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Sample records for rater blinded reference

  1. Neurofeedback intervention in fibromyalgia syndrome; a randomized, controlled, rater blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kayiran, Sadi; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Ermutlu, Numan; Karamürsel, Sacit

    2010-12-01

    We designed a randomized, rater blind study to assess the efficacy of EEG Biofeedback (Neurofeedback-NFB) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Eighteen patients received twenty sessions of NFB-sensory motor rhythm (SMR) treatment (NFB group) during 4 weeks, and eighteen patients were given 10 mg per day escitalopram treatment (control group) for 8 weeks. Visual Analog Scales for pain and fatigue, Hamilton and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory Scales, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Short Form 36 were used as outcome measures which were applied at baseline and 2nd, 4th, 8th, 16th, 24th weeks. Mean amplitudes of EEG rhythms (delta, theta, alpha, SMR, beta1 and beta2) and theta/SMR ratio were also measured in NFB group. All post-treatment measurements showed significant improvements in both of the groups (for all parameters p < 0.05). NFB group displayed greater benefits than controls (for all parameters p < 0.05). Therapeutic efficacy of NFB was found to begin at 2nd week and reached to a maximum effect at 4th week. On the other hand, the improvements in SSRI treatment were also detected to begin at 2nd week but reached to a maximum effect at 8th week. No statistically significant changes were noted regarding mean amplitudes of EEG rhythms (p > 0.05 for all). However, theta/SMR ratio showed a significant decrease at 4th week compared to baseline in the NFB group (p < 0.05). These data support the efficacy of NFB as a treatment for pain, psychological symptoms and impaired quality of life associated with fibromyalgia. PMID:20614235

  2. A Randomized, Rater-Blinded, Parallel Trial of Intensive Speech Therapy in Sub-Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia: The SP-I-R-IT Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel Pavao; Leal, Gabriela; Fonseca, Isabel; Farrajota, Luisa; Aguiar, Marta; Fonseca, Jose; Lauterbach, Martin; Goncalves, Luis; Cary, M. Carmo; Ferreira, Joaquim J.; Ferro, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of intensive speech and language therapy (SLT), particularly because intensity is often confounded with total SLT provided. Aims: A two-centre, randomized, rater-blinded, parallel study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 100 h of SLT in a regular (RT) versus intensive (IT)…

  3. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Paschen, Steffen; Kruse, Annika; Raethjen, Jan; Weisser, Burkhard; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear. Objective To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson’s disease. Methods 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5–3.0) were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks). Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time. Results 32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs) were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen’s d) = -0.59). Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen’s d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen’s d = -0.08). Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types. Conclusions The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson’s disease was small and not

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  5. Lexical References to Sensory Modalities in Verbal Descriptions of People and Objects by Congenitally Blind, Late Blind and Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chauvey, Valérie; Hatwell, Yvette; Verine, Bertrand; Kaminski, Gwenael; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Background Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes (‘verbalism’), references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and blindfolded sighted (BS) adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups (“verbalism” in the CB). While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. Conclusion/Significance The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately) the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent reflected in

  6. Comparing the Effectiveness of Self-Paced and Collaborative Frame-of-Reference Training on Rater Accuracy in a Large-Scale Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raczynski, Kevin R.; Cohen, Allan S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2015-01-01

    There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of rater training methods in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. Less has been reported in the measurement literature on large-scale writing assessments. This study compared the effectiveness of two widely used rater training methods--self-paced and collaborative…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness, type 2A MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Electroretinography MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eye movements - Uncontrollable MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Nearsightedness MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Strabismus MedlinePlus ...

  8. Blindness and Visual Impairments: National Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to blind and visually impaired persons, including advocacy and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications offered in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to families of blind and visually impaired persons and training for…

  9. Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; Rogers, Darrin L.; Weimer, Amy A.; Greenberg, David M.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters’ economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans’ competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans’ competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters’ economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits. PMID:22379232

  10. Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevalent Cases of Blindness (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Prevalent Cases of Blindness (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...

