine; Victor, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure regulation is a prime example of homeostatic regulation. However, some characteristics of the cardiovascular system better match a non-linear self-organized system than a homeostatic one. To determine whether blood pressure regulation is self-organized, we repeated the seminal demonstration of self-organized control of movement, but applied it to the cardiovascular system. We looked for two distinctive features peculiar to self-organization: non-equilibrium phase transitions and hysteresis in their occurrence when the system is challenged. We challenged the cardiovascular system by means of slow, 20-min Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down tilt table tests in random order. We continuously determined the phase between oscillations at the breathing frequency of Total Peripheral Resistances and Heart Rate Variability by means of cross-spectral analysis. We looked for a significant phase drift during these procedures, which signed a non-equilibrium phase transition. We determined at which head-up tilt angle it occurred. We checked that this angle was significantly different between Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down to demonstrate hysteresis. We observed a significant non-equilibrium phase transition in nine healthy volunteers out of 11 with significant hysteresis (48.1 ± 7.5° and 21.8 ± 3.9° during Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down, respectively, p < 0.05). Our study shows experimental evidence of self-organized short-term blood pressure regulation. It provides new insights into blood pressure regulation and its related disorders. PMID:27065880

  2. Methods for assessing blood pressure values in humans.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G

    1983-01-01

    In clinical medicine and epidemiology, measurements of blood pressure largely rely upon the use of cuff inflation and Korotkoff sounds. Although still the most practical, this method has been recognized to have important limitations. This paper focuses on two limitations of the cuff method that have been found while recording 24-hour intraarterial blood pressure in free-living normotensive and hypertensive patients. First, the 24-hour blood pressure is characterized by large long- and short-term variabilities whose magnitudes vary according to the patient's basal blood pressure and age. This is likely to reduce the possibility that a few isolated cuff measurements are accurate and representative of the patient's average blood pressure. Second, during cuff blood pressure assessment by the doctor (and to a lesser degree by the nurse), the patient's blood pressure normally rises due to an alarm reaction, with a large peak within the first 4 minutes and a subsequent decline. The magnitude of the peak rise, as well as its large and unpredictable difference among subjects may be responsible for seriously and variably overestimating the blood pressure. A 10-minute wait from the beginning of the doctor's visit usually avoids this inconvenience. Finally, the paper briefly considers alternative methods to the cuff method, including invasive intraarterial 24-hour recording in ambulatory subjects, which provides a large amount of information but is impractical, and noninvasive automatic blood pressure devices, which offer a promising practical approach but must wait for technical validation. PMID:6629462

  3. A new method of non-invasive blood pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liangling; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Chengbo; Guo, Qiaohui; Zhu, Gang

    2005-12-01

    Blood pressure reflects a person's health.It is proposed here that the method of detecting blood pressure may be the key to improving the precision of blood pressure measurements. The oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique is widely used in automatic blood pressure measurement instruments correctly. A method of blood pressure measurement by oscillometric method is first presented. In the oscillometric method, the basic principle of the "feature point" method and the "amplitude characteristic ratios" method is also explained and discussed here. A new method of blood pressure measurement, namely the coefficient difference comparative method, is proposed here,which is based on the feature point method and amplitude characteristic ratios method. The method is proved both effective and reliable through the analysis of many cases and clinical tests. Utilizing Visual C++, software for this new and novel method was developed and passed criterion simulation apparatus test. When applied in hospital situation, its error was +/-5%. It is concluded that the oscillometric blood pressure measurement method can provide better means of blood pressure measurements reference for doctors.

  4. Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Response to Reduced Ocular Perfusion Pressure by alteration of either the Blood Pressure or Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Cull, Grant A; Fortune, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that blood flow autoregulation in the optic nerve head has less reserve to maintain normal blood flow in the face of blood pressure-induced ocular perfusion pressure decrease than a similar magnitude intraocular pressure-induced ocular perfusion pressure decrease. Materials and Methods Twelve normal nonhuman primates were anesthetized by continuous intravenous infusion of pentobarbital. Optic nerve blood flow was monitored by laser speckle flowgraphy. In the first group of animals (n=6), the experimental eye intraocular pressure was maintained at 10 mmHg using a saline reservoir connected to the anterior chamber. The blood pressure was gradually reduced by a slow injection of pentobarbital. In the second group (n=6), the intraocular pressure was slowly increased from 10 mmHg to 50 mmHg by raising the reservoir. In both experimental groups, optic nerve head blood flow was measured continuously. The blood pressure and intraocular pressure were simultaneously recorded in all experiments. Results The optic nerve head blood flow showed significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.021, repeat measures analysis of variance). It declined significantly more in the blood pressure group compared to the intraocular pressure group when the ocular perfusion pressure was reduced to 35 mmHg (P<0.045) and below. There was also a significant interaction between blood flow changes and the ocular perfusion pressure treatment (P=0.004, adjusted Greenhouse & Geisser univariate test), indicating the gradually enlarged blood flow difference between the two groups was due to the ocular perfusion pressure decrease. Conclusions The results show that optic nerve head blood flow is more susceptible to an ocular perfusion pressure decrease induced by lowering the blood pressure compared with that induced by increasing the intraocular pressure. This blood flow autoregulation capacity vulnerability to low blood pressure may provide experimental evidence

  5. Blood pressure variability in controlled and uncontrolled blood pressure and its association with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Wittke, E I; Fuchs, S C; Moreira, L B; Foppa, M; Fuchs, F D; Gus, M

    2016-08-01

    High systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability has been associated with higher risk for target-organ damage. In a cross-sectional study done in a tertiary outpatient hypertension clinic, we compared short-term SBP variability among controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients and evaluated the association between higher levels of SBP variability and diastolic function and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Patients were evaluated by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and transthoracic Doppler echocardiogram. Blood pressure (BP) variability was evaluated by the time-rate index and high variability corresponded to index values in the top quartile of distribution. Echocardiographic parameters were compared in patients with and without higher BP variability within controlled and uncontrolled office BP (⩽140/90 mm Hg). The analyses included 447 patients with 58±12 years of age, 67% were women, 68% white, 43% current or previous smokers and 32% with diabetes mellitus. Among the whole sample, 137 patients had controlled and 310 uncontrolled BP. The 75th percentile cutoff points for the time-rate index were 0.502 mm Hg min(-1) and 0.576 mm Hg min(-1) for participants with controlled and uncontrolled BP, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, the time-rate index did not differ between controlled and uncontrolled patients. BP variability was not associated with LVH or diastolic function in controlled and uncontrolled BP after adjustment for 24-h SBP and age. Patients with controlled and uncontrolled BP had similar SBP variability assessed by time-rate index, which was not associated with LVH or diastolic function. These findings should be confirmed in studies with larger sample size. PMID:26467817

  6. [Effect of lipril on the level of blood pressure in rats with spontaneus blood hypertention].

    PubMed

    Zahorodnyĭ, M I

    2007-01-01

    The author studied influence of Ukrainian antyhypertensive drug--Lipril (Uzynopryl) on the level of blood pressure in rats with spontaneus blood hypertention. It was sound that daily (during 90 days) application of Lipril at 10 mg/kg per os decreases considerably blood pressure in rats. PMID:17682519

  7. [Management of blood pressure for stroke prevention].

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Norio

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for both cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and stroke risk is strong and continuous. Throughout the usual range of BPs, including the nonhypertensive range, the higher the BP is, the greater the risk of stroke. Regular BP screening and appropriate treatment of patients with hypertension, including life style modification and pharmacotherapy, are recommended. Patients who have hypertension should be treated with antihypertensive drugs to a target BP of < 140/90 mmHg. Successful reduction of BP is more important in reducing stroke risk than the choice of a specific agent, and treatment should be individualized on the basis of other patient characteristics and medication tolerance. In hypertensive patients with stroke, subjects to be treated with antihypertensive drugs and the target level of BP control are determined on the basis of clinical disease type, interval after onset, severity, age, and the use of antithrombotic. drugs. According to the guideline of the Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH 2014), in the chronic phase of cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, target BP should be < 140/ 90 mmHg. In patients with lacunar infarction, those taking antithrombotic drugs, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, a lower level, < 130/80 mmHg should be targeted if possible. Oral antihypertensive drugs such as Ca channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and diuretics are recommended for patients with stroke. PMID:27333760

  8. Blood Pressure Management in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Yousef; Qureshi, Adnan

    2016-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with devastating outcomes. Admission to the intensive care unit has been the only proven course to improve outcomes. All other treatment modalities have failed so far. The majority of patients presenting with ICH have an elevated blood pressure (BP). Initial data on the safety and efficacy of BP treatment in acute ICH have been conflicting. This has led to large prospective and randomized clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of early BP lowering in acute ICH. These trials showed safety and a tendency toward improved functional outcomes. In fact, the results of three subsequent meta-analyses also showed safety and possible efficacy of early lowering of BP in ICH. Based on the results of the published clinical trials and meta-analyses, the American Heart Association and the European Stroke Association concluded that early intensive treatment of BP in acute ICH is safe and might improve functional outcome. The authors advocate that-pending additional data from ongoing trials-health care professionals should maintain the SBp < 140 mm Hg in patients presenting with acute ICH. PMID:27214702

