Science.gov

Sample records for rate oil burner

  1. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Cerniglia, P.

    1990-10-23

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  2. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  3. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  4. Oil burner nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  5. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  6. DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2007-05-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used

  7. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  8. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  9. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  10. Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

  11. SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

    2000-03-16

    The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

  12. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Westphalen, D.

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  13. Residential oil burners with low input and two-stage firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Fisher, L.; Kamath, B.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner. At low firing rates, pressure-atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low-pressure air-atomized burner has been developed that can operate at firing rates, as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low firing rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a sidewall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single-purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two-stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space-heating loads.

  14. Development of an air-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1996-06-01

    A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  17. Prospects for residential oil burners with reduced emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1992-04-01

    In considering the emissions characteristics of residential oil heating equipment it is important to consider the magnitude of these emissions relative to all other sources. Laboratory and field test data show that home oil burners produce very low levels of pollutants when compared to all other combustion sources in the US. Home oil burners are relatively clean burning and produce less air pollution than the average combustion source in the US. This is especially true for carbon monoxide, particulates, and hydrocarbons, which are a small fraction of the average emission of other combustion equipment. In this paper results are presented of emission tests done with a number of oil burners selected as being representative of modern equipment or representing a recent development trend or a novel approach. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a benchmark of what oil equipment can do today and what the effects of some of these alternative designs are on emissions.

  18. Rotrix `vortex breakdown` burner turbulence-stabilized combustion of heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hofbauer, P.

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years, the Viessmann MatriX radiant burner has been setting the standard for low emission combustion of gas. Now, with the RotriX burner, Viessmann has succeeded in drastically reducing nitrogenoxide emissions in the combustoin of oil. After a successful test period, the RotriX burner is now being introduced to the market. The RotriX oil burner consequently takes into account the mechanisms in the creation of harmful emissions in the combustion of heating oil No. 2, and guarantees stable combustion under any operating conditions. The burner has the following features: heating oil is combusted only after complete vaporization and mixing with combustion air and recirculated flue gases; the flame is not stabilized with a turbulator disk, but a strong turbulating current is created by means of the Vortex Breakdown phenomenon, which develops a very stable flame under any operating conditions; and high internal flue gas recirculation rates lower the flame temperature to the point where thermal NO formation is reduced to the same low level as in the combustion of gas. The new burner has extremely low emissions of NOx < 60 mg/kWh, and CO < 5 mg/kWh at a CO{sub 2} concentraiton of 14%.

  19. Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  20. Impacts of changing residential oil burner technology

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Andrews, J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents trends in oil-fired residential heating appliance design that take advantage of recent research which promises significantly lower pollutant emissions, improved performance, and efficiency.

  1. Micronized coal burner facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

  2. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

  3. Stabilization Mechanisms and Burning Rates of Cylindrical Burner Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, J. A.; Law, C. K.; Zhu, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A study is conducted of the structure and response of curved (but unstretched), cylindrically-symmetric 1D premixed flames from a cylindrical porous burner. The study has employed (1) activation-energy asymptotics with one-step reaction constant and constant properties; (2) a numerical computation which encompassed detailed chemistry and transport behavior, and (3) drop-tower microgravity tests. Attention was given to the relative importance of heat loss vs. flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization; the results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence.

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner...

  5. LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

    2004-09-30

    The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

  6. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... overhauled while the other is in service. At least two fuel oil heaters of approximately equal capacity must... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... overhauled while the other is in service. At least two fuel oil heaters of approximately equal capacity must... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section...

  9. BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

  10. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: DESIGN PHASE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to m...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

  12. Impact of burner design features on sooting in residential oil fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McNeill, F.; Celebi, Y.; Wegrzyn, J.

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the results of a study on soot production by residential oil burners with an emphasis on condensing system applications. The work has followed a related study at Brookhaven National Laboratory completed in June 1984. Work in the current project has been aimed at the effects of specific burner design features on soot. Soot production during burner startup and shutdown has been shown to be significant for heat exchanger fouling in some systems. A new method has been developed for measuring transient smoke involving a multipass light extinction technique. A general review of soot measurement techniques and the details of the system used in the experimental work are included. Specific burner design features evaluated include high static discharge pressure fans, high startup excess air, nozzle and fuel line heating, burner heat pressure drop, and fuel flow control. Both high pressure fans and high startup excess air were found to significantly improve startup behavior. This result is consistent with simple flow models in which a furnace or boiler system is related to a cavity resonator. Measurements showed that nozzle heating can significantly improve spray droplet size distribution. Tests in both condensing and non-condensing systems indicated that a commercial nozzle heater reduces smoke over the first two minutes of operation. The effect was most significant at low excess air.

  13. Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. )

    1992-04-01

    Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

  14. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains a minimum of 189 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

  17. Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    1998-09-28

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

  18. Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A G; Busby, W F; Liber, H L; Thilly, W G

    1987-01-01

    Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation. PMID:3665866

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. 101-26.602-3 Section 101-26.602-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...

  4. DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

  5. Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

  6. Study of oil combustion in the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth burners

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, Yu.M.; Shtal'man, S.G.; Enyakin, Yu.P.; Abryutin, A.A.; Levin, M.M.; Taran, O.E.; Chuprov, V.V.; Antonov, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth configured burners included the gas mixture in the boiler, the degree of fuel combustion at various heights in the boiler, hydrogen sulfide content in the near-wall zones of the boiler, and temperature distribution fields. Experimental data showed that the hearth burners, in conjunction with steam-mechanical atomizing burners, operate with the least possible excess air over a wide range of load changes. The operation and performance of the hearth burners are discussed.

  7. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  8. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  9. Emissions and properties of Bio-oil and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Pilot Stabilised Swirl Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Dylan

    Fast pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, has been investigated to replace traditional fossil fuels in industrial burners. However, flame stability is a challenge due to its high water content. In order to address its instability, bio-oil was co-fired with natural gas in a lab scale 10kW swirl burner at energy ratios from 0% bio-oil to 80% bio-oil. To evaluate the combustion, flame shape, exhaust and particulate emissions, temperatures, as well as infrared emission were monitored. As the bio-oil energy fraction increased, NO emissions increased due to the nitrogen content of bio-oil. CO and particulate emissions increased likely due to carbonaceous residue exiting the combustion zone. Unburnt Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions increased rapidly as combustion became poor at 60-80% bio-oil energy. The temperature and infrared output decreased with more bio-oil energy. The natural gas proved to be effective at anchoring the bio-oil flame to the nozzle, decreasing instances of extinction or blowout.

  10. Low NO{sub x} burner retrofits to 240 MW, 300 MW and 400 MW oil/gas fired utility boilers; Final performance results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kuretski, J.J. Jr.; Price, J.V.; Schindler, E.S.; Guarco, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Low NO{sub x} burners (LNBs) and new windbox baffles were retrofitted to eight residual oil/gas fired boilers totaling 2,680 MW of generating capacity in the Florida Power and Light Co. (FPL) system. These TODD Combustion designed LNBs were installed, from 1992 to 1995, to comply with a NO{sub x} Reasonably Available Control Technology (R.A.C.T.) determination associated with a moderate ozone non-attainment area in south Florida. LNBs were the primary means of NO{sub x} emission rate reduction, with an objective to achieve the maximum NO{sub x} reduction possible through burner hardware changes. Accordingly, the full focus of the project was on the capabilities of state-of-the-art LNB technology. These LNB retrofits were deemed successful based on the significant NO{sub x} reductions that were achieved. FPL`s contract requirements included consideration of unit performance and boiler component life impacts in addition to the traditional emission parameter guarantees. In striving to simultaneously meet all contract requirements, various burner design adjustments were implemented. As the project progressed, much was learned about LNBs and their effects on utility boilers as well as the effects of boiler equipment design and boiler conditions on NO{sub x} emission rates.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-TUNING RESIDENTIAL OIL/BURNER - OXYGEN SENSOR ASSESSMENT AND EARLY PROTOTYPE SYSTEM OPERATING EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD,R.J.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KRAJEWSKI,R.F.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available.

  14. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  15. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  16. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  17. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  18. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  19. Development of self-tuning residential oil-burner. Oxygen sensor assessment and early prototype system operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available. BNL has continued to investigate all types of sensor technologies associated with combustion systems including all forms of oxygen measurement techniques. In these studies the development of zirconium oxide oxygen sensors has been considered over the last decade. The development of these sensors for the automotive industry has allowed for cost reductions based on quantity of production that might not have occurred otherwise. This report relates BNL`s experience in testing various zirconium oxide sensors, and the results of tests intended to provide evaluation of the various designs with regard to performance in oil-fired systems. These tests included accuracy when installed on oil-fired heating appliances and response time in cyclic operating mode. An evaluation based on performance criteria and cost factors was performed. Cost factors in the oil heat industry are one of the most critical issues in introducing new technology.

  20. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, T.E.; Quinn, D.E.; Watson, J.E.

    1986-08-05

    A regenerative burner is described operable in fire and flue modes comprising: a burner shell having first and second internal chambers, the first chamber being disposed on the flame axis of the burner and the second chamber surrounding the radial perimeter of the first chamber; a gas permeable annular regenerative bed separating the first and second chambers such that gas flow between the first and second chambers must travel through the regenerative bed in a generally radial direction with respect to the flame axis; means for supplying combustion air to the second chamber when the burner is in the fire mode and for exhausting the products of combustion from the second chamber when the burner is in the flue mode; and means for supplying fuel in the vicinity of the flame axis for mixing with combustion air to support combustion when the burner is in the fire mode.

  1. Ceramic burner

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

    1981-03-31

    Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

  2. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gitman, G.M.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method of combusting fuel in a furnace having a pair of regenerative burners, each burner having a combustion chamber. It comprises: supplying fuel and oxygen alternatively to each burner to create alternating firing burners wherein the oxygen is supplied from two sources providing first and second oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations and simultaneously alternating the application of negative pressure to the remaining non-firing burner to recover heat from flue gases exhausted by the regenerative bed of the non-firing burner to be used further to preheat at least part of the oxygen being supplied to the firing burner; mixing the fuel with a fraction of the oxygen under substoichiometric combustion condition to create products of incomplete combustion to form a hot, luminous flame core containing partially pyrolized fuel; and mixing the partially pyrolyzed fuel with a remaining fraction of the oxygen to complete combustion of the pyrolized fuel; and controlling the total flow of fuel and oxygen supplied to each burner to provide each burner with a desired flame stoichiometry.

  3. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... oils of low viscosity need not be equipped with fuel oil heaters, provided acceptable evidence...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... oils of low viscosity need not be equipped with fuel oil heaters, provided acceptable evidence...

  5. COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM VAPORIZING AND AIR ATOMIZING WASTE OIL HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions and vaporizing pot solid residues resulting from the combustion of waste crankcase oil in space heaters. Two types of waste oil burners were tested: a vaporizing oil burner rated at 35.2 kW, and an...

  6. Micronized-Coal Burner Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

  7. Experimental and theoretical deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Deposition rates on platinum-rhodium cylindrical collectors rotating in the cross streams of the combustion gases of a salt-seeded Mach 0.3 burner rig were determined. The collectors were internally air cooled so that their surface temperatures could be widely varied while they were exposed to constant combustion gas temperatures. The deposition rates were compared with those predicted by the chemically frozen boundary layer (CFBL) computer program, which is based on multicomponent vapor transport through the boundary layer. Excellent agreement was obtained between theory and experiment for the NaCl-seeded case, but the agreement lessened as the seed was changed to synthetic sea salt, NaNO3, and K2SO4, respectively, and was particularly poor in the case of Na2SO4. However, when inertial impaction was assumed to be the deposition mechanism for the Na2SO4 case, the predicted rates agreed well with the experimental rates. The former were calculated from a mean particle diameter that was derived from the measured intial droplet size distribution of the solution spray. Critical experiments showed that liquid phase deposits were blown off the smooth surface of the platinum-rhodium collectors by the aerodynamic shear forces of the high-velocity combustion gases but that rough or porous surfaces retained their liquid deposits.

  8. Increasing PCB Radiolysis Rates in Transformer Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ó-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  9. Increasing PCB radiolysis rates in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Brey, Richard R.; Rodriguez, René G.; Pristupa, Scott; Ruhter, Aaron

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with γ-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  10. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2004-06-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the nonspecific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to pulverized

  11. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF COAL FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill

    2004-02-01

    The project's overall objective is to development a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the non-specific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  12. Pyromat CSB{trademark} low emissions burner for boilers, steam generators and process heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, M.J.; Minden, A.C.

    1995-08-01

    Alzeta has developed a low NO{sub x} burner for boiler and process heater applications that achieves very low emissions without complicated emissions controls such as flue gas recirculation or staged fuel and air. The Pyromat CSB burner is a semi-radiant, premixed, natural gas fired burner which uses a patented technique to form radiant and blue-flame zones adjacent to each other on a cylindrical porous metal surface. This new technology offers surface heat release rates that are 10 times greater than traditional surface combusters. Because the flame shape is constant over the entire range of operation, and is sized and shaped to meet the specific requirements of the heater, there is no change for flame impingement or nonuniform heating. In one application, thermally enhanced oil recovery, the Pyromat CSB burner is firing on low-Btu gas containing H{sub 2}S drawn from oil wells. Low NO{sub x} FGR burners cannot serve this application because the combustion products corrode the ducting. In addition, premixed burners can operate on low-Btu gases without supplemental natural gases which saves operating expenses. In another application, process heating of fragile fluids, flame impingement can overheat the heat transfer liquid and cause premature tube failure. The Pyromat CSB burner has a constant flame shape over its entire turndown ratio so there is no chance for flame impingement.

  13. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  14. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  15. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fam powered, infrared, natural gas burners

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (PIR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. This project consists of both experimental research and numerical analysis. To conduct the experiments, an experimental setup has been developed and installed in the Combustion Laboratory at Clerk Atlanta University (CAU). This setup consists of a commercial deep fat fryer that has been modified to allow in-situ radiation measurements on the surface of the infrared burner via a view port installed on the side wall of the oil vat. Proper instrumentation including fuel/air flow rate measurement, exhaust gas emission measurement, and radiation measurement has been developed. The project is progressing well. The scheduled tasks for this period of time were conducted smoothly. Specifically: 1. Baseline experimental study at CAU has been completed. The data are now under detailed analysis and will be reported in next quarterly report. 2. Theoretical formulation and analysis of the PIR burner performance model are continuing. Preliminary results have been obtained.

  16. Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.

    PubMed Central

    Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

    1987-01-01

    Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low

  17. Combustion rate limits of hydrogen plus hydrocarbon fuel: Air diffusion flames from an opposed jet burner technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Reeves, Ronald N.; Northam, G. Burton

    1987-01-01

    Combustion of H2/hydrocarbon (HC) fuel mixtures may be considered in certain volume-limited supersonic airbreathing propulsion applications. Effects of HC addition to H2 were evaluated, using a recent argon-bathed, coaxial, tubular opposed jet burner (OJB) technique to measure the extinction limits of counterflow diffusion flames. The OJB flames were formed by a laminar jet of (N2 and/or HC)-diluted H2 mixture opposed by a similar jet of air at ambient conditions. The OJB data, derived from respective binary mixtures of H2 and methane, ethylene, or propane HCs, were used to characterize BLOWOFF and RESTORE. BLOWOFF is a sudden breaking of the dish-shaped OJB flame to a stable torus or ring shape, and RESTORE marks sudden restoration of the central flame by radial inward flame propagation. BLOWOFF is a measure of kinetically-limited flame reactivity/speed under highly stretched, but relatively ideal impingement flow conditions. RESTORE measures inward radial flame propagation rate, which is sensitive to ignition processes in the cool central core. It is concluded that relatively small molar amounts of added HC greatly reduce the reactivity characteristics of counterflow hydrogen-air diffusion flames, for ambient initial conditions.

  18. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  19. DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  20. Turbulent transport measurements in a cold model of GT-burner at realistic flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobyzov, Oleg; Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Alexey; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Bilsky, Artur; Tsatiashvili, Vakhtang; Avgustinovich, Valery; Markovich, Dmitriy

    2016-03-01

    In the present work simultaneous velocity field and passive admixture concentration field measurements at realistic flow-rates conditions in a non-reacting flow in a model of combustion chamber with an industrial mixing device are reported. In the experiments for safety reasons the real fuel (natural gas) was replaced with neon gas to simulate stratification in a strongly swirling flow. Measurements were performed by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry technique (PIV) at Reynolds number, based on the mean flow rate and nozzle diameter, ≈300 000. Details on experimental technique, features of the experimental setup, images and data preprocessing procedures and results of performed measurements are given in the paper. In addition to the raw velocity and admixture concentration data in-depth evaluation approaches aimed for estimation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) components, assessment of turbulent Schmidt number and analysis of the gradient closure hypothesis from experimental data are presented in the paper.

  1. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler; Robert G. Mudry

    2005-01-01

    Additional calibration data were collected in the Coal Flow Test Facility early in this reporting period. These data comprised a total of 181 tests for stud and magnetic accelerometer mounts, with two mounting locations relative to two different pipe elbows, and including some tests with out-of-plane elbows upstream of the test section to produce coal ''roping''. The results found in analyzing these new data were somewhat disappointing: correlations for coal flow rate for a given mount type and mounting location were less accurate than desired, and degraded badly when data from other locations were included in the same analysis. Reviewing all of the data files (from both the earlier testing and recent calibration testing) disclosed a significant fraction of cases with several forms of noise. Eliminating these cases improved the correlations somewhat, but the number of cases that remained did not permit general conclusions to be drawn. It was finally learned that yet another type of noise is present in some data files, producing a strong effect on the correlation accuracy. The cases not subject to this noise correlated very well. It would be desirable to collect additional data in the Coal Flow Test Facility prior to moving on to field data collection, a change in program direction that would require a no-cost time extension.

  2. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO, AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill

    2004-10-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable sensing system to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal flows using the dynamic signature from a pipe-mounted accelerometer. The preliminary calibration data for this effort will be obtained using a Coal Flow Test Facility built and operated by our subcontractor, Airflow Sciences Corporation, in support of an EPRI program. Airflow Sciences encountered significant difficulty getting the system up and running, with the final hurdles related to the system controls. These problems were resolved in this reporting period, so that the facility is ready for testing. Shakedown testing with our instrumentation package began late in the reporting period. Preliminary analysis of the resulting data indicates that there are problems with the instrumentation and/or test rig. Even with no flow passing through the test section, a power spectrum of the data shows strong frequency ''lines''. The data should be free of such behaviors, so the instrumentation must be recording behaviors that are unrelated to the flow. This issue must be resolved before calibration data are collected. A preliminary effort to debug the problem through long-distance consultation between Foster-Miller and Airflow Sciences personnel at the end of the reporting period did not discover the source of the problem. Consequently, a Foster-Miller engineer will visit the test facility early in the next reporting period. Assuming this effort is successful, preliminary testing and analysis should be completed in the next reporting period. Because of slack in the program schedule, there should be no net effect on the program scope, cost, or schedule.

  3. Development of a wood pellet fired burner for space heating applications in the range 5 kW--300 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, J.

    1999-07-01

    A compact burner has been developed, fired by wood pellets, which can compete with fossil fuel burners for space heating applications in terms of efficiency, emissions, load following capability, economics, and physical size. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}) are reduced by 80% or more when used to displace fossil fuel fired appliances. This includes consideration of energy use in the pelleting process. The pellet fired burner is a stand-alone hot gas generator that can be externally mounted on an existing hot water boiler, directly replacing an oil or gas fired burner. The boiler thermostat directly controls the burner. Alternatively, the burner can be integrated into a forced air furnace or a dedicated boiler for OEM applications. The burner has been scaled from 20 kW for residential use up to more than 300 kw for commercial applications. The burner incorporates a fuel metering and delivery system, an insulated refractory firebox, an agitated grate system, preheated forced air combustion, and an open loop electronic control. Pellets are delivered from a separate storage bin, and the burner exhausts not gases in excess of 1,000 C from the burner tube. Excess air for combustion is controlled below 30% and emissions, CO and NO, are less than 100 ppm. the burner can be operated at these conditions as low as 30% rated power output. Upon heat demand from the thermostat control, pellets are fed to the grate, they ignite within 2--3 minutes using an electric resistance cartridge heater, and 90% rated power output is reached within 6--8 minutes of ignition. The burner can cycle 2--3 times per hour following the load demand.

  4. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Payne, R.; Kersch, J.

    1999-11-01

    Low NO{sub x} Burners achieve their NO{sub x} reduction principally by control of the rate of fuel/air mixing. Based on many years of low NO{sub x} burner development experience for wall fired applications, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has found that low NO{sub x} fuel/air mixing conditions can be incorporated into conventional burners by modifying the burners as an alternative to complete burner replacement. The NO{sub x} control achieved with such Low NO{sub x} Burner Modifications is, in many cases, comparable to that of new burners but the cost to the utility is much lower. This paper presents an update on EER`s experience in applying Low NO{sub x} Burner Modifications to circular burners focusing on Delmarva Power and Light`s (Connectiv) Indian River Station.

  5. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  6. Determination of convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to burner rig test targets comparable in size to cross-stream jet diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of experiments have been performed to be able to predict the convective diffusion heat/mass transfer rates to a cylindrical target whose height and diameter are comparable to, but less than, the diameter of the circular cross-stream jet, thereby simulating the same geometric configuration as a typical burner rig test specimen located in the cross-stream of the combustor exit nozzle. The first set exploits the naphthalene sublimation technique to determine the heat/mass transfer coefficient under isothermal conditions for various flow rates (Reynolds numbers). The second set, conducted at various combustion temperatures and Reynolds numbers, utilized the temperature variation along the surface of the above-mentioned target under steady-state conditions to estimate the effect of cooling (dilution) due to the entrainment of stagnant room temperature air. The experimental information obtained is used to predict high temperature, high velocity corrosive salt vapor deposition rates in burner rigs on collectors that are geometrically the same. The agreement with preliminary data obtained from Na2SO4 vapor deposition experiments is found to be excellent.

  7. Emissions characteristics of modern oil heating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Coughlan, R.; Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.J.

    1990-07-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been some very interesting developments in oil heating. These include higher static pressure burners, air atomizing nozzles, low firing rate nozzles, low heat loss combustion chambers and condensing boilers and furnaces. The current data base on the emissions characteristics of oil-fired residential heating equipment is based primarily on data taken in the 1970's. The objective of the work described in this report is to evaluate the effects of recent developments in oil-fired equipment on emissions. Detailed emissions measurements have been made on a number of currently available residential oil burners and whole systems selected to represent recent development trends. Some additional data was taken with equipment which is in the prototype stage. These units are a prevaporizing burner and a retention head burner modified with an air atomizing nozzle. Measurements include No{sub x}, smoke numbers, CO, gas phase hydrocarbon emissions and particulate mass emission rates. Emissions of smoke, CO and hydrocarbons were found to be significantly greater under cyclic operation for all burners tested. Generally, particulate emission rates were found to be 3 to 4 times greater in cyclic operation than in steady state. Air atomized burners were found to be capable of operation at much lower excess air levels than pressure atomized burners without producing significant amounts of smoke. As burner performance is improved, either through air atomization or prevaporization of the fuel, there appears to be a general trend towards producing CO at lower smoke levels as excess air is decreased. The criteria of adjusting burners for trace smoke may need to be abandoned for advanced burners and replaced with an adjustment for specific excess air levels. 17 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Numerical simulation of a porous honeycomb burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hackert, C.L.; Elizey, J.L.; Ezekoye, O.A.

    1997-07-01

    A two-dimensional simulation of a honeycomb burner using single step global chemistry is used to investigate the importance of thermal properties and boundary conditions to inert porous burners. Comparisons to available experimental results are made where possible, and a parametric study of the effects of burner properties on the flame is performed. The burner solid emissivity is found to be relatively unimportant to the achievable burning rate and radiant output fraction, so long as it is above a certain minimum value (about 0.3). In contrast, increases in solid conductivity always lead to marked increases in burning rate. The flame is shown to exhibit significant curvature on both a pore scale and burner scale.

  9. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  10. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  11. Uncertain environmental costs and the optimum rate of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dabirian, S.; Wong, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The socially optimal rate of oil recovery from a known reservoir is analyzed when enviromental costs are uncertain and planners are either risk neutral or risk averse. It is shown that the rate of oil recovery has the same characteristics whether environmental costs are certain or uncertain. In either case, the rate of oil recovery falls monotonically to zero over the time horizon. However, the planner`s attitude toward risk is an important consideration. Risk averse planners, as a rule, begin oil recovery at a higher rate, reduce the rate of recovery more rapidly, and complete the oil recovery in a shorter time than risk neutral planners. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil -- A rate model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T.

    1995-12-31

    Three rate equations, a modified Monod equation and two mass transfer rate equations, were used to calculate the biodegradation rate, oxygen transfer rate and oil transfer rate during a bioremediation process of oil-contaminated soil. Based on experimental rate constants, these three rates were calculated and compared. It was found the bioremediation rate of oil-contaminated soil could be controlled by the mass transfer process of oil into aqueous solution (0.12 mg BOD/(1-h)). When the oil transfer rate is enhanced by at least 10 times, the oxygen transfer process (0.1--1.0 mg BOD/(1-h)) becomes the rate-controlling step. For most of the cases, the biodegradation of oil in aqueous solution is not the limiting step unless the microbial population in the aqueous solution is less than 100 mg VSS/1.

  13. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Demler

    2006-04-01

    Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have

  14. Application of RBC burners in 220 t/h boilers in Xinhua Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengqi; Sun Shaozeng; Sun Rui; Chen Lizhe; Wang Zhijin; Wu Shaohua; Qin Yukun

    1997-12-31

    The Radial Bias Combustion (RBC) pulverized coal burner was developed to simultaneously solve five problems, i.e. combustion efficiency, flame stability, slagging, high temperature corrosion of furnace wall tube metal and NOx emission, that existed in firing low grade Chinese coal. It was developed for wall fired systems. A RBC burner is usually facilitated in the following way: A fuel enricher of high enriching ratio is installed in the fuel transport channel which separates radially the fuel air stream into two streams of proper fuel concentration. The fuel-rich stream injects through the fuel nozzles, forming a high temperature annular core just outside the recirculation zone in the center of the flame; the fuel-lean stream injects through the fuel lean nozzles outside fuel rich flame and blanketing high temperature flame core with an out layer of more oxidizing atmosphere. RBC burners have been applied to the retrofit of coal burners of No.1 and No.2 boilers in the Xinhua Power Plant. These boilers are high pressure ones of 220 t/h rated steam capacity which were retrofitted from oil fired boilers. Prior to the retrofit with RBC burners, flame stability was very poor. It needed auxiliary fuel oil to enhance its stability at 70--80% rated capacity. NOx emissions did not meet environmental regulations. Satisfactory results have been obtained after the retrofit. Flame stability has been improved a great deal. The minimum load without auxiliary fuel has reached 40%. Furthermore, RBC burners raised the combustion efficiency. Lastly, NOx emission have been abated and meet Chinese legislation.