  11. Longitudinal Rater Modeling with Splines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobria, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    Performance assessments rely on the expert judgment of raters for the measurement of the quality of responses, and raters unavoidably introduce error in the scoring process. Defined as the tendency of a rater to assign higher or lower ratings, on average, than those assigned by other raters, even after accounting for differences in examinee…

  12. Multi-Reference Parallel ICA: A Semi-blind Multivariate Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiayu; Calhoun, Vince D.; Liu, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    High data dimensionality poses a major challenge for imaging genomic studies. To address this issue, a semi-blind multivariate approach, multi-reference parallel independent component analysis (pICA-MR), is proposed. pICA-MR extracts imaging and genetic components in parallel and enhances inter-modality correlations. Prior knowledge is incorporated to emphasize genetic factors with specific attributes. Particularly, pICA-MR can investigate multiple genetic references to explore functional interactions among genes. Simulations demonstrate robust performances with Euclidean distance employed as a metric for reference similarity, where components pointed by the same references are reliably identified and the detection power is significantly improved compared to blind methods. PMID:25571523

  13. Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 96-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This reference circular lists organizations that provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and consultation, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations offer guidance to families…

  14. Blindness and Visual Impairments: Information and Advocacy Organizations. Reference Circular No. 01-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The organizations listed in this reference circular provide a variety of direct services to persons who are blind and visually impaired, including advocacy and advisory services, information and referral, counseling and employment programs, assistive devices, and publications in special format. Many of the organizations also offer guidance to…

  15. Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... The problem may affect one eye or both eyes. When you think of being blind, you might imagine total darkness. But most people who are blind can still see a little light or shadows. They just can't see things clearly. People who have some sight, but still need a lot of help, are ...

  16. Semi-blind source extraction algorithm for fetal electrocardiogram based on generalized autocorrelations and reference signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Shi, Zhenwei; Guo, Chonghui; Feng, Enmin

    2009-01-01

    Blind source extraction (BSE) has become one of the promising methods in the field of signal processing and analysis, which only desires to extract "interesting" source signals with specific stochastic property or features so as to save lots of computing time and resources. This paper addresses BSE problem, in which desired source signals have some available reference signals. Based on this prior information, we develop an objective function for extraction of temporally correlated sources. Maximizing this objective function, a semi-blind source extraction fixed-point algorithm is proposed. Simulations on artificial electrocardiograph (ECG) signals and the real-world ECG data demonstrate the better performance of the new algorithm. Moreover, comparisons with existing algorithms further indicate the validity of our new algorithm, and also show its robustness to the estimated error of time delay.

  17. Rater Effects: Ego Engagement in Rater Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    The decision-making behaviors of 8 raters when scoring 39 persuasive and 39 narrative essays written by second language learners were examined, first using Rasch analysis and then, through think aloud protocols. Results based on Rasch analysis and think aloud protocols recorded by raters as they were scoring holistically and analytically suggested…

  18. The Effects of Rater Training on Inter-Rater Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pufpaff, Lisa A.; Clarke, Laura; Jones, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of rater training on the rubric-based scoring of three preservice teacher candidate performance assessments. This project sought to evaluate the consistency of ratings assigned to student learning outcome measures being used for program accreditation and to explore the need for rater training in order to increase…

  19. Effects of a rater training on rating accuracy in a physical examination skills assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Gunther; Vinzentius, Christian; Twesten, Christoph; Lehnert, Hendrik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; König, Inke R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accuracy and reproducibility of medical skills assessment is generally low. Rater training has little or no effect. Our knowledge in this field, however, relies on studies involving video ratings of overall clinical performances. We hypothesised that a rater training focussing on the frame of reference could improve accuracy in grading the curricular assessment of a highly standardised physical head-to-toe examination. Methods: Twenty-one raters assessed the performance of 242 third-year medical students. Eleven raters had been randomly assigned to undergo a brief frame-of-reference training a few days before the assessment. 218 encounters were successfully recorded on video and re-assessed independently by three additional observers. Accuracy was defined as the concordance between the raters' grade and the median of the observers' grade. After the assessment, both students and raters filled in a questionnaire about their views on the assessment. Results: Rater training did not have a measurable influence on accuracy. However, trained raters rated significantly more stringently than untrained raters, and their overall stringency was closer to the stringency of the observers. The questionnaire indicated a higher awareness of the halo effect in the trained raters group. Although the self-assessment of the students mirrored the assessment of the raters in both groups, the students assessed by trained raters felt more discontent with their grade. Conclusions: While training had some marginal effects, it failed to have an impact on the individual accuracy. These results in real-life encounters are consistent with previous studies on rater training using video assessments of clinical performances. The high degree of standardisation in this study was not suitable to harmonize the trained raters’ grading. The data support the notion that the process of appraising medical performance is highly individual. A frame-of-reference training as applied does not