  9. Does nicotinic acid (niacin) lower blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Bays, H E; Rader, D J

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a well-established treatment for dyslipidaemia - an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, niacin may also reduce blood pressure (BP), which is another important CVD risk factor. This review examines the limited publicly available data on niacin's BP effects. Acute administration of immediate-release niacin may lower BP because of niacin's acute vasodilatory effects. Although not always supported by clinical trial data, the package insert of a prescription, extended-release niacin describes niacin-induced acute hypotension. From a chronic standpoint, larger studies, such as the Coronary Drug Project, suggest that niacin may lower BP when administered over a longer period of time. Post hoc analyses of some of the more recent niacin clinical trials also support a more chronic, dose-dependent, BP-lowering effect of niacin. Because laropiprant [a prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) type 1 (DP1) receptor antagonist] does not attenuate niacin's BP-lowering effects, it is unlikely that any chronic lowering of BP by niacin is due to dilation of dermal vessels through activation of the DP1 receptor by PGD(2.) Further research is warranted to evaluate the extent and mechanisms of niacin's effects on BP. PMID:19054161

  10. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  11. Blood pressure and mortality: using offspring blood pressure as an instrument for own blood pressure in the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Carslake, David; Ivar Nilsen, Tom; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Romundstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Given that observational associations may be inaccurate, we used offspring blood pressure (BP) to provide alternative estimates of the associations between own BP and mortality. Observational associations between BP and mortality, estimated as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox regression, were compared to HRs obtained using offspring BP as an instrumental variable (IV) for own BP (N = 32,227 mother-offspring and 27,535 father-offspring pairs). Observationally, there were positive associations between own BP and mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and diabetes. Point estimates of the associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD and CHD were amplified in magnitude when using offspring BP as an IV. For example, the HR for all-cause mortality per standard deviation (SD) increase in own systolic BP (SBP) obtained in conventional observational analyses increased from 1.10 (95% CI: 1.09–1.12; P < 0.0001) to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.19–1.43; P < 0.0001). Additionally, SBP was positively associated with diabetes and cancer mortality (HRs: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.12–3.35; P = 0.02 and 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02–1.42; P = 0.03, respectively), and diastolic BP (DBP) with stroke mortality (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02–1.66; P = 0.03). Results support positive associations between BP and mortality from all-causes, CVD, and CHD, SBP on cancer mortality, and DBP on stroke mortality. PMID:26198310

  12. Engineering studies of vectorcardiographs in blood pressure measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The following projects involving cardiovascular instrumentation were conducted: (1) the development and fabrication of a three-dimensional display measurement system for vectorcardiograms, (2) the development and fabrication of a cardiovascular monitoring system to noninvasively monitor beat-by-beat the blood pressure and heart rate using aortic pulse wave velocity, (3) the development of software for an interactive system to analyze systolic time interval data, and (4) the development of microprocessor-based physiologic instrumentation, focussing initially on EKG rhythm analysis. Brief descriptions of these projects were given.

  13. The role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zanchetti, A

    1997-09-01

    The introduction of noninvasive techniques for the repetitive measurement of blood pressure in ambulant subjects has permitted improved precision in the assessment of hypertension during normal daily life. The traditional clinic (or "office") method of blood pressure measurement has the advantages of simplicity and low cost, and forms the basis of the current operational definitions of hypertension, but it is limited by the normal variability of blood pressure and the "white coat effect." By contrast, ambulatory blood pressure provides information on circadian variations in blood pressure and alterations due to changes in behavior, and may, therefore, be more appropriate for diagnosing hypertension. However, it is important to note that the values used to define normotension and hypertension for clinic blood pressure are not appropriate for ambulatory blood pressure. Recent population studies have proposed that the upper limit for 24-h ambulatory pressure should be 119 to 126/75 to 80 mm Hg, and failure to recognize this may account for at least some cases of "white-coat hypertension." There is increasing evidence that ambulatory blood pressure is more effective than clinic blood pressure in predicting the organ damage associated with hypertension, whereas data from intervention studies indicate that a reduction in ambulatory pressure is correlated with a reduction in left ventricular (LV) mass. Finally, ambulatory blood pressure measurements may provide a number of advantages in the development of antihypertensive therapies: by permitting better identification of trough and peak effects, by confirming that the efficacy of formulations for once-daily dosing is maintained throughout the 24-h period, and by minimizing the placebo effect. PMID:9324116

  14. Multiphasic effects of blood pressure on survival in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hannedouche, Thierry; Roth, Hubert; Krummel, Thierry; London, Gérard M; Jean, Guillaume; Bouchet, Jean-Louis; Drüeke, Tilman B; Fouque, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Dialysis patients exhibit an inverse, L- or U-shaped association between blood pressure and mortality risk, in contrast to the linear association in the general population. We prospectively studied 9333 hemodialysis patients in France, aiming to analyze associations between predialysis systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints for a median follow-up of 548 days. Blood pressure components were tested against outcomes in time-varying covariate linear and fractional polynomial Cox models. Changes throughout follow-up were analyzed with a joint model including both the time-varying covariate of sequential blood pressure and its slope over time. A U-shaped association of systolic blood pressure was found with all-cause mortality and of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with cardiovascular mortality. There was an L-shaped association of diastolic blood pressure with all-cause mortality. The lowest hazard ratio of all-cause mortality was observed for a systolic blood pressure of 165 mm Hg, and of cardiovascular mortality for systolic/diastolic pressures of 157/90 mm Hg, substantially higher than currently recommended values for the general population. The 95% lower confidence interval was approximately 135/70 mm Hg. We found no significant correlation for either systolic, diastolic, or pulse pressure with myocardial infarction or nontraumatic amputations, but there were significant positive associations between systolic and pulse pressure with stroke (per 10-mm Hg increase: hazard ratios 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07 and 1.23; and 1.20, 1.11 and 1.31, respectively). Thus, whereas high pre-dialysis blood pressure is associated with stroke risk, low pre-dialysis blood pressure may be both harmful and a proxy for comorbid conditions leading to premature death. PMID:27521114

  15. EDC-37 Deflagration Rates at Elevated Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J L; Koerner, J G

    2008-01-31

    We report deflagration rates on EDC-37 at high pressures. Experiments are conducted using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Pressure Strand Burner (HPSB) apparatus. The HPSB contains a deflagrating sample in a small volume, high pressure chamber. The sample consists of nine, 6.35 mm diameter, 6.35 mm length cylinders stacked on end, with burn wires placed between cylinders. Sample deflagration is limited to the cross-sectional surface of the cylinder by coating the cylindrical surface of the tower with Halthane 88-2 epoxy. Sample deflagration is initiated on one end of the tower by a B/KNO{sub 3} and HNS igniter train. Simultaneous temporal pressure history and burn front time of arrival measurements yield the laminar deflagration rate for a range of pressures and provide insight into deflagration uniformity. These measurements are one indicator of overall thermal explosion violence. Specific details of the experiment and the apparatus can be found in the literature.

  16. Exaggerated Response of Systolic Blood Pressure to Cycle Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Joo; Chun, Heaja

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to exam the effects of exercise modes on the systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product during a gradually increasing exercise load from low to high intensity. Methods Fifteen apparently healthy men aged 19 to 23 performed the graded exercise tests on cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM). During the low-to-maximal exercises, oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and rate-pressure product were measured. Results CE had a significantly lower maximum VO2 than TM (CE vs. TM: 48.51±1.30 vs. 55.4±1.19 mL/kg/min; p<0.001). However, CE showed a higher maximum SBP (SBPmax) at the all-out exercise load than TM (CE vs. TM: 170±2.4 vs. 154±1.7 mmHg; p<0.001). During the low-to-maximal intensity increment, the slope of the HR with VO2 was the same as VO2 increased in times of the graded exercise test of CE and TM (CE vs. TM: 2.542±0.100 vs. 2.506±0.087; p=0.26). The slope of increase on SBP accompanied by VO2 increase was significantly higher in CE than in TM (CE vs. TM: 1.669±0.117 vs. 1.179±0.063; p<0.001). Conclusion The SBP response is stronger in CE than in TM during the graded exercise test. Therefore, there is a possibility that CE could induce a greater burden on workloads to cardiovascular system in humans than TM. PMID:23869334

  17. A Simplified Two-Component Model of Blood Pressure Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Brychta, Robert J.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Diedrich, André

    2007-01-01

    We propose a simple moving-average (MA) model that uses the low-frequency (LF) component of the peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve spike rate (LFspike rate) and the high-frequency (HF) component of respiration (HFResp) to describe the LF neurovascular fluctuations and the HF mechanical oscillations in systolic blood pressure (SBP), respectively. This method was validated by data from eight healthy subjects (23–47 yr old, 6 male, 2 female) during a graded tilt (15° increments every 5 min to a 60° angle). The LF component of SBP (LFSBP) had a strong baroreflex-mediated feedback correlation with LFspike rate (r = −0.69 ± 0.05) and also a strong feedforward relation to LFspike rate [r = 0.58 ± 0.03 with LFSBP delay (τ) = 5.625 ± 0.15 s]. The HF components of spike rate (HFspike rate) and SBP (HFSBP) were not significantly correlated. Conversely, HFResp and HFSBP were highly correlated (r = −0.79 ± 0.04), whereas LFResp and LFSBP were significantly less correlated (r = 0.45 ± 0.08). The mean correlation coefficients between the measured and model-predicted LFSBP (r = 0.74 ± 0.03) in the supine position did not change significantly during tilt. The mean correlation between the measured and model-predicted HFSBP was 0.89 ± 0.02 in the supine position. R2 values for the regression analysis of the model-predicted and measured LF and HF powers indicate that 78 and 91% of the variability in power can be explained by the linear relation of LFspike rate to LFSBP and HFResp to HFSBP. We report a simple two-component model using neural sympathetic and mechanical respiratory inputs that can explain the majority of blood pressure fluctuation at rest and during orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. PMID:17012354

  18. Effect of respiration on Korotkoff sounds and oscillometric cuff pressure pulses during blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dingchang; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Murray, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement accuracy depends on consistent changes in Korotkoff sounds (KorS) for manual measurement and oscillometric pulses for automated measurement, yet little is known about the direct effect of respiration on these physiological signals. The aim of this research was to quantitatively assess the modulation effect of respiration on Korotkoff sounds and oscillometric pulses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually from 30 healthy subjects (age 41 ± 12 years). Three static cuff pressure conditions were studied for two respiratory rates. Cuff pressure [with oscillometric pulses (OscP)], ECG, chest motion respiration [respiration signal (Resp), from magnetometer] and Korotkoff sounds (KorS, from digital stethoscope) were recorded twice for 20 s. The physiological data were evenly resampled. Respiratory frequency was calculated from Resp (fR), OscP (fO) and KorS (fK) from peak spectral frequency. There was no statistically significant difference between fR and fO or fK. Respiratory modulation was observed in all subjects. OscP amplitude modulation changed significantly between the two respiratory rates (p < 0.05) and between the three cuff pressures (p < 0.0001), and decreased significantly with decreasing cuff pressure (p < 0.05). The phase shift between Resp and modulation of OscP was statistically significant with respiratory rates (p < 0.05), but not with cuff pressures. It is accepted that BP in individuals is variable and that this relates to respiration; we now show that this respiration modulates oscillometric pulse and Korotkoff sound amplitudes from which BP is measured. PMID:24668326

  19. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Control Through Analysis of Inter Beat Interval, Systolic Blood Pressure and Photoplethysmographic Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, N. P.; Lerma-González, C.; Infante-Vázquez, O.