  15. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  16. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  17. Burner safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, K.N.

    1986-09-23

    In combination with a fuel burner, this patent describes a pilot light burner disposed adjacent the fuel burner for lighting the fuel burner, and a solenoid-operated valve controlling the supply of fuel to the fuel burner, a thermocouple operable when heated to produce a thermoelectric current placed to be heated by the heat of the pilot light burner, an electromagnetic coil connected across the thermocouple energized by the thermoelectric current of the thermocouple, a reed switch unit including an envelope and switch contacts within the envelope actuated by the application of a magnetic flux thereto, the reed switch being mounted adjacent and in the magnetic field of the coil with energizing of the coil, a magnet, a mounting for the magnet wherein such is spaced from the reed switch unit, and circuit means connected to the reed switch unit and actuated by the unit to control actuation of the solenoid of the solenoid-operated valve.

  18. Infrared radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneau, D.L.

    1984-03-06

    An infrared radiant burner uses a porous, fibrous refractory board matrix supported by two pairs of frame members, forming a gas-air mixture chamber between a flat sheet, the frame supports, and the matrix. The hollow frame members receive a noncombustible gas that is directed out through a narrow path along the sides of the matrix. The burner's air knife construction grips the matrix edge so as to prevent gas leakage while delivering air through the air knives around the burner periphery.

  19. Accurate burner air flow measurement for low NO{sub x} burners

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, D.; Penterson, C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1990, Congress enacted an amendment to the Clean Air Act that required reductions in NO{sub x} emissions through the application of low NO{sub x} burner systems on fossil fueled utility steam generators. For most of the existing steam generator population, the original burning equipment incorporated highly turbulent burners that created significant in-furnace flame interaction. Thus, the measurement and control of air flow to the individual burners was much less critical than in recent years with low NO{sub x} combustion systems. With low NO{sub x} systems, the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, as well as minimizing flyash unburned carbon levels, is very much dependent on the ability to control the relative ratios of air and fuel on a per-burner basis and their rate of mixing, particularly in the near burner zones. Air Monitor Corporation (AMC) and DB Riley, Inc. (DBR), and a large Midwestern electric utility have successfully developed and applied AMC's equipment to low NO{sub x} coal burners in order to enhance NO{sub x} control combustion systems. The results have improved burner optimization and provided real time continuous air flow balancing capability and the control of individual burner stoichiometries. To date, these enhancements have been applied to wall-fired low NO{sub x} systems for balancing individual burner air flows in a common windbox and to staged combustion systems. Most recently, calibration testing in a wind tunnel facility of AMC's individual burner air measurement (IBAM{trademark}) probes installed in DB Riley's low NO{sub x} CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burners has demonstrated the ability to produce reproducible and consistent air flow measurement accurate to within 5%. This paper will summarize this product development and quantify the benefits of its application to low NO{sub x} combustion systems.

  20. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Duret, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and sub-50 ppM CO emissions using high excess air, external flue gas recirculation (FGR), and fuel staging in the 3 MMBtu/hr laboratory watertube boiler. In a test in a 50,000 lb/hr oil field steamer with fuel staging, it consistently achieved sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 10 ppM NOx. With high CO{sub 2} casing gas in this steamer, simulating external FGR, sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 5 ppM NOx were achieved. Burner material cost was reduced by 25% on a per Btu basis by increasing the effective surface firing rate at the burner; further reductions will occur in Phase II. The market for 30 ppM and 9 ppM low NOx burners has been identified as package boilers in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb/hr size range (the 30 ppM is for retrofit, the 9 ppM for the new boiler market). Alzeta and Babcock & Wilcox have teamed to sell both boiler retrofits and new boilers; they have identified boiler designs which use the compact flame shape of the RSB and can increase steam capacity while maintaining the same boiler footprint. Alzeta, Chevron, and B & W have teamed to identify sites to demonstrate the RSB in Phases II and III. In Phase II, the RSB will be demonstrated in a 100,000 lb/hr industrial watertube boiler.

  1. Measurement and prediction of interactions between burners in multi-low NOx burner systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, S.J.; Allen, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    Measurements using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) have been carried out on the isothermal flow from multiple small-scale burners enclosed in a furnace-type geometry. These have been used to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models using the commercial unstructured CFD code FLUENT/UNS version 4.1. The flows from arrays of two, four and six co- and counter-rotating burners have been measured at various burner pitches. Measurements show that the isothermal flows impinge on one another and interact significantly when the burner pitch is reduced to 1.3 burner exit diameters, although interactions between flows do not significantly affect the main central core flow. Predictions indicate that the burner jet entrainment is significantly affected by interactions, and the entrainment rate if dependent on the number of burners and whether a co- or counter-rotating swirl arrangement is adopted. Both two and four counter-rotating flows entrain greater amounts of surrounding air than a single burner flow, with the greatest entrainment found with two counter-rotating flows.

  2. The BNL fan-atomized burner system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a continuing interest in the development of advanced oil burners which can provide new capabilities not currently available with pressure atomized, retention head burners. Specifically program goals include: the ability to operate at firing rates as low as 0.25 gph; the ability to operate with very low excess air levels for high steady state efficiency and to minimize formation of sulfuric acid and iron sulfate fouling; low emissions of smoke, CO, and NO{sub x} even at very low excess air levels; and the potential for modulation - either staged firing or continuous modulation. In addition any such advanced burner must have production costs which would be sufficiently attractive to allow commercialization. The primary motivation for all work sponsored by the US DOE is, of course, improved efficiency. With existing boiler and furnace models this can be achieved through down-firing and low excess air operation. Also, with low excess air operation fouling and efficiency degradation due to iron-sulfate scale formation are reduced.

  3. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  4. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Zuo, Baifang

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  5. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  6. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.E.

    1999-11-23

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  7. Dual fuel low NOx burner

    SciTech Connect

    Shyhching Yang; Bortz, S.J.

    1993-08-31

    A dual fuel burner is described comprising: a divergent quarl having an entrance, and exit downstream from said entrance, and a plurality of axially extending staging air ports equally spaced around said exit; a wind pipe coaxially connected to said entrance of said quarl; a swirl generator coaxially received in said wind pipe, said swirl generator having a plurality of vanes and a center hole; a gas gun including a tube and a gas nozzle, said tube having an upstream end and a downstream end and being coaxially positioned within said center hole of said swirl generator said gas nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said gas nozzle having a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; an oil gun including an oil tube, an oil nozzle, and a high pressure air tube, said oil gun tube having an upstream end and a downstream end, said oil gun tube being coaxially positioned within said gas gun tube, said oil nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said oil gun tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said oil nozzle including a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; said high pressure tube provided within said oil gun tube, said high pressure tube being in fluid communication with said oil nozzle passageways.

  8. Effect of oil and oil dispersant mixtures on the basal metabolic rate of ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, G.; Peakall, D.B.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Engelhardt, F.R.

    1982-11-01

    Wild strain adult mallards (Anas platrhynchos) were exposed to either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527 dispersant or the crude oil + dispersant. Results show that the degree of oiling to which the ducks were exposed caused a modest but significant increase in the metabolic rate. Under the experimental conditions (one-hour exposure, small volume swimming tanks, measuring of metabolism after the removal of the bird from the water), the dispersant (at 30:1 ratio) does not appreciably increase the effects caused by the crude oil on the metabolic rate, although it seems to increase the damage to plumage which leads to progressive waterlogging. (JMT)

  9. Burner swirls NO{sub x} away

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Cleaner boilers that will help reduce acid rain, photochemical smog and tropospheric ozone are now coming on-line, partly as a result of a new burner design for power-generation boilers based on MIT research and now commercialized under exclusive license to ABB C-E Services Inc. The rapidly stratified flame core (RSFC) burner achieved very large nitrogen oxide reductions of up to 90% with natural gas as fuel, and 70 to 80% when burning pulverized coal and heavy fuel oil, respectively. The RSFC design provides a fuel-rich (oxygen deficient), high-temperature environment early in the flame to allow the chemical conversion of the NO{sub x} precursors to harmless molecular nitrogen. A subsequent lower-temperature, fuel-lean environment, in which the remainder of the air is mixed with the remaining fuel, then ensures complete combustion. Another integral feature of the RSFC burner register is its uniquely shaped refractory throat quarl. The throat collimates the airflow as opposed to the divergent airflow from a traditional burner (bell mouth) nozzle shape. The cylindrical shape tends to enforce stratification.

  10. Rate controlling model for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.Y.; Annamali, S.N.; Hopper, J.R. )

    1993-11-01

    A mathematical model of bio-remediation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix has been developed to predict the rate controlling step and the remediation rate during the bioremediation of a contaminated soil. The model is based on mass transfer of oxygen and oil into the aqueous solution in the soil matrix and the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons in the aqueous solution. Monod's equation was used to describe the biodegradation rate in aqueous solution while the mass transfer equations were used to describe the mass transfer rates of oxygen and oil in the soil matrix. Results from model calculations indicate that the bio-remediation rate increases and approaches a limiting value when one of the rates becomes controlling. When the parameters of the site soil samples are measured and the solubilities of oxygen and oil in aqueous solution are obtained, the bioremediation rate can be predicted by this model. The rate controlling step of the bioremediation site may be identified quickly and steps to improve the bioremediation rate can be recommended. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Environmentally safe burner for offshore well testing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    One of the problems that occurs during offshore well testing has been the discharge of unburned hydrocarbon emissions into the air and sea that leave deposits of oily slicks or {open_quotes}sheen{close_quotes} on the water surface. This residue results from inefficient flaring operations and can have adverse effects on marine environment. This paper will discuss a new burner that has been developed to address the environmentally unfriendly fallout conditions that have occurred from crude oil disposal during traditional well testing operations. To support a broad range of applications, the design criteria for this burner included not only the capability to perform fallout free in the wide range of conditions expected during well testing but also to be simple to operate, have a compact lightweight design with a stable pilot and igniter system, provide clean startup, and require low oil pressure. Burner performance is significantly affected by fuel oil properties and its atomization characteristics. The paper will include an overview of these topics and their relationship to the combustion process, how these topics were addressed in the development of the design, and the testing that was performed by an independent Norwegian environmental testing company to verify the burner`s efficiency. The burner designed to these specifications includes an array of atomizers, uniquely placed to improve flame turbulence and air ingestion important to efficient combustion. Engineering tests performed with 18 degree API crude oil were fallout free and smokeless, and tests performed by the independent environmental testing company verified that the new burner design performed with 99.9 percent efficiency as a burning disposal system.

  12. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  13. Observation of Oil Flow Characteristics in Rolling Piston Rotary Compressor for Reducing Oil Circulation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. j.; Noh, K. Y.; Min, B. C.; Yang, J. S.; Choi, G. M.; Kim, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    The oil circulation rate (OCR) of the rolling piston rotary compressor is a significant factor which affects the performance of refrigeration system. The increase of oil discharge causes decreasing of the heat transfer efficiency in the heat exchanger, pressure drop and lack of oil in lubricate part in compressor. In this study, the internal flow of compressor was visualized to figure out the oil droplet flow characteristics. The experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in various frequency of compressor to observe the effect of operation frequency on oil droplet flow characteristics for reducing OCR. In situ, measurement of oil droplet diameter and velocity were conducted by using high speed image visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow paths were dominated by copper wire parts driving the motor which was inserted in compressor. In order to verify the reliability of CFD simulation, the tendency of oil flow characteristics in each flow path and the compressor operating conditions were applied in CFD simulation. For reducing OCR, the structure such as vane, disk and ring is installed in the compressor to restrict the main flow path of oil particle. The effect of additional structure for reducing OCR was evaluated using CFD simulation and the results were discussed in detail.

  14. Performance evaluation of porous radiant gas burners

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, R.F.; Lin, Wen-Yi; Agarwal, G.

    1995-12-31

    A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of temperature and gas composition measurements as a function of position, as well as spectral and total radiosity measurements. Uncombusted hydrocarbons were detected within the flame support layer for only low flow rates (e.g 7.1 1/min for a reticulated ceramic flame support layer); only combustion products mixed with the atmosphere were detected at higher rates. Radiosity increased with increasing flow rate via increasing surface temperatures, while burner efficiencies decreased because of less effectual heat transfer of combustion product gases to solid surfaces. Stainless steel screen-based flame support layers demonstrated optimum performance as compared to ceramic and metal tube-based, and reticulated ceramic-based flame support layers. Increased turbulent flow and surface area for convective heat transfer between the base surface and the end of the flame support layer were factors attributed to improved burner radiosity and efficiency. The greybody temperatures and emittances of burners were determined using a simplex algorithm fit of spectral radiosity data to Planck`s equation. The significantly higher and more grey emittance (hence radiosity) of CoAl$-(2)$O$-(4)$-coated mullite flame support tubes, as compared to alumina tubes of identical geometry, was demonstrated using this method.

  15. Oil Prices and Interest Rates: Do They Determine the Exchange Rate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, I. A.; Old, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the relationship between the British pound sterling, interest rates, and oil prices has been overemphasized by economic commentators because they ignored a basic economic theory about the determination of the exchange rate. Provides an example and suggestions for follow up instruction. (Author/JDH)

  16. Burners and stingers.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H

    2000-11-01

    The burner or stinger syndrome is one of the most common injuries in football and most likely represents an upper cervical root injury. Other sports reported include wrestling, hockey, basketball, boxing, and weight lifting. The athlete experiences radiating pain, numbness, or tingling down one upper limb, usually lasting less than 1 minute. Recurrences are common and can lead to permanent neurologic deficits. Burners are usually diagnosed and treated based on physical examination findings, but radiographs, MR imaging, and electrodiagnostic testing may help localize the precise level of injury, identify other associated pathology, and quantify neurologic injury. Management should include education on proper tackling techniques, restoration of neck motion, functional strengthening, and carefully fitted orthosis. PMID:11092018

  17. High efficiency gas burner

    DOEpatents

    Schuetz, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  18. Oil prices vs hurdle rates for upstream petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.A.

    1986-08-01

    The relationship between rising or falling oil prices and general levels of interest rates is graphically evident in the capital market moves for energy securities of 1973-1974, 1979-1980, and 1986. In turn, the resulting overall changes in the cost of capital became the determining basis for hurdle rates on new drilling exploration and exploitation. The relationships are complicated by lag time considerations in capital markets as well as by the dynamics of public policy with respect to energy and tax matters. Nevertheless, recent evidence of markedly higher volatility in commodity values suggests greater return cushions will be required by investment funds in the energy sector.

  19. Idealized radiation efficiency model for a porous radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    A simple, highly idealized radiation efficiency model has been developed for a porous radiant burner with or without a screen to assess the thermal performance of an ideal porous burner that yields the highest radiation efficiency and against which test results and/or more realistic model predictions could be benchmarked. The model is based on thermodynamics principles (first law of thermodynamics) with idealizations made for some of the physical processes. Empirical information, where necessary, is then used to close the model equations. The maximum radiation efficiency at a given firing rate is predicted. The effects of input parameters such as the firing rate, the equivalence ratio, and the effective emittance of the burner on the radiation efficiency of the porous radiant burner are reported.

  20. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  1. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  2. Low NO sub x regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, J.E.; Finke, H.P.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvements in a regenerative burner having a regenerative bed, a burner port and a fuel nozzle. The improvement comprises: a burner baffle having apertures therein for selectively directing combustion air and inducing combustion gas recirculation into a primary combustion zone for suppressing NO{sub x} emissions, the baffle and the fuel nozzle being positioned substantially adjacent the burner port and being substantially coplanar in a plane perpendicular to a burner axis.

  3. Radiant energy burner

    SciTech Connect

    Granberg, D.N.

    1986-07-08

    In a radiant energy burner, a combustion element is described comprising a porous metal support having an inner surface and an outer surface, a woven fabric disposed on the outer surface of the support and composed of substantially continuous ceramic fibers, connecting means for securing end portions of the fabric to the support, the connecting means being metal and being enclosed in a ring-like sleeve of woven ceramic fiber. The central portion of the fabric is free of attachment to the support, supply means including a blower to supply a gaseous fuel through the support and the fabric, and fuel igniting means disposed adjacent to the outer surface of the fabric to ignite the fuel.

  4. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  5. Burning mechanism and regression rate of RX-35-AU and RX-35-AV as a function of HMX particle size measured by the hybrid closed bomb-strand burner

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W.C.; Costantino, M.S.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    In this study, the average surface regression rate of two HMX-based cast explosives, RX-35-AU and RX-35-AV, is measured to pressures above 750 MPa using a hybrid closed bomb-strand burner. The hybrid design allows the simultaneous measurement of pressure and regression rate over a large range of pressures in each experiment. Nitroglycerin/Triacetin (75/25) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used as the energetic plasticizer and polymeric binder, respectively, in both formulations. The HMX solids loading in each formulation is 50 wt %, consisting of a narrow particle size distribution of 6--8 {mu}m for RX-35-AU and 150--177 {mu}m for RX-35-AV. Of special interest are the regression rate and burning mechanism as a function of the initial particle size distribution and the mechanical properties fo the cast explosives. In general, the regression rate for the larger particle size formulation, RX-35-AV, is two to three times faster compared to that for RX-35-AU. Up to 750 MPa and independent of the initial confinement pressure, RX-35-AU exhibits a planar burning mechanism with the regression rate obeying the classical aP{sup n} formalism. For RX-35-AV, however, the burning behavior is erratic for samples ignited at 200 MPa confinement pressure. At confinement pressures above 400 MPa, the regression exhibits more of a planar burning mechanism. The unstable combustion behavior for RX-35-AV at lower confinement pressures is related to several mechanisms: (1) an abrupt increase in surface area due to particle fracture and subsequent translation and rotation, resulting in debonding and creating porosity, (2) thixotropic'' separation of the binder and nitramine, causing the significantly greater fracture damage to the nitramine during the loading cycle, (3) microscopic damage to the nitramine crystals that increase its intrinsic burning rate. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  7. Asymmetrical long-run dependence between oil price and US dollar exchange rate-Based on structural oil shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiaqi; Gu, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    The multifractal behavior in cross-correlation between oil prices and exchange rates is examined in this paper. We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis to investigate the general cross-correlations, and further show that these cross-correlations are asymmetric by multifractal asymmetric cross-correlation analysis. We recover the structural oil shocks and then use these indicators to characterize the asymmetries along with oil price trend itself. Our empirical results show that their asymmetric degrees vary significantly. The sign of oil supply shock leads to the most significant asymmetry among them.

  8. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the... fuel pressure is 40 to 60 percent of the range between the maximum fuel pressure referenced...

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  10. Design of governmental policies for oil production rates and oil income spending; a long-term perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Moxnes, E.

    1983-01-01

    Norway is a small country with large oil reserves. In 1980, oil production amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provided 9% of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Because potential income is so large, decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impacts on society. The current debate provides a wide variety of policy suggestions. Attempts to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by much uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices, and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides an integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment, and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production.

  11. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burners. 31.47 Section 31.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the lifting means, the system must be designed...

  12. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burners. 31.47 Section 31.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the lifting means, the system must be designed...

  13. Effects of oil on the rate and trajectory of Louisiana marsh shoreline erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenachan, Giovanna; Turner, R. Eugene; Tweel, Andrew W.

    2013-12-01

    Oil can have long-term detrimental effects on marsh plant health, both above- and belowground. However, there are few data available that quantify the accelerated rate of erosion that oil may cause to marshes and the trajectory of change. Between November 2010 and August 2012, we collected data on shoreline erosion, soil strength, per cent cover of Spartina alterniflora, and marsh edge overhang at 30 closely spaced low oil and high oil sites in Bay Batiste, Louisiana. Surface oil samples were taken one meter into the marsh in February 2011. All high oiled sites in Bay Batiste were contaminated with Macondo 252 oil (oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, 20 April-15 July 2010). The results suggest that there is a threshold where soil parameters change dramatically with a relatively small increase in oil concentration in the soil. Heavy oiling weakens the soil, creating a deeper undercut of the upper 50 cm of the marsh edge, and causing an accelerated rate of erosion that cascades along the shoreline. Our results demonstrate that it could take at least 2 yr to document the effects heavy oiling has had on the marsh shoreline. The presence of aboveground vegetation alone may not be an appropriate indicator of recovery.

  14. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section 213.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner...

  15. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.23 Section 213.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. Unless otherwise authorized by the Commissioner...

  16. User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P.; Lubeck, C.; Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

  17. Thermionic cogeneration burner design

    SciTech Connect

    Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Moffat, A.L.; Morgan, D.T.

    1983-08-01

    Since thermionic converters receive heat at very high temperatures (approximately 1800 K) and reject heat at moderately high temperatures (approximately 800 K), they are useful for cogeneration applications involving high temperature processes. The electric power from thermionic converters is produced as a high amperage, low-voltage direct current. An ideal cogeneration application would be to utilize the reject heat at the collector temperature and the electricity without power conditioning. A cogeneration application in the edible oil industry fulfills both of these requirements since both direct heat and hydrogen gas are required in the hydrogenation of the oils. In this application, the low voltage direct current would be used in a hydrogen electrolyzer.

  18. Heterogeneous effects of oil shocks on exchange rates: evidence from a quantile regression approach.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianfang; Zhu, Huiming; You, Wanhai; Ren, Yinghua

    2016-01-01

    The determinants of exchange rates have attracted considerable attention among researchers over the past several decades. Most studies, however, ignore the possibility that the impact of oil shocks on exchange rates could vary across the exchange rate returns distribution. We employ a quantile regression approach to address this issue. Our results indicate that the effect of oil shocks on exchange rates is heterogeneous across quantiles. A large US depreciation or appreciation tends to heighten the effects of oil shocks on exchange rate returns. Positive oil demand shocks lead to appreciation pressures in oil-exporting countries and this result is robust across lower and upper return distributions. These results offer rich and useful information for investors and decision-makers. PMID:27516925

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  20. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    PubMed Central

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  1. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  2. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  3. Impacts, recovery rates, and treatment options for spilled oil in marshes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jacqueline; Rutherford, Nicolle

    2014-05-15

    In a review of the literature on impacts of spilled oil on marshes, 32 oil spills and field experiments were identified with sufficient data to generate recovery curves and identify influencing factors controlling the rate of recovery. For many spills, recovery occurred within 1-2 growing seasons, even in the absence of any treatment. Recovery was longest for spills with the following conditions: Cold climate; sheltered settings; thick oil on the marsh surface; light refined products with heavy loading; oils that formed persistent thick residues; and intensive treatment. Recovery was shortest for spills with the following conditions: Warm climate; light to heavy oiling of the vegetation only; medium crude oils; and less-intensive treatment. Recommendations are made for treatment based on the following oiling conditions: Free-floating oil on the water in the marsh; thicker oil (>0.5 cm) on marsh surface; thinner oil (<0.5 cm) on marsh surface; heavy oil loading on vegetation; and light to moderate oil loading on vegetation. PMID:24703808

  4. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing

  5. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-04-16

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

  6. Low NOx gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1993-08-24

    An improved gas burner apparatus is described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom comprising: a housing having an open end attached to said furnace space; means for introducing a controlled flow rate of said air into said housing attached thereto; a refractory burner tile attached to the open end of said housing having a base portion, an opening formed in said base portion for allowing air to pass there through and having a wall portion surrounding said opening which extends into said furnace space, the exterior sides of said wall portion being slanted towards said opening and the interior sides thereof being spaced from the periphery of said opening whereby a ledge is provided within the interior of said wall portion; at least one passage formed in said burner tile for conducting primary fuel gas and flue gases from the exterior of said wall portion to the interior thereof; means for forming a fuel gas jet in said passage and drawing flue gases there through adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas and positioned with respect to said passage whereby a mixture of primary fuel gas and flue gases from said furnace space is discharged from said passage to within the interior of said wall portion; and at least one nozzle adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas positioned outside said wall portion of said burner tile adjacent the intersection of an exterior slanted side of said wall portion with the surface of said base portion for discharging secondary fuel gas adjacent said external slanted side of said wall portion whereby said secondary fuel gas mixes with flue gases and air in said furnace space. A method is also described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom.

  7. On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.A.; Law, C.K.; Zhu, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and response of the curved but unstretched cylindrically symmetric one-dimensional premixed flame generated by a cylindrical porous burner has been studied using (1) activation energy asymptotics with one-step reaction and constant properties, (2) numerical computation with detailed chemistry and transport, and (3) drop-tower microgravity experimentation. The study emphasizes the relative importance of heat loss (to the burner surface) vs flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization, the possibility of establishing a one-dimensional, adiabatic, unstretched, premixed flame in microgravity, the influence of curvature on the upstream and downstream burning rates of the flame, and the relation of these burning rates to those of the inherently nonadiabatic flat-burner flame as well as the freely propagating adiabatic planar flame. Results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence, hence demonstrating the feasibility of establishing a freely standing, adiabatic, one-dimensional, unstretched flame. It is further shown that, in this adiabatic, divergence-stabilized regime in which the burner discharge flux exceeds that of the adiabatic planar flame, the downstream burning flux is equal to the (constant) burning flux of the adiabatic planar flame while the upstream burning flux exceeds it, and the upstream burning velocity exhibits a maximum with increasing discharge rate. Based on the property of the downstream burning flux, it is also proposed that the laminar burning velocity of a combustible can be readily determined from the experimental values of the burner discharge rate and flame radius. Microgravity results on the flame radius compare favorably with the computed values, while the corresponding laminar burning velocity also agrees well with that obtained from independent numerical computation.