  20. Validation of Reference Genes for Oral Cancer Detection Panels in a Prospective Blinded Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference genes are needed as internal controls to determine relative expression for clinical application of gene expression panels. Candidate constitutively expressed genes must be validated as suitable reference genes in each body fluid and disease entity. Prior studies have predominantly validated oral squamous cell carcinoma associated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification cycle (Cq) values without adjustment for housekeeping genes. Methods One hundred sixty eight patients had saliva collected before clinically driven biopsy of oral lesions suspicious for cancer. Seven potential housekeeping mRNAs and six pre-specified oral cancer associated mRNAs were measured with qPCR by personnel blinded to tissue diagnosis. Housekeeping gene stability was determined with the NormFinder program in a training set of 12 randomly selected cancer and 24 control patients. Genes with stability indices <0.02 were then tested in the validation set consisting of the remaining cancer and control patients and were further validated by the geNorm program. Cancer gene delta Cqs were compared in case and control patients after subtracting the geometric mean of the reference gene raw Cqs. Results B2M and UBC had stability indices >0.02 in the training set and were not further tested. MT-ATP6, RPL30, RPL37A, RPLP0 and RPS17 all had stability indices <0.02 in the training set and in the verification set. The geNorm M values were all ≤1.10. All six pre-specified cancer genes (IL8, IL1, SAT, OAZ1, DUSP1 and S100P) were up-regulated in cancer versus control patients with from nearly twofold to over threefold higher levels (p<0.01 for all based on delta Cq values). Conclusions Five reference genes are validated for use in oral cancer salivary gene expression panels. Six pre-specified oral carcinoma associated genes are demonstrated to be highly significantly up-regulated in cancer patients based on delta Cq values. These cancer

  1. Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…

  2. A Family of Rater Accuracy Models.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Edward W; Jiao, Hong; Song, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Engelhard (1996) proposed a rater accuracy model (RAM) as a means of evaluating rater accuracy in rating data, but very little research exists to determine the efficacy of that model. The RAM requires a transformation of the raw score data to accuracy measures by comparing rater-assigned scores to true scores. Indices computed based on raw scores also exist for measuring rater effects, but these indices ignore deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of two versions of the RAM (based on dichotomized and polytomized deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores) to two versions of raw score rater effect models (i.e., a Rasch partial credit model, PCM, and a Rasch rating scale model, RSM). Simulated data are used to demonstrate the efficacy with which these four models detect and differentiate three rater effects: severity, centrality, and inaccuracy. Results indicate that the RAMs are able to detect, but not differentiate, rater severity and inaccuracy, but not rater centrality. The PCM and RSM, on the other hand, are able to both detect and differentiate all three of these rater effects. However, the RSM and PCM do not take into account true scores and may, therefore, be misleading when pervasive trends exist in the rater-assigned data. PMID:26075664

  3. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  4. ICT in Portuguese Reference Schools for the Education of Blind and Partially Sighted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Sara Isabel Moca; de Andrade, António Manuel Valente

    2016-01-01

    Technology has become an essential component in our society and considering its impact in the educational system, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) cannot be dissociated from the educational process and, in particular, from pedagogical practices adopted for students who are blind or partially sighted. This study focuses on…