    2010-12-01

    Most studies of blood pressure control consider only the relationship between blood pressure and heart rate. The aim of this work was to study the contribution of blood volume to the stability of blood pressure. Time series analysis was applied to three variables: systolic blood pressure (SBP), inter beat interval (IBI) and pulse volume (PV), in 10 healthy subjects who underwent an orthostatic challenge. During orthostatism, IBI was shortened due to decrease in vagal activity and increase in sympathetic activity to the heart. The mean SBP increased, with a trend of higher sympathetic activity to the blood vessels. However, mean PV decreased without change in the PV variability. Negative linear correlations between SBP and PV were observed in most cases. Moreover, the linear model explained better the variability of SBP in relation to PV than the relation between SBP and IBI.

  20. Taking blood pressure: too important to trust to humans?

    PubMed

    Vidt, Donald G; Lang, Richard S; Seballos, Raul J; Misra-Hebert, Anita; Campbell, John; Bena, James F

    2010-10-01

    The measurement of blood pressure in the physician's office is subject to a number of observer errors and also to the "white-coat effect." Automatic devices that measure blood pressure without a human observer in the room can eliminate many of these problems. We argue for greater use of these devices in the physician's office. PMID:20889806

  1. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  7. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  8. Blood pressure variability: a novel and important risk factor.

    PubMed

    Floras, John S

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure is a continuous, not a static, variable. Individuals exhibiting similar clinic or home blood pressure can differ considerably with respect to their average day and nighttime values, beat-by-beat blood pressure variation during wakefulness and sleep, responses to mental and physical stimuli, and intersession and seasonal variation. There now is evidence that several such representations of blood pressure variability, if augmented, increase cardiovascular risk independent of the average of conventionally acquired blood pressure readings. As well, recent retrospective analyses of published trial data have concluded that antihypertensive drug classes differ in their effects on intersession blood pressure variability and associated risk of stroke. If the goal of the hypertension community is to optimize personalized cardiovascular risk assessment and to attenuate fully such risk, future efforts should be directed at determining which representation of blood pressure variability estimates individual cardiovascular risk best, establishing "normal" and "high- risk" variability distributions, testing the hypothesis that attenuating such variability specifically through drug or device therapy reduces cardiovascular risk more than blood pressure reduction per se, and integrating such data into clinical practice. PMID:23618505

  9. A computer-based monitoring system for follow-up of elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Barnett, G O; Winickoff, R N; Morgan, M M; Zielstorff, R D

    1983-04-01

    An automated surveillance system utilizing a computer-based medical record system (COSTAR) was designed to improve the follow-up of patients with newly identified elevated diastolic blood pressure. A population of patients was selected where, in the 6-month period following the initial measurement of an elevated diastolic blood pressure, there were fewer than two visits during which blood pressure was recorded. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, this poor follow-up population was divided into two groups, with computer-generated reminders being automatically generated for only patients in the experimental group. Follow-up was significantly improved in the group receiving the reminders, both in terms of rate of follow-up attempted or achieved by the responsible physician and in the repeated recording of blood pressure. We conclude that a computer-based reminder system improves follow-up of newly discovered elevation in diastolic blood pressure. PMID:6341724

  10. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p < 0.3] and diastolic [p < 0.02]). Nevertheless, such alterations were found to modify the amplitude of the Korotkoff sound, which can manifest itself as an apparent change in arterial blood pressure that is readily discerned by the human ear. The increase in diastolic pressure for the cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies. PMID:8463815

  11. Quantitative Estimation of Tissue Blood Flow Rate.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Gillian M; Prise, Vivien E; Cunningham, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    The rate of blood flow through a tissue (F) is a critical parameter for assessing the functional efficiency of a blood vessel network following angiogenesis. This chapter aims to provide the principles behind the estimation of F, how F relates to other commonly used measures of tissue perfusion, and a practical approach for estimating F in laboratory animals, using small readily diffusible and metabolically inert radio-tracers. The methods described require relatively nonspecialized equipment. However, the analytical descriptions apply equally to complementary techniques involving more sophisticated noninvasive imaging.Two techniques are described for the quantitative estimation of F based on measuring the rate of tissue uptake following intravenous administration of radioactive iodo-antipyrine (or other suitable tracer). The Tissue Equilibration Technique is the classical approach and the Indicator Fractionation Technique, which is simpler to perform, is a practical alternative in many cases. The experimental procedures and analytical methods for both techniques are given, as well as guidelines for choosing the most appropriate method. PMID:27172960

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. Physiologic control algorithms for rotary blood pumps using pressure sensor input.

    PubMed

    Bullister, Edward; Reich, Sanford; Sluetz, James

    2002-11-01

    Hierarchical algorithms have been developed for enhanced physiologic control and monitoring of blood pumps using pressure inputs. Pressures were measured at pump inlet and outlet using APEX pressure sensors (APSs). The APS is a patented, long-term implantable, flow-through blood pressure sensor and designed to control implantable heart pumps. The algorithms have been tested using a Donavan circulatory mock-loop setup, a generic rotary pump, and LabVIEW software. The hierarchical algorithms control pump speed using pump inlet pressure as a primary independent variable and pump outlet pressure as a secondary dependent variable. Hierarchical control algorithms based on feedback from pressure sensors can control the speed of the pump to stably maintain ventricular filling pressures and arterial pressures. Monitoring algorithms based on pressure inputs are able to approximate flow rate and hydraulic power for the pump and the left ventricle. PMID:12406146

  14. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  15. Fuel droplet burning rates at high pressures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Combustion of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane was observed in air under natural convection conditions, at pressures up to 100 atm. The droplets were simulated by porous spheres, with diameters in the range from 0.63 to 1.90 cm. The pressure levels of the tests were high enough so that near-critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol. Due to the high pressures, the phase-equilibrium models of the analysis included both the conventional low-pressure approach as well as high-pressure versions, allowing for real gas effects and the solubility of combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The burning-rate predictions of the various theories were similar, and in fair agreement with the data. The high-pressure theory gave the best prediction for the liquid-surface temperatures of ethanol and propanol-1 at high pressure. The experiments indicated the approach of critical burning conditions for methanol and ethanol at pressures on the order of 80 to 100 atm, which was in good agreement with the predictions of both the low- and high-pressure analysis.

  16. Effects of nitrendipine on blood pressure and blood ciclosporin A level in patients with posttransplant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Copur, M S; Tasdemir, I; Turgan, C; Yasavul, U; Caglar, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness and interaction with ciclosporin A (CS-A) nitrendipine, a dihydropyridine derivative calcium entry blocking agent, was used in 16 (13 men, 3 women) hypertensive renal posttransplant patients followed by the Nephrology Department of Hacettepe University Hospital. The patients did not receive any antihypertensive drug for a 7-day period. They were then given 20 mg/day nitrendipine for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, mean (+/- SE) supine blood pressure fell from 163/108 +/- 3.6/1.87 to 141/87 +/- 3.8/2.2 mm Hg (p less than 0.01), while the heart rate was unchanged. 14 of 16 patients achieved full control of blood pressure levels with 20 mg/day nitrendipine, and only 2 patients needed a higher dosage of 30 mg/day (20 + 10 mg). After 3 weeks of treatment no significant variations in blood chemistry or renal functional parameters were noticed. There was also no difference between blood CS-A levels before and after treatment with nitrendipine (218.06 +/- 33 vs. 222.68 +/- 26 ng/ml, p greater than 0.05). We conclude that short-term therapy with nitrendipine in renal post-transplant patients does not appear to be harmful and longer term studies are needed to fully evaluate safety and efficacy of this drug. Because it influences neither blood chemistry nor renal functional parameters and blood CS-A level, it may be preferable to other calcium channel blocking agents in this group of patients. PMID:2662047

  17. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  18. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring-Derived Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Andrea; Bernardi, Stella; Rebellato, Andrea; Fabris, Bruno; Bardelli, Moreno; Burrello, Jacopo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), either idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) or aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and normotensive (NT) controls. Thirty patients with PA (16 with IHA and 14 with APA), 30 patients with EH, and 30 NT controls, matched for sex, age, body mass index, and antihypertensive therapy, were studied. The standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP; 24-hour weighted SD of BP; and 24-hour BP average real variability were not different between patients with PA and those with EH (P=not significant). All BPV indices were higher in patients with PA, either IHA or APA subtypes, and patients with EH, compared with NT controls (P<.001 to P<.05). ABPM-derived short-term BPV is increased in patients with PA, and it may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of aldosterone excess in BPV has to be clarified. PMID:25880017

  19. Effects of laser acupuncture on blood perfusion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xian-ju; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Han-ping; Liu, Song-hao; Liu, Liang-gang

    2006-09-01

    Based on Pennes equation, the influences of the intensity and the impulse frequency of laser acupuncture on the point tissues' blood flow perfusion rate are discussed. We find that the blood perfusion rate of point tissue increases with the intensity of laser acupuncture increasing. After impulse laser acupuncture the point tissue blood perfusion rate increase little, but after continuum laser acupuncture the point tissues blood perfusion rate increase much.