  8. Fresh and weathered crude oil effects on potential denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil.

    PubMed

    Pietroski, Jason P; White, John R; DeLaune, Ronald D; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K

    2015-09-01

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform experienced an explosion which triggered the largest marine oil spill in US history, resulting in the release of ∼795 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Once oil reached the surface, changes in overall chemical composition occurred due to volatilization of the smaller carbon chain compounds as the oil was transported onshore by winds and currents. In this study, the toxic effects of both fresh and weathered crude oil on denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil were determined using soil samples collected from an unimpacted coastal marsh site proximal to areas that were oiled in Barataria Bay, LA. The 1:10 ratio of crude oil:field moist soil fully coated the soil surface mimicking a heavy oiling scenario. Potential denitrification rates at the 1:10 ratio, for weathered crude oil, were 46 ± 18.4% of the control immediately after exposure and 62 ± 8.0% of the control following a two week incubation period, suggesting some adaptation of the denitrifying microbial consortium over time. Denitrification rates of soil exposed to fresh crude oil were 51.5 ± 5.3% of the control after immediate exposure and significantly lower at 10.9 ± 1.1% after a 2 week exposure period. Results suggest that fresh crude oil has the potential to more severely impact the important marsh soil process of denitrification following longer term exposure. Future studies should focus on longer-term denitrification as well as changes in the microbial consortia in response to oil exposure. PMID:25929872

  9. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. 213.24... of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. The lessee shall pay, beginning with the date of approval of oil and gas leases by the Secretary of the Interior, a rental of $1.25 per acre per annum...

  10. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. 213.24... of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. The lessee shall pay, beginning with the date of approval of oil and gas leases by the Secretary of the Interior, a rental of $1.25 per acre per annum...

  11. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. 213.24... of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. The lessee shall pay, beginning with the date of approval of oil and gas leases by the Secretary of the Interior, a rental of $1.25 per acre per annum...

  12. Evaluation of Oil Sands Projects and Their Expansion Rate Using Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobari, Laleh

    The rapidly expanding oil sands of western Canada, the third largest reserves in the world, are creating serious challenges, such as ecological harm, labour shortages, and extensive natural gas consumption. This thesis develops three practical real options models to evaluate the feasibility of oil sands projects and to estimate the optimal rate of oil sands expansion, while accounting for the stated concerns. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Varying relative degradation rates of oil in different forms and environments revealed by ramped pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pendergraft, Matthew A; Rosenheim, Brad E

    2014-09-16

    Degradation of oil contamination yields stabilized products by removing and transforming reactive and volatile compounds. In contaminated coastal environments, the processes of degradation are influenced by shoreline energy, which increases the surface area of the oil as well as exchange between oil, water, sediments, microbes, oxygen, and nutrients. Here, a ramped pyrolysis carbon isotope technique is employed to investigate thermochemical and isotopic changes in organic material from coastal environments contaminated with oil from the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Oiled beach sediment, tar ball, and marsh samples were collected from a barrier island and a brackish marsh in southeast Louisiana over a period of 881 days. Stable carbon ((13)C) and radiocarbon ((14)C) isotopic data demonstrate a predominance of oil-derived carbon in the organic material. Ramped pyrolysis profiles indicate that the organic material was transformed into more stable forms. Our data indicate relative rates of stabilization in the following order, from fastest to slowest: high energy beach sediments > low energy beach sediments > marsh > tar balls. Oil was transformed most rapidly where shoreline energy and the rates of oil dispersion and exchange with water, sediments, microbes, oxygen, and nutrients were greatest. Still, isotope data reveal persistence of oil. PMID:25105342

  14. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases. 213.24 Section 213.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... the land leased, save and except oil and/or gas used by the lessee for development and...

  15. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  16. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  17. A model to predict rate of dissolution of toxic compounds into seawater from an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Riazi, M R; Roomi, Y A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a semianalytical model has been proposed to predict the rate at which oil components dissolve in water when an oil spill occurs in a marine environment. The model breaks the oil into a number of pseudocomponents proportional to the number of compounds originally present in the oil and calculates the rate of dissolution for each component. In addition, the components are divided into paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbon types and the amount of dissolution of each pseudocomponent is calculated versus time. In this method the concentration of most toxic components of oil (mainly monoaromatics) is determined. The model considers variable surface area and slick thickness and requires oil specifications (i.e., American Petroleum Institute [API] gravity and boiling point) in addition to air and water temperatures and speeds. The model has been applied to a Kuwaiti crude oil and its products naphtha and kerosene samples at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results could be useful in selection of an appropriate method for oil spill clean up as well as simulation of environmental impact of oil spill from toxicity points of view. PMID:19037808

  18. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  19. [Study on effect of oil-bearing solution environment of Caryophylli Flos and other traditional Chinese medicines on system flux and oil recovery rate].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen-Ling; Guo, Li-Wei; Lin, Ying; Shen, Jie; Cao, Gui-Ping; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    The membrane enrichment process of traditional Chinese medicine volatile oil is environmental friendly and practical, with a good application prospect. In this article, oil-bearing solutions of eight traditional Chinese medicines, namely Caryophylli Flos, Schizonepetae Herba, Eupatorii Herb, Acori Talarinowii Rhizoma, Magnoliae Flos, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cyperi Rhizoma and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride, were taken as the experimental system. Under unified conditions (membrane: PVDF-14W, temperature: 40 degreeC, pressure: 0. 1 MPa, membrane surface speed: 150 r min- 1), trans-membrane was conducted for above eight oil-bearing solutions to explore the effect of their oil-bearing solution environment on system flux and oil recovery rate. The results showed that systems with smaller pH had a lower flux, without significant effect on oil recovery rate. Greater differences between the surface tension of solutions and that of pure water contributed to a lower oil recovery rate. The conductivity had no notable effect on membrane enrichment process. Systems with high turbidity had a lower flux, without remarkable effect on oil recovery rat. Heavy oils showed lower flux than light ones, but with a slightly higher oil recovery rat. Systems with higher viscosity had a lower flux than those with lower viscosity. Except for Magnoliae Flos volatile oil, all of the remaining volatile oils showed a much higher oil recovery rat than systems with high viscosity. The above results could provide data support and theoretical basis for the industrialization of membrane enrichment volatile oil technology. PMID:24422391

  20. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for...

  1. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for...

  2. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for...

  3. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures (40 CFR part 112) in addition to the requirements of this subpart. Used oil burners are also subject to the Underground Storage Tank (40 CFR part 280) standards for...

  5. Effect of rangetop burner design on NO sub 2 emissions. Final report, February 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reuther, J.J.

    1990-02-01

    The report details the methodology and results of a program at Battelle to evaluate the extent to which rangetop burner design and operation influence the emission of trace quantities of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). A critical literature review revealed that conclusions drawn from previous research were ambiguous. New experiments here indicated that previous data were conflicting because the apparent amount of NO{sub 2} observed was not only burner design- and operation-specific, but also NO{sub 2}-measurement protocol- and source-specific. Moreover, previously used NO{sub 2} measurement protocols had not been standardized, and previously used NO{sub 2} sources, production rangetop appliances, were not appropriate as research tools. After developing and validating a standardized NO{sub 2} measurement protocol and an appropriate rangetop burner research tool (Uniburner), parametric experiments isolated the individual effects of various burner design and operating parameters. Low NO{sub 2} emissions are favored by the use of cast-iron rather than stamped-aluminum burner caps, lower port loadings at any firing rate, higher primary aeration, and lower peripheral secondary aeration. Thermophysical properties of burner caps (thermal conductivity and thermal mass) appear to control NO{sub 2} emissions more than any other single or combination of burner design or operating parameter(s).

  6. Fiber burner development for gas-fired hydronic heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.K.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Alzetta Corporation, under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has recently developed a radiant burner for a new high efficiency residential hydronic heater. The burner chosen for development was the porous radiant ceramic fiber burner. This paper discusses the burner requirements which were satisfied by the burner and describes the development process. Burner development challenges and solutions are analyzed and results of life testing are presented.

  7. Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2004-09-01

    ''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

  8. Two-component mixture model: Application to palm oil and exchange rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Palm oil is a seed crop which is widely adopt for food and non-food products such as cookie, vegetable oil, cosmetics, household products and others. Palm oil is majority growth in Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the demand for palm oil is getting growth and rapidly running out over the years. This phenomenal cause illegal logging of trees and destroy the natural habitat. Hence, the present paper investigates the relationship between exchange rate and palm oil price in Malaysia by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation via Newton-Raphson algorithm to fit a two components mixture model. Besides, this paper proposes a mixture of normal distribution to accommodate with asymmetry characteristics and platykurtic time series data.

  9. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  10. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  11. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ∼50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ∼5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly. PMID:22187459

  12. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  13. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  14. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  15. Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Matt; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Gill, Walt

    2008-04-15

    This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

  16. Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M.; Oliveira, A.A.M.

    2011-01-15

    Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

  17. Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

  18. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  19. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2005-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

  1. Burners

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people who play contact sports such as football and wrestling. Symptoms How do I know if ... each stretch for 20 seconds. If you play football, wear extra neck protection. Questions to Ask Your ...

  2. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P ID's for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P ED's for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

  3. Characterization of Noise and Instability in a Commercial Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Stewart; Agrawal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    A range of combustion applications produce noise as a significant and undesirable output. Concurrently, efforts to reduce emissions through lean premixed combustion have shown this process to be prone to developing instabilities. In this study a commercial-style combustor was investigated to characterize combustion noise and instabilities. Knowledge in this area is intended for future research involving the application of porous inert media (PIM) in industrial burners. Porous media has been used to passively suppress both combustion noise and instabilities in a laboratory setting, but has yet to be implemented in a commercial burner. Combustion experiments were conducted in an industrial-scale lean premixed burner using natural gas while varying equivalence ratio and reactant flow rate. Acoustic data was acquired using a microphone probe placed in the plane of the combustor exit. Measurements were analyzed in the frequency spectrum to quantify noise spectra and detect the development of instabilities. Results have indicated the occurrence of strong combustion instability at certain conditions. Additionally, research has supported the general relationship of increased noise production with increasing equivalence ratio and heat release rate. Adverse effects of combustion instability were accompanied with flashback and downstream acoustic excitation. Funding for this research provided by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  5. Prediction of the Ignition Phases in Aeronautical and Laboratory Burners using Large Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.; Sanjose, M.; Boileau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many aeronautical gas turbine manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are two phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work presents on-going and past Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this specific subject and as investigated at CERFACS (European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) located in Toulouse, France. Validation steps and potential difficulties are underlined to ensure reliability of LES for such problems. Preliminary LES results on simple burners are then presented, followed by simulations of a complete ignition sequence in an annular helicopter chamber. For all cases and when possible, two-phase or purely gaseous LES have been applied to the experimentally simplified or the full geometries. For the latter, massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform the computation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times and the rate at which the flame progresses from burner to burner. The propagation speed characteristic of these phenomena is much higher than the turbulent flame speed. Based on an in-depth analysis of the computational data, the difference in speed is mainly identified as being due to thermal expansion and the flame speed is strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics issued by the swirled injection.

  6. Power burner for compact furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, J.A.

    1980-09-23

    A compact gas power burner is provided which includes a cylindrical mixing tube into which combustion air is discharged tangentially from a centrifugal blower located adjacent the closed end of the mixing tube, and gaseous fuel is admitted into the discharge airstream of the blower upstream from the admission location of the airstream into the mixing tube so that the swirling component of the air in the mixing tube during its passage to the open end of the tube will promote the mixing of the air and gaseous fuel, the mixing tube being provided with a honeycomb ceramic disc at its end to which it is attached to a cylindrical heat exchanger, and ignition means and flame sensors are provided on the downstream side of the ceramic disc.

  7. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOEpatents

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  8. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  9. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  10. 25 CFR 212.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 212.43 Section 212.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations, and Appeals § 212.43 Royalty...

  11. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  12. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  13. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  14. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas. 211.43 Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT Rents, Royalties, Cancellations and Appeals § 211.43 Royalty...

  15. Design and evaluation of a low nitrogen oxides natural gas-fired conical wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Omar Barka Ab

    the duct burner. A considerable amount of detailed parametric experimental data was collected to investigate the performance characteristics of the duct burner. The variables studied (firing rate, mass flow ratio, conical burner pressure drop, blockage ratio, conical burner shield length, premixer geometry and inlet conditions) were all found to play an important role on emissions (NOx and CO), overall duct burner pressure drop and flame stability. The range of firing rates at which surface combustion was maintained for the duct burner was defined by direct observation of the burner surface and monitoring of the temperature in the combustion zone. Flame images were captured for qualitative assessment. The combustion tests results presented in this thesis proved that the design procedures that were implemented to design this novel microturbine conical wire-mesh duct burner were successful. During the course of the combustion tests, the duct burner displayed stable, low emissions operation throughout the surface firing rate range of 148 kW to 328 kW (1574 kW/m 2 to 3489 kW/m2). Emissions of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15 percent 02) for NOx and CO emissions were recorded, while the duct burner successfully raised the microturbine exhaust gases temperature from about 227°C to as high as 700°C. The overall duct burner pressure drop throughout was consistently below the design limit of 249 Pa.

  16. Estimating oil concentration and flow rate with calibrated vessel-mounted acoustic echo sounders

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas C.; De Robertis, Alex; Greenaway, Samuel F.; Smith, Shep; Mayer, Larry; Rice, Glen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger program aimed at evaluating acoustic techniques for mapping the distribution of subsurface oil and gas associated with the Deepwater Horizon-Macondo oil spill, observations were made on June 24 and 25, 2010 using vessel-mounted calibrated single-beam echo sounders on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Thomas Jefferson. Coincident with visual observations of oil at the sea surface, the 200-kHz echo sounder showed anomalously high-volume scattering strength in the upper 200 m on the western side of the wellhead, more than 100 times higher than the surrounding waters at 1,800-m distance from the wellhead, and weakening with increasing distance out to 5,000 m. Similar high-volume scattering anomalies were not observed at 12 or 38 kHz, although observations of anomalously low-volume scattering strength were made in the deep scattering layer at these frequencies at approximately the same locations. Together with observations of ocean currents, the acoustic observations are consistent with a rising plume of small (< 1-mm radius) oil droplets. Using simplistic but reasonable assumptions about the properties of the oil droplets, an estimate of the flow rate was made that is remarkably consistent with those made at the wellhead by other means. The uncertainty in this acoustically derived estimate is high due to lack of knowledge of the size distribution and rise speed of the oil droplets. If properly constrained, these types of acoustic measurements can be used to rapidly estimate the flow rate of oil reaching the surface over large temporal and spatial scales. PMID:22167799

  17. Estimating oil concentration and flow rate with calibrated vessel-mounted acoustic echo sounders.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas C; De Robertis, Alex; Greenaway, Samuel F; Smith, Shep; Mayer, Larry; Rice, Glen

    2012-12-11

    As part of a larger program aimed at evaluating acoustic techniques for mapping the distribution of subsurface oil and gas associated with the Deepwater Horizon-Macondo oil spill, observations were made on June 24 and 25, 2010 using vessel-mounted calibrated single-beam echo sounders on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Thomas Jefferson. Coincident with visual observations of oil at the sea surface, the 200-kHz echo sounder showed anomalously high-volume scattering strength in the upper 200 m on the western side of the wellhead, more than 100 times higher than the surrounding waters at 1,800-m distance from the wellhead, and weakening with increasing distance out to 5,000 m. Similar high-volume scattering anomalies were not observed at 12 or 38 kHz, although observations of anomalously low-volume scattering strength were made in the deep scattering layer at these frequencies at approximately the same locations. Together with observations of ocean currents, the acoustic observations are consistent with a rising plume of small (< 1-mm radius) oil droplets. Using simplistic but reasonable assumptions about the properties of the oil droplets, an estimate of the flow rate was made that is remarkably consistent with those made at the wellhead by other means. The uncertainty in this acoustically derived estimate is high due to lack of knowledge of the size distribution and rise speed of the oil droplets. If properly constrained, these types of acoustic measurements can be used to rapidly estimate the flow rate of oil reaching the surface over large temporal and spatial scales. PMID:22167799

  18. A Superfluid Film Burner for the nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, James; nEDM Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A planned measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) to 10-28 e .cm using the Golub-Lamoreaux method presents complex cryogenic challenges. One such hurdle is the injection of 3He from a polarized atomic beam source into a liquid 4He bath while maintaining the temperature gradient from the cold bath to the warm beam source and minimizing the vapor above the bath. The feasible temperature range for the experiment falls around 400 mK and is constrained from below by the achievable magnetic field gradients, and above by the spin relaxation time of 3He and rate of ultracold neutron up-scattering. The superfluid behavior of 4He below 2.1 K means superfluid film will tend to climb, or ``creep,'' up the sides of the beam tube to reach the warmer space above, creating vapor, resulting in convection and scattering of incident 3He. To stop the superfluid film creep and contain the vapor, a ``film burner'' is under development by the nEDM collaboration. We will describe the effort toward developing a suitable film burner for nEDM, and show preliminary results of a prototype film burner in operation.

  19. Preliminary Tests of a Burner for Ram-Jet Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W.

    1947-01-01

    Preliminary tests have been made of a small burner to meet the requirements for application to supersonic ram jets. The principal requirements were taken as: (1) efficient combustion in a high-velocity air stream, (2) utilization for combustion of only a small fraction of the air passing through the unit, (3) low resistance to air flow, (4) simple construction, and (5) light weight. Tests of a small burner were carried to stream velocities of nearly 150 feet per second and fuel rates such that one-eighth to one-fourth of the total air was involved in combustion. Commercial propane was selected as the fuel since its low boiling point facilitated vaporization. Combustion which was 80 percent complete along with low aerodynamic losses was obtained by injecting the fuel evenly, prior to ignition, and allowing it to mix with the air without appreciably disturbing the stream. The pressure drop due to frictional losses around the burner and to the adjacent inside walls of the ram jet is small compared with the pressure drop due to combustion.

  20. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard W.; Skinner, Dewey F.; Thorsness, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  1. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  2. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  3. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  4. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  5. Reaction rate kinetics for in situ combustion retorting of Michigan Antrim oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Mickelson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined using a thermogravimetric analysis method. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were evaluated from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. The reaction was found to be second-order with an activation energy of 252.2 kJ/mole, and with a frequency factor of 9.25 ?? 1015 sec-1. Pyrolysis kinetics were not affected by heating rates between 0.01 to 0.67??K/s. No evidence of any reactions among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173??K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatilization rate of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale. Carbonaceous residues which were prepared by heating the oil shale at a rate of 0.166??K/s to temperatures between 923??K and 1073??K, had the highest reactivities when oxidized at 0.166??K/s in a gas having 21 volume percent oxygen. Oxygen chemisorption was found to be the initial precursor to the oxidation process. The kinetics governing oxygen chemisorption is (Equation Presented) where X is the fractional coverage. The oxidation of the carbonaceous residue was found also to be second-order. The activation energy and the frequency factor determined from isothermal experiments were 147 kJ/mole and 9.18??107 sec-1 respectively, while the values of these parameters obtained from a nonisothermal experiment were 212 kJ/mole and 1.5??1013 sec-1. The variation in the rate constants is attributed to the fact that isothermal and nonisothermal analyses represent two different aspects of the combustion process.

  6. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  10. Evaporation rates of water from concentrated oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Aranberri, I; Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Fletcher, P D I

    2004-03-16

    We have investigated the rate of water evaporation from concentrated oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing an involatile oil. Evaporation of the water continuous phase causes compression of the emulsion with progressive distortion of the oil drops and thinning of the water films separating them. Theoretically, the vapor pressure of water is sensitive to the interdroplet interactions, which are a function of the film thickness. Three main possible situations are considered. First, under conditions when the evaporation rate is controlled by mass transfer across the stagnant vapor phase, model calculations show that evaporation can, in principle, be slowed by repulsive interdroplet interactions. However, significant retardation requires very strong repulsive forces acting over large separations for typical emulsion drop sizes. Second, water evaporation may be limited by diffusion in the network of water films within the emulsion. In this situation, water loss by evaporation from the emulsion surface leads to a gradient in the water concentration (and in the water film thickness). Third, compression of the drops may lead to coalescence of the emulsion drops and the formation of a macroscopic oil film at the emulsion surface, which serves to prevent further water evaporation. Water mass-loss curves have been measured for silicone o/w emulsions stabilized by the anionic surfactant SDS as a function of the water content, the thickness of the stagnant vapor-phase layer, and the concentration of electrolyte in the aqueous phase, and the results are discussed in terms of the three possible scenarios just described. In systems with added salt, water evaporation virtually ceases before all the water present is lost, probably as a result of oil-drop coalescence resulting in the formation of a water-impermeable oil film at the emulsion surface. PMID:15835653

  11. Effect of OPEC oil pricing on output, prices, and exchange rates in the United States and other industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisig, H.

    1981-01-01

    Following each major oil price increase, real gross national product (GNP) has fallen, unemployment and inflation have risen, and exchange rates have moved erratically. But how do oil price increases produce these effects. This paper discusses some of the macroeconomic consequences of too high and rising oil prices, and some of the policy options that might control these effects. It finds that the high and rising price of oil imports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) burdens the industrial oil-importing countries in two ways. First, because total expenditures on oil rise relative to income, the potential real standard of living in oil-importing countries falls. Together, the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), for example, may have paid as much as $150 billion more for oil in 1979 than they would have paid in a competitive oil market. Second, the rising oil price increases unemployment and inflation in ways that are difficult for policymakers in oil-importing countries to manage; on the one hand, the rising oil price produces general inflation, and on the other hand, it depresses domestic demand and employment. Policymakers attempt to control part of the inflation, at the cost of increasing unemployment. The total loss in output from the 1974 to 1975 recession, though part of it may have followed from factors unrelated to oil, was about $350 billion.

  12. Using Chain Extenders to Modify Release Rates of Orange Oil from Poly(Urea-Urethane) Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Pušlar, Jurij; Štefanec, Dejan; Vrhunec, Aljoša

    2015-01-01

    Poly(urea-urethane) and polyurea microcapsules were prepared by an interfacial polymerisation using orange oil as a core material and a mixture of polymeric 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate in a molar ratio of 1:0.2 as oil-soluble monomers. The membrane composition, thickness, and other properties were varied by changing the type and amount of oil-soluble monomers and water-soluble chain extenders, such as ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine based on amine groups and 1,4-butanediol and polyethylene glycol 400 based on hydroxyl groups. Studies of the morphology and release behaviour show high dependency on the reaction conditions and reactants' properties. The release rate of the orange oil from microcapsules is highest when using a polymeric linear chain extender, polyethylene glycol with a molecular mass of 400. Microcapsules with improved mechanical stability and a slower release rate were obtained by a thicker membrane and by using the branched multi-functional chain extender diethylenetriamine. PMID:26454605

  13. Quantifying the flow rate of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo Well oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilli, R.; Bowen, A.; Yoerger, D. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Techet, A. H.; Reddy, C. M.; Sylva, S.; Seewald, J.; di Iorio, D.; Whoi Flow Rate Measurement Group

    2010-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Mississippi Canyon block 252 of the Gulf of Mexico created the largest recorded offshore oil spill. The well outflow’s multiple leak sources, turbulent multiphase flow, tendency for hydrate formation, and extreme source depth of 1500 m below the sea surface complicated the quantitative estimation of oil and gas leakage rates. We present methods and results from a U.S. Coast Guard sponsored flow assessment study of the Deepwater Horizon’s damaged blow out preventer and riser. This study utilized a remotely operated vehicle equipped with in-situ acoustic sensors (a Doppler sonar and an imaging multibeam sonar) and isobaric gas-tight fluid samplers to measure directly outflow from the damaged well. Findings from this study indicate oil release rates and total release volume estimates that corroborate estimates made by the federal government’s Flow Rate Technical Group using non-acoustic techniques. The acoustic survey methods reported here provides a means for estimating fluid flow rates in subsurface environments, and are potentially useful for a diverse range of oceanographic applications. Photograph of the Discoverer Enterprise burning natural gas collected from the Macondo well blowout preventer during flow measurement operations. Copyright Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  14. Impurity effects on crystallization rates of n-hexadecane in oil-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, N.; Horie, T.; Ueno, S.; Yano, J.; Katsuragi, T.; Sato, K.

    1999-02-01

    Crystallization rates of n-hexadecane dispersed in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (oil 20 wt% and water 80 wt%) were studied by an ultrasonic velocity measurement technique. Tween 20 was employed for emulsification to form the O/W emulsion. A highly hydrophobic food emulsifier, a sucrose polyester involving palmitic acid moiety (P-170), was added to n-hexadecane, as an impurity, in an attempt to modify the rate of the crystallization of n-hexadecane. The rates of crystallization of n-hexadecane were monitored by variations in the ultrasonic velocity values, which increase with increasing amount of crystal fractions in the oil phase of the emulsion. In comparison with the results of the O/W emulsion systems with those of the bulk systems, the following results were obtained; (a) the addition of P-170 accelerated the nucleation in the emulsion system, yet no acceleration was revealed in the bulk system, (b) the rates of crystal growth were retarded by the addition of P-170, (c) the acceleration of nucleation occurred through two stages with increasing concentrations of P-170: e.g., a sharp increase occurred in a low concentration range of P-170 up to 0.3% with respect to n-hexadecane, then a moderate acceleration occurred at P-170 concentrations above 0.6%. These results were discussed in terms of heterogeneous nucleation occurring at interfaces of the O/W emulsion droplets.

  15. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

  16. Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

  17. Performance test reports and comparison of emission characteristics of prototype liquid multifuel burners developed for US military field cooking applications

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this project is to provide data to the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center on the performance of three prototype burners, which have the capability of firing with multiple types of fuels (diesel and JP-8), and the conventional gasoline-fired M-2 burner. The prototype burners are intended to replace the M-2 unit currently used in food cooking appliances in the Army. The burners supplied to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the purpose of testing under this project included one M-2 unit, one M-3 prototype unit designed by Natick, one Babington prototype unit designed by Babington Engineering, and one ITR prototype designed by International Thermal Research Ltd. It should be noted, however, that after the project began, Babington Engineering provided an upgraded prototype unit for testing which replaced the unit initially provided by the Natick Center. The M-3 unit replaced the Karcher unit listed in the contract. The test procedures which were described in a Test Method Report allowed for the measurement of the concentrations of specific compounds emitted from the burners. These compounds included oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde, and particulate emissions. The level of smoke produced was also measured by using a Bacharach Smoke Number system (ASTM Standard D2156). A separate Performance Test Report for each burner was prepared as part of this project, and is attached as part of this report. In those reports details of the measurement techniques, instrumentation, test operating conditions, and data for each burner were included. This paper provides a summary and a comparison of the results for all burners. A brief discussion of emissions from other similar small oil combustion systems is also part of this document to provide perspective on the type of contaminants and levels expected from these systems.