  5. CRC customer versus rater octane number requirement program (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A CRC cooperative program was conducted to determine the difference in octane requirements between technical raters and 'customers' (the general driving public). The tests were conducted in two phases, with the second being a repeat of the first to verify the results obtained. The trained raters used the CRC E-15 procedure to determine the octane requirement of the vehicles while the customers' perception and objection to knock were determined through the use of a questionnaire. The customers' responses (perception and objection level) were based upon audible knock, acceleration performance, and after-run on a series of full-boiling-range customer/rater unleaded (FBRCU) reference-fuels. Data were analyzed from 168 1988-1991 model-year vehicles, with 126 of these tested in Phase II. The results showed that the customers, objections and perceptions were overwhelmingly based on knock, rather than acceleration performance or after-run. Two general methods, a population comparison and a delta analysis, were used to estimate the difference between customer and rater octane requirements. In the first method, the data were analyzed by comparing satisfaction curves for the technical and customer octane requirements (population comparison).

  6. Weight-Based Classification of Raters and Rater Cognition in an EFL Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify raters according to their weighting patterns and explore systematic differences between rater types in the rating process. In the context of an EFL speaking test, 126 raters were classified into three types--form-oriented, balanced, and content-oriented--through cluster analyses of their weighting patterns…

  7. Variance Estimation of Nominal-Scale Inter-Rater Reliability with Random Selection of Raters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwet, Kilem Li

    2008-01-01

    Most inter-rater reliability studies using nominal scales suggest the existence of two populations of inference: the population of subjects (collection of objects or persons to be rated) and that of raters. Consequently, the sampling variance of the inter-rater reliability coefficient can be seen as a result of the combined effect of the sampling…

  8. Effects of Marking Method and Rater Experience on ESL Essay Scores and Rater Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL (English as a Second Language) essay test scores and rater performance. Each of 31 novice and 29 experienced raters rated a sample of ESL essays both holistically and analytically. Essay scores were analysed using a multi-faceted Rasch model to compare test-takers'…

  9. A Hierarchical Rater Model for Constructed Responses, with a Signal Detection Rater Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.; Kim, YoungKoung; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The hierarchical rater model (HRM) recognizes the hierarchical structure of data that arises when raters score constructed response items. In this approach, raters' scores are not viewed as being direct indicators of examinee proficiency but rather as indicators of essay quality; the (latent categorical) quality of an examinee's essay in turn…

  10. Efficacy and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) in patients with major depressive disorder: a 6-week multicenter, randomized, rater-blinded, escitalopram-comparative, non-inferiority study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong; Woo, Young Sup; Lee, Kyung-Uk; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this non-inferiority study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) versus branded escitalopram (Lexapro®) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The present study included 158 patients, who were randomized (1:1) to receive a flexible dose of generic escitalopram (n=78) or branded escitalopram (n=80) over a 6-week single-blind treatment period. The clinical benefits in the two groups were evaluated using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S), and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I) at baseline, week 1, week 2, week 4, and week 6. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was also assessed to determine safety at each follow-up visit. Results During the 6-week study period, 30 patients (38.5%) from the generic escitalopram group and 28 patients (30.0%) from the branded escitalopram group dropped out of the study (P=0.727). The MADRS, HDRS, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores significantly decreased in both groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups. At week 6, 28 patients (57.1%) in the generic escitalopram group and 35 patients (67.3%) in the branded escitalopram group had responded to treatment (as indicated by a ≥50% decrease from the baseline MADRS score; P=0.126), and the remission rates (MADRS score: ≤10) were 42.9% (n=21) in generic escitalopram group and 53.8% (n=28) in the branded escitalopram group (P=0.135). The most frequently reported AEs were nausea (17.9%), sleepiness/somnolence (7.7%), weight gain (3.8%), and dry mouth (2.6%) in the generic escitalopram group and nausea (20.0%), sleepiness/somnolence (3.8%), weight gain (2.5%), and dry mouth (2.5%) in the branded escitalopram group. Conclusion The present non-inferiority study demonstrated that generic escitalopram is a safe and an