  20. Effects of tamsulosin on resting urethral pressure and arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized female dogs.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Akiyoshi; Sato, Shuichi; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji

    2006-03-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists tamsulosin, prazosin and urapidil on resting urethral pressure in anaesthetized female dogs, and to compare the results with their effects on arterial blood pressure. Tamsulosin decreased resting maximal urethral pressure in the urethral pressure profile in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas it had almost no effect on mean arterial blood pressure. Prazosin and urapidil also dose-dependently decreased resting maximal urethral pressure, but these effects were accompanied by decreases in mean arterial blood pressure. Thus, of these three compounds, tamsulosin dose-dependently decreased resting maximal urethral pressure with negligible effect on mean arterial blood pressure in female dogs. These results suggest that tamsulosin will be useful in the treatment of voiding dysfunction associated with bladder outlet obstruction in women, with little hypotensive effect. PMID:16536901

  1. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present

  2. Hostility, cultural orientation, and casual blood pressure readings in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, I N; Harrell, J P; Floyd, L J; Bell, S R

    2001-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hostility correlates with blood pressure levels in African-American samples. However, some studies have reported an inverse relationship, while others have found the relationship between blood pressure and hostility to be positive. Other literature suggests health outcomes in general, and blood pressure in particular, are related to cultural orientation in African-American samples. In the present study, six casual measures of blood pressure and heart rate in a sample of 90 African-American college students were aggregated and correlated with measures of hostility and cultural orientation. Correlational and regression analyses revealed a weak positive relationship between hostility and systolic blood pressure. The relationships between the cardiovascular measures and cultural orientation were more consistent. The tendency to embrace mainstream Euro-American values, such as materialism, individuality, and competitiveness, was associated with more rapid heart rate and higher diastolic blood pressure levels for both men and women. The relationship between systolic blood pressure and cultural orientation emerged for men only. The findings encourage further research into the relationship between personality variables and cardiovascular activity in African-American samples. PMID:11763302

  3. Blood pressure increases while signing in a deaf population.

    PubMed

    Malinow, K L; Lynch, J J; Foreman, P J; Friedmann, E; Thomas, S A

    1986-01-01

    Recent technologic advances have permitted the observation of rapid and significant increases in blood pressure (BP) during verbal communication. The magnitude of the increase in BP is influenced by rate of speech, audience size, status, affective content, environmental setting, and resting BP. The current study evaluates the effect of communicating without vocalizing in 38 deaf adults. Similar to speaking individuals, deaf individuals exhibited significant increases in BP and heart rate (HR) while signing, and the magnitude of the increases were related to resting BP levels. These findings suggest that communication, independent of vocalization, has significant effects on the cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to explore other dimensions of cardiovascular-communication relationships in deaf populations. PMID:3945720

  4. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179

  5. Smog Can Make Blood Pressure Soar

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More evidence links air pollution with increased risk of developing dangerous high blood ... term, he noted, a few days of increased air pollution could lead to more emergency hospital visits due ...

  6. Ion channels and the control of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma H

    2000-01-01

    Ion channels exist in all cells and are enormously varied in structure, function and regulation. Some progress has been made in understanding the role that ion channels play in the control of blood pressure, but the discipline is still in its infancy. Ion channels provide many different targets for intervention in disorders of blood pressure and exciting advances have been made in this field. It is possible that new drugs, as well as antisense nucleotide technology or gene therapy directed towards ion channels, may form a new class of treatments for high and low blood pressure in the future. PMID:10718773

  7. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  8. Specific Blood Pressure Targets for Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe; Nilsson, Peter M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a condition frequently detected in current clinical practice characterized by a very high cardiovascular risk profile. Blood pressure reduction via antihypertension drug treatment represents a therapeutic approach capable of exerting favorable effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and results of key clinical trials pertaining to blood pressure goals of antihypertension treatment in these patients. The pros and cons of a less or a more intensive blood pressure goal in diabetic nephropathy will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the cardiovascular and renal effects of each therapeutic strategy. PMID:27440837

  9. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    PubMed

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  10. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR. PMID:26538090

  11. Orthostatic blood pressure regulation predicts classroom effort in children.

    PubMed

    Carapetian, Stephanie; Siedlarz, Monika; Jackson, Sandra; Perlmuter, Lawrence C

    2008-04-01

    The increase in orthostatic systolic blood pressure associated with the shift in posture from lying to standing requires several compensatory mechanisms to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion. Decreased efficiency in the various mechanisms controlling orthostatic blood pressure regulation can result in dizziness, lightheadedness, and syncope. The degree of effectiveness of orthostatic systolic blood pressure regulation (OBPR) serves as a marker for a variety of problems including fatigue, depression, anxiety, reduced attention, impulsive behavior and reduced volition. In normal children, an insufficient increase in systolic blood pressure in response to upright posture is predictive of mild cognitive and affective problems. The present study examined orthostatic systolic blood pressure regulation in relation to yearlong teachers' evaluations of academic grades and effort in 7-11 year old children. Poorer systolic blood pressure regulation in response to orthostasis was associated with reduced levels of classroom effort, while academic grades were spared. Converging evidence from clinical as well as experimental studies suggests that the linkage between (OBPR) and effort may be partially mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, altered release of neurotransmitters, or reduced cerebral blood flow. PMID:18280600

  12. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    PubMed

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (<0.20 Hz) and faster oscillations are passed through relatively unimpeded. During moderate intensity exercise, previous studies have reported paradoxical transfer function analysis (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels. PMID:26586907

  13. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  14. [Current clinical aspects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Cuéllar-Álvarez, José; Villegas-Herrera, Karla Montserrat; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is the prevalentest disease worldwide that significantly increases cardiovascular risk. An early diagnosis together to achieve goals decreases the risk of complications significatly. Recently have been updated the diagnostic criteria for hypertension and the introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The introduction into clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was to assist the diagnosis of «white coat hypertension» and «masked hypertension». Today has also shown that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is better than the traditional method of recording blood pressure in the office, to the diagnosis and to adequate control and adjustment of drug treatment. Also there have been introduced important new concepts such as isloted nocturnal hypertension, morning blood pressure elevation altered and altered patterns of nocturnal dip in blood pressure; which have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have shown significant prognostic value in some stocks. There are still other concepts on which further study is needed to properly establish their introduction to clinical practice as hypertensive load variability, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition to setting values according to further clinical studies in populations such as elderly and children. PMID:26794338

  15. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score): A Prospective Cohort Study with External Validation

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Background Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. Methods and Findings This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥15 years) patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model). Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0–5), ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration) was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5–74.0%, specificity 85.9–91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2–17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3–99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2–5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). Conclusions Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values. PMID:25867881

  16. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. PMID:27045024

  17. New Approaches to Evaluating and Monitoring Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M; Levy, Phillip D

    2016-06-01

    Digital health innovations for hypertension include cuffless blood pressure sensors, wireless smartphone-enabled upper arm blood pressure monitors, mobile applications, and remote monitoring technologies. Wearable trackers have drawn interest from medical professionals and patients alike. They have the potential to improve hypertension control and medication adherence through easier logging of repeated blood pressure measurements, better connectivity with health-care providers, and medication reminder alerts. With increasing emphasis on home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm hypertension prior to treatment, such devices also can help improve the diagnostic landscape. However, privacy, accuracy, and cost concerns have prevented widespread clinical uptake. To foster implementation, device designers and clinical researchers should collaborate on development of rigorous clinical trials that test cardiovascular outcomes associated with emerging technologies. We review the current literature on mobile health technologies and novel diagnostic and management protocols and make recommendations on how to incorporate these innovations into practice. PMID:27137524

  18. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  19. Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159836.html Dietary Mineral Could Be One Key to Blood Pressure Control ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sufficient dietary levels of the mineral nutrient magnesium might be a boon to good ...

  20. Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audio CME Program Point of Care Searching and Learning Other Opportunities Treating High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes - English Patient education library Open in new window Download PDF Follow us on Twitter , Facebook , and YouTube Twitter ...

  1. Automated analysis of blood pressure measurements (Korotkov sound)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.

  2. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio. PMID:6875443

  3. More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158851.html More Support for Aggressive Blood Pressure Treatment for Elderly Latest findings from ... SPRINT trial tested that approach against a more aggressive one, aiming to get patients of all ages ...

  4. 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160930.html 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds ... year in the United States, accounting for about one out of every three deaths, Frieden said. Uncontrolled ...

  5. [Secondary prevention of stroke through arterial blood pressure reduction].