  18. Radiant burner technology base B burner research and development. Final report, February 1986-January 1989. Appendix M. Arizona State University final report: Emission measurements of porous radiant burners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Radiant burners offer many advantages to industrial users and there are numerous applications that would benefit from the technology. Industrial operations, however, place severe restrictions on the use of radiant burners. These limits are related to high furnace temperatures, varied production schedules, and dirty work environments. The work has identified operational and materials limits of present day radiant burner technologies and has projected what their capabilities may be. The results of the report recommend techniques to improve the state-of-the-art in radiant burners and increasing the number of industrial applications for the gas-fired burner.

  19. Dependence and risk assessment for oil prices and exchange rate portfolios: A wavelet based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we propose a wavelet-based approach to accommodate the stylized facts and complex structure of financial data, caused by frequent and abrupt changes of markets and noises. Specifically, we show how the combination of both continuous and discrete wavelet transforms with traditional financial models helps improve portfolio's market risk assessment. In the empirical stage, three wavelet-based models (wavelet-EGARCH with dynamic conditional correlations, wavelet-copula, and wavelet-extreme value) are considered and applied to crude oil price and US dollar exchange rate data. Our findings show that the wavelet-based approach provides an effective and powerful tool for detecting extreme moments and improving the accuracy of VaR and Expected Shortfall estimates of oil-exchange rate portfolios after noise is removed from the original data.

  20. On the structure, stabilization, and dual response of flat-burner flames

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.A.; Zhu, D.L.; Law, C.K.

    1995-03-01

    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been conducted on the structure and stabilization dynamics of the classical planar flame over a flat, porous burner. The specific issue addressed is the apparent dual response nature of the flat-burner flames in that previous studies have shown the existence of two flame speeds for either a given heat loss rate or a given flame standoff distance. The present study demonstrates that the flame response is actually unique when the flame burning rate is considered to be the independent variable, that the turning point behavior of the flame response is a manifestation of system nonmonotonicity rather than extinction, and that the flat-burner flame does not appear to possess distinct extinction states. Results obtained from computation simulation of the flame structure with detailed transport and chemistry agree well with the experimental temperature and major species profiles determined through laser Raman spectroscopy.

  1. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  2. Scaling the weak-swirl burner from 15 kW to 1 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.; Hack, R.L.; Miyasato, M.M.; Chang, A.; Samuelsen, G.S.

    1998-03-01

    With the passage of SCAQMD 1146.2, low NO{sub x} regulations will be enforced for new water heaters and boilers from 22 to 585 kW starting January 1, 2000; less than two years away. This has given an added impetus to develop a burner capable of producing NO{sub x} < 30 ppm and CO < 400 ppm without substantial manufacturing costs or complexity. Developed at the Berkeley Lab, the Weak-Swirl Burner (WSB) operates in the lean premixed combustion mode over a wide firing and equivalence ratio range. This work investigated scaling issues (e.g. swirl rates and stability limits) of the WSB when fired at higher rates useful to industry. Three test configurations which varied the ratio of furnace area to burner area were utilized to understand the effects of burner chamber coupling on emissions and stability. Preliminary tests from 12 to 18 kW of a WSB in a commercial heat exchanger were undertaken at LBNL, with further testing from 18 to 105 kW completed at UCI Combustion Laboratory in an octagonal enclosure. After scaling the small (5 cm diameter) to a 10 cm WSB, the larger burner was fired from 150 to 600 kW within a 1.2 MW furnace simulator at UCICL. Test results demonstrate that NO{sub x} emissions (15 ppm at 3% O{sub 2} at equivalence ratio {phi} = 0.80) were invariant with firing rate and chamber/burner ratio. However, the data indicates that CO and UHC are dependent on system parameters, such that a minimum firing rate exists below which CO and UHC rise from lower limits of 25 ppm and 0 ppm respectively.

  3. Long-term evolution of biodegradation and volatilization rates in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, B.P.; Delin, G.N.; Baker, R.J.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Volatilization and subsequent biodegradation near the water Table make up a coupled natural attenuation pathway that results in significant mass loss of hydrocarbons. Rates of biodegradation and volatilization were documented twice 12 years apart at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation rates were determined by calibrating a gas transport model to O2, CO2, and CH4 gas-concentration data in the unsaturated zone. Reaction stoichiometry was assumed in converting O2 and CO2 gas-flux estimates to rates of aerobic biodegradation and CH4 gas-flux estimates to rates of methanogenesis. Model results indicate that the coupled pathway has resulted in significant hydrocarbon mass loss at the site, and it was estimated that approximately 10.52 kg/day were lost in 1985 and 1.99 kg/day in 1997. In 1985 3% of total volatile hydrocarbons diffusing from the floating oil were biodegraded in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone and increased to 52% by 1997. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation above the center of the floating oil were relatively stable from 1985 to 1997, as the primary metabolic pathway shifted from aerobic to methanogenic biodegradation. Model results indicate that in 1997 biodegradation under methanogenenic conditions represented approximately one-half of total hydrocarbon biodegradation in the lower 1 m of the unsaturated zone. Further downgradient, where substrate concentrations have greatly increased, total biodegradation rates increased by greater than an order of magnitude from 0.04 to 0.43 g/m2-day. It appears that volatilization is the primary mechanism for attenuation in early stages of plume evolution, while biodegradation dominates in later stages.

  4. Sealed, nozzle-mix burners for silica deposition

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Meryle D. M.; Brown, John T.; Misra, Mahendra K.

    2003-07-08

    Burners (40) for producing fused silica boules are provided. The burners employ a tube-in-tube (301-306) design with flats (56, 50) on some of the tubes (305, 301) being used to limit the cross-sectional area of certain passages (206, 202) within the burner and/or to atomize a silicon-containing, liquid source material, such as OMCTS. To avoid the possibility of flashback, the burner has separate passages for fuel (205) and oxygen (204, 206), i.e., the burner employs nozzle mixing, rather than premixing, of the fuel and oxygen. The burners are installed in burner holes (26) formed in the crown (20) of a furnace and form a seal with those holes so that ambient air cannot be entrained into the furnace through the holes. An external air cooled jacket (60) can be used to hold the temperature of the burner below a prescribed upper limit, e.g., 400.degree. C.

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY SCALE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 2. PILOT SCALE TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

  7. Radiant-burner technology base - burner research and development. Final report, February 1986-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.K.; Donaldson, R.J.; Gorrerba, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of the three-year project was to improve the technology of direct, gas-fired, surface-combustion radiant burners to promote their wider application in industrial process-heating applications. Four types of burners were considered, including Ceramic Fiber, Ported Ceramic Tile, Porous Ceramic Foam, and Sintered Metal Fiber constructions. For each of these, specific goals included increasing surface firing capacities, reducing materials degradation, and determining radiant output over the useful operating range of each burner. This was achieved by characterizing thermal and combustion performance and degradation mechanisms, and developing design materials, and fabrications improvements to achieve acceptable durability in industrial process heating environments. All literature collected during the project was compiled into a data base for access through GRI's Library Services DIALOG information service. The project had several significant results. First, a large body of applications data was generated which can be used to properly match advanced burners to specific industrial processes. A ceramic fiber burner formulation was developed that increases life in severe industrial environments by over a factor of two. The sintered metal fiber burner demonstrated even longer lifetime in these environments. Improvements were identified for porous ceramic foam burners.

  8. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  9. Monitoring near burner slag deposition with a hybrid neural network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. K.; Wilcox, S. J.; Ward, J.; Lewitt, M.

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a system to detect and monitor slag growth in the near burner region in a pulverized-fuel (pf) fired combustion rig. These slag deposits are commonly known as 'eyebrows' and can markedly affect the stability of the burner. The study thus involved a series of experiments with two different coals over a range of burner conditions using a 150 kW pf burner fitted with simulated eyebrows. These simulated eyebrows consisted of annular refractory inserts mounted immediately in front of the original burner quarl. Data obtained by monitoring the infra-red radiation and sound emitted by the flame were processed to yield time and frequency-domain features, which were then used to train and test a hybrid neural network. This hybrid 'intelligent' system was based on self organizing map and radial-basis-function neural networks. This system was able to classify different sized eyebrows with a success rate of at least 99.5%. Consequently, it is possible not only to detect the presence of an eyebrow by monitoring the flame, but also the network can provide an estimate of the size of the deposit, over a reasonably large range of conditions.

  10. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  11. Stability of the porous plug burner flame

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, J.

    1983-12-01

    The linear stability of a premixed flame attached to a porous plug burner, using activaton energy asymptotics, is examined. Limit function-expansions are not an appropriate mathematical framework for this problem, and are avoided. A dispersion relation is obtained which defines the stability boundaries in the wave-, Lewis-number plane, and the movement of these boundaries is followed as the mass flux is reduced below the adiabatic value and the flame moves towards the burner from infinity. Cellular instability is suppressed by the burner, but the pulsating instability usually associated with Lewis numbers greater than 1 is, at first, enhanced. For some parameter values the flame is never stable for all wavenumbers the Lewis number stability band that exists for the unbounded flame disappears. For sufficiently small values of the stand-off distance the pulsating instability is suppressed. 9 references.

  12. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  13. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  14. Low NO.sub.x burner system

    DOEpatents

    Kitto, Jr., John B.; Kleisley, Roger J.; LaRue, Albert D.; Latham, Chris E.; Laursen, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

  15. Development of a mechanistic model for predicting corrosion rate in multiphase oil/water/gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Gopal, M.; Jepson, W.P.

    1997-09-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to predict corrosion rates in multiphase (water/oil/CO{sub 2}) flow conditions. The model takes into account electrochemistry, reaction kinetics, and, mass transport effects. This paper describes the equations used to determine pH and bulk concentrations of various ions, which are then used to calculate the mass transfer rates to the corrosion surface. The result includes the determination of the mass transfer coefficients of various ionic species and corrosion rates. Details of relations used for determination of mass transfer coefficients for multiphase flows, and rates of electrochemical reaction kinetics are discussed and predicted results are compared with experimental observations. Agreement between model results and experimental data is good.

  16. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  17. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  18. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  19. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  20. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  1. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  2. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  3. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  4. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  5. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  6. Low emission characteristics of radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Nie, J.X.; Wang, Z.; Shang, J.

    1998-12-31

    A commercial infrared burner is characterized in terms of its radiant efficiency and its emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, unburned hydrocarbon, and NOx in the exhaust gases. It has been found that when methane is used as the fuel the burner reached its maximum radiation efficiency of 31.4% at the equivalence ratio {Phi} = 1. CO{sub 2} also reached its maximum value of 10.7% at {Phi} = 1. In the fuel-lean region, the concentrations of CO and unburned total hydrocarbon (UHC) were kept in a couple of hundred ppm ranges. In fuel-rich region, the CO and UHC concentrations quickly jumped to thousands of ppm or more as {Phi} increased. The NOx formation was strongly dependent on the equivalence ratio at which the burner was operated. The NOx reached its maximum of 8 ppm at {Phi} = 1, which was significantly lower than those from traditional gas burners. The NOx decreased significantly as the burner was operated at conditions away from stoichiometric. Tests were also conducted with fuel mixtures of methane and propane, which represented peak-saving gas in the industry. To simulate possible flash back, fuel mixture of methane and hydrogen was tested. Results from these tests provided insight into the effects of gas composition variations upon the IR burner performance characteristics. It has been found that the addition of propane in the fuel produced a higher combustion temperature and higher levels of NOx emission. It was also revealed by the test results that the addition of hydrogen to the methane fuel did not significantly affect the production of NOx, CO{sub 2} and CO.

  7. Effects of beach sand properties, temperature and rainfall on the degradation rates of oil in buried oil/beach sand mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rowland, A P; Lindley, D K; Hall, G H; Rossall, M J; Wilson, D R; Benham, D G; Harrison, A F; Daniels, R E

    2000-07-01

    Lysimeters located outdoors have been used to evaluate the decomposition of buried oily beach sand waste (OBS) prepared using Forties light crude oil and sand from different locations around the British coast. The OBS (5% oil by weight) was buried as a 12-cm layer over dune pasture sub-sand and overlain by 20 cm of dune pasture topsoil. Decomposition rates of oil residues averaged 2300 kg ha(-1) in the first year and the pattern of oil decomposition may be represented by a power curve. Oil decomposition was strongly related to the temperature in the OBS layer, but was also significantly affected by rainfall in the previous 12 h. The CO(2) flux at the surface of the treatment lysimeters followed the relationship [log(10) CO(2) (mg C m(-2) h(-1))=0.93+0.058x OBS temp. (degrees C)-0.042x12 h rain (mm)]. There was considerable variation in the rate of oil decomposition in sands collected from different sites. Sand from Askernish supported most microbial activity whilst sand from Tain was relatively inactive. The decomposition process appeared to cease when the sand became saturated with water, i.e. temporarily anaerobic. However, decomposition recommenced when the soil dried out. The fastest rate of decomposition occurred in sand from one of the two sites predicted to have high populations of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Larger particle size and higher Ca content may also be significant factors governing the rate of decomposition. PMID:15092918

  8. Automatic gas burner block for thermal units

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Senatov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a new computerized control system and gas burner configuration for natural gas furnaces used for the heat treatment of ceramics and porcelain which is designed to control and monitor combustion and temperature regimes in the furnace and optimize fuel efficiency. The system permits simultaneous operation and thermal load control of up to 12 burners, automatic maintenance of the desired fuel-air ratio over the entire temperature range, and protection of the furnace against overload by the use of a fuel cutoff switch. Specifications on productivity and efficiency and results of performance evaluations are listed.

  9. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis on gold, crude oil and foreign exchange rate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mayukha; Madhusudana Rao, P.; Manimaran, P.

    2014-12-01

    We apply the recently developed multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to investigate the cross-correlation behavior and fractal nature between two non-stationary time series. We analyze the daily return price of gold, West Texas Intermediate and Brent crude oil, foreign exchange rate data, over a period of 18 years. The cross correlation has been measured from the Hurst scaling exponents and the singularity spectrum quantitatively. From the results, the existence of multifractal cross-correlation between all of these time series is found. We also found that the cross correlation between gold and oil prices possess uncorrelated behavior and the remaining bivariate time series possess persistent behavior. It was observed for five bivariate series that the cross-correlation exponents are less than the calculated average generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) for q<0 and greater than GHE when q>0 and for one bivariate series the cross-correlation exponent is greater than GHE for all q values.

  10. Design report: Low NOx burners for package boilers. Final report, May 1985-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Dehne, H.; Eaton, S.; Mason, H.B.; Torbov, S.

    1990-01-01

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The burner utilizes two-stage combustion in a deep staging mode in which a precombustor firing substoichiometrically is retrofitted to the front of the boiler. The completion of the combustion in the second stage is achieved through sidefire air ports to be retrofitted to the boiler. The precombustor is a cylindrical shell of 2.1 m internal diameter fabricated of lightweight refractory blocks with a Saffil based coating. This material gives a lightweight, non-regenerative precombustor which can adapt to the start-up, shutdown, and load following transients typical of industrial boilers. The precombustor is designed for the capacity range of 15-29 MW heat input. A modular design using annular spool sections adapts to different design loads within this range. For larger loads, a geometric scale-up is required. Design data are also given for 59 MW capacity.

  11. 40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 279.10(b)(1)(ii), a used oil burner must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil... oil contains above or below 1,000 ppm total halogens by: (1) Testing the used oil; (2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used; or (3) If...

  12. 40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 279.10(b)(1)(ii), a used oil burner must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil... oil contains above or below 1,000 ppm total halogens by: (1) Testing the used oil; (2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used; or (3) If...

  13. 40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 279.10(b)(1)(ii), a used oil burner must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil... oil contains above or below 1,000 ppm total halogens by: (1) Testing the used oil; (2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used; or (3) If...

  14. 40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 279.10(b)(1)(ii), a used oil burner must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil... oil contains above or below 1,000 ppm total halogens by: (1) Testing the used oil; (2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used; or (3) If...

  15. 40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 279.10(b)(1)(ii), a used oil burner must determine whether the total halogen content of used oil... oil contains above or below 1,000 ppm total halogens by: (1) Testing the used oil; (2) Applying knowledge of the halogen content of the used oil in light of the materials or processes used; or (3) If...

  16. Refining Field Measurements of Methane Flux Rates from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagron, C. S.; Kang, M.; Riqueros, N. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in Pennsylvania demonstrate the potential for significant methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. A subset of tested wells was high emitting, with methane flux rates up to seven orders of magnitude greater than natural fluxes (up to 105 mg CH4/hour, or about 2.5LPM). These wells contribute disproportionately to the total methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. The principles guiding the chamber design have been developed for lower flux rates, typically found in natural environments, and chamber design modifications may reduce uncertainty in flux rates associated with high-emitting wells. Kang et al. estimate errors of a factor of two in measured values based on previous studies. We conduct controlled releases of methane to refine error estimates and improve chamber design with a focus on high-emitters. Controlled releases of methane are conducted at 0.05 LPM, 0.50 LPM, 1.0 LPM, 2.0 LPM, 3.0 LPM, and 5.0 LPM, and at two chamber dimensions typically used in field measurements studies of abandoned wells. As most sources of error tabulated by Kang et al. tend to bias the results toward underreporting of methane emissions, a flux-targeted chamber design modification can reduce error margins and/or provide grounds for a potential upward revision of emission estimates.

  17. Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

  18. Dual structure infrared surface combustion burner

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.R.; Burlingame, N.H.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a surface combustion radiant heat burner comprising an inlet plenum for receiving fuel and oxidant gas mixtures from at least one supply inlet and a burner body secured in communication with the inlet plenum. The burner body having an inlet side facing the plenum and an outlet side defining a radiating surface. It comprises: the burner body comprising a first layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the inlet side and a second layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the outlet side defining the radiating surface, the first layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.90:01 inch and a fine interconnected porous structure with a mean pore diameter ranging from 0.00004 inch to 0.10 inch, the second layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.05 inch and a coarse interconnected porous structure with a mean diameter ranging from 0.05 to 0.40 inch, and at least the outer surfaces of the first porous layer and substantially all surfaces of the second porous layer being provided with a fully dense ceramic coating.

  19. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  20. Multifractal analysis of spot rates in tanker markets and their comparisons with crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiyuan; Lan, Xiangang

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic features of the spot rates for VLCC/ULCC, Suezmax, Aframax, Panamax and Handysize tanker markets by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The Hurst exponents, especially the time-dependent Hurst exponents, of the daily rate returns are calculated to capture the fractal properties of these different tanker markets. The origins of multifractility in these markets are identified by comparing their multifractal scaling exponents based on the original data, the shuffled data and the surrogate data. Furthermore, the non-periodic cycles for these markets are detected by the V-statistic. Finally, the comparisons of the fractal properties between the tanker markets and the crude oil commodity markets suggest that the tanker markets are more fractal than their upstream counterparts.

  1. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  2. A Method to Simultaneously Improve PCB Radiolysis Rates in Oil and to Close the Chlorine Mass Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Curry, R. C.; Brey, R.

    2000-06-01

    The addition of alkaline 2-propanol to isooctane and transformer oil solutions of PCBs was found to increase the rate of PCB dechlorination by -radiolysis. Simultaneously, it facilitates the closure of the chlorine mass balance. The chlorine liberated from PCBs irradiated in alkaline 2-propanol-spiked solutions precipitated as an inorganic salt in a stoichiometric amount. This was demonstrated for an individual PCB congener (PCB 155) in isooctane and for Aroclor 1260 in transformer oil. Radiolysis rates are reported in terms of dose constants, d (kGy-1), the exponential rate constant for PCB decomposition with respect to absorbed dose. These are the highest decomposition rates yet reported for the radiolytic treatment of PCB-contaminated transformer oil.

  3. Rates of photocatalytic oxidation of crude oil on salt water on buoyant, cenosphere-attached titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.; Luo, Zhenghao; Heller, A. )

    1993-10-01

    The rate of TiO[sub 2]-photocatalyzed oxidation of crude oils spilled on aqueous 0.5 M NaCA was determined by measuring the rate of O[sub 2] uptake. The photocatalyst was attached to 100-[mu]m-diameter fly-ash-derived buoyant cenospheres. Partial hydrophobic coating of the cenospheres assured their retention at the air-oil interface. The rate depended on the near-UV (broad band, 365-nm peak) irradiance below 25W m[sup [minus]2], but varied only mildly with irradiance in the 25-45 W m[sup [minus]2] range. It increased upon wave motion imitating agitation of the liquid, and upon increase of the cenosphere:oil mass ratio. It varied only mildly for different crudes. From the measured rates, cleanup times as short as 5-10 days were estimated.

  4. Diesel exhaust cleaner with burner vortex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Riddel, J.W.

    1983-05-17

    A diesel engine exhaust cleaner and burner system includes at least one exhaust cleaner member with a filter positioned therein to effect removal of particulates from a stream of exhaust gas delivered thereto via an inlet manifold. A fuel burner supplied with fuel by a fuel nozzle is operatively associated with the inlet manifold to supply the necessary heat to effect incineration of particulates collected on the filter. A cyclone duct providing a vortex chamber therein is operatively positioned downstream of the fuel nozzle and is supplied with sufficient air so as to effect both the complete combustion of the fuel and the controlled incineration of the particulates by increasing the residence time of the fuel in the reaction region within the vortex chamber and also effecting a more uniform distribution of the heat of combustion across the inlet face of the filter for the uniform heating of the particulates thereon to their combustion temperature.

  5. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  6. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  7. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates.

    PubMed

    Jemielita, Thomas; Gerton, George L; Neidell, Matthew; Chillrud, Steven; Yan, Beizhan; Stute, Martin; Howarth, Marilyn; Saberi, Pouné; Fausti, Nicholas; Penning, Trevor M; Roy, Jason; Propert, Kathleen J; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD) has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density) were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096) and wells per km2 (p<0.00096) while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096). Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses. PMID:26176544

  8. Unconventional Gas and Oil Drilling Is Associated with Increased Hospital Utilization Rates

    PubMed Central

    Neidell, Matthew; Chillrud, Steven; Yan, Beizhan; Stute, Martin; Howarth, Marilyn; Saberi, Pouné; Fausti, Nicholas; Penning, Trevor M.; Roy, Jason; Propert, Kathleen J.; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past ten years, unconventional gas and oil drilling (UGOD) has markedly expanded in the United States. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 to 2011 in Pennsylvania. Inpatient discharge databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density) were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models. To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p<0.00096 was considered statistically significant. Cardiology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with number of wells per zip code (p<0.00096) and wells per km2 (p<0.00096) while neurology inpatient prevalence rates were significantly associated with wells per km2 (p<0.00096). Furthermore, evidence also supported an association between well density and inpatient prevalence rates for the medical categories of dermatology, neurology, oncology, and urology. These data suggest that UGOD wells, which dramatically increased in the past decade, were associated with increased inpatient prevalence rates within specific medical categories in Pennsylvania. Further studies are necessary to address healthcare costs of UGOD and determine whether specific toxicants or combinations are associated with organ-specific responses. PMID:26176544

  9. Analysis of a bilayered porous radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.R.; Peck, R.E.

    1996-08-23

    A theoretical study of the heating effectiveness of a composite porous radiant burner (PRB) is conducted. A one-dimensional laminar premixed flame model incorporating a radiatively participating inert porous medium consisting of two layers of different properties is used to describe the heat release/transfer processes. Combined conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer is considered. The spherical harmonics method with the P-3 approximation is used to model the radiation part. A multistep reaction mechanism for premixed methane-air combustion is employed. A parametric study is carried out to determine the effect of the radiative properties of the two porous layers on burner performance. Calculations indicate that a significant improvement in the radiative output of a PRB can be attained by optimizing the burner properties upstream and downstream of the flame. Generally, the upstream layer should be of lower porosity, shorter length, and higher optical thickness than the downstream layer. Also, the upstream layer should be highly scattering, while the downstream layer should be nonscattering.

  10. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  11. Assessment of combustion of oil shale refinery by-products in a TP-101 boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, V. T.; Tugov, A. N.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The most cost-efficient method for utilization of the oil shale refinery by-products, viz., the retort gas and the shale gasoline, for power generation is combustion of these products in power-generating oil shale-fired boilers. Calculation studies carried out at the Estonian electric power plant in Narva, an enterprise of EESTI ENERGIA, have shown that recycling of the flue gases in the furnace of a TP-101 boiler enables an increase in the portion of the oil shale refinery by-products burned in the boiler from the current 7% to 40%. Recycling of the flue gases is aimed at maintaining the temperatures in the furnace at a level characteristic of combustion of oil shale and reducing the nitric oxide concentration in the retort gas burners' flame. The degree of the flue gas recycling depends on the percentage of the burnt oil shale refinery by-products in the total heat generation and increases with the increasing percentage. For the threshold value of 40% under the rated conditions, the flue gas recycling accounts for 10%. A complete changeover of the boiler to combustion of only the retort gas in place of the oil shale does not seem to be possible, since this will necessitate major modification to the TP-101 boiler heating surfaces. Considering the obtained results, as a pilot project, one boiler furnace was modified by installing six retort gas burners and a flue gas recycling system.

  12. Oil and drug control the release rate from lyotropic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Martiel, Isabelle; Baumann, Nicole; Vallooran, Jijo J; Bergfreund, Jotam; Sagalowicz, Laurent; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-04-28

    The control of the diffusion coefficient by the dimensionality d of the structure appears as a most promising lever to efficiently tune the release rate from lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) phases and dispersed particles towards sustained, controlled and targeted release. By using phosphatidylcholine (PC)- and monolinoleine (MLO)-based mesophases with various apolar structural modifiers and water-soluble drugs, we present a comprehensive study of the dimensional structural control of hydrophilic drug release, including 3-d bicontinuous cubic, 2-d lamellar, 1-d hexagonal and 0-d micellar cubic phases in excess water. We investigate how the surfactant, the oil properties and the drug hydrophilicity mitigate or even cancel the effect of structure variation on the drug release rate. Unexpectedly, the observed behavior cannot be fully explained by the thermodynamic partition of the drug into the lipid matrix, which points out to previously overlooked kinetic effects. We therefore interpret our results by discussing the mechanism of structural control of the diffusion rate in terms of drug permeation through the lipid membrane, which includes exchange kinetics. A wide range of implications follow regarding formulation and future developments, both for dispersed LLC delivery systems and topical applications in bulk phase. PMID:25744826

  13. An experimental investigation of hybrid kerosene burner configurations for TPV applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, K.L.; Rose, M.F.; Burkhalter, J.E.