  11. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  12. Agreement between Two Independent Groups of Raters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanbelle, Sophie; Albert, Adelin

    2009-01-01

    We propose a coefficient of agreement to assess the degree of concordance between two independent groups of raters classifying items on a nominal scale. This coefficient, defined on a population-based model, extends the classical Cohen's kappa coefficient for quantifying agreement between two raters. Weighted and intraclass versions of the…

  13. Age Matters, and so May Raters: Rater Differences in the Assessment of Foreign Accents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky H.; Jun, Sun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Research on the age of learning effect on second language learners' foreign accents utilizes human judgments to determine speech production outcomes. Inferences drawn from analyses of these ratings are then used to inform theories. The present study focuses on rater differences in the age of learning effect research. Three groups of raters who…

  14. Measuring Essay Assessment: Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayapinar, Ulas

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: There have been many attempts to research the effective assessment of writing ability, and many proposals for how this might be done. In this sense, rater reliability plays a crucial role for making vital decisions about testees in different turning points of both educational and professional life. Intra-rater and inter-rater…

  15. Blind loop syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Blind loop syndrome occurs when digested food slows or stops moving through part of the intestines. This ... The name of this condition refers to the "blind loop" formed by part of the intestine that ...

  16. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI) obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF) of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration) and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases). Inter-rater median (IQR) agreement was 91% (82-96). The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC) obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases). Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia. PMID:20222975

  17. The pectoralis minor length test: a study of the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy in subjects with and without shoulder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeremy S; Valentine, Rachel E

    2007-01-01

    Background Postural abnormality and muscle imbalance are thought to contribute to pain and a loss of normal function in the upper body. A shortened pectoralis minor muscle is commonly identified as part of this imbalance. Clinical tests have been recommended to test for shortening of this muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the pectoralis minor length test. Methods Measurements were made in 45 subjects with and 45 subjects without shoulder symptoms. Measurements were made with the subjects lying in supine. In this position the linear distance from the treatment table to the posterior aspect of the acromion was measured on two occasions (separated by a minimum of 30 minutes and additional data collection on other subjects to reduce bias) by one rater. The reliability of the measurements was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The diagnostic accuracy of the test was investigated by determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of the test against a 'gold standard' reference. The assessor remained 'blinded' to data input and the measurements were staggered to reduce examiner bias. Results The pectoralis minor length test was found to have excellent intra-rater reliability for dominant and non-dominant side of the subjects without symptoms, and for the painfree and painful side of the subjects with symptoms. The values calculated for the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios suggest this test performed in the manner investigated in this study and recommended in the literature, lacks diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that although the pectoralis minor length test demonstrates acceptable clinical reliability, its lack of specificity suggests that clinicians using this test to inform the clinical reasoning process with

  18. Comparison of Models and Indices for Detecting Rater Centrality.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Edward W; Song, Tian

    2015-01-01

    To date, much of the research concerning rater effects has focused on rater severity/leniency. Consequently, other potentially important rater effects have largely ignored by those conducting operational scoring projects. This simulation study compares four rater centrality indices (rater fit, residual-expected correlations, rater slope, and rater threshold variance) in terms of their Type I and Type II error rates under varying levels of centrality magnitude, centrality pervasiveness, and rating scale construction when each of four latent trait models is fitted to the simulated data (Rasch rating scale and partial credit models and the generalized rating scale and partial credit models). Results indicate that the residual-expected correlation may be most appropriately sensitive to rater centrality under most conditions. PMID:26753219

  19. Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…

  20. Automated Essay Scoring With e-rater[R] V.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Burstein, Jill

    2006-01-01

    E-rater[R] has been used by the Educational Testing Service for automated essay scoring since 1999. This paper describes a new version of e-rater (V.2) that is different from other automated essay scoring systems in several important respects. The main innovations of e-rater V.2 are a small, intuitive, and meaningful set of features used for…

  1. Rater Cognition Research: Some Possible Directions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myford, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several decades, researchers have studied many and varied aspects of rater cognition. Those interested in pursuing basic research have focused on gaining an understanding of raters' thought processes as they score different types of performances and products, striving to understand how raters' mental representations and the cognitive…