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Grassi, G

    1997-07-01

    Large scale observational studies have conclusively demonstrated that systolic and diastolic blood pressure values are linearly related to the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases and that high blood pressure is an important risk factor for both primary and secondary development of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that blood pressure lowering by antihypertensive treatment reduces the incidence of stroke in hypertensive patients without a history of previous stroke. Whether this is the case also for the secondary prevention of cerebral ischemic attacks has not been unequivocally shown, however. The PROGRESS ("Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study") study has been designed and is under way to collect information on this important issue of the antihypertensive treatment, its purpose being to evaluate the blood pressure lowering effects with an ACE-inhibitor on recurrent stroke in an overall population of 6000 patients with a positive history of previous cerebral ischemic attacks or stroke. PMID:9340173

  6. Variability of arterial blood pressure in normal and hypertensive pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Oney, T; Meyer-Sabellek, W

    1990-12-01

    In normal pregnancy the circadian blood pressure rhythm is similar to that in the non-pregnant state, with the highest blood pressure values in the morning and the lowest at midnight. This rhythm is lost in patients with pre-eclampsia. Women with severe pre-eclampsia show a reversed circadian rhythm, with a nocturnal increase in blood pressure during the sleeping phase. Although the reasons for this nocturnal hypertension in severe pre-eclampsia are poorly understood, the results suggest that pre-eclamptic women are endangered by hypertensive emergencies, mostly at night. Therefore blood pressure measurement should be extended to the night, and antihypertensive treatment must be adapted to the demands of a reversed circadian rhythm in relevant subgroups of patients. PMID:2082002

  7. Thresholds for Diagnosing Hypertension Based on Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure. PMID:26269653

  8. Associations of blood pressure variability and retinal arteriolar diameter in participants with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Veloudi, Panagiota; Blizzard, Leigh; Srikanth, Velandai K; McCartney, Paul; Lukoshkova, Elena V; Hughes, Alun D; Head, Geoffrey A; Sharman, James E

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure variability is associated with macrovascular complications and stroke, but its association with the microcirculation in type II diabetes has not been assessed. This study aimed to determine the relationship between blood pressure variability indices and retinal arteriolar diameter in non-diabetic and type II diabetes participants. Digitized retinal images were analysed to quantify arteriolar diameters in 35 non-diabetic (aged 52 ± 11 years; 49% male) and 28 type II diabetes (aged 61 ± 9 years; 50% male) participants. Blood pressure variability was derived from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Arteriolar diameter was positively associated with daytime rate of systolic blood pressure variation (p = 0.04) among type II diabetes participants and negatively among non-diabetics (p = 0.008; interaction p = 0.001). This finding was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index and mean daytime systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that the blood pressure variability–related mechanisms underlying retinal vascular disease may differ between people with and without type II diabetes. PMID:27056406

  9. Associations of blood pressure variability and retinal arteriolar diameter in participants with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Veloudi, Panagiota; Blizzard, Leigh; Srikanth, Velandai K; McCartney, Paul; Lukoshkova, Elena V; Hughes, Alun D; Head, Geoffrey A; Sharman, James E

    2016-07-01

    Blood pressure variability is associated with macrovascular complications and stroke, but its association with the microcirculation in type II diabetes has not been assessed. This study aimed to determine the relationship between blood pressure variability indices and retinal arteriolar diameter in non-diabetic and type II diabetes participants. Digitized retinal images were analysed to quantify arteriolar diameters in 35 non-diabetic (aged 52 ± 11 years; 49% male) and 28 type II diabetes (aged 61 ± 9 years; 50% male) participants. Blood pressure variability was derived from 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Arteriolar diameter was positively associated with daytime rate of systolic blood pressure variation (p = 0.04) among type II diabetes participants and negatively among non-diabetics (p = 0.008; interaction p = 0.001). This finding was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index and mean daytime systolic blood pressure. These findings suggest that the blood pressure variability-related mechanisms underlying retinal vascular disease may differ between people with and without type II diabetes. PMID:27056406

  10. Gene Silencing and Haploinsufficiency of Csk Increase Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Ji, Su-Min; Park, So-Yon; Kim, Marina E.; Jigden, Baigalmaa; Lim, Ji Eun; Hwang, Sue-Yun; Lee, Young-Ho; Oh, Bermseok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 33 human genetic loci that influence blood pressure. The 15q24 locus is one such locus that has been confirmed in Asians and Europeans. There are 21 genes in the locus within a 1-Mb boundary, but a functional link of these genes to blood pressure has not been reported. We aimed to identify a causative gene for blood pressure change in the 15q24 locus. Methods and Results CSK and ULK3 were selected as candidate genes based on eQTL analysis studies that showed the association between gene transcript levels and the lead SNP (rs1378942). Injection of siRNAs for mouse homologs Csk, Ulk3, and Cyp1a2 (negative control) showed reduced target gene mRNA levels in vivo. However, Csk siRNA only increased blood pressure while Ulk3 and Cyp1a2 siRNA did not change it. Further, blood pressure in Csk+/- heterozygotes was higher than in wild-type, consistent with what we observed in Csk siRNA-injected mice. We confirmed that haploinsufficiency of Csk increased the active form of Src in Csk+/- mice aorta. We also showed that inhibition of Src by PP2, a Src inhibitor decreased high blood pressure in Csk+/- mice and the active Src in Csk+/- mice aorta and in Csk knock-down vascular smooth muscle cells, suggesting blood pressure regulation by Csk through Src. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that Csk is a causative gene in the 15q24 locus and regulates blood pressure through Src, and these findings provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26751575

  11. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata. We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing. In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator. In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  12. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of drugs are there? • D IURETICS rid the ... by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood ... types may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if you have side effects, but don’ ...

  13. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  14. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  15. Techniques for estimating blood pressure variation using video images.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norihiro; Obara, Kazuma; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu

    2015-08-01

    It is important to know about a sudden blood pressure change that occurs in everyday life and may pose a danger to human health. However, monitoring the blood pressure variation in daily life is difficult because a bulky and expensive sensor is needed to measure the blood pressure continuously. In this study, a new non-contact method is proposed to estimate the blood pressure variation using video images. In this method, the pulse propagation time difference or instantaneous phase difference is calculated between two pulse waves obtained from different parts of a subject's body captured by a video camera. The forehead, left cheek, and right hand are selected as regions to obtain pulse waves. Both the pulse propagation time difference and instantaneous phase difference were calculated from the video images of 20 healthy subjects performing the Valsalva maneuver. These indices are considered to have a negative correlation with the blood pressure variation because they approximate the pulse transit time obtained from a photoplethysmograph. However, the experimental results showed that the correlation coefficients between the blood pressure and the proposed indices were approximately 0.6 for the pulse wave obtained from the right hand. This result is considered to be due to the difference in the transmission depth into the skin between the green and infrared light used as light sources for the video image and conventional photoplethysmogram, respectively. In addition, the difference in the innervation of the face and hand may be related to the results. PMID:26737225

  16. Perceived stress and blood pressure in early adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Caputo, J L; Gill, D L; Tseh, W; Jamurtas, A Z; Morgan, D W

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the individual contributions of perceived daily, major, and total stressors to blood pressure in early adolescent children. Toward this goal, cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 74 6th-grade students. Height and body weight, measured in standard fashion, were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Waist and hip circumferences and triceps and calf skinfolds were taken to determine the distribution and percentage of body fat, respectively. Seated resting blood pressure was obtained using a mercury sphygmomanometer. The dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio was calculated from a food intake questionnaire. Family history of hypertension was self-reported by participant's parents, and physical activity and perceived stress levels were determined by questionnaire. When added to the hierarchical regression models, the perceived stress variables did not significantly predict any additional variance in systolic or diastolic blood pressure in this early adolescent sample. Additionally, bivariate correlations between the stress variables and blood pressure were nonsignificant. The nonpsychological hypertension risk factors accounted for 25%-35% of the total variance in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Further, regression analyses revealed that with the exception of BMI and the sodium-to-potassium ratio, no other risk factors were independent predictors of systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Further identification and understanding of environmental precursors of childhood hypertension is recommended. PMID:10892530

  17. Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation during Changes in Arterial Blood Pressure in Healthy Young Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Agnes; Told, Reinhard; Napora, Katarzyna J.; Palkovits, Stefan; Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    Aim In the present study the response of optic nerve head blood flow to an increase in ocular perfusion pressure during isometric exercise was studied. Based on our previous studies we hypothesized that subjects with an abnormal blood flow response, defined as a decrease in blood flow of more than 10% during or after isometric exercise, could be identified. Methods A total of 40 healthy subjects were included in this study. Three periods of isometric exercise were scheduled, each consisting of 2 minutes of handgripping. Optic nerve head blood flow was measured continuously before, during and after handgripping using laser Doppler flowmetry. Blood pressure was measured non-invasively in one-minute intervals. Intraocular pressure was measured at the beginning and the end of the measurements and ocular perfusion pressure was calculated as 2/3*mean arterial pressure –intraocular pressure. Results Isometric exercise was associated with an increase in ocular perfusion pressure during all handgripping periods (p < 0.001). By contrast no change in optic nerve head blood flow was seen. However, in a subgroup of three subjects blood flow showed a consistent decrease of more than 10% during isometric exercise although their blood pressure values increased. In addition, three other subjects showed a consistent decline of blood flow of more than 10% during the recovery periods. Conclusion Our data confirm previous results indicating that optic nerve head blood flow is autoregulated during an increase in perfusion pressure. In addition, we observed a subgroup of 6 subjects (15%) that showed an abnormal response, which is in keeping with our previous data. The mechanisms underlying this abnormal response remain to be shown. PMID:24324774