    1995-01-05

    A key element in thermophotovoltaic power generation is the development of a compact and efficient configuration for the thermal source and emitter. In the present work, a hybrid configuration was investigated which was composed of a liquid fueled diffusion type burner utilizing the emitting or mantle structure as the combustion chamber. The prototype burner operates on kerosene at fuel flow rates up to 1.0 kg/hr. Fuel is atomized using an 78 kHz ultrasonic nozzle with multifuel capabilities. Combustion is stabilized and heat transfer is enhanced via forced recirculation interior to the mantle structures. These structures range in size from 600 to 1200 cm{sup 3} and are porous in nature. This paper presents an introduction to issues specific to the use of small scale liquid fueled burners for TPV applications, and burner performance data for a series of configurations, in terms of combustor surface temperature distribution, maximum mass loading and efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. Industrial burner modeling: Final report for the CIEE

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used as basis for a comprehensive numerical model of industrial burners. This program is based on the full multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations and includes a subgrid-scale turbulence model. The model was used to simulate the flows in a laboratory-scale burner being studied experimentally at UC-Irvine. We summarize what has been learned in the last 3 years from simulations of this burner. This model provides detailed information about the flow field in the furnace, making it a useful tool for studying the physics of burners.

  15. A heated chamber burner for atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venghiattis, A A

    1968-07-01

    A new heated chamber burner is described. The burner is of the premixed type, and burner heads of the types conventionally used in atomic absorption may be readily adapted to it. This new sampling system has been tested for Ag, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, and Zn in aqueous solutions. An improvement of the order of ten times has been obtained in sensitivity, and in detection limits as well, for the elements determined. Interferences controllable are somewhat more severe than in conventional burners but are controllable. PMID:20068792

  16. Influence of the oil globule fraction on the release rate profiles from multiple W/O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie; Cansell, Maud; Placin, Frédéric; Monteil, Julien; Anton, Marc; Leal-Calderon, Fernando

    2010-06-15

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions were prepared and the kinetics of release of magnesium ions from the internal to the external water phase was investigated as a function of the formulation and the globule volume fraction. All the emulsions were formulated using the same surface-active species (polyglycerol polyricinoleate and sodium caseinate). Also, the internal droplet and oil globule diameters were almost identical for all the systems. Two types of W/O/W emulsions were prepared based either on a synthetic oil (miglyol) or on an edible oil (olive oil). The globule volume fraction varied from 11% to 72%. At constant temperature (T=25 degrees C) and irrespective of the oil type, the percentage of magnesium released was lowered by increasing the globule fraction. In all cases, magnesium leakage occurred without film rupturing (no coalescence). Thus, the experimental data were interpreted within the frame of a model based on diffusion. The rate of release was determined by the permeation coefficient of magnesium across the oil phase and by the binding (chelation) of magnesium by caseinate molecules. The data could be adequately fitted by considering a time-dependant permeation coefficient. The better retention of magnesium at high globule fractions could account for two distinct phenomena: (i) the reduction of the relative volume of the outer phase, and (ii) the attenuation of the permeation coefficient over time induced by interfacial magnesium binding, all the more important than the globule fraction increased. PMID:20207114

  17. Subsidence rate monitoring of Aghajari oil field based on Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, N. Fouladi; Sahebi, M. R.; Matkan, A. A.; Roostaei, M.

    2013-06-01

    Land subsidence, due to natural or anthropogenic processes, causes significant costs in both economic and structural aspects. That part of subsidence observed most is the result of human activities, which relates to underground exploitation. Since the gradual surface deformation is a consequence of hydrocarbon reservoirs extraction, the process of displacement monitoring is amongst the petroleum industry priorities. Nowadays, Differential SAR Interferometry, in which satellite images are utilized for elevation change detection and analysis - in a millimetre scale, has proved to be a more real-time and cost-effective technology in contrast to the traditional surveying method. In this study, surface displacements in Aghajari oil field, i.e. one of the most industrious Iranian hydrocarbon sites, are being examined using radar observations. As in a number of interferograms, the production wells inspection reveals that surface deformation signals develop likely due to extraction in a period of several months. In other words, different subsidence or uplift rates and deformation styles occur locally depending on the geological conditions and excavation rates in place.

  18. A method for estimating effective coalescence rates during emulsification from oil transfer experiments.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Andreas; Trägårdh, Christian; Bergenståhl, Björn

    2012-05-15

    The Oil Transfer Technique (OTT) was developed by Taisne et al. [1] to measure coalescence during emulsification and has been applied since in several studies. One of the main drawbacks of this technique is that it only gives a qualitative measure of coalescence. This paper proposes a new evaluation method of OTT experimental results for estimating qualitative coalescence rates, e.g. for investigating the scaling of coalescence with emulsification parameters (such as homogenizing pressure, and emulsifier concentration). The method is based on comparison with simulated OTT experiments using bivariate Population Balance Equation models. Simulations have been performed under a wide variety of conditions in order to investigate the influence of assumptions on coalescence and fragmentation kernels. These investigations show that the scaling of coalescence rates could be determined accurately when the scaling of efficient residence time of drops in the active region of homogenization is known. The proposed evaluation method is also exemplified by analyzing OTT data from two previously published studies. PMID:22369981

  19. Foreign capital and the impact of exchange rate adjustments in oil-exporting developing countries with an application to Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjuddin, A.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of exchange rate adjustments as an instrument of economic policy in developing countries has long been the subject of considerable controversy. Theoretical treatments of currency devaluation generally conclude that it improves the trade balance and stimulates economic activity. However, this traditional view has been challenged in recent years on the grounds that trade flows, including factor imports, are relatively insensitive to price and exchange rate changes, especially in developing countries. This study analyzes the effects of exchange rate changes in oil exporting developing countries which host foreign capital by using a modified model of the Krugman-Taylor (l978) and Barbone-Batiz (1987) types. It is shown that the impact of devaluation on GNP is influenced by (a) the initial state of the current account balance, (b) the elasticity of demand for non-oil exports, (c) the elasticity of demand for final good imports, (d) the foreign ownership effects, and (e) the impact of devaluation on the government revenues. Devaluation can lead to an increase in national output, but only if the elasticity effects in the non-oil export sector and in the final good imports are large enough to dominate the government revenue effect, the foreign-ownership effect in the oil sector and the impact of any initial current account deficit. The model was applied to the economy of Indonesia, an oil exporting developing country. The net effect of devaluation on national output is known to be contradictory following devaluation, thus supporting the structuralist view that devaluation has negative real effects in this country, at least in the short run. It was also found that the estimated price elasticities of non-oil imports and exports are low in the short-run. Devaluation would lead to improvement in the non-oil trade account in the long run after devaluation.

  20. Effect of high-intensity ultrasound and cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of beeswax in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sarbojeet; Martini, Silvana

    2014-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wax concentration (0.5 and 1%), cooling rate (0.1, 1, and 10 °C/min), and high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the crystallization behavior of beeswax (BW) in six different edible oils. Samples were crystallized at 25 °C with and without HIU. Crystal sizes and morphologies and melting profiles were measured by microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Higher wax concentrations resulted in faster crystallization and more turbidity. Phase separation was observed due to crystals' sedimentation when samples were crystallized at slow cooling rates. Results showed that HIU induced the crystallization of 0.5% BW samples and delayed phase separation in sunflower, olive, soybean, and corn oils. Similar effects were observed in 1% samples where HIU delayed phase separation in canola, soybean, olive, and safflower oils. PMID:25265535

  1. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-10-01

    Well blowouts are one type of event in hydrocarbon exploration and production that generates health, safety, environmental and financial risk. Well blowouts are variously defined as 'uncontrolled flow of well fluids and/or formation fluids from the wellbore' or 'uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore'. Theoretically this is irrespective of flux rate and so would include low fluxes, often termed 'leakage'. In practice, such low-flux events are not considered well blowouts. Rather, the term well blowout applies to higher fluxes that rise to attention more acutely, typically in the order of seconds to days after the event commences. It is not unusual for insurance claims for well blowouts to exceed US$10 million. This does not imply that all blowouts are this costly, as it is likely claims are filed only for the most catastrophic events. Still, insuring against the risk of loss of well control is the costliest in the industry. The risk of well blowouts was recently quantified from an assembled database of 102 events occurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the period 1991 to 2005, inclusive. This article reviews those findings, updates them to a certain extent and compares them with other well blowout risk study results. It also provides an improved perspective on some of the findings. In short, this update finds that blowout rates have remained constant from 2005 to 2008 within the limits of resolution and that the decline in blowout rates from 1991 to 2005 was likely due to improved industry practice.

  2. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  3. Burning anthracite at B and W downshot unit and burner upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.

    1998-12-31

    Low volatile matter (VM) coals have difficulty on ignition, flame stability and burnout. A conventional utility boiler can`t successfully utilize such coals. The applications of enhancing ignition steps, proper burner type and its arrangement plus staging combustion as well as a suitable furnace configuration, along or in combination, may burn such low VM coals with high efficiency. B&W downshot units in Shang An Power Plant (S-Plant) in China applies a downshot firing with a W-shape flame plus primary air exchange burner (PAX) and staging combustion in a combination which achieved a great success in burning the design coal. The design coal is a blended coal (25% Yangquan (YQ) anthracite and 75% Shuyang lean) resulting a 13.95% VMdmf ranking as a semi-anthracite per ASTM-D338. In 1995, all 20 burner registers of Unit 1 had been upgraded. S-Plant and B and W decided to conduct a high anthracite blending coal (75% anthracite) combustion tests. The unit had demonstrated a great fuel flexibility. Based on the achievements, the all burner and staging ports of Unit 2 has been upgraded in 1997. In order to further demonstrate the great enhancing ignition feature, B and W had entrusted Chinese TPRI to conduct 100% YQ anthracite burn tests in May 1998. These tests reveal that with 100% anthracite firing, the ignition was fast and on time; the flame and combustion were very stable. Three days (58 continuous hours) 100% anthracite firing was carried out with the load range from the full (350 MW) to half (170--175 MW). The minimum load of 170--175 MW (48--50% MCR) without oil support was easy to maintain. Due to the plant policy, they don`t allow further reduction of the minimum load lower than 50% MCR. These tests have greatly demonstrated the capability of these units burning 100% anthracite.

  4. Abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4} using an enhanced kerosene microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dong Hun; Hong, Yong Cheol; Cho, Soon Cheon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-11-15

    A kerosene microwave plasma burner was presented as a tool for abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4} gases, which cause global warming. The plasma burner operates by injecting kerosene as a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into a microwave plasma torch and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen (O{sub 2}) gas. The abatement of SF{sub 6} and CF{sub 4}, by making use of the kerosene plasma burner, was conducted in terms of nitrogen (N{sub 2}) flow rates. The destruction and removal efficiency of the burner were achieved up to 99.9999% for 0.1 liters per minute (lpm) SF{sub 6} in 120 lpm N{sub 2} and 99.3% for 0.05 lpm CF{sub 4} in 60 lpm N{sub 2}, revealing that the microwave plasma burner can effectively eliminate perfluorocompounds emitted from the semiconductor industries.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  6. The role of a burner head choke in NOx reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.; Christenson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The emission of NOx and CO from flames of burners are a major nuisance for the boiler and burner industry. The current EPA legislation have restricted the emissions of NOx and CO from natural gas commercial burners to 30 ppm (25 ppm in Southern California) and 200 ppm, corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, respectively. The recent experiments performed at the authors` laboratory on low NOx gas burners in a 1 MW refractory steam generator have shown that significant improvement in NOx emissions, without increasing CO, is possible by mounting a converging cone (choke) on the head of a conventional gas burner. A burner mounted with a choke produces up to 405 less NOx than a burner without a choke. The oxides of nitrogen could be further reduced to meet the EPA requirements by using Steam Injection (SI) or external Flue Gas Recirculation(FGR). Due to the already low levels of NOx emission with a choked burner, very little amount of SI or FGR is needed. The flue gas composition at different excess air levels and varying equivalence ratios are plotted. The effect of NOx emission on the amount of FGR and SI is also shown.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  8. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... a moisturizer, for neonatal health, and to treat eczema and a skin condition called psoriasis. Coconut oil ... effectiveness ratings for COCONUT OIL are as follows: Eczema. Research suggests that applying virgin coconut oil to ...

  9. Estimation of Soil Erosion Rates in Oil Palm Plantation with Different Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahat, S.; Yusop, Z.; Askari, M.; Ziegler, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Soil losses from hill slopes in oil palm plantation in Sedenak Estate, Johor were measured using runoff plot and rainfall simulator. The plot was designed to be removable but the size was fixed at 8 x 3.75m. Four types of surface covers were investigated for the plots, i.e. half bare soil and half grass cover (HGC), half bare soil and half dry frond (HDF), fully grass cover (FG), and fully bare soil (BS). The influence of initial soil moisture, saturated hydraulics conductivity, Ks, bulk density and slope on rates of soil loss were also evaluated. The rainfall simulator produced rainfall intensities between 90 and 160 mm/hr with durations from 45 to 60 min per run. BS plot exhibited the highest Ks value among all plots but the percentage of initial soil moisture on this surface was low. BS plot recorded the highest runoff coefficient (C) and soil loss values of 73.6 ± 4 percent and 5.26 ± 3.2 t/ha respectively, while the lowest was from plot FG with 41.7 ± 5.7 percent and soil loss of 2.85 ± 2.1 t/ha. Meanwhile, the results suggested that the ground cover had the ability to reduce soil loss by 67% and 17%, respectively for plots BS-HGC and BS-HDF. Overall, soil erosion control such as surface is effective measures in reducing level of runoff and soil erosion.

  10. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  11. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study in which NOx emissions and general combustion performance characteristics of four burners were evaluated under experimental furnace conditions. Of primary interest was the performance of a low NOx Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB), which was test...

  12. Growth rates and ages of deep-sea corals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on deep-sea coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is still under investigation, as is the potential for these communities to recover. Impacts from the spill include observation of corals covered with flocculent material, with bare skeleton, excessive mucous production, sloughing tissue, and subsequent colonization of damaged areas by hydrozoans. Information on growth rates and life spans of deep-sea corals is important for understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, as well as the likely duration of any observed adverse impacts. We report radiocarbon ages and radial and linear growth rates based on octocorals (Paramuricea spp. and Chrysogorgia sp.) collected in 2010 and 2011 from areas of the DWH impact. The oldest coral radiocarbon ages were measured on specimens collected 11 km to the SW of the oil spill from the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 344 site: 599 and 55 cal yr BP, suggesting continuous life spans of over 600 years for Paramuricea biscaya, the dominant coral species in the region. Calculated radial growth rates, between 0.34 μm yr−1 and 14.20 μm yr−1, are consistent with previously reported proteinaceous corals from the GoM. Anomalously low radiocarbon (Δ14C) values for soft tissue from some corals indicate that these corals were feeding on particulate organic carbon derived from an admixture of modern surface carbon and a low 14C carbon source. Results from this work indicate fossil carbon could contribute 5–10% to the coral soft tissue Δ14C signal within the area of the spill impact. The influence of a low 14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) on the particulate organic carbon pool was observed at all sites within 30 km of the spill site, with the exception of MC118, which may have been outside of the dominant northeast-southwest zone of impact. The quantitatively assessed extreme longevity and slow growth rates documented

  13. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... all oil, gas and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other hydrocarbon substances produced and saved from... discretion of the Secretary of the Interior be calculated on the basis of the highest price paid or offered... of the oil of the same gravity, and gas, and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other...

  14. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  15. Hydroxyl radical concentrations and Kuwait oil fire emission rates for March 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, D. S.; Hord, C. J.; Kent, J. M.

    1995-12-01

    Toward the end of the Gulf War, Iraqi troops damaged several hundred oil wells in Kuwait setting many of them on fire. Measurements made in March 1991, a few weeks after most of the fires had started (Johnson et al., 1991), were used to estimated the total burn rate and the emission rates of individual pollutants. Measurements of the principal carbon species in the plume, obtained from flask samples collected at the same time as continuous measurements of SO2 have been used to derive an "effective" sulphur content of the smoke of 2.4%, almost a third lower than the previous estimate. This sulphur content of 2.4% combined with the capping history of the fires has been used to revise the earlier estimates and provide more detailed information on the speciation of the emissions. It is now estimated that 139×106 t of crude oil were burnt during an 8-month period, resulting in the release of 112×106 t of carbon in carbon dioxide, 3×106 t of carbon in soot, 1.6×106 t of carbon in carbon monoxide, 1.3×106 t of carbon in nonmethane hydrocarbons, 0.11×106 t of nitrogen in nitrogen oxides, and 3.11×106 t of sulphur in sulphur dioxide. In addition to measurements made close to the source of the plume, one flight successfully sampled a plume some 600 km from the fires which had experienced significant photochemical aging. These observations provided a unique data set with which to estimate the rate at which hydrocarbon pollutants in the plume degrade and to infer the hydroxyl radical concentrations which cause that degradation. Most of the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations determined from flask samples collected at a range of distances from the Kuwait source conform to a simple loss process proportional to hydrocarbon hydroxyl reactivity and imply a diurnally averaged hydroxyl radical concentration within the plume of 1×106 molecules cm-3. Finally, it is shown that, although theoretically, hydrocarbon concentrations can be combined to predict the difference ratio of

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

    2005-07-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were

  17. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  18. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  19. 25 CFR 213.23 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substances other than gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, coal, asphaltum and allied substances, oil... deducting forwarding charges to the point of sale; and for copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, a royalty...

  20. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P&ID`s for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P&ED`s for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

  1. Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

    2010-05-01

    The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

  2. Intensification of heat transfer by changing the burner nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DzurÅák, Róbert; Kizek, Ján; Jablonský, Gustáv

    2016-06-01

    Thermal aggregates are using burner which burns combustible mixture with an oxidizing agent, by adjustment of the burner nozzle we can achieve better conditions of combustion to intensify heat transfer at furnace space. The aim of the present paper was using a computer program Ansys Workbench to create a computer simulation which analyzes the impact of the nozzle on the shape of a flame thereby intensifies heat transfer in rotary drum furnaces and radiation heat transfer from the flue gas into the furnace space. Article contains analysis of the geometry of the burner for achieving temperature field in a rotary drum furnace using oxy-combustion and the practical results of computer simulations

  3. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1997-06-01

    This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    -catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million

  5. Optimal rate of oil production and economic development: the case of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ebraheem, Y.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes the optimal control technique to establish a national economic planning model through which Kuwait's oil extraction policy is determined with relation to the structure of its economy as well as the welfare of the nation. This has been advanced through two steps: 1) by building a macroeconomic model, which is used as a constraint on the planning model, to describe the economic structure of Kuwaiti economy; and 2) by constructing a welfare objective function to measure the preference of the policy makers along the planning period. A dynamic programming method is applied to solve for the optimal levels of the target and policy variables. The optimal levels of oil production that would finance the optimal levels of the policy variables are determined, using a basic government expenditure-revenue inequality. To determine these levels of oil revenue and, hence, these levels of oil production, different oil price scenarios are applied. This study obtains a satisfactory result and concludes that the optimal control technique is a feasible tool to be used for economic planning for the Kuwaiti economy.

  6. Riparian reserves within oil palm plantations conserve logged forest leaf litter ant communities and maintain associated scavenging rates

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Claudia L; Lewis, Owen T; Chung, Arthur Y C; Fayle, Tom M

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests is causing declines in many species and altering ecosystem functions. Maintaining forest-dependent species and processes in these landscapes may therefore limit the negative impacts of this economically important industry. Protecting riparian vegetation may be one such opportunity; forest buffer strips are commonly protected for hydrological reasons, but can also conserve functionally important taxa and the processes they support. We surveyed leaf litter ant communities within oil palm-dominated landscapes in Sabah, Malaysia, using protein baits. As the scavenging activity of ants influences important ecological characteristics such as nutrient cycling and soil structure, we quantified species-specific rates of bait removal to examine how this process may change across land uses and establish which changes in community structure underlie observed shifts in activity. Riparian reserves had similar ant species richness, community composition and scavenging rates to nearby continuous logged forest. Reserve width and vegetation structure did not affect ant species richness significantly. However, the number of foraging individuals decreased with increasing reserve width, and scavenging rate increased with vegetation complexity. Oil palm ant communities were characterized by significantly lower species richness than logged forest and riparian reserves and also by altered community composition and reduced scavenging rates. Reduced scavenging activity in oil palm was not explained by a reduction in ant species richness, nor by replacement of forest ant species by those with lower per species scavenging rates. There was also no significant effect of land use on the scavenging activity of the forest species that persisted in oil palm. Rather, changes in scavenging activity were best explained by a reduction in the mean rate of bait removal per individual ant across all species in the community

  7. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-24

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  9. Microwave plasma burner and temperature measurements in its flames

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Cho, Soon Cheon; Bang, Chan Uk; Shin, Dong Hun; Kim, Jong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup; Yi, Won Ju

    2006-05-15

    An apparatus for generating flames and more particularly the microwave plasma burner for generating high-temperature large-volume plasma flame was presented. The plasma burner is operated by injecting liquid hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen gas. The microwave plasma torch can instantaneously vaporize and decompose the hydrogen and carbon containing fuels. It was observed that the flame volume of the burner was more than 50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 550 K at a measurement point, that of the plasma-burner flame with the addition of 0.025 lpm (liters per minute) kerosene and 20 lpm oxygen drastically increased to about 1850 K. A preliminary experiment was carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions.

  10. 24. ELEVATION OF BOILER. EIGHT INSPECTION DOORS, THREE BURNERS, HEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. ELEVATION OF BOILER. EIGHT INSPECTION DOORS, THREE BURNERS, HEAT SHIELD AT FLOOR, CENTER PRESSURE GAUGE - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. Low NO[sub x] gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1994-01-04

    Improved gas burner apparatus and methods of burning fuel gas-air mixtures are provided whereby flue gases having low NO[sub x] contents are formed. The burner apparatus includes a refractory burner tile having an air discharge opening therein and a wall surrounding the opening which extends into the furnace space and provides a mixing zone therein. At least one passage is formed in the burner tile which opens into the mixing zone and fuel gas is jetted through the passage whereby flue gases are drawn there through and a fuel gas-flue gases mixture is discharged into the mixing zone. The fuel gas-flue gases mixture is swirled in the mixing zone and mixes with air therein, and the resulting mixture is discharged and burned in a primary reaction zone in the furnace space. 11 figs.

  12. Development of a methane premixed catalytic burner for household applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerri, I.; Saracco, G.; Geobaldo, F.; Specchia, V.

    2000-01-01

    A catalytic premixed burner prototype for domestic-boiler applications was developed on the basis of a perovskite-type catalyst (LaMnO{sub 3}) deposited over a FeCrAlloy fiber panel. An economic and simple catalyst-deposition route, based on in situ pyrolysis of suitable precursors, was conceived and optimized on purpose. Finally, a catalytic burner and a reference noncatalytic one were comparatively tested in a pilot plant (maximum power, 30 kW, corresponding to about 2,000 kW/m{sup 2}). The catalytic burner allowed a strong reduction of CO and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to very low and acceptable levels (down to 3--5 times lower than those of the noncatalytic burner) when operated below 800 kW/m{sup 2}. In these conditions, the NO{sub x} emissions remained quite acceptable and practically unaffected by the presence of the catalyst.

  13. Development and analysis of a compact low-conversion ratio fast burner reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-05-12

    This report explores design options for compact fast burner reactors that can achieve low conversion ratios. Operational characteristics and whole-core reactivity coefficients are generated and contrasted with low conversion ratio designs of previous studies. A compact core point design is then selected and detailed reactivity coefficients are displayed and discussed. The effectiveness of fast spectrum systems for actinide transmutation has been well documented. The key advantage of the fast spectrum resides in the severely reduced capture/fission ratios. this inhibits the production of the higher actinides that dominate the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. In conventional fast burner studies, the transmutation rate was limited by constraints placed on the fuel composition. In an earlier phase of this study the entire range of fuel compositions (including non-uranium fuel) was explored to assess the performance and safety limits of fast burner reactor systems. In this report, similar fuel compositions are utilized for application in compact configurations to achieve conversion ratios below 0.5.

  14. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  15. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  16. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  17. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  18. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  19. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    PubMed

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp. PMID:25479389

  20. Microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionations at oil and gas seeps in deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Aharon, P.; Fu, B.

    2000-01-01

    sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation are the dominant microbial processes occurring in hydrate-bearing sediments at bathyal depths in the Gulf of Mexico where crude oil and methane are advecting through fault conduits to the seafloor. The oil and gas seeps are typically overlain by chemosynthetic communities consisting of thiotrophic bacterial mats (Beggiatoa spp.) and methanotrophic mussels (Bathymodiolus spp.), respectively. Cores were recovered with a manned submersible from fine-grained sediments containing dispersed gas hydrates at the threshold of stability. Estimated sulfate reduction rates are variable but generally are substantially higher in crude oil seeps (up to 50 times) and methane seeps (up to 600 times) relative to a non-seep reference sediment. Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation factors are highest in the reference sediment but substantially lower in the seep sediments and are controlled primarily by kinetic factors related to sulfate reduction rates. Kinetic effects also control the {delta}{sup 34}S/{delta}{sup 18}O ratios such that slow microbial rates yield low ratios whereas faster rates yield progressively higher ratios. The seep data contradict previous claims that {delta}{sup 34}S/{delta}{sup 18}O ratios are diagnostic of either microbial sulfate reduction at a fixed {delta}{sup 34}S/{delta}{sup 18}O ratio of 4/1 or lower ratios caused by SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O equilibration at ambient temperatures. The new results offer a better understanding of methane removal via anaerobic oxidation in the sulfate reduction zone of hydrate-bearing sediments and have significant implications regarding the origin and geochemical history of sedimentary sulfate reconstructed on the basis of {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O compositions.