  2. Training the Raters: A Key to Effective Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.

    1986-01-01

    Although appropriate rater behaviors are critical to the success of any performance appraisal system, raters frequently receive little or no training regarding how to carry out their role successfully. This article outlines the major elements that should be included in an effective rater training program. Suggested training approaches and the need…

  3. Cognitive Representations in Raters' Assessment of Teacher Portfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Marieke; Stokking, Karel; Verloop, Nico

    2005-01-01

    Portfolios are frequently used to assess teachers' competences. In portfolio assessment, the issue of rater reliability is a notorious problem. To improve the quality of assessments insight into raters' judgment processes is crucial. Using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach we studied cognitive processes underlying raters' judgments and…

  4. An Investigation of Rater Cognition in the Assessment of Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the majority of national assessments involve human raters. The processes by which raters determine the scores to award are central to the assessment process and affect the extent to which valid inferences can be made from assessment outcomes. Thus, understanding rater cognition has become a growing area of research in the…

  5. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  6. Blind rats are not profoundly impaired in the reference memory Morris water maze and cannot be clearly discriminated from rats with cognitive deficits in the cued platform task.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Schallert, T; Emerich, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Morris water maze is commonly used to test cognitive function in rodent models of neurological disorders including age-related cognitive deficits. It is often assumed that the most profoundly impaired aged rats may be blind due to retinal degeneration, and it has been reported that animals with visual sensory deficits can be identified based on their performance in a cued platform task. The results of the present study demonstrate that blind rats can perform surprisingly well in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, and that blind rats cannot be selectively excluded based on performance in the cued platform task since atropine-treated rats also perform poorly in the cued platform task. Future studies may be able to develop screening procedures that help to eliminate subjects with non-cognitive deficits, but the present results do not support the use of the cued platform or straight swim task as screening procedures. Experimenters must be careful to consider the role that visual sensory function and other non-cognitive factors may have in performance of the spatial learning Morris water maze, and also the role that severe cognitive deficits may have in performance of the cued platform task. PMID:9197520

  7. Are improved rater reliability results associated with faster reaction times after rater training for judgments of laryngeal mucus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilha, Heather S.; Dawson, Amy; McGrattan, Katlyn

    2012-02-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds, a common complaint amongst persons with voice disorders, has been visually rated on four parameters: type, pooling, thickness, and location. Rater training is used to improve the reliability and accuracy of these ratings. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of training on rater reliability, accuracy and response time. Two raters scored mucus aggregation from 120 stroboscopic exams after a brief introductory session and again after a thorough training session. Reliability and accuracy were calculated in percent agreement. Two-tail paired t-tests were used to assess differences in reaction time for ratings before and after training. Inter-rater reliability improved from 79% pre-training to 92% post-training. Intra-rater reliability improved from 77% to 91% for Rater 1 and 80% to 88% for Rater 2 following training. Accuracy improved from 80% to 96% for Rater 1 and 76% to 95% for Rater 2 from pre- to post-training. Reaction time decreased for both raters (p=0.025). These findings further our understanding of observer performance on judgments of laryngeal mucus. These results suggest that rater training increases reliability and accuracy while decreasing reaction time. Future studies should assess the relationship of these judgments and voice changes.

  8. How Good Are Our Raters? Rater Errors in Clinical Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A multi-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM) model was used to analyze a clinical skills assessment of 173 fourth-year medical students in a Midwestern medical school to investigate four types of rater errors: leniency, inconsistency, halo, and restriction of range. Each student performed six clinical tasks with six standardized patients (SPs), who…

  9. The Critical Thinking Analytic Rubric (CTAR): Investigating Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Scoring Mechanism for Critical Thinking Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Emily; Belanger, Secret; Becker, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Critical Thinking Analytic Rubric (CTAR). The CTAR is composed of 6 rubric categories: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and disposition. To investigate inter-rater reliability, two trained raters scored four sets of…