  18. The design and rationale of a multi-center clinical trial comparing two strategies for control of systolic blood pressure: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is an important public health concern because it is highly prevalent and a risk factor for adverse health outcomes, including coronary heart disease, stroke, decompensated heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and decline in cognitive function. Observational studies show a progressive increase in risk associated with blood pressure above 115/75 mm Hg. Prior research has shown that reducing elevated systolic blood pressure lowers the risk of subsequent clinical complications from cardiovascular disease. However, the optimal systolic blood pressure to reduce blood pressure-related adverse outcomes is unclear, and the benefit of treating to a level of systolic blood pressure well below 140 mm Hg has not been proven in a large, definitive clinical trial. Purpose To describe the design considerations of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and the baseline characteristics of trial participants. Methods SPRINT is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial that compares two strategies for treating systolic blood pressure: one targets the standard target of <140 mm Hg, and the other targets a more intensive target of <120 mm Hg. Enrollment focused on volunteers of age ≥50 years (no upper limit) with an average baseline systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and evidence of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, 10-year Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score ≥15%, or age ≥75 years. SPRINT recruitment also targeted three pre-specified subgroups: participants with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73m2), participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, and participants 75 years of age or older. The primary outcome is first occurrence of a myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular disease death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, decline in kidney function or development of end-stage renal disease

  19. Effects of Upper and Lower Cervical Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Volunteers and Patients With Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-Over, Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Win, Ni Ni; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Chen, Yu Sui; Haneline, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to examine autonomic nervous system responses by using heart rate variability analysis (HRV), hemodynamic parameters and numeric pain scale (NPS) when either upper (C1 and C2) or lower (C6 and C7) cervical segments were manipulated in volunteers, and whether such response would be altered in acute mechanical neck pain patients after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Methods A randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study was conducted on 10 asymptomatic normotensive volunteers and 10 normotensive patients complaining of acute neck pain. HRV, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and NPS were recorded after upper cervical and lower cervical segments SMT in volunteer and patient groups. Results The standard deviation of average normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN) increased (83.54 ± 22 vs. 105.41 ± 20; P = .02) after upper cervical SMT. The normalized unit of high frequency (nuHF), which shows parasympathetic activity, was predominant (40.18 ± 9 vs. 46.08 ± 14) after upper cervical SMT (P = .03) with a significant decrease (109 ± 10 vs. 98 ± 5) in systolic BP (P = .002). Low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, which shows predominance of sympathetic activity increased (1.05 ± 0.7 vs. 1.51 ± 0.5; P = .02) after lower cervical SMT in the healthy volunteers group. However, there was an increase in SDNN (70.48 ± 18 vs. 90.23 ± 20; P = .02 and 75.19 ± 16 vs 97.52 ± 22; P = .01), a decrease in LF/HF ratio (1.33 ± 0.3 vs. 0.81 ± 0.2; P = .001 and 1.22 ± 0.4 vs. 0.86 ± 0.3; P = .02), which was associated with decreased systolic BP (105 ± 10 vs. 95 ± 9; P = .01 and 102 ± 9 vs. 91 ± 10; P = .02) and NPS scores (3 ± 1 vs. 0; P = .01 and 3 ± 1 vs. 1 ± 1; P = .03) following both upper and lower cervical SMT in the patient’s group. The baseline HR was 67 ± 9 vs 64 ± 5 (upper cervical) and 65 ± 7 vs 69 ± 11 (lower cervical) in both the healthy volunteer’ and patient’ groups. Conclusion Upper

  20. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  1. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Here’s a rundown on the main types ...

  2. "Keep the Beat" Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease ... Contents Your blood pressure rises and falls during the day. But when it stays elevated over time, ...

  3. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Here’s a rundown ...

  4. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: High Blood Pressure More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... high blood pressure. NIH-funded analysis indicates higher risk for young adults than previously believed. With more ...

  5. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. Objective To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Methods Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Results Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Conclusion Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence. PMID:24676220

  6. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  7. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body....

  8. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body....

  9. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body....

  10. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body....

  11. Anger Expression and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starner, Tamie M.; Peters, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical significance of childhood hypertension is important as elevated pressures during childhood are found to follow a progressively increasing track into adulthood. Little work has been done to examine the relationship of emotions and emotional behavioral factors to the development of hypertension in children. Using the Roy Adaptation…

  12. Changes in blood pressure following escalating doses of phenylpropanolamine and a suggested protocol for monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Gilad; Westropp, Jodi L.; Kulik, Chen; Lavy, Eran

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, cross-over, blinded study evaluated the effect of various doses of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on blood pressure in dogs. Dogs were randomized to receive a placebo or 1 of 3 dosages of immediate release PPA, q12h for 7 days [1 mg/kg body weight (BW), 2 mg/kg BW, or 4 mg/kg BW] in a cross-over design. Blood pressure was recorded every 2 h, for 12 h, on days 1 and 7. There were significant increases in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure following administration of PPA at 2 mg/kg BW and 4 mg/kg BW. A significant decrease in heart rate was also noted at all PPA dosages, but not in the placebo. Administration of PPA was associated with a dose response increase in blood pressure. Dosages of up to 2 mg/kg BW should be considered safe in healthy dogs. PMID:25565712

  13. Supine exercise restores arterial blood pressure and skin blood flow despite dehydration and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R; Coyle, E F

    1999-08-01

    We determined whether the deleterious effects of dehydration and hyperthermia on cardiovascular function during upright exercise were attenuated by elevating central blood volume with supine exercise. Seven trained men [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)) 4.7 +/- 0. 4 l/min (mean +/- SE)] cycled for 30 min in the heat (35 degrees C) in the upright and in the supine positions (VO(2) 2.93 +/- 0.27 l/min) while maintaining euhydration by fluid ingestion or while being dehydrated by 5% of body weight after 2 h of upright exercise. When subjects were euhydrated, esophageal temperature (T(es)) was 37. 8-38.0 degrees C in both body postures. Dehydration caused equal hyperthermia during both upright and supine exercise (T(es) = 38. 7-38.8 degrees C). During upright exercise, dehydration lowered stroke volume (SV), cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cutaneous vascular conductance and increased heart rate and plasma catecholamines [30 +/- 6 ml, 3.0 +/- 0.7 l/min, 6 +/- 2 mmHg, 22 +/- 8%, 14 +/- 2 beats/min, and 50-96%, respectively; all P < 0. 05]. In contrast, during supine exercise, dehydration did not cause significant alterations in MAP, cutaneous vascular conductance, or plasma catecholamines. Furthermore, supine versus upright exercise attenuated the increases in heart rate (7 +/- 2 vs. 9 +/- 1%) and the reductions in SV (13 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 3%) and cardiac output (8 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 3%) (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that the decline in cutaneous vascular conductance and the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration, independent of hyperthermia, are associated with a reduction in central blood volume and a lower arterial blood pressure. PMID:10444482

  14. Anharmonic analysis of arterial blood pressure and flow pulses.

    PubMed

    Voltairas, P A; Fotiadis, D I; Massalas, C V; Michalis, L K

    2005-07-01

    Fourier analysis is usually employed for the computation of blood flow in arteries. Although the orthogonality of Fourier eigenfunctions guarantees the accurate mathematical modeling of the blood pressure and flow waveforms, the physics behind this objective function is frequently missing. We propose a new method to account for the blood pressure and flow, single-cycle (systole-diastole) waveforms. It is based on the one dimensional hydrodynamic mass and momentum conservation equations for viscous flow. The similarity of the linear problem, under discussion, with related transmission line theory in electromagnetic wave propagation, permits expansion in anharmonic, non-separable eigenfunctions. In some cases one term in the expansion is adequate to fit the main peak of the observed waveforms. Analytical formulas are derived for the dependence of the pressure and flow main peaks on whole blood viscosity and distance from the heart, which interpret observations related to hypertension. PMID:15922753

  15. Automated blood pressure measurement (ABPM) in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, P

    1996-01-01

    Application and feasibility of automated ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) in the elderly are comparable to younger age groups. Major side-effects are sleep disturbances and pain during cuff-inflation. The main indications for ABPM are diagnosis and control of treatment in hypertensive patients. Further indications are the diagnosis of syncope or hypotensive disorders and the diagnostic work-up of symptoms like vertigo, dizziness and dyspnea. In hypertensives, ABPM can easily assess the "white coat" effect and cases of "white coat" hypertension (prevalence in the elderly 15-25%). The prognostic implications of "white coat" hypertensions remain to be determined. Recording of the total 24-h blood pressure profile with analysis of circadian blood pressure changes, the day-night difference and the early morning surge raises the possibility to assess age-specific patterns. The drop in blood pressure at night (during sleep) is usually decreased and less frequently observed in elderly hypertensives. Possible explanations include decreased daytime activity, an altered sleep pattern in the elderly and secondary forms of hypertension. So-called "non-dippers", with no adequate drop in night-time blood pressure, show a significant increase in cardiovascular complications. Control of treatment via ABPM can assess non-responders and cases of overtreatment, and permits a fairly objective analysis of side-effects. Episodes of transient myocardial ischemia and possible trigger mechanisms can be assessed by simultaneous application of ABPM and Holter monitoring. The insufficient control of hypertension in the majority of elderly patients and the current lower target blood pressures in the elderly call for new methods to improve the level and quality of antihypertensive treatment. Although ABPM provides a closer correlation to target organ damage than measurement of office (casual) blood pressure, and ABPM frequently improves or at least facilitates the care of elderly

  16. Relationship of blood lead levels to blood pressure in exhaust battery storage workers.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Cacciola, Anna; Martino, Lucia Barbaro; Calderaro, Santina Ricciardo; Di Nola, Carmelina; Verzera, Aurelio; Trimarchi, Giuseppe; Germanò, Domenico