  1. Rate-limiting step analysis of the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in a model oil system.

    PubMed

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Leung, James C; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I C; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-05-01

    A mechanistic analysis of the various mass transport and kinetic steps in the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 in a model biphasic (oil-water), small-scale system was performed. The biocatalyst was distributed into three populations, free cells in the aqueous phase, cell aggregates and oil-adhered cells, and the fraction of cells in each population was measured. The power input per volume (P/V) and the impeller tip speed (vtip ) were identified as key operating parameters in determining whether the system is mass transport controlled or kinetically controlled. Oil-water DBT mass transport was found to not be limiting under the conditions tested. Experimental results at both the 100 mL and 4 L (bioreactor) scales suggest that agitation leading to P/V greater than 10,000 W/ m(3) and/or vtip greater than 0.67 m/s is sufficient to overcome the major mass transport limitation in the system, which was the diffusion of DBT within the biocatalyst aggregates. PMID:24284557

  2. Rate-limiting step analysis of the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in a model oil system

    PubMed Central

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Leung, James C.; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel IC; Prather, Kristala LJ

    2014-01-01

    A mechanistic analysis of the various mass transport and kinetic steps in the microbial desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 in a model biphasic (oil-water), small-scale system was performed. The biocatalyst was distributed into three populations, free cells in the aqueous phase, cell aggregates and oil-adhered cells, and the fraction of cells in each population was measured. The power input per volume (P/V) and the impeller tip speed (vtip) were identified as key operating parameters in determining whether the system is mass transport controlled or kinetically controlled. Oil-water DBT mass transport was found to not be limiting under the conditions tested. Experimental results at both the 100 mL and 4L (bioreactor) scales suggest that agitation leading to P/V greater than 10,000 W/ m3 and/or vtip greater than 0.67 m/s is sufficient to overcome the major mass transport limitation in the system, which was the diffusion of DBT within the biocatalyst aggregates. PMID:24284557

  3. Dual-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Reehl, Douglas P.; Walbert, Gary F.

    1986-08-05

    A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

  4. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Fusion-Fission Burner for Transuranic Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chan

    2013-10-01

    The 14-MeV DT fusion neutron spectrum from mirror confinement fusion can provide a unique capability to transmute the transuranic isotopes from light water reactors (LWR). The transuranic (TRU) actinides, high-level radioactive wastes, from spent LWR fuel pose serious worldwide problem with long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity. However, ``transmuted'' TRU actinides can not only reduce the inventory of the TRU in the spent fuel repository but also generate additional energy. Typical commercial LWR fuel assemblies for BWR (boiling water reactor) and PWR (pressurized water reactor) measure its assembly lengths with 4.470 m and 4.059 m, respectively, while its corresponding fuel rod lengths are 4.064 m and 3.851 m. Mirror-based fusion reactor has inherently simple geometry for transmutation blanket with steady-state reactor operation. Recent development of gas-dynamic mirror configuration has additional attractive feature with reduced size in central plasma chamber, thus providing a unique capability for incorporating the spent fuel assemblies into transmutation blanket designs. The system parameters for the gas-dynamic mirror-based hybrid burner will be discussed.

  6. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 using sequencing batch reactors: effects of oil loading rate and cycle time.

    PubMed

    Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Maksung, Sasiwan; Huayyai, Onsiri; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2009-01-01

    In this present study, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used for biosurfactant production from Pseudomonasaeruginosa SP4, which was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Thailand. Two identical lab-scale aerobic SBR units were operated at a constant temperature of 37 degrees C, and a mineral medium (MM) with palm oil was used as the culture medium. The effects of oil loading rate (OLR) and cycle time on the biosurfactant production were studied. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for the biosurfactant production were at an OLR of 2 kg/m(3)days and a cycle time of 2 days/cycle, which provided a surface tension reduction of 59%, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 90%, and an oil removal of 97%. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the biosurfactant production was maximized at an aeration time of 40 h. These preliminary results suggest that the SBR can potentially be adapted for biosurfactant production, and perhaps further developed, potentially for large-scale biosurfactant production. PMID:18672362

  7. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme. PMID:25151124

  8. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed

  9. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. PMID:25028258

  10. Determining air pollutant emission rates based on mass balance using airborne measurement data over the Alberta oil sands operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M.; Li, S.-M.; Staebler, R.; Darlington, A.; Hayden, K.; O'Brien, J.; Wolde, M.

    2015-09-01

    Top-down approaches to measure total integrated emissions provide verification of bottom-up, temporally resolved, inventory-based estimations. Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring during a summer intensive field campaign between 13 August and 7 September 2013. The measurements contribute to knowledge needed in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples, based on the aircraft measurements. In this algorithm, the flight path around a facility at multiple heights is mapped to a two-dimensional vertical screen surrounding the facility. The total transport of SO2 and CH4 through this screen is calculated using aircraft wind measurements, and facility emissions are then calculated based on the divergence theorem with estimations of box-top losses, horizontal and vertical turbulent fluxes, surface deposition, and apparent losses due to air densification and chemical reaction. Example calculations for two separate flights are presented. During an upset condition of SO2 emissions on one day, these calculations are within 5 % of the industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. During a return to normal operating conditions, the SO2 emissions are within 11 % of industry-reported, bottom-up measurements. CH4 emissions calculated with the algorithm are relatively constant within the range of uncertainties. Uncertainty of the emission rates is estimated as less than 30 %, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.

  11. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  12. Estimates of future regional heavy oil production at three production rates--background information for assessing effects in the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications from a project considering the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degree} to 20{degree} API gravity inclusive) production being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The report includes projections of future heavy oil production at three production levels: 900,000; 500,000; and 300,000 BOPD above the current 1992 heavy oil production level of 750,000 BOPD. These free market scenario projections include time frames and locations. Production projections through a second scenario were developed to examine which heavy oil areas would be developed if significant changes in the US petroleum industry occurred. The production data helps to define the possible constraints (impact) of increased heavy oil production on the US refining industry (the subject of a future report). Constraints include a low oil price and low rate of return. Heavy oil has high production, transportation, and refining cost per barrel as compared to light oil. The resource is known, but the right mix of technology and investment is required to bring about significant expansion of heavy oil production in the US.

  13. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  14. Materials evaluations with the pulsed black liquor burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.

    1997-08-01

    A pulsed burner was designed to provide sufficient heat to convert a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor into combustible gas which would be used to produce process steam. The pulsed burner design provides a significant increase in the heat transfer capability and consequently significantly increases the efficiency of the conversion process. High temperature corrosion tests were performed in a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor using a pulsed burner process to determine the optimum materials for use in a commercial application. The materials tested included three different austenitic stainless steels, Type 446 martensitic stainless steel, a high temperature carbon steel, 153MA, and four nickel base alloys. All materials performed well with no corrosion attributed to the environment created by the decomposition of a black Kraft liquor. This behavior was contrary to what was expected due to the high concentration of H{sub 2}S present in the high temperature, 562 C, atmosphere.

  15. Deposition of Na2SO4 from salt-seeded combustion gases of a high velocity burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    With a view to developing simulation criteria for the laboratory testing of high-temperature materials for gas turbine engines, the deposition rates of sodium sulfate from sodium salt-seeded combustion gases were determined experimentally using a well instrumented high-velocity burner. In the experiments, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3, and simulated sea salt solutions were injected into the combustor of the Mach 0.3 burner rig operating at constant fuel/air ratios. The deposits formed on an inert rotating collector were then weighed and analyzed. The experimental results are compared to Rosner's vapor diffusion theory. Some additional test results, including droplet size distribution of an atomized salt spray, are used in interpreting the deposition rate data.

  16. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  17. Selective and enhanced radiation from porous matrix burners. Final report, October 1989-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of the contract is to enhance the thermal performance of porous surface radiant burners through the use of improved ceramic materials. Previously identified rare earth oxides that exhibit selective radiant emissions in the near infrared will be incorporated into fiber matrix burners. High temperature, high emissivity fibers will also be identified and used to improve radiant burner performance.

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  20. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  1. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 3. GUIDELINE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  2. Estimation of the Thickness and Emulsion Rate of Oil Spilled at Sea Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery in the SWIR Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, G.; Lennon, M.; Miegebielle, V.; Dubucq, D.

    2015-08-01

    The thickness and the emulsion rate of an oil spill are two key parameters allowing to design a tailored response to an oil discharge. If estimated on per pixel basis at a high spatial resolution, the estimation of the oil thickness allows the volume of pollutant to be estimated, and that volume is needed in order to evaluate the magnitude of the pollution, and to determine the most adapted recovering means to use. The estimation of the spatial distribution of the thicknesses also allows the guidance of the recovering means at sea. The emulsion rate can guide the strategy to adopt in order to deal with an offshore oil spill: efficiency of dispersants is for example not identical on a pure oil or on an emulsion. Moreover, the thickness and emulsion rate allow the amount of the oil that has been discharged to be estimated. It appears that the shape of the reflectance spectrum of oil in the SWIR range (1000-2500nm) varies according to the emulsion rate and to the layer thickness. That shape still varies when the oil layer reaches a few millimetres, which is not the case in the visible range (400-700nm), where the spectral variation saturates around 200 μm (the upper limit of the Bonn agreement oil appearance code). In that context, hyperspectral imagery in the SWIR range shows a high potential to describe and characterize oil spills. Previous methods which intend to estimate those two parameters are based on the use of a spectral library. In that paper, we will present a method based on the inversion of a simple radiative transfer model in the oil layer. We will show that the proposed method is robust against another parameter that affects the reflectance spectrum: the size of water droplets in the emulsion. The method shows relevant results using measurements made in laboratory, equivalent to the ones obtained using methods based on the use of a spectral library. The method has the advantage to release the need of a spectral library, and to provide maps of thickness

  3. Regenerator flow distribution by means of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.W.

    1983-03-01

    In a regenerative furnace of the type used for melting glass, employment of a gas stream (preferably from a high-velocity burner) in the plenum of the regenerator controls the gas flow distribution within the regenerator. The employment of this auxiliary burner makes the heating of the packing more uniform, minimizes localized overheating of the packing, and improves regenerator efficiency. This flow control device can be added readily to an existing operating furnace with no disruption of operation and at relatively low cost.

  4. Combustion of a Methane-Air Mixture in a Slot Burner with an Inert Insert in Mass Transfer to the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu.; Moiseeva, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    A problem on combustion of a methane-air mixture in a slot burner with an internal insert in mass transfer from the burner's exterior wall to the environment has been solved. A mathematical formulation of the problem takes account of the dependence of the diffusion, thermal-conductivity, and heat-transfer coefficients on temperature, and also of the heat removal from the gas to the environment by convective and radiant heat transfer. A numerical investigation has been carried out in a one-dimensional mathematical formulation of the problem in dimensional variables. The boundary of existence of a stable high-temperature regime of combustion of the methane-air mixture has been determined as a function of the rate of feed of the gas, the environmental temperature, and the width of the flow area of the burner.

  5. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

  6. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Efflux, Vadose Zone Gas Concentrations, and Natural Attenuation Rates at a Crude Oil Spill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trost, J.; Sihota, N.; Delin, G. N.; Warren, E.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimates of hydrocarbon source zone natural attenuation (SZNA) rates are important for managing contaminated sites but are difficult to measure. Moreover, SZNA rates may vary seasonally in response to climatic conditions. Previous research at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA showed that SZNA rates in the summer can be estimated by subtracting background soil CO2 efflux from the total soil CO2 efflux above the contaminated source. In this study, seasonal variations in surficial CO2 efflux were evaluated with measurements of gas concentrations (including 14CO2), temperature, and volumetric water content in the vadose zone at the site during a 2-year period. Soil CO2 effluxes in the source zone were consistently greater than background CO2 effluxes, and the magnitude and areal extent of the increased efflux varied seasonally. In the source zone, the 14CO2 and the CO2 efflux data showed a larger proportion of soil CO2 was derived from SZNA in fall and winter (October - February) compared to the summer (June - August). Surficial CO2 effluxes and vadose zone CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the source (2 - 7 meters below land surface) were positively correlated with soil temperature, indicating seasonal variability in SZNA rates. However, peak surficial CO2 effluxes did not correspond with periods of highest CO2 or CH4 concentrations at the 2 - 7 meter depth, demonstrating the effects of physical attributes (such as soil depth, frost, and volumetric water content) on gas transport. Overall, results showed that SZNA rates, background soil respiration rates, and gas transport varied seasonally, and that biological and physical factors are important to consider for accurately estimating SZNA rates.

  7. Influence of Volume Deformation Rate on the Intensity of Oil-Bearing Crop Pressing-out in Relation to Rape Extrudate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavnov, E. V.; Petrov, I. A.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of the volume deformation rate on the intensity of piston pressing-out of oil has been investigated. The results of pressing by a piston moving with different speeds are presented. Mathematical simulation is carried out for the stage of pressing-out after the termination of sample loading, when oil release occurs due to the accumulated deformations of the skeleton. It has been assumed that in mechanical pressing there remains the least residual content of oil. A dimensionless complex representing the ratio of the characteristic times of loading to the material response (the process of pressing) has been obtained. The dependence of the rate of oil pressing-out at the stage of pressure relaxation on the dimensionless complex has been determined.

  8. Microbial Factors Rather Than Bioavailability Limit the Rate and Extent of PAH Biodegradation in Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2002-08-01

    The rate and extent of PAH biodegradation in a set of aged, crude oil contaminated model soils were measured in 90-week slurry bioremediation experiments. Soil properties such as organic matter content, mineral type, particle diameter, surface area, and porosity did not significantly influence the PAH biodegradation kinetics among the ten different model soils. A comparison of aged and freshly spiked soils indicates that aging affects the biodegradation rates and extents only for higher molecular weight PAHs while the effects of aging are insignificant for 3-ring PAHs and total PAHs. In all model soils with the exception of kaolinite clay, the rate of abiotic desorption was faster than the rate of biodegradation during the initial phase of bioremediation treatment indicating that PAH biodegradation was limited by microbial factors. Similarly, any of the higher molecular weight PAHs that were still present after 90 weeks of treatment were released rapidly during abiotic desorption tests which demonstrates that bioavailability limitations were not responsible for the recalcitrance of these hydrocarbons. Indeed, an analysis of microbial counts indicates that a severe reduction in hydrocarbon degrader populations may be responsible for the observed incomplete PAH biodegradation. It can therefore be concluded that the recalcitrance of PAHs during bioremediation is not necessarily due to bioavailability limitations and that these residual contaminants might, therefore, pose a greater risk to environmental receptors than previously thought.

  9. Methodolgy for determining differential tanker rates for SPR oil movement in an energy emergency: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    Jones Act ships must be used to move crude and petroleum products between US ports. However, if no suitable Jones Act tankers or barges are available, shippers may apply, on a case-by-case basis, for a wavier to use substantially cheaper foreign capacity instead. Case-by-case determination of these waivers creates a potential problem for an emergency drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): potential buyers of crude would have to submit bids while facing considerable uncertainty about their ultimate costs of transporting the SPR oil. This report examines an alternative to the case-by-case waiver process, which we call a ''composite waiver procedure.'' The composite waiver procedure has two elements: a general waiver of the Jones Act requirement for moving SPR crude; and a rebate, equal to the price differential between foreign ships and Jones Act ships, to be paid to any buyer of SPR crude who uses US bottoms for transport. The composite waiver is designed to reduce the uncertainty surrounding transportation costs in the crude bidding process, and to keep Jones Act tankers price competitive so these vessels are not eliminated from use during an SPR emergency drawdown. 17 figs.

  10. Dynamics of corrosion rates associated with nitrite or nitrate mediated control of souring under biological conditions simulating an oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rempel, C L; Evitts, R W; Nemati, M

    2006-10-01

    Representative microbial cultures from an oil reservoir and electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic scan and linear polarization were used to investigate the time dependent corrosion rate associated with control of biogenic sulphide production through addition of nitrite, nitrate and a combination of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and nitrate. The addition of nitrate alone did not prevent the biogenic production of sulphide but the produced sulphide was eventually oxidized and removed from the system. The addition of nitrate and NR-SOB had a similar effect on oxidation and removal of sulphide present in the system. However, as the addition of nitrate and NR-SOB was performed towards the end of sulphide production phase, the assessment of immediate impact was not possible. The addition of nitrite inhibited the biogenic production of sulphide immediately and led to removal of sulphide through nitrite mediated chemical oxidation of sulphide. The real time corrosion rate measurement revealed that in all three cases an acceleration in the corrosion rate occurred during the oxidation and removal of sulphide. Amendments of nitrate and NR-SOB or nitrate alone both gave rise to localized corrosion in the form of pits, with the maximum observed corrosion rates of 0.72 and 1.4 mm year(-1), respectively. The addition of nitrite also accelerated the corrosion rate but the maximum corrosion rate observed following nitrite addition was 0.3 mm year(-1). Furthermore, in the presence of nitrite the extent of pitting was not as high as those observed with other control methods. PMID:16758172

  11. 25 CFR 211.43 - Royalty rates for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sold from the lease. (3) For geothermal resources, the royalty rate shall be 10 percent of the amount or value of steam, or any other form of heat or energy derived from production of geothermal... Section 211.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING...

  12. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  13. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  14. Combustion dynamics linked to flame behaviour in a partially premixed swirled industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Biagioli, Fernando; Guethe, Felix; Schuermans, Bruno

    2008-07-15

    Previous work [Biagioli, F., Stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in strongly swirled flows, Combustion, Theory and Modelling 10 (3) (2006) 389-412; Guethe, F., Lachner, R., Schuermans, B., Biagioli, F., Geng, W., Inauen, A., Schenker, S., Bombach, R., Hubschmid, W., Flame imaging on the ALSTOM EV-burner: thermo acoustic pulsations and CFD-validation, in: AIAA Paper 2006-437 presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006] has shown that turbulent dry low NO{sub x} (partially premixed) flames in high swirl conical burners may be subject to a large change of their anchoring location at the symmetry axis when a critical value of the bulk equivalence ratio is reached, i.e. they are bi-stable. This flame behavior is linked here to combustion pressure dynamics measured in an atmospheric test rig for a prototype version of the Alstom EnVironmental (EV) conical burner. The link is made via the solution of the problem of the 'travelling flameholder', which shows that the unsteady displacement of the flame anchoring location implies an unsteady variation of the flame surface area and therefore unsteady heat release. The relevance of this source of unsteady heat release - which is different from more usual ones due to variations in turbulent burning rate and in the sensible enthalpy jump across the flame - to the generation of combustion dynamics in strongly swirled flows is confirmed here by the strong positive correlation between the tendency of the flame to be displaced and the measured amplitude of pressure pulsations. (author)

  15. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  16. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for woodwaste burners. 49.127... opacity limit is EPA Method 9. A complete description of this method is found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.127 Rule for woodwaste...

  17. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  18. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  19. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  20. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  1. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  2. How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

  3. DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

  4. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opacity limit is EPA Method 9. A complete description of this method is found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix... woodwaste burners within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate matter to the atmosphere and ground-level concentrations of particulate matter. (b) Who is affected by this section?...

  5. EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

  6. LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: GASEOUS FUEL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency. Both deep air staging, resulting in a three-stage configuration, and boiler front wall fuel staging of undo...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

  8. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  10. Stability characteristics and flame structure of low swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Mohy; Chen, Yung-Cheng

    2008-07-15

    Low swirl burner provides stable lifted flames for fundamental studies of flame structure and turbulence/chemistry interaction in well defined boundary conditions. In the present study the stability characteristics of the burner have been investigated with four tangential jets at the same stoichiometry as the main jet. Two different burner nozzles with 40 mm and 53.5 mm diameters have been used for the stability measurements. In addition, a combined two-dimensional Rayleigh/LIPF-OH technique has been applied for simultaneous measurements of temperature and OH-radical for reaction zone and flame front investigation. Three flames have been selected near extinction for detailed measurements. The data show that the relation between of the main jet velocity, U, and the velocity of the four tangential jets, u, is linear. For the present data set with the nozzles investigated the linear trend can lead to an almost constant ratio of UD/u as 5.08 mm with D as the nozzle diameter of the burner. The flame structure varies from corrugated to highly wrinkle according to the turbulence level. (author)

  11. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  12. Burner tilting angle effect on velocity profile in 700 MW Utility Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Thangaraju, S. K.; Hassan, H.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-09-01

    700 MW of utility boiler is investigated with manipulation of inlet burner angle. Manipulation of burner titling angle is an operational methodology in controlling rear pass temperature in utility boilers. The rear pass temperature unbalance between right and left side is a problem caused by fouling and slagging of the ash from the coal fired boilers. This paper presents the CFD investigation on the 0° and -30° of the burner angle of the utility boiler. The results focusing on the velocity profile. The design condition of 0° burner firing angle is compared with the off-design burner angle -30° which would be the burner angle to reduce the rear pass temperature un-balance by boiler operators. It can be concluded that the -30° burner angle reduce the turbulence is fire ball mixing inside the furnace. It also shift the fire ball position in the furnace to reduce the rear pass temperature.

  13. Temporal variation in natural methane seep rate due to tides, Coal Oil Point area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J. R.; Clark, J. F.; Leifer, I.; Washburn, L.

    2001-11-01

    Two large steel tents (each 30 m by 30 m), open at the bottom to the seafloor, capture ˜16,800 m3 d-1 (594 MCF) of primarily methane from a large natural hydrocarbon seep, occurring a kilometer offshore in 67 m of water. The gas is piped to shore where it is metered and processed. The seep flow rate was monitored hourly for 9 months. Our results show that the tidal forcing causes the flow rate to vary by 4-7% around the mean. These results are the first quantitative documentation of the effect of tides on natural gas seepage in relatively deep water. Time series analyses of the 9 month record clearly show four principal tidal components with periods of 12.0, 12.4, 23.9, and 25.8 hours. High tide correlates with reduced flow, and low tide correlates with increased flow. The correlation indicates that each meter increase of sea height results in a decrease of 10-15 m3 hr-1 or 1.5-2.2% of the hourly flow rate. The observed changes are best accounted for by a pore activation model, whereby gas is released from small pores at low pressures but is inhibited at higher pressure. Pressure-dependent gas solubility changes are a less likely cause of flow variation. Our study implies that sea level differences, on a tidal timescale, can significantly change the gas seepage rate from sediments. Lower sea level in the last hundred thousand years would presumably allow higher gas loss from the sediment, assuming sufficient gas present, because of reduced hydrostatic pressure at the sediment-sea interface. The magnitude of this long-term change cannot be extrapolated from our tidal data.

  14. Temporal Variation in Natural Methane Seep Rate Due to Tides, Coal Oil Point Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J. R.; Clark, J. F.; Leifer, I.; Washburn, L.

    2001-12-01

    Two large steel tents (each 30m by 30m) open at the bottom to the sea floor, capture about 16,800 m{3{ day -1 (594 MCF) of primarily methane from a large natural hydrocarbon seep, occurring a kilometer offshore in 67m of water. Hourly monitoring for 9 months shows the tidal forcing causes the flow rate to vary by 4-7% around the mean. These results are the first quantitative documentation of the effect of tides on natural gas seepage in relatively deep water. High tide correlates with reduced flow, low tide correlates with increased flow. The correlation indicates that each meter increase of sea height results in a decrease of 10 to 15 m3 hr-1 or 1.5 to 2.2% of the hourly flow rate. The observed cahnges are best accounted for by a pore activation mechanism, whereby gas is released from small pores at low pressure but is inhibited at higher pressure. Pressure dependent gas solubility changes are a less likely cause of flow variation. Our study implies that sea level differences, on a tidal time scale, can significantly change the gas seepage rate from sediments. Lower sea level in the last hundred thousand years would presumably allow higher gas loss from the sediment, assuming sufficient gas present, due to reduced hudrostatic pressure at the sediment-sea interface. The magnitude of this long term change cannot be extrapolated from our tidal data.

  15. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  16. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  17. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours. PMID:21073057

  18. Gas and oil fired package boilers 20,000 - 50,000 lb/hr

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.K.

    1996-11-01

    Gas and oil fired package boilers rated at 20,000-50,000 lb/hr are discussed. The fleet consists of approximately 75 units, divided into two basic groups: (1) mobile boiler rooms - these consist of van mounted firetube boilers from 100-350 hp, complete with feedwater systems and water treatment equipment; and (2) trailer-mounted boilers - these consist of {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} type watertube boilers from 24,000 - 120,000 lb/hr, specially designed and mounted on highway legal lowboy trailers for mobility. Other products include new and reconditioned skid-mounted package boilers up to 150,000 lb/hr, turnkey {open_quotes}fast track{close_quotes} steam plants, and custom designed mobile or transportable steam plants for sale or lease. One of the earlier introductions into low NOx technology was a new equipment sale to Union Oil in Arroyo Grande, CA in 1983. A 100,000 lb/hr custom designed boiler with side wall NOx ports and low excess air burner to meet 80 ppm on natural gas was supplied. With the enactment of 40ppm low NOx mandates in Southern California in 2987, it was necessary to quickly retrofit the rental fleet and to work closely with boiler and burner manufacturers to meet the new standards.

  19. Spiral dynamics of pulsating methane-oxygen flames on a circular burner.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Kay; Gorman, Michael; Bowers, Jill; Brockman, Robert

    2004-06-01

    A premixed flame stabilized on a circular porous plug burner produces a uniform, steady luminous flame front. Throughout much of the parameter range hydrocarbon-oxygen mixtures form spiral-shaped fronts. In methane-oxygen flames at low pressure, the flame exhibits a sequence of states as a control parameter is decreased. These states include periodic rotation of a spiral front; precession of the spiral front in a direction opposite to its rotation, corresponding to doubly periodic petals-out meandering; and nonperiodic states with intermittent jumps associated with linear excursions of the tip, which occur after the spiral front has reached the boundary of the circular burner. We use Karhunen-Loeve (KL) analysis to find the coefficients of the dominant KL spatial eigenfunctions. Their phase space portraits and power spectra provide a description of the dynamics as flow rates are reduced and the system destabilizes. We discuss how these experimental results relate to previous theoretical studies that assume Euclidean symmetry for the experimental configuration. PMID:15189074

  20. Development of a vane-swirler for use in a low NO{sub x} weak-swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of the weak-swirl burner (WSB) for use in low NO{sub x} applications. Weak-swirl is a unique method for stabilizing lean-burning, premixed combustion as the flame is stabilized by flow divergence, not through recirculation as is commonly seen in nonpremixed industrial burners. Earlier versions of the WSB used a tangential air jet swirler that offers flexibility for determining the range of operation and evaluating the performance of the WSB. Though common in large applications, air swirler may not be amenable to small and medium-size appliances. To reduce manufacturing costs and burner complexity, the authors have developed a fixed vane swirler to replace the air jet swirler in the WSB. This paper describes the operating characteristics and key design parameters of the vane swirler. A new expression for determining swirl number intensity is developed. Testing of a laboratory water heater fitted with a WSB with the new vane-swirler shows 0 < NO < 20 ng/J, 10 < CO < 70 ppm, and thermal efficiencies {approx} 78% over the lean burning range of 0.70 < {phi} < 0.90. The continuous firing rate is robust for a 53 mm vane-swirled WSB, with initial tests ranging from 40,000 to 400,000 Btu/hr. for 0.60 < {phi} < 1.0. Successful development of the new vane swirler demonstrates that the low emission WSB is adaptable to a wide variety of industrial applications.