  10. Rater Strategies for Reaching Agreement on Pupil Text Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jølle, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    Novice members of a Norwegian national rater panel tasked with assessing Year 8 pupils' written texts were studied during three successive preparation sessions (2011-2012). The purpose was to investigate how the raters successfully make use of different decision-making strategies in an assessment situation where pre-set criteria and standards give…

  11. Rater Effects in Clinical Performance Ratings of Surgery Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Myford, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM) approach was used to analyze clinical performance ratings of 24 first-year residents in one surgery residency program in Thailand to investigate three types of rater effects: leniency, rater inconsistency, and restriction of range. Faculty from 14 surgical services rated the clinical performance of…

  12. A Comparison of Assessment Methods and Raters in Product Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Luh, Ding-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have attempted to use different experiences of raters to rate product creativity by adopting the Consensus Assessment Method (CAT) approach, the validity of replacing CAT with another measurement tool has not been adequately tested. This study aimed to compare raters with different levels of experience (expert ves.…

  13. Individual Feedback to Enhance Rater Training: Does It Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Cathie; Knoch, Ute; Barkhuizen, Gary; von Randow, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Research on the utility of feedback to raters in the form of performance reports has produced mixed findings (Lunt, Morton, & Wigglesworth, 1994; Wigglesworth, 1993) and has thus far been trialled only in oral assessment contexts. This article reports on a study investigating raters' attitudes and responsiveness to feedback on their ratings of an…

  14. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of Rose Angina Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hassan, N B; Choudhury, S R; Naing, L; Conroy, R M; Rahman, A R A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to translate the Rose Questionnaire (RQ) into a Bahasa Melayu version and adapt it cross-culturally, and to measure its inter-rater and intrarater reliability. This cross sectional study was conducted in the respondents' homes or workplaces in Kelantan, Malaysia. One hundred respondents aged 30 and above with different socio-demographic status were interviewed for face validity. For each inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, a sample of 150 respondents was interviewed. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were assessed by Cohen's kappa. The overall inter-rater agreements by the five pair of interviewers at point one and two were 0.86, and intrarater reliability by the five interviewers on the seven-item questionnaire at poinone and two was 0.88, as measured by kappa coefficient. The translated Malay version of RQ demonstrated an almost perfect inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and further validation such as sensitivity and specificity analysis of this translated questionnaire is highly recommended. PMID:18333302

  15. Rater Agreement on Interpersonal Psychotherapy Problem Areas

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, John C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Miller, Nina L.; Cherry, Sabrina; Clougherty, Kathleen F.; Villalobos, Liliana

    2000-01-01

    There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737

  16. Rater agreement on interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, J C; Leon, A C; Miller, N L; Cherry, S; Clougherty, K F; Villalobos, L

    2000-01-01

    There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737

  17. Approaches to describing inter-rater reliability of the overall clinical appearance of febrile infants and toddlers in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Justin; Asato, Julie; Walker, Nicholas; McCoy, Gary; Baal, Joe; Baal, Jed; Mendoza, Nanse; Banimahd, Faried

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure inter-rater agreement of overall clinical appearance of febrile children aged less than 24 months and to compare methods for doing so. Study Design and Setting. We performed an observational study of inter-rater reliability of the assessment of febrile children in a county hospital emergency department serving a mixed urban and rural population. Two emergency medicine healthcare providers independently evaluated the overall clinical appearance of children less than 24 months of age who had presented for fever. They recorded the initial ‘gestalt’ assessment of whether or not the child was ill appearing or if they were unsure. They then repeated this assessment after examining the child. Each rater was blinded to the other’s assessment. Our primary analysis was graphical. We also calculated Cohen’s κ, Gwet’s agreement coefficient and other measures of agreement and weighted variants of these. We examined the effect of time between exams and patient and provider characteristics on inter-rater agreement. Results. We analyzed 159 of the 173 patients enrolled. Median age was 9.5 months (lower and upper quartiles 4.9–14.6), 99/159 (62%) were boys and 22/159 (14%) were admitted. Overall 118/159 (74%) and 119/159 (75%) were classified as well appearing on initial ‘gestalt’ impression by both examiners. Summary statistics varied from 0.223 for weighted κ to 0.635 for Gwet’s AC2. Inter rater agreement was affected by the time interval between the evaluations and the age of the child but not by the experience levels of the rater pairs. Classifications of ‘not ill appearing’ were more reliable than others. Conclusion. The inter-rater reliability of emergency providers’ assessment of overall clinical appearance was adequate when described graphically and by Gwet’s AC. Different summary statistics yield different results for the same dataset. PMID:25401054

  18. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88), test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95), and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity. PMID:27069812

  19. Rater Expertise in a Second Language Speaking Assessment: The Influence of Training and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lawrence Edward

    2012-01-01

    Speaking performance tests typically employ raters to produce scores; accordingly, variability in raters' scoring decisions has important consequences for test reliability and validity. One such source of variability is the rater's level of expertise in scoring. Therefore, it is important to understand how raters' performance is…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…

  1. Agreement Measure Comparisons between Two Independent Sets of Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a FORTRAN software program that calculates the probability of an observed difference between agreement measures obtained from two independent sets of raters. An example illustrates the use of the DIFFER program in evaluating undergraduate essays. (Author/SLD)

  2. Body Shape Preferences: Associations with Rater Body Shape and Sociosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michael E.; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters’ body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite

  3. Rater agreement of visual lameness assessment in horses during lungeing

    PubMed Central

    Hammarberg, M.; Egenvall, A.; Pfau, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Lungeing is an important part of lameness examinations as the circular path may accentuate low‐grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements and to pain make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter‐rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement. Objectives The aim was to estimate inter‐ and intra‐rater agreement of equine veterinarians evaluating lameness from videos of sound and lame horses during lungeing and to investigate the influence of veterinarians’ experience and the objective degree of movement asymmetry on rater agreement. Study design Cross‐sectional observational study. Methods Video recordings and quantitative gait analysis with inertial sensors were performed in 23 riding horses of various breeds. The horses were examined at trot on a straight line and during lungeing on soft or hard surfaces in both directions. One video sequence was recorded per condition and the horses were classified as forelimb lame, hindlimb lame or sound from objective straight line symmetry measurements. Equine veterinarians (n = 86), including 43 with >5 years of orthopaedic experience, participated in a web‐based survey and were asked to identify the lamest limb on 60 videos, including 10 repeats. The agreements between (inter‐rater) and within (intra‐rater) veterinarians were analysed with κ statistics (Fleiss, Cohen). Results Inter‐rater agreement κ was 0.31 (0.38/0.25 for experienced/less experienced) and higher for forelimb (0.33) than for hindlimb lameness (0.11) or soundness (0.08) evaluation. Median intra‐rater agreement κ was 0.57. Conclusions Inter‐rater agreement was poor for less experienced raters, and for all raters when evaluating hindlimb lameness. Since identification of the lame limb/limbs is a prerequisite for successful diagnosis, treatment and recovery, the high inter‐rater variation

  4. Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics. PMID:27118379

  5. Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics. PMID:27118379

  6. Choosing among Tucker or Chained Linear Equating in Two Testing Situations: Rater Comparability Scoring and Randomly Equivalent Groups with an Anchor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhan, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Tucker and chained linear equatings were evaluated in two testing scenarios. In Scenario 1, referred to as rater comparability scoring and equating, the anchor-to-total correlation is often very high for the new form but moderate for the reference form. This may adversely affect the results of Tucker equating, especially if the new and reference…

  7. Comparison of haloperidol and midazolam in restless management of patients referred to the Emergency Department: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmailian, Mehrdad; Ahmadi, Omid; Taheri, Mehrsa; Zamani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restless and violent behaviors are common in Emergency Departments (EDs), which need therapeutic interventions in most of the times. The first-generation anti-psychotic drugs are one of the most applicable therapeutic agents in the management of such patients, but their use has some limitations. Some studies suggest midazolam as an alternative medicine. Therefore, this study was performed with the aim of comparison of the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and midazolam in the restless management of referring patients to EDs. Materials and Methods