    2006-04-01

    Several researches has focused the hypothesis that low blood lead levels could be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the relation between occupational lead exposure and elevated blood pressure a group of 27 workers, age range from 27 to 62 years, mean (SD) 36.52 (+/- 8.16) yr; length of employment mean (DS) 2.97 (+/- 1.67) yr, were recruited as study subjects. The following variables were measured: blood lead concentration (BPb), delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) activity, Zinc Protoporphirin (ZPP), creatinine, hematocrit, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood (DBP) Pressure. The results showed that long term occupational exposure was related to a slight increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among workers who had been exposed to higher level of lead with respect to workers exposed to lower level of lead. Furthermore, blood lead concentration (BPb) and ZPP resulted higher among workers exposed to higher level of ambient lead, while in the same group of workers ALAD activity resulted more inhibited. The authors concluded long term cumulative lead exposure can significantly increase blood pressure in low level Pb exposed workers. PMID:16716009

  17. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  18. Role of clinical pharmacist in the management of blood pressure in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Qudah, Bonyan; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Alawa, Ezat; Mehyar, Nabil

    2016-08-01

    Background Hypertension is highly prevalent yet undertreated condition in hemodialysis patients. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical pharmacist's role in the management of blood pressure in hemodialysis patients guided by home blood pressure monitoring. Setting Outpatient hemodialysis units of Jordan University Hospital and Isra'a Hospital. Method This was a randomized controlled study. It lasted 6 months (September 2011 till the end of March 2012). All hypertensive patients receiving hemodialysis were invited to participate in the study. Out of 60 patients approached, 56 were actually included. Patients were randomly allocated to an intervention (29) or control group (27). In the intervention arm, patients received physician-pharmacist collaborative care. While in the control arm patients received standard medical care. Main outcome measure Percentage of patients achieving weekly average home blood pressure below or equal 135/85 mmHg. Other secondary measures that were assessed include absolute reduction in peridialysis blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, adherence to medications and dialysis sessions. Results A total of 52 patients completed the study. Forty-six percent of patients in the intervention arm achieved BP target (mean home blood pressure ≤135/85 mmHg) compared to only 14.3 % of patients in the control arm (p = 0.02). Average decline in weekly mean home systolic blood pressure was 10.9 ± 17.7 mmHg in the intervention arm (p = 0.004), while weekly mean home systolic blood pressure increased by 3.5 ± 18.4 mmHg in the control arm (p = 0.396). No significant reduction was achieved in weekly home diastolic blood pressure, dialysis blood pressure readings, or interdialytic weight gain in either arm. Conclusions Clinical pharmacist-physicians' collaboration improved rate of blood pressure control in hemodialysis patients. Using home blood pressure monitoring was found to be an efficient way to guide blood

  19. Phenylephrine-induced elevations in arterial blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that phenylephrine-induced elevations in blood pressure are attenuated in heat-stressed humans, blood pressure was elevated via steady-state infusion of three doses of phenylephrine HCl in 10 healthy subjects in both normothermic and heat stress conditions. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature by 0.5 degrees C, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR; all P < 0.005) but did not change mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; P > 0.05). At the highest dose of phenylephrine, the increase in MAP and TPR from predrug baselines was significantly attenuated during the heat stress [DeltaMAP 8.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg; DeltaTPR 0.96 +/- 0.85 peripheral resistance units (PRU)] compared with normothermia (DeltaMAP 15.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg, DeltaTPR 7.13 +/- 1.18 PRU; all P < 0.001). The sensitivity of baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate, expressed as the slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the slope of the relationship between heart rate and systolic blood pressure, respectively, was similar between thermal conditions (each P > 0.05). These data suggest that phenylephrine-induced elevations in MAP are attenuated in heat-stressed humans without affecting baroreflex control of MSNA or heart rate.

  20. The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takuya; Arai, Yoichi; Mitsui, Yuki; Kusaura, Tatsuya; Okawa, Wataru; Kajihara, Yasushi; Saito, Ikuo

    2006-07-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) in green coffee bean extract (GCE) reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans. The authors examined the blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of CGA in patients with mild hypertension through a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Subjects (n = 28) were randomized to receive treatment with CGA (140 mg/day) from GCE or placebo. Blood pressure, pulse rate, body mass index, routine blood test, hematochemistry, urinalysis, and subjective symptoms were recorded throughout the study. In the CGA group, but not the placebo group, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) decreased significantly during the ingestion period. There was no difference in body mass index and pulse rate between groups, nor were there any apparent side effects. Thus, CGA from GCE is effective in decreasing blood pressure and safe for patients with mild hypertension. PMID:16820341

  1. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  2. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children.

    PubMed

    Galescu, Ovidiu; George, Minu; Basetty, Sudhakar; Predescu, Iuliana; Mongia, Anil; Ten, Svetlana; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%). Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.85, R(2) = 0.86) and girls (P < 0.001, R(2) = 0.85, R(2) = 0.90). The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83-100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children. PMID:22577400

  3. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children

    PubMed Central

    Galescu, Ovidiu; George, Minu; Basetty, Sudhakar; Predescu, Iuliana; Mongia, Anil; Ten, Svetlana; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%). Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.85, R2 = 0.86) and girls (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.85, R2 = 0.90). The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83–100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children. PMID:22577400

  4. A comparison of cardiac rate-pressure product and pressure-rate quotient in healthy and medically compromised patients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R L; Langston, W G

    1995-08-01

    Healthy and medically compromised patients were studied to compare blood pressure and heart rate changes in response to stress of routine dental extractions performed while they were under local anesthesia. Thirty-nine patients divided into American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I and II groups were noninvasively monitored every 5 minutes. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures and heart rate were recorded. Rate pressure products (RPP) and pressure rate (PRQ) quotients were calculated and compared in each group. Significant results were measures of RPP greater than 12,000 and PRQ less than one. Of the 24 patients in the ASA I category, 50% demonstrated elevated RPP values, but only two of 24 had coincidental PRQ abnormalities. Of the 15 patients in the ASA II category, 80% demonstrated elevated RPP values, but two of 15 had coincidental PRQ abnormalities. Patients in the ASA II category had a higher incidence of RPP and PRQ abnormalities, as was expected. However, it is not known which of these two measures is a more sensitive indicator of increased risk associated with stimulation of the sympathetic-adrenergic axis during oral surgery performed with patients under local anesthesia. Correlation studies with continuous Holter monitoring for ST-T wave changes on electrocardiography are forthcoming. PMID:7552876

  5. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (blood pressure (SBP) rose as placental breadth increased (β = 0.69 mmHg/cm, p = 0.05) and as the ratio of placental surface area to birthweight increased (p = 0.0003). In the daughters of tall mothers, SBP rose as the difference between placental length and breadth increased (β = 1.40 mmHg/cm, p = 0.007), that is as the surface became more oval. Among boys, associations with placental size were only statistically significant after adjusting for current BMI and height. After adjustment, SBP rose as placental breadth, area and weight decreased (for breadth β = −0.68 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05 for all three measurements). Conclusions The size and shape of the placental surface predict childhood blood pressure. Blood pressure may be programmed by variation in the normal processes of placentation: these include implantation, expansion of the chorionic surface in mid-gestation and compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface in late gestation. PMID:21166711

  6. [Blood pressure limits--the lower, the better?].

    PubMed

    Leibundgut, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Arterial hypertension is a widespread risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The benefit of a consistent drug therapy is proportionally associated with the degree of blood pressure reduction. By extrapolating the data, the assumption arose “the lower the better” and was widely accepted. However, several studies found an increase in morbidity and mortality with an excessive reduction of blood pressure (J-curve). This seems to affect mainly cardiac risk, and only at lower blood pressures<60 mmHg also the cerebral risk. An important factor here is the diastolic blood pressure. Others found a linear correlation. Overall, a j-shaped connection remains controversial and is not considered equally for all organ systems. At the same time cardiovascular risk seems not to increase with additional reduction in blood pressure of <140 mm Hg to <120 mmHg. This has led to the latest guidelines of all societies recommending higher target values. Reasons for higher targets in drug therapy of arterial hypertension, are increased adverse drug reactions or increased healthcare costs with few additional benefit. The current recommendations of the ESH/ESC, AHA/ACC/ASH and the JNC 8 set a higher target value for some subgroups, but remain inconsistent among themselves. PMID:26098188

  7. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p < .05) for the urban (112.7 systolic: 73.6 diastolic mmHg) than for the rural group (108.4 systolic: 70.8 diastolic mmHg). They were also higher for men (111.8 systolic: 74.3 diastolic mmHg) than for women (109.6 systolic: 70.2 diastolic mmHg), the diastolic BP difference being significant (p < 0.05). The average daily Na excretion was also higher in the urban (122.2 mmol/day) than in the rural community (98.0 mmol/day) (p < 0.01). Potassium excretion rates showed similar differences. The differences in sodium excretion and blood pressure among communities were particularly marked in those over 30 years of age. The means for the four community-sex groups had the same rank order for both BP and Na. However, although some large surveys have suggested that half the observed differences in BP might be explained by different Na intakes, in this study the relationship between Na excretion and BP did not achieve statistical significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP. PMID:8987195

  8. High sodium intake increases blood pressure and alters renal function in intrauterine growth-retarded rats.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Marijke W; Fazzi, Gregorio E; Janssen, Ger M J; Blanco, Carlos E; De Mey, Jo G R

    2005-07-01

    A suboptimal fetal environment increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in the adult. We reported previously that intrauterine stress in response to reduced uteroplacental blood flow in the pregnant rat limits fetal growth and compromises renal development, leading to an altered renal function in the adult offspring. Here we tested the hypothesis that high dietary sodium intake in rats with impaired renal development attributable to intrauterine stress, results in increased blood pressure, altered renal function, and organ damage. In rats, intrauterine stress was induced by bilateral ligation of the uterine arteries at day 17 of pregnancy. At the age of 12 weeks, the offspring was given high-sodium drinking water (2% sodium chloride). At the age of 16 weeks, rats were instrumented for monitoring of blood pressure and renal function. After intrauterine stress, litter size and birth weight were reduced, whereas hematocrit at birth was increased. Renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the glomerular filtration fraction were increased significantly after intrauterine stress. High sodium intake did not change renal function and blood pressure in control animals. However, during high sodium intake in intrauterine stress offspring, renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and the filtration fraction were decreased, and blood pressure was increased. In addition, these animals developed severe albuminuria, an important sign of renal dysfunction. Thus, a suboptimal fetal microenvironment, which impairs renal development, results in sodium-dependent hypertension and albuminuria. PMID:15956110