  1. A stochastic model of turbulent mixing with chemical reaction: Nitric oxide formulation in a plug-flow burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagan, R. C.; Appleton, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A stochastic model of turbulent mixing was developed for a reactor in which mixing is represented by n-body fluid particle interactions. The model was used to justify the assumption (made in previous investigations of the role of turbulent mixing on burner generated thermal nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions) that for a simple plug flow reactor, composition nonuniformities can be described by a Gaussian distribution function in the local fuel:air equivalence ratio. Recent extensions of this stochastic model to include the combined effects of turbulent mixing and secondary air entrainment on thermal generation of nitric oxide in gas turbine combustors are discussed. Finally, rate limited upper and lower bounds of the nitric oxide produced by thermal fixation of molecular nitrogen and oxidation of organically bound fuel nitrogen are estimated on the basis of the stochastic model for a plug flow burner; these are compared with experimental measurements obtained using a laboratory burner operated over a wide range of test conditions; good agreement is obtained.

  2. Full-scale demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit: Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.; Kung, S.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB) concept was developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to effectively reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal-fired boilers equipped with cell burners. These boilers were built mostly in the mid to late 1960s. Small (6-million Btu/hr) and intermediate (100-million Btu/hr) prototype versions of the concept were developed jointly by B&W and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) during the mid-to-late 1980s. The design of B&W LNCBs allows direct replacements of the originally installed cell burners without pressure-part modifications. During this US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal III program, Dayton Power and Light Company (DP&L) served as the host utility using its J.M. Stuart Station Unit {number_sign}4 (JMSS 4) for the first full-scale LNCB demonstration. This unit has a rated output capacity of 605 MW{sub e}. After the LNCB retrofit and burner optimization contract phases in late 1991, JMSS 4 underwent a long- term (nine months) test period from July 1992 to March 1993. The objective of this test was to determine the overall performance of this boiler after the LNCB retrofit. The long-term test involved determinations of the boiler emission performance and evaluations of waterwall corrosion potential, as well as a study of the overall operability of the LNCB system. Specific tasks performed during this long-term test include: (1) laboratory corrosion study; (2) field corrosion panel study; (3) in-furnace gas species probing; and (4) boiler emissions performance study. This report summarizes the long- term test results.

  3. Oil content and saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a function of planting date, N rate, and hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acids (FA) composition of sunflower determines its uses and health effects on humans, while oil content determines the price paid to producers. The hypothesis of this study was that agronomic factors (genotype, planting date, and N rate) will affect total saturated fatty acid (TSFA) concen...

  4. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids sugars and minerals as affected by seeding rates and row spacing in the Midsouth USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the effects of seeding rates (SDR) and row spacing (RS) on soybean seed composition is almost non-existent. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of SDR and RS on soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals using two soybean cultivars, P 93M90 (ear...

  5. Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

  6. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  7. Composite propellant combustion modeling with a porous plate burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.; Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A burner is designed to model on a large scale (millimeters) the complex vapor phase processes that take place on awkwardly small scales (about a hundred microns) in the combustion of practical AP/ composite propellants at conventional pressures. Binder vapor evolution is modeled with gaseous fuel (ethane in the experiments reported) flow through a porous plate and oxidizer vapor with the flow of a gaseous oxidizer (air and enriched air in the experiments reported) through discrete holes in the porous plate. Measured flame standoff distance and surface temperature variations are consistent with theoretical predictions at atmospheric pressure. Data obtained at several atmospheres are discussed in the light of the current theories of propellant burning that place varying emphasis on the roles of chemical kinetics and fluid dynamic diffusion/mixing in the vapor phase of a burning composite propellant. The potential and proposed future applications of the burner are indicated.

  8. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a method of operating a burner for burning particulate combustible fuel for producing a hot gas under pressure for operating a gas turbine, the burner comprising a housing having side wall means forming a cylindrical shape primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber, and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber, the secondary chamber being in fluid communication with the primary combustion chamber through the choke opening, the end of the primary combustion chamber opposite the choke opening being closed by end wall means, the end of the secondary chamber opposite the choke opening having an outlet opening for the passage of hot gas for use of operating a gas turbine, a particulate fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means.

  9. Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 94 m/s. Oxidation tests for times to 46 h produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13.5 h. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting on the silicon carbide substrate and led to a 32 percent decrease in strength, compared to the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air-induced attack yielded basically similar results, with slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  11. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Eugenio

    2010-11-15

    A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  12. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Farmayan, Walter Farman; Giles, Steven Paul; Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip; Munshi, Abdul Wahid; Abbasi, Faraz; Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony; Anderson, Karl Gregory; Tsai, Kuochen; Siddoway, Mark Alan

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  13. Basic research on radiant burners. Final report, February 1987-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; DesJardin, S.T.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    A computer model was modified and used to predict the operating characteristics of natural gas fired porous surface radiant burners. Performance parameters studied during this contract included radiant flux from the burner surface, burner surface temperature, NOx emissions, and flame attachment and flashback stability limits. Each year, computational work was performed to predict radiant burner performance. Concurrently, experimental work was performed to compare to these computational results. Validation of the code against experimental data allows the code to be used as a design tool in the further development of radiant burner combustion systems. Thermal performance, limits of stable operation, and NOx emissions have been correlated to experimental data in the report. In addition, catalytic radiant burners were fabricated and tested during the first and fourth years of the contract.

  14. Low Emission Combustor Technology Program. Final report, October 1, 1982-October 31, 1984. [Multiannular Swirl Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.G.; Toof, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    Purpose is to evaluate coal water mixture (CWM) in a low emissions staged rich-lean combustor for stationary combustion turbines. This evaluation was made with the Multiannular Swirl Burner (MASB). The MASB configuration was scaled up from the 5-inch diameter previously tested to a 10-inch diameter and modified for the combustion of CWM and for testing at 3 to 10 atmospheres pressure and 2000/sup 0/F (1094/sup 0/C) turbine inlet temperature. This testing was performed in the Westinghouse Advanced Combustor Development Rig at Concordville, Pa. Testing was done with CWM and No. 2 fuel oil for comparison. In addition, No. 2 fuel oil doped with pyridine was used to simulate the effect of fuel bound nitrogen on NO/sub x/ production. The design of the MASB for CWM combustion has encompassed several subtasks which provided valuable design data. These include numerical combustor flow field calculations by the computer code CORA 2-83, nozzle spray tests on CWM to select the proper nozzle, and the selection of the appropriate CWM. Test results to date on the MASB operating in both the rich-lean mode and lean-lean mode indicate that CWM combustion in a metal walled combustor such as the MASB is feasible. The NO/sub x/ results for oil show an increase in the NO/sub x/ from the 5-inch MASB obtained previously. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.9% were obtained on oil. CWM combustion with a methane gas pilot has shown combustion efficiencies up to 99.5%. However, combustion to date of CWM alone has only shown combustion efficiencies up to 53%.

  15. Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J L; Hatch, G E; Hall, R E; Jackson, M A; Merrill, R G; Lewtas, J

    1986-07-01

    The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3732672

  16. Technology for the development of high efficiency oil-fired residential heating equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locklin, D. W.; Hazard, H. R.

    1980-06-01

    The development of efficient residential oil burning equipment with capability for reliable, low capacity operation is assessed. Technical approaches with potential application to unconventional types of oil burners and to efficient heat exchangers, including those that operate partially in the mode of condensing moisture from the flue gases to regain the latent heat of vaporization are reviewed. The following concepts are recommended for further investigation in the development of efficient oil fired heating equipment: (1) modified high pressure atomizing systems; (2) alternative methods of atomization; (3) blue flame burners; (4) pulse combustion systems; and (5) condensing-type heat exchangers.

  17. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for...

  18. Computational investigations of low-emission burner facilities for char gas burning in a power boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Zaychenko, M. N.; Sidorkin, V. T.

    2016-04-01

    Various variants for the structure of low-emission burner facilities, which are meant for char gas burning in an operating TP-101 boiler of the Estonia power plant, are considered. The planned increase in volumes of shale reprocessing and, correspondingly, a rise in char gas volumes cause the necessity in their cocombustion. In this connection, there was a need to develop a burner facility with a given capacity, which yields effective char gas burning with the fulfillment of reliability and environmental requirements. For this purpose, the burner structure base was based on the staging burning of fuel with the gas recirculation. As a result of the preliminary analysis of possible structure variants, three types of early well-operated burner facilities were chosen: vortex burner with the supply of recirculation gases into the secondary air, vortex burner with the baffle supply of recirculation gases between flows of the primary and secondary air, and burner facility with the vortex pilot burner. Optimum structural characteristics and operation parameters were determined using numerical experiments. These experiments using ANSYS CFX bundled software of computational hydrodynamics were carried out with simulation of mixing, ignition, and burning of char gas. Numerical experiments determined the structural and operation parameters, which gave effective char gas burning and corresponded to required environmental standard on nitrogen oxide emission, for every type of the burner facility. The burner facility for char gas burning with the pilot diffusion burner in the central part was developed and made subject to computation results. Preliminary verification nature tests on the TP-101 boiler showed that the actual content of nitrogen oxides in burner flames of char gas did not exceed a claimed concentration of 150 ppm (200 mg/m3).

  19. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  20. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  1. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2009-05-01

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  2. Premixed burner studies of NO{sub x} formation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Straub, D.L.; Moran, C.; Stephens, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    One of the primary reasons for using this type of premixed, flat flame burner is that it is essentially one-dimensional (1-D), i.e., that important parameters such as temperature are nearly constant in regions near the central vertical axis of the burner for a fixed height above the burner surface. As a result of this 1-D nature, computer codes such as Sandia National Laboratory`s PREMIX can be used to model the important chemical interactions involved in the combustion processes. These predictions can be compared with experimental measurements to gain valuable insight into the formation of nitrogen oxides. The bulk of the burner experiments performed to date have been focussed primarily toward characterization of burner and the sample extraction and analysis system. All experiments thus far have been for methane/air flames at one atmosphere pressure. Figure 2 shows the burner centerline temperature profile for an equivalence ratio of {Phi} = 0.87. The sharp peak in temperature near 0.3 cm corresponds to the luminous zone of the flame. The high temperature in the luminous zone shows an abrupt decay with increasing height above the burner. The temperature gradient in the non-luminous post-flame zone is much smaller, approximately 2.5{degree}C decrease in temperature for each millimeter increase in height over the range of 1.3 to 4 cm above the burner. Radial temperature profiles have also been measured to assess the onedimensional nature of this burner.

  3. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  4. Results on studies of soot production and fouling in oil-fired condensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Celebi, Y.; Piraino, M.; McDonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of condensing heat exchangers for oil-fired heating equipment would yield a significant improvement in thermal efficiency. Soot production by oil burners, however, could lead to fouling problems in these systems. Results are reported on tests done to evaluate the effect of operating conditions on start-up and shutdown smoke production in both noncondensing and condensing furnaces.

  5. Porous plate analog burner study of composite solid propellant flame structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    A porous plate burner system for studying the structure and interaction of diffusion flames from adjacent unlike sources of oxidizer to simulate the behavior of solid propellant flames is presented. The passage of oxidizer gases through ports of determined diameters represents decomposing oxidizer crystals, and are adjustable for various oxidizer/fuel ratio experiments. Tests with air, ethane, oxygen, and oxygen-air mixtures are described, with parameters of flow rate, oxygen/fuel ratio, and pressure. Coarse ports are found to be oxidizer rich, while fine ports are stoichiometric. More heat feedback is found with fine ports, indicating that fine particle propellant systems burn faster unless fuel allocation is such that the reduced temperature overcomes the reduced diffusion length. Further observations on the interactions of flames are reported.

  6. Simulated experiment for elimination of air contaminated with odorous chemical agents by microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-10-15

    An experimental study on elimination of odorous chemical agent was carried out by making use of a microwave plasma burner, which consists of a microwave plasma torch and a reaction chamber with a fuel injector. Injection of hydrocarbon fuels into a high-temperature microwave torch plasma generates a plasma flame. The plasma flame can eliminate the odorous chemical agent diluted in air or purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces. The specially designed reaction chamber eliminated H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} diluted in airflow rate of 5000 lpm (liters per minute), showing {beta} values of 46.52 and 39.69 J/l, respectively.

  7. Core design studies for advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. government announced in February 2006 the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) based on a fast spectrum is one of the three major technologies to be demonstrated in GNEP. In FY06, a pre-conceptual design study was performed to develop an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) that supports development of a prototype full-scale ABR, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR were (1) to demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics (TRU) as part of an advanced fuel cycle, (2) to qualify the TRU-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR, (3) to support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Based on these objectives, core design and fuel cycle studies were performed to develop ABTR core designs, which can accommodate the expected changes of the TRU feed and the conversion ratio. Various option and trade-off studies were performed to determine the appropriate power level and conversion ratio. Both ternary metal alloy (U-TRU-10Zr) and mixed oxide (UO{sub 2}-TRUO{sub 2}) fuel forms have been considered with TRU feeds from weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) and TRU recovered from light water reactor spent fuel (LWR-SF). Reactor performances were evaluated in detail including equilibrium cycle core parameters, mass flow, power distribution, kinetic parameters, reactivity feedback coefficient, reactivity control requirements and shutdown margins, and spent fuel characteristics. Trade-off studies on power level suggested that about 250 MWt is a reasonable compromise to allow a low project cost, at the same time providing a reasonable prototypic irradiation environment for demonstrating

  8. Low NO{sub x} combustion system with DSVS{trademark} rotating classifier retrofit for a 630 MW{sub e} cell burner unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bryk, S.A.; Maringo, G.J.; Shah, A.I.; Madden, V.F.

    1996-12-31

    New England Power Company`s (NEP) 630 MW{sub e} Brayton Point Unit 3 is a universal pressure (UP) type supercritical boiler originally equipped with pulverized coal (PC) fired cell burners. In order to comply with the Phase 1 NO{sub x} emissions requirements under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the unit has been retrofitted with a low NO{sub x} staged combustion system during the spring 1995 outage. The unit was restarted in early May 1995 and was operating under the State Compliance emission levels by the end of the month. Additional optimization testing was performed in August, 1995. The retrofit scope consisted of replacing the cell burners with low NO{sub x} DRB-XCL{reg_sign} type PC/oil burners and overfire air ports within the existing open windbox, with no change in the firing pattern. A 70% NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels was achieved while maintaining acceptable unburned carbon (UBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels. To maintain low UBC levels, the scope included modifying the MPS-89 pulverizers by replacing the existing stationary classifiers with the B and W DSVS{trademark} (Dynamically Staged Variable Speed) two stage rotating classifiers. The DSVS{trademark} classifiers provide higher fineness for UBC control without derating the mill capacity. This paper will describe the project and discuss the retrofit emissions data. The paper will conclude with recommendations for retrofitting other similarly designed units.

  9. Water cut measurement of oil-water flow in vertical well by combining total flow rate and the response of a conductance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a conductance probe-based well logging instrument was developed and the total flow rate is combined with the response of the conductance probe to estimate the water cut of the oil-water flow in a vertical well. The conductance probe records the time-varying electrical characteristics of the oil-water flow. Linear least squares regression (LSR) and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR) were used to establish models to map the total flow rate and features extracted from the probe response onto the water cut, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analysis (PLSA) techniques were employed to reduce data redundancy within the extracted features. An experiment was carried out in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 125 mm and a height of 24 m in an experimental multi-phase flow setup, Daqing Oilfield, China. In the experiment, oil-water flow was used and the total flow rate varied from 10 to 200 m3 per day and the water cut varied from 0% to 100%. As a direct comparison, the cases were also studied when the total flow rate was not used as an independent input to the models. The results obtained demonstrate that: (1) the addition of the total flow rate as an input to the regression models can greatly improve the accuracy of water cut prediction, (2) the nonlinear SVR model performs much better than the linear LSR model, and (3) for the SVR model with the total flow rate as an input, the adoption of PCA or PLSA not only decreases the dimensions of inputs, but also increases prediction accuracy. The SVR model with five PCA-treated features plus the total flow rate achieves the best performance in water cut prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) as high as 0.9970. The corresponding root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean quoted error (MQE) are 0.0312% and 1.99%, respectively.

  10. Basic research and field experiment of the enhanced infra-red burner. Final report, November 1, 1988-November 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.W.; Singh, S.; Wray, D.; Collier, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-01-16

    An enhanced infra-red natural gas combustion technique has been developed in both the laboratory study and in the field testing. Firing rates as high as 142 KBtu/hr/sq ft were tested with a radiant efficiency better than 45%. At the normal firing rate of 120 KBtu/hr/sq ft, radiant fluxes on the order of 60 KBtu/hr sq ft were obtained. In addition, the major emission pollutants, NOx is below 20 ppm. A desired turndown rate of 2.5:1 has been achieved. The performance of the surface combustion inside the porous ceramic has been modeled. The numerical code has been used in the burner optimization design. In the field evaluation, the component durability, emissions and fuel savings, along with the productivity rate and product quality improvements have been evaluated. Even though a number of technical difficulties were encountered, the new gas fired radiant burner shows great potential for a variety of infra-red heating applications.

  11. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  12. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  13. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER (DMB) ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR APPLICATION TO INDUSTRIAL AND UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the design of two prototype distributed mixing burners (DMBs) for application to industrial and utility boilers. The DMB is a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired burner in which: (1) mixing of the coal with combustion air is controlled to minimize NOx emissions, a...

  14. PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NO BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale combustion tests of a Riley Stoker second-generation low-NOx burner combined with dry sorbent injection for SO2 control. The burner design is based on the distributed mixing concept. Combustion tests were conducted at 100 million Btu/hr in ...

  15. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

  16. CFCC radiant burner assessment. Final report, April 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, S.; Sullivan, J.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to identify methods of improving the performance of gas-fired radiant burners through the use of Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCCs). Methods have been identified to improve the price and performance characteristics of the porous surface burner. Results are described.

  17. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  18. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed

  19. Laser speckle technique for burner liner strain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical strains were measured on samples of a common material used in jet engine burner liners, which were heated from room temperature to 870 C and cooled back to 220 C, in a laboratory furnance. The physical geometry of the sample surface was recorded at selected temperatures by a set of 12 single exposure speckle-grams. Sequential pairs of specklegrams were compared in a heterodyne interferometer which give high precision measurement of differential displacements. Good speckle correlation between the first and last specklegrams is noted which allows a check on accumulate errors.

  20. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  1. Safety aspects of Particle Bed Reactor plutonium burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-08-01

    An assessment is made of the safety aspects peculiar to using the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) as the burner in a plutonium disposal system. It is found that a combination of the graphitic fuel, high power density possible with the PBR and engineered design features results in an attractive concept. The high power density potentially makes it possible to complete the plutonium burning without requiring reprocessing and remanufacturing fuel. This possibility removes two hazardous steps from a plutonium burning complex. Finally, two backup cooling systems depending on thermo-electric converters and heat pipes act as ultimate heat removal sinks in the event of accident scenarios which result in loss of fuel cooling.

  2. Results of studies on soot production and fouling in oil-fired condensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Piraino, M.; McDonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    The development of condensing heat exchangers for oil-fired heating equipment would yield a significant improvement in thermal efficiency. Soot production by oil burners, however, could lead to fouling problems in these systems. Results are reported on tests done to evaluate the effect of operating conditions on start-up and shutdown smoke production in both noncondensing and condensing furnaces. Parameters studied included burner excess air, draft condition, operating cycle, and heat exchanger system resistance. During start-up there is a momentary pressure peak in the combustion chamber as gas expansion occurs. This peak reduces fan airflow, leading to fuel-rich conditions and soot. After shutdown heavy soot can also be formed in condensing systems unless there is a brief, forced airflow through the combustion chamber. In the absence of an airflow, heat soak-back from the combustion chamber overheats the fuel nozzle assembly leading to afterdrip and soot formation. Modern retention head burners, which are commonly used in the U.S., were included as well as one European burner with some different design features. These features included the head design, a fuel shut-off in the nozzle tip, and nozzle heating. This burner was found to produce less smoke on start-up and shutdown than the common U.S. burner.

  3. Dispersants have limited effects on exposure rates of oil spills on fish eggs and larvae in shelf seas.

    PubMed

    Vikebø, Frode B; Rønningen, Petter; Meier, Sonnich; Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Lien, Vidar S

    2015-05-19

    Early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to oil spills. Simulations of overlap of fish eggs and larvae with oil from different oil-spill scenarios, both without and with the dispersant Corexit 9500, enable quantitative comparisons of dispersants as a mitigation alternative. We have used model simulations of a blow out of 4500 m(3) of crude oil per day (Statfjord light crude) for 30 days at three locations along the Norwegian coast. Eggs were released from nine different known spawning grounds, in the period from March 1st until the end of April, and all spawning products were followed for 90 days from the spill start at April first independent of time for spawning. We have modeled overlap between spawning products and oil concentrations giving a total polycyclic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentration of more than 1.0 or 0.1 ppb (μg/l). At these orders of magnitude, we expect acute mortality or sublethal effects, respectively. In general, adding dispersants results in higher concentrations of TPAHs in a reduced volume of water compared to not adding dispersants. Also, the TPAHs are displaced deeper in the water column. Model simulations of the spill scenarios showed that addition of chemical dispersant in general moderately decreased the fraction of eggs and larvae that were exposed above the selected threshold values. PMID:25875213

  4. Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

  5. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

  11. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  12. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  13. Occurrence of benzo(a)pyrene in combustion effluents of kerosene and diesel burners

    SciTech Connect

    Gharaibeh, S.H.; Abuirjeie, M.A.; Hunaiti, A.A.

    1988-09-01

    Due to limited Jordanian resources, kerosene and diesel burners have been widely used for heating homes and water, warming bread, grilling meat and cooking food. Jordan annually imports and average of 204 tons of burners which corresponds to approximately 20,400 burners. Considerable amounts of combustion products are produced such as gases, aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially benzo(a)pyrene (Bp), the well known carcinogen for man and animal. Since most Jordanians use burners more than five months a year, a considerable amount of combustion effluents accumulate indoors. Some of these materials can enter the human body via various routes, and are potential health hazards. Little information is available about the chemical nature and amount of the combustion effluents produced by these burners; therefore the present study was designed to screen for benzo(a)pyrene in the indoor-accumulated combustion effluent.

  14. Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoult, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

  15. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  16. Burner Emissions Associated with Lobed and Non-Lobed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1998-01-01

    The present experimental study examines NO(sub x), and CO emissions associated with three alternative fuel-injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air and strain their interfaces to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which molecular mixing of reactants is associated with streamwise vorticity generation, while the third one is a non-lobed fuel injector. Results show that rapid mixing allowed both lobed injector geometries to produce very lean premixed flame structures, with a lower achievable turn-down or fuel/air mass flux ratio than for the analogous non-lobed injector, which largely, produced distinct diffusion flames. All three injectors exhibited some level of sooting near walls and in the far-field region, with the non-lobed injector sooting to the greatest extent. At low fuel flow rates, in which the lobed injectors created locally very lean premixed conditions, there resulted lower NO(sub x) emissions as compared with non-lobed injector emissions. Yet at higher fuel-air mass flux ratios, NO(sub x) emissions from the lobed injectors were actually higher than for the nonlobed injector, likely due to reduced sooting and hence reduced radiative heat losses associated with enhanced mixing. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions became high for low values of the fuel/air mass flux ratio, again consistent with locally premixed combustion behavior, despite the fact that fuel was injected separately from air directly into the burner test section. The present study demonstrates that, for fuel-air mixing enhancement devices, control of the local equivalence ratio is critical in order to optimize burner emissions.

  17. The porous-plug burner: Flame stabilization, onset of oscillation, and restabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdyumov, Vadim N.; Matalon, Moshe

    2008-04-15

    In recent studies of edge-flames it was found that when the characteristic gas velocity exceeds a critical value the flame often undergoes spontaneous oscillations. The oscillations are amplified as the flow rate increases, reaching a maximum amplitude, and then decrease with further increasing flow rate until the flame restabilizes. In this paper we examine the concept of flame restabilization in a simpler but related problem - the planar premixed flame on a porous-plug burner - which is amenable to a full stability analysis. We show the dependence of all possible steady states on the relevant parameters, including the mass flow rate, the effective Lewis number of the mixture, the overall activation energy of the chemical reaction, and the extent of heat release. A linear stability analysis is then carried out to examine whether these steady states are stable to small disturbances. The analysis determines the critical conditions for the onset of instability, as well as the nature of the instability. In particular, we show that by decreasing the mass flow rate, the flame, which is at first stable, starts to oscillate back and forth for a limited range of gas velocities but is then restabilized by further decreasing the mass flow rate. We also show that the properties of the plug, such as the thickness of the plate and its porosity, play a significant role in flame stabilization. (author)

  18. Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

  19. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  20. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A.

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  1. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  2. Global properties of high liquid loading turbulent crude oil + methane/air spray flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.; Gore, J.P.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Sojka, P.E. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of atomization quality, flame heights, radiative fractions, emission temperatures, and transmittance for Alberta sweet crude oil/methane flames established on a novel burner for simulating well-blowout fires are reported. The results show the effects of two-phase flow on flame heights. The measurements of radiative fractions and the optical properties suggest relatively low soot loading. The measured high temperatures suggest almost complete combustion of crude-oil. However, larger-scale tests as well as information concerning the physical processes in the present atomizer and burner are essential for the application to practical fires and combustion devices.

  3. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Mehdi; Arman, Soroor; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Essential oils have been used as an alternative and complementary treatment in medicine. Citrus fragrance has been used by aromatherapists for the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Based on this claim, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy with essential oil of orange on child anxiety during dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (10 boys, 20 girls) aged 6-9 years participated in a crossover intervention study, according to the inclusion criteria, among patients who attended the pediatric department of Isfahan Dental School in 2011. Every child underwent two dental treatment appointments including dental prophylaxis and fissure-sealant therapy under orange aroma in one session (intervention) and without any aroma (control) in another one. Child anxiety level was measured using salivary cortisol and pulse rate before and after treatment in each visit. The data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software version 18. Results: The mean ± SD and mean difference of salivary cortisol levels and pulse rate were calculated in each group before and completion of treatment in each visit. The difference in means of salivary cortisol and pulse rate between treatment under orange odor and treatment without aroma was 1.047 ± 2.198 nmol/l and 6.73 ± 12.3 (in minutes), which was statistically significant using paired t-test (P = 0.014, P = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: It seems that the use of aromatherapy with natural essential oil of orange could reduce salivary cortisol and pulse rate due to child anxiety state. PMID:23930255

  4. Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Coolidge, Dennis W.; Rinker, Franklin G.