  9. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  10. Congestive cardiac failure: central role of the arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, P

    1987-01-01

    A review of the history of our knowledge and understanding of the peripheral oedema of congestive cardiac failure points to the conclusion that an inability of the heart to maintain the arterial pressure is of central importance in this condition. Although the function of the circulation is to perfuse the tissues, the body monitors the adequacy of its perfusion, not not through metabolic messengers carried from the tissues in the blood stream, but by sensing the arterial pressure; and the mechanisms evoked act to maintain the arterial pressure. In the short term this is achieved by autonomic regulation of the heart and blood vessels; in the longer term the arterial pressure is maintained through an increase in the blood volume by a retention of salt and water by the kidney. To support the latter process, intrinsic renal mechanisms are successively magnified by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by the activities of the sympathetic system and vasopressin. The natriuretic influence mediated through volume receptors and the release of atrial peptide is overruled by the arterial baroreceptors, so that the body maintains the arterial pressure at the expense of an increase in blood volume. In these ways the syndrome of congestive cardiac failure may be regarded as one which arises when the heart becomes chronically unable to maintain an appropriate arterial pressure without support. PMID:3311096

  11. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  12. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  13. Deconvolution of wellbore pressure and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, F.J. ); Carter, R.G. . Langley Research Center); Ayestaran, L. )

    1990-03-01

    Determination of the influence function of a well/reservoir system from the deconvolution of wellbore flow rate and pressure is presented. Deconvolution is fundamental and is particularly applicable to system identification. A variety of different deconvolution algorithms are presented. The simplest algorithm is a direct method that works well for data without measurement noise but that fails in the presence of even small amounts of noise. The authors show, however, that a modified algorithm that imposes constraints on the solution set works well, even with significant measurement errors.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the biphasic effect of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) on arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tirapelli, Carlos R; Resstel, Leonardo B M; de Oliveira, Ana M; Corrêa, Fernando M A

    2008-07-01

    Phylloquinone (vitamin K(1), VK(1)) is widely used therapeutically and intravenous administration of this quinone can induce hypotension. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects induced by VK(1) on arterial blood pressure. With this purpose a catheter was inserted into the abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Bolus intravenous injection of VK(1) (0.5-20 mgkg(-1)) produced a transient increase in blood pressure followed by a fall. Both the pressor and depressor response induced by VK(1) were dose-dependent. On the other hand, intravenous injection of VK(1) did not alter heart rate. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 and 20 mgkg(-1)) reduced both the increase and decrease in blood pressure induced by VK(1) (5 mgkg(-1)). On the other hand, indometacin (10 mg kg(-1)), a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, did not alter the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by VK(1). However, VK(1)-induced fall in MAP was significantly attenuated by indometacin. We concluded that VK(1) induces a dose-dependent effect on blood pressure that consists of an acute increase followed by a more sustained decrease in MAP. The hypotension induced by VK(1) involves the activation of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the release of vasodilator prostanoid(s). PMID:18549675

  15. [Research on the Method of Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Multiple Parameters of Pulse Wave].

    PubMed

    Miao, Changyun; Mu, Dianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chunjiao; Li, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of blood pressure measurement in wearable devices, this paper presents a method for detecting blood pressure based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. Based on regression analysis between blood pressure and the characteristic parameters of pulse wave, such as the pulse wave transit time (PWTT), cardiac output, coefficient of pulse wave, the average slope of the ascending branch, heart rate, etc. we established a model to calculate blood pressure. For overcoming the application deficiencies caused by measuring ECG in wearable device, such as replacing electrodes and ECG lead sets which are not convenient, we calculated the PWTT with heart sound as reference (PWTT(PCG)). We experimentally verified the detection of blood pressure based on PWTT(PCG) and based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. The experiment results showed that it was feasible to calculate the PWTT from PWTT(PCG). The mean measurement error of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure calculated by the model based on multiple parameters of pulse wave is 1.62 mm Hg and 1.12 mm Hg, increased by 57% and 53% compared to those of the model based on simple parameter. This method has more measurement accuracy. PMID:26964321

  16. Sodium-sensitivity of Blood Pressure in Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated that a reduced intake of dietary sodium lowers blood pressure. However, blood pressure reduction in response to a decrease in dietary sodium intake varies considerably among different individuals–a phenomenon described as sodium-sensitivity. The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study was a large family-based dietary-feeding study conducted in rural north China. This study indicated that approximately 39% of Chinese adults were sodium-sensitive. Sodium-sensitivity was more common in women and in persons who were older and had higher usual blood pressure. Sodium-sensitivity was also more common in individuals with higher responses to cold pressor test and in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors might play an important role in determining sodium-sensitivity in the Chinese population. A better understanding of the genetic and environmental determinants of sodium-sensitivity has important public health and clinical implications. PMID:20424958

  17. Clinical Implications of Ambulatory and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Because blood pressure (BP) is an ever changing hemodynamic phenomenon, a BP value, once measured at a physician's office (Office BP), is often unrepresentative of an individual's true BP status. Both ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) provide more accurate and reproducible estimate of BP, and produce stronger predictive ability for cardiovascular outcome than conventional office BP. Two BP measuring techniques, ABPM and HBPM have been widely in clinical use for the detection and management of hypertension. However, they have different advantages and limitations in practice. At present, it has become crucial to understand the characteristics and clinical implications of these BP measuring techniques for those responsible for the care of hypertensive patients. PMID:20967142

  18. [Thoughts concerning the realms of arterial blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Agrest, A

    2000-01-01

    Several realms of arterial blood pressure are analyzed. 1. The realm of physiological regulation of arterial blood pressure is discussed from the point of view of an intelligent design. 2. The realm of biophysical consequences, the adverse effects, wearing off or senilization and the vascular accidents. 3. The realm of biochemical changes leading to cellular changes. The ecological equilibrium and the interpretation of purposeful reactions. From metaphore to purpose. 4. The realm of cellular changes as a result of biophysical factors. The society of cells. 5. The realm of metabolic environment. 6. The realm of adverse effects of increasing arterial blood pressure instead of selecting less risky mechanisms. A politically mistaken decision. PMID:11188910

  19. Algorithmic Summaries of Perioperative Blood Pressure Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Toddenroth, Dennis; Ganslandt, Thomas; Drescher, Caroline; Weith, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schuettler, Juergen; Muenster, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Automated perioperative measurements such as cardiovascular monitoring data are commonly compared to established upper and lower thresholds, but could also allow for more complex interpretations. Analyzing such time series in extensive electronic medical records for research purposes may itself require customized automation, so we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying different aspects of temporal fluctuations. We implemented conventional measures of dispersion, summaries of absolute gradients between successive values, and Poincaré plots. We aggregated the severity and duration of hypotensive episodes by calculating the average area under different mean arterial pressure (MAP) thresholds. We applied these methods to 30,452 de-identified MAP series, and analyzed the similarity between alternative indices via hierarchical clustering. To explore the potential utility of these propositional metrics, we computed their statistical association with presumed complications due to cardiovascular instability. We observed that hierarchical clustering reliably segregated features that had been designed to quantify dissimilar aspects. Summaries of temporary hypotension turned out to be significantly increased among patient subgroups with subsequent signs of a complicated recovery. These associations were even stronger for measures that were specifically geared to capturing short-term MAP variability. These observations suggest the potential capability of our proposed algorithms for quantifying heterogeneous aspects of short-term MAP fluctuations. Future research might also target a wider selection of outcomes and other attributes that may be subject to intraoperative variability. PMID:27577440

  20. The effect of ventricular assist devices on cerebral blood flow and blood pressure fractality.

    PubMed

    Bellapart, Judith; Chan, Gregory S H; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Ainslie, Philip N; Dunster, Kimble R; Barnett, Adrian G; Boots, Rob; Fraser, John F

    2011-09-01

    Biological signals often exhibit self-similar or fractal scaling characteristics which may reflect intrinsic adaptability to their underlying physiological system. This study analysed fractal dynamics of cerebral blood flow in patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to ascertain if sustained modifications of blood pressure waveform affect cerebral blood flow fractality. Simultaneous recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler were obtained from five cardiogenic shock patients supported by VAD, five matched control patients and five healthy subjects. Computation of a fractal scaling exponent (α) at the low-frequency time scale by detrended fluctuation analysis showed that cerebral blood flow velocity exhibited 1/f fractal scaling in both patient groups (α = 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.97 ± 0.12, respectively) as well as in the healthy subjects (α = 0.86 ± 0.07). In contrast, fluctuation in blood pressure was similar to non-fractal white noise in both patient groups (α = 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.52 ± 0.09, respectively) but exhibited 1/f scaling in the healthy subjects (α = 0.87 ± 0.04, P < 0.05 compared with the patient groups). The preservation of fractality in cerebral blood flow of VAD patients suggests that normal cardiac pulsation and central perfusion pressure changes are not the integral sources of cerebral blood flow fractality and that intrinsic vascular properties such as cerebral autoregulation may be involved. However, there is a clear difference in the fractal scaling properties of arterial blood pressure between the cardiogenic shock patients and the healthy subjects. PMID:21775798