    1994-01-01

    According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

  5. Comparison of models for supercritical fluid extraction of seed and essential oils in relation to the mass-transfer rate

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1996-10-01

    A general dimensionless model was developed for a sensitivity analysis of the supercritical extraction process of vegetable oils and essential oils. Two dimensionless parameters, {Gamma}, a dimensionless partition coefficient, and {Theta}, a dimensionless characteristic time, appeared as the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of the extraction process. Some limiting values of these two parameters within the general model yielded simpler models which are often used in the literature. The numerical solutions of both the complete model and the simpler cases were compared to assess the range of relevance of the simpler models in terms of {Gamma} and {Theta} values. These results were compared with the experimental data found in the literature to assess the correctness of the assumption used to model supercritical fluid extraction in single cases. The implications of this analysis on the development of scale-up procedures were also discussed.

  6. Quantifying Methane Oxidation Rates and Flux During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill with Measurements of Methane Stable Isotopic Ratios and Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, M.; Kessler, J. D.; Sylva, S.

    2014-12-01

    Several independent techniques have been developed to measure the rate of methane oxidation and the source flux. However, none of these methods measure them concurrently. Here we present a stable isotope model incorporating measurements of methane stable isotopic ratios and concentrations, and current velocity, which can be used to determine methane oxidation rates, as well as the flux from the seafloor. This model was tested on 20 samples taken from 1 to 12 km from the wellhead from 11 June through 20 June 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results suggest that rate of methane oxidation ranged from 22 to 844 nM d-1 in mid-June 2010 and that the flux from the seafloor was 8.4×107 moles d-1. Both estimated here are in agreement with previous estimates determined independently.

  7. Selective and enhanced radiation from porous matrix burners. Annual report, October 1990-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1992-03-01

    Rare earth oxide materials previously identified to produce highly selective radiant emissions when used in ceramic mantles have been incorporated into large porous surface radiant burner structures. Results to date have been promising, as spectral selectivity has been demonstrated using ytterbia fibers cast over a porous matrix of more conventional ceramic fibers. Concept feasibility was demonstrated during the first year and improved durability is currently being investigated. High emissivity materials are being added to broad band radiant burners to increase radiant flux and improve thermal efficiency of radiant burners.

  8. Derived Emission Rates and Photochemical Production Rates of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Associated with Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Uintah Basin, UT During a Wintertime Ozone Formation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Graus, M.; Yuan, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Wild, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Uintah Basin, an oil and natural gas extraction field in Utah, experienced extremely high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone during the winter of 2013 - up to 100 ppmv carbon and 150 ppbv O3. Here we interpret VOCs measured during an ozone formation event from 31 Jan 2013 to 8 Feb 2013. Ratios of VOCs show strong diurnal cycles and week-long trends. A simple analysis was applied to ratios of aromatic VOCs measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) to explain these trends and to estimate emission rates of aromatic VOCs from oil and natural gas extraction, VOC emission ratios relative to benzene, and ambient [OH]. The analysis incorporates the following assumptions: (1) the source composition of emitted VOCs and their emission rates were temporally and spatially constant, and (2) the removal of VOCs was governed by reaction with OH, diurnal profile of which is constrained by measured photolysis rates. The main findings are (1) the emission rate of methane, extrapolated from the emission rate of benzene, is on the same order as an independent estimate from aircraft measurements of methane in 2012, (2) the derived aromatic emission ratios are consistent with source contributions from both oil and gas producing wells, and (3) calculated daily OH concentrations are low, peaking at 1x106 molecules cm-3. The analysis was extended to investigate secondary production of oxygenated VOCs measured by PTR-MS. The analysis is able to explain daytime production, but it does not adequately explain nighttime behavior, which may be affected by complex deposition to snow and ice surfaces. The relative carbon mass of primary and secondary compounds was calculated and compared to observations. At the end of the ozone formation event (day 6), our analysis predicts that secondary (oxidized) VOCs should comprise about 40% of total carbon mass. However, only 12% of these compounds are accounted for by measured oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol

  9. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  10. Optimum compositions for thermal insulation of burners and regenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zasypkin, V.I.; Popov, O.N.

    1988-07-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of thermal insulation compositions applied by spraying were evaluated to determine the optimum composition for the parameters posed by the burners and regenerators of glass-melting furnaces. The effects of varying spray parameters on these properties were also assessed. Changes were made in the binder density while leaving the amount of filler unaltered. With an increase in binder density there was an increase in the apparent density of the insulation. Kaolin wool with an aluminoborophosphate concentrate binder was tested for thermal conductivity, apparent density, and bending, shear, and compression strength against asbestos with water glass as a binder. For walls of the regenerators and a single-layer heat insulation, insulation made from an asbestos-perlite mixture with water glass was recommended.

  11. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  12. Stabilization of premixed flames on rotating Bunsen burners

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, J.M.; Sohrab, S.H.

    1996-09-01

    The effect of rotation on stabilization of methane-air premixed Bunsen flame sis experimentally investigated. Both the flame blowoff and flashback contours are determined in the fuel mole fraction versus Reynolds number plane (X{sub F}-Re) with the rotational Reynolds number Re{sub 4} as a parameter. It is found that rotation of the gas increases the flame stabilization area A{sub s} = A{sub B} {minus} A{sub F} defined as the difference between the flame blowoff A{sub B} and flashback A{sub F} areas in the (X{sub F}-Re) plane. The flame stabilization efficiency is defined as {eta}{sub s} = 1 {minus} A{sub F}/A{sub B} that approaches unity in either A{sub B} {yields} {infinity} or A{sub F} {yields} 0 limit. The experimental results suggest that rotation decreases the flame stabilization efficiency. However, rotation is found to substantially increase the flame stabilization coefficient defined as {beta}{sub s} = A{sub s}/A{sub st}, where A{sub st} is the stabilization area of the standard nonrotating burner. The parameters {eta}{sub s} and {beta}{sub s} may be useful in combustion technology for quantitative evaluation of the stabilization performance of different types of flame holders. In addition, the local hydrodynamics near the center of rotating Bunsen burner is simulated by investigating stabilization of planar laminar premixed flames on rotating porous disks with uniform surface velocity. Physical concepts concerning mechanisms of flame stabilization are discussed in terms of three important parameters namely the translational Reynolds number Re, the rotation Reynolds number Re{sub r}, and the fuel mole fraction X{sub F}. The results of the experimental findings are shown to be in accordance with prior theoretical investigation.

  13. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  14. Effect of silicone oil on nozzle heat transfer in solid propellant rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing heat transfer rates to inert nozzle walls in solid rockets by addition of silicone oil as a propellant ingredient is explored experimentally. A metallized control propellant and its counterpart with 1% silicone oil are fired in a 2 1/2-in. diameter end burning all-metal burner. Pressure-time histories are obtained; temperature-time data at the nozzle throat are obtained in some of the runs. The heat loss by the product gases to the cold inert walls of the nozzle lower the temperature of the gases leading to the condensation of aluminum oxide on the walls. This condensation is used as an index of the heat transfer rate to the nozzle. On a statistical basis it is found that the silicone propellant gives practically no condensation in 70% of the firings contrasted with 21% for its counterpart with no silicone oil in it. The gas temperature at the nozzle throat is experimentally seen to be generally higher with the silicone propellant than with its counterpart; this higher temperature is consistent with a preliminary analysis that is used here to relate the nozzle surface temperature to the heat transfer from the product gases.

  15. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus.

    PubMed

    Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    The High Throughput Screening System (HITSS) has been applied in insecticide behavioral response studies with various mosquito species. In general, chemical or natural compounds can produce a range of insect responses: contact irritancy, spatial repellency, knock-down, and toxicity. This study characterized these actions in essential oils derived from citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver in comparison to DEET and picaridin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito populations. Results indicated the two mosquito species exhibited significantly different (P<0.05) contact irritant escape responses between treatment and control for all tested compound concentrations, except with the minimum dose of picaridin (P>0.05) against Ae. aegypti. Spatial repellency responses were elicited in both mosquito species when exposed to all compounds, but the strength of the repellent response was dependent on compound and concentration. Data show that higher test concentrations had greatest toxic effects on both mosquito populations, but vetiver had no toxic effect on Ae. aegypti and picaridin did not elicit toxicity in either Ae. aegypti or An. minimus at any test concentration. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the ability of the HITSS assay to guide selection of effective plant essential oils for repelling, irritating, and killing mosquitoes. PMID:26611967

  16. Field test of a low NO{sub x} short flame duct burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bartz, D.F.

    1996-12-31

    With funding from the California Energy Commission and Southern California Gas Company, a new duct burner technology has undergone development and field testing that addresses two critical issues for cogeneration applications: limiting NO{sub x} emissions levels to less than 9 ppmv, corrected to 15% O{sub 2} and minimizing flame length. With commercialization of Dry Low NO{sub x} gas turbine combustors, regulatory pressures will focus on duct burners to maintain cogeneration plant emissions below 9 ppmv corrected to 15% CO{sub 2} without the use of costly selective catalytic reduction. Short burner flame length helps reduce plant footprint and ducting costs, and enables the design of compact segmented heat recovery steam generators. The new burner design utilizes a porous metal fiber material as the flame holder, and full premixing of the fuel gas and oxygen available in the gas turbine exhaust gas.

  17. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  18. Experiments on Stability of Bunsen-Burner Flames for Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

    1948-01-01

    The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air-ratio range. (author)

  19. Experiments on stability of Bunsen-burner flames for turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

    1947-01-01

    The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on Bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air ratio range.

  20. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  1. Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

  2. Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  3. Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  4. Study of Decision Index for Ignition Timing of Slag Melting Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Chikahito; Watanabe, Hiroaki

    In coal gasification plants, coal ash is discharged as molten slag. If the molten slag solidifies and is not discharged, an operator who monitors the plant throughout the day ignites a melting burner and removes the solidified slag. However, the use of this burner decreases the efficiency of the gasifier. Therefore, objective and appropriate automatic decision of ignition timing for the slag melting burner is necessary for economical operation, thereby reducing the operator's work load. In this report, we propose a decision index for ignition timing of the melting burner using monitoring videos. We have evaluated our method using 54 actual monitoring videos, and we have shown the applicability of automatically deciding the ignition timing.

  5. Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R.

    1995-07-01

    The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

  6. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  7. Heat transfer and combustion characteristics of a burner with a rotary regenerative heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yasuo; Kaji, Hitoshi; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a Rotary Regenerative Combustion (RRX) System, which is coupled with a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger and a combustion burner. This system contributes to saving energy of fuel firing industrial furnaces and decreases NO{sub x} emission. This technology can be considered as a solution of greenhouse problem. This paper, discusses a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger in comparison with the existing types of regenerative burners and reverse firing with high momentum fuel jet (with motive fluid) in the furnace. This burner is compact in size, with high fuel efficiency, low NOx emission, easy to operate, and reliable, based on the results of field tests and commercial operations. The authors can say that the RRX system is a regenerative burner of the second generation.

  8. Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

  9. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Spatz, M.; Smith, E.

    1986-03-01

    The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating with the thermosyphon heat exchanger located outside the furnace cabinet. A 100,000 -Btu/hr modulating burner has also been developed. Comprehensive study of the burner's operating characteristics has produced guidelines for the design and application of the device. Finally, the modulating burner has been incorporated into a zone-controlled heating system. In parallel with the development of the preceding heating system components, the performance of thermosyphons over a wide range of operating conditions is being explored with the objective of improving design procedures for incorporating these devices into heat exchangers.

  10. EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

  11. Numerical simulation of turbulent mixing and combustion near the inlet of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner that was proposed for experimental study at the Combustion Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine. Four cases are presented, with and without chemical reactions, with two different outflow boundary conditions, and with two different swirl numbers. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of COYOTE to simulate burners, and they illustrate some limitations and requirements of such modeling.

  12. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  13. Methanogen Population of an Oil Production Skimmer Pit and the Effects of Environmental Factors and Substrate Availability on Methanogenesis and Corrosion Rates.

    PubMed

    Conlette, Okoro Chuma; Emmanuel, Nwezza Elebe; Chijoke, Okpokwasili Gideon

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of microbial communities from an oil production skimmer pit using 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique revealed massive dominance of methanogenic archaea in both the skimmer pit water and sediment samples. The dominant genera of methanogens involved are mostly the acetotrophic Methanosaeta (36-83 %), and the hydrogenotrophic Methanococcus (49 %) indicating that methanogenesis is the dominant terminal metabolic process in the skimmer pit. Further studies showed that the methanogens had their optimal activity at pH 6-6.5, salinity of 100 mM, and temperature of 35-45 °C. When appropriate substrates are available and utilized by methanogens, methane production correlates with general corrosion rates (r = +0.927; p < 0.01), and under different conditions of pH, salinity and temperature, methane production showed significantly strong positive correlations (r = +0.824, +0.827, and +0.805; p < 0.01, respectively) with general corrosion rates. To the best of our knowledge, this research work was the first to assess microbial community composition of an oil production skimmer pit at Escravos facility in Nigeria. PMID:27075654

  14. SO/sub 2/(g)-to-sulfate conversion rate in an oil-fired-power-plant plume in a fog bank

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; Arthur, R.J.; Eatough, N.L.; Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Richter, B.E.; Hansen, L.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    High acidity in rainfall, cloud droplets and fog droplets in areas influenced by anthropogenic sources of SO/sub 2/(g) and NO/sub x/(g) has been attributed to the formation of both H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/. It has been suggested, based on the analysis of field data, that rapid conversion of SO/sub 2/(g) to sulfate must occur in cloud or fog droplets. Direct measurements of the rate of SO/sub 2/(g) to sulfate conversion in an oil-fired power plant plume as it passes through a fog bank are reported here. A conversion rate of 30+-4% SO/sub 2/(g) h/sup -1/ was found in the fog bank.

  15. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  16. Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

  17. Dynamic characterization of an industrial burner in working conditions by laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paone, Nicola; Revel, Gian M.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the application of a laser Doppler vibrometer in order to characterize the dynamic behavior of a burner during normal working conditions. The burner is a 1:4 scale model of a real CH4 industrial burner for gas turbines, with a 120 kW power. A first series of test has been performed in order to determine the resonance frequencies of burner components, in such a way as to correlate the results achieved in working conditions with the characteristics of the structure. In a second series of tests the burner has been tested in exercise, firstly with only a cold jet of air flowing from the nozzle, then in real working conditions. In each test both vibration and acoustic measurements have been performed, in order to find correlation between combustion noise and structural vibrations. The laser Doppler vibrometer has been chosen to carry out measurements on the burner because of its capability of 'remotely' and non-intrusively determine vibrations. In order to assess the accuracy of vibrometer measurements through the flame, a theoretical model previously developed by the authors has been employed, which describes the interactions between laser interferometer and refractive index variations induced by the flame, in such a way as to estimate interfering and modifying inputs of the measurements system.

  18. Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

  19. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOEpatents

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  20. Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

    1990-12-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Experiments to determine drift patterns and rates of recovery of sea otter carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doroff, A.M.; DeGange, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate efforts to recover sea otter (Enhydra lutris) carcasses following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The first study was implemented during sea otter rescue and carcass recovery activities to assess the probability of carcass recovery. Twenty-five previously recovered sea otter carcasses were marked with flipper tags and released near northern Kodiak Island between 27 May and 3 June 1989. Five were recovered, for a recovery rate of 20%. In the second study, 30 radio-monitored floats designed to assess drift characteristics of floating sea otter carcasses were deployed in early summer 1990. During a 43-day monitoring period, 27 were known to have washed ashore, 25 in Prince William Sound (PWS) and two on the Gulf of Alaska coast of Montague Island. These studies suggest that many more sea otters may have died from the spill than were recovered, and that some sea otters succumbing to oil exposure in PWS could have drifted outside of PWS and never been recovered.

  2. Burner survey for a high efficiency gas-fired heating unit. Final report November 1983-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Pam, R.L.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1984-01-31

    A survey was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of a variety of burner types for use in a new concept, high efficiency residential hydronic heating unit. Emphasis was placed on radiant systems that are currently commercially available. Nine different burner types were reviewed and evaluated against criteria established by the hydronic heating unit manufacturer. Results of the survey show that a porous fiber matrix burner can most easily be incorporated into the heating unit design and meet the operational criteria.

  3. COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS AND ORGANIC FINGERPRINTS FROM COMBUSTION OF OIL AND WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents data from an Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) pilot study on the total carbon, organics, and particulate emissions from oil furnaces with both gun-type and retention head burners. hese data are compared to results of a similar IACP study on woodstoves condu...

  4. COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

  5. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES AND COMPARISON WITH WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. A number of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total extractable organics, and mutagenicity. r...

  6. Évaluation des propriétés énergétiques et microphysiques d'une source de convection artificielle à partir d' une étude de combustion organisée de fuel-oil en milieu naturel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Pham Van; Benech, B.; Diamant, W.

    To evaluate the potential environmental impacts of waste heat released by future dry cooling towers, an oil burning system which emits sensible heat at a rate of the order of 1000 MW into the atmosphere has been built up at the Centre de Recherches Atmosphériques. The project involved development of an oil burner device and experiments to quantify the amounts of heat and other matters released from oil combustion, such as gas and aerosol, that are not present in the case of cooling towers but may interact with heat and cause complications. The burner produces a flame of 3-5 m in height and 0.5-1.5 m in diameter. Fuel is consumed at a rate of 3.5-16.5 ℓ min -1 at a pressure of 30-60 bars to develop a thermal output of 3-11 MW. The thermal power is distributed into three parts: sensible heat (82%), radiative energy (7-13%) and forced convection energy ( ~ 6 %); the two latter energy forms also heat the ambient air and so increase the real sensible heat output which eventually reaches 90 % of the thermal power. When the plume rises to some tens of meters, the combustion gas density is not very different from the air density and the additional water vapor does not exceed 5 % of the ambient water vapor. Smoke aerosol produced at the rate of 2-6gkg -1 of fuel-oil exhibits a maximum concentration of 10 7 particles cm -3 with a mean diameter of 0.5μm. The aerosol consists essentially of hydrophobic carbon (97%), while other elements, that may form hygroscopic or ice nuclei are present only in trace concentrations. The gaseous sulfur content may be higher but the SO 2 oxidation rate is very slow and then the cloud condensation nuclei amounts injected by the plume are neglegible in comparison with the natural nuclei. Thus the thermal impact on the atmosphere of the fuel oil combustion is essentially due to its thermodynamic characteristics, and our 105-burner system (Météotron) should correctly simulate in full scale a dry cooling tower. The smoke particles are quite

  7. Emissions Measurements from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1998-01-01

    The present experimental study examines NO(x) and CO emissions associated with alternative fuel injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which mixing of reactants is associated with stream wise vorticity generation and straining of fuel-air interfaces, while the third is a non-lobed fuel injector which creates relatively little fuel-air mixing prior to ignition.Results show that one lobed injector geometry appears to produce locally lean premixed flame structures, resulting in low NO. emissions when compared with non-lobed injector emissions. The other lobed injector geometry appears to produce a local fuel-air mixture which is closer to stoichiometric conditions, with NO(x) emissions that are actually higher than for the non-lobed injector. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions become high for over-all lean operating conditions, consistent with premixed combustion behavior. The present study demonstrates the importance of control of the local equivalence ratio in minimizing burner emissions.

  8. Development of a lean premixed burner for hydrogen utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.O.

    1996-10-01

    The long-term mandate of the hydrogen program is to develop the technologies needed to establish a hydrogen economy. Although a hydrogen fueled automobile has been established as a demonstration project, there are at least three other end use sectors that are recognized by the H{sub 2} program and that are addressed by this project. These end uses are: (1) power generation from stationary turbines, (2) generation of process heat or steam, and (3) commercial and residential direct use applications. Eliminating carbon from the fuel will remove carbon containing species from the emissions, however, NO{sub x} resulting from thermal NO production cannot be ignored. Thermal NO production is minimized by reducing the peak combustion temperature and the residence time at the peak temperature. NO can be reduced to extremely low levels (a few ppm) by operating sufficiently lean to reduce the peak combustion temperatures below 1700 to 1800 K. The objectives for this project are to: (1) develop an environmentally benign and safe burner operating on hydrogen in a lean premixed mode, (2) provide a facility in which fundamental investigations can be performed to support other programs.

  9. Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  11. Ultra clean burner for an AMTEC system suitable for hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K.

    1997-12-31

    High power Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) systems have the potential to make the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) program a success by meeting the challenging standards put forth by the EPA for the automobile industry. The premise of the whole concept of using AMTEC cells, as discussed by Hunt et al. (1995), for power generation in HEV`s is based on the utilization of a high efficiency external combustion system. The key requirement being a burner which will produce extremely low quantities of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen, emit minimal amounts of hydrocarbon, will have high radiative and convective efficiencies and at least a 4:1 turndown ratio. This work presents one such burner which has the potential to meet all of these demands and more. After investigation of a number of burners, including, metal fiber, ported metal, ceramic fiber and ported ceramic, it is believed that cellular ceramic burners will be the best candidates for integration with AMTEC cells for a high power system suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. A detailed study which includes the operating range, radiation efficiency, total heat transfer efficiency, spectral intensity, exit gas temperature and pollutant emission indices measurement has been carried out on circular and square shaped burners. Total heat transfer efficiencies as high as 65--70% have been measured using a water calorimeter. With efficient recuperation, a burner/recuperator efficiency of 80% at peak power and 90% at peak efficiency operating points are conceivable with this burner. Establishment of combustion within the porous matrix leads to low peak temperatures and hence lower NO{sub x}. The emission indices of CO and HC are also quite low. The stability range measurements show a 6:1 turndown ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.9.

  12. Deposition of Na2SO4 from salt-seeded combustion gases of a high velocity burner rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    The mechanism of deposition of Na2SO4 was studied under controlled laboratory conditions and the results have been compared to a recently developed comprehensive theory of vapor deposition. Thus Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3 and simulated sea salt solutions were injected into the combustor of a nominal Mach 0.3 burner rig burning jet fuel at constant fuel/air ratios. The deposits formed on inert collectors, rotation in the cross flow of the combustion gases, were weighed and analyzed. Collector temperature was uniform and could be varied over a large range by internal air cooling. Deposition rates and dew point temperatures were determined. Supplemental testing included droplet size measurements of the atomized salt solutions. These tests along with thermodynamic and transport calculations were utilized in the interpretation of the deposition results.

  13. Transient change in the shape of premixed burner flame with the superposition of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the transient phenomena in a premixed burner flame with the superposition of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The length of the flame was shortened by the superposition of DBD, indicating the activation of combustion chemical reactions with the help of the plasma. In addition, we observed the modulation of the top position of the unburned gas region and the formations of local minimums in the axial distribution of the optical emission intensity of OH. These experimental results reveal the oscillation of the rates of combustion chemical reactions as a response to the activation by pulsed DBD. The cycle of the oscillation was 0.18–0.2 ms, which could be understood as the eigenfrequency of the plasma-assisted combustion reaction system.

  14. Opposed jet burner studies of silane-methane, silane-hydrogen, and hydrogen diffusion flames with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure tubular opposed jet burner technique was used to characterize certain diffusion-flame transitions and associated burning rates for N2-diluted mixtures of highly-reactive fuels. The paper presents: (1) details of the technique, with emphasis on features permitting the study of flames involving pyrophoric gases and particle-forming combustion reactions; (2) discoveries on the properties of these flames which correspond to physically and chemically distinct stages of silane and hydrogen combustion; and (3) unburnt gas velocity data obtained from flames based on SiH4-CH4-N2, SiH4-H2-N2, and H2-N2 fuel mixtures, and plotted as functions of combustible-fuel mole fraction and fuel/oxygen molar input flow ratios. In addition, these burning velocity results are analyzed and interpreted.

  15. Opposed jet burner studies of silane-methane, silane-hydrogen and hydrogen diffusion flames with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure tubular opposed jet burner technique was used to characterize certain diffusion-flame transitions and associated burning rates for N2-diluted mixtures of highly-reactive fuels. Presented are: (1) details of the technique, with emphasis on features permitting the study of flames involving pyrophoric gases and particle-forming combustion reactions: (2) discoveries on the properties of these flames which correspond to physically and chemically distinct stages of silane and hydrogen combustion; and (3) unburnt gas velocity data obtained from flames based on SiH4-CH4-N2, SiH4-H2-N2, and H2-N2 fuel mixtures, and plotted as functions of combustible-fuel mole fraction and fuel/oxygen molar input flow ratios. In addition, these burning velocity results are analyzed and interpreted.

  16. Deposition of Na2SO4 from salt-seeded combustion gases of a high velocity burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Rosner, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of deposition of Na2SO4 was studied under controlled laboratory conditions and the results have been compared to a recently developed comprehensive theory of vapor deposition. Thus Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3 and simulated sea salt solutions were injected into the combustor of a nominal Mach 0.3 burner rig burning jet fuel at constant fuel/air ratios. The deposits formed on inert collectors, rotation in the cross flow of the combustion gases, were weighed and analyzed. Collector temperature was uniform and could be varied over a large range by internal air cooling. Deposition rates and dew point temperatures were determined. Supplemental testing included droplet size measurements of the atomized salt solutions. These tests along with thermodynamic and transport calculations were utilized in the interpretation of the deposition results.

  17. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  18. Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

    2009-12-15

    Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology. PMID:20000525

  19. How ''flat'' is the rich premixed flame produced by your McKenna burner?

    SciTech Connect

    Migliorini, F.; De Iuliis, S.; Cignoli, F.; Zizak, G.

    2008-05-15

    McKenna burners are widely used in the combustion community for producing ''flat'' premixed flames. These flames are considered as standards for the development and calibration of optical techniques. Rich premixed flames produced by McKenna burners are frequently investigated in order to understand soot formation processes both by optical and by sampling techniques. Measurements are normally performed along the axis of the flames, with a uniform distribution of temperature and species concentration assumed in the radial direction. In this work it is shown that the soot radial profiles of rich premixed ethylene-air flames produced by a McKenna burner with a stainless steel porous plug may be far from being ''flat.'' Soot is mainly distributed in an annular region and nonsoot fluorescing species are present in the core of the flames. This surprising result was verified under several working conditions. Furthermore, flames cannot be considered axial-symmetric but present a skewed soot distribution. Another McKenna burner with a bronze porous disk was used to produce flames of the same equivalence ratio and flows. These flames show a completely different soot radial profile, closer to the claimed flat distribution. These results cast doubts about the conclusions drawn in several studies on soot formation performed with a stainless steel McKenna burner. (author)

  20. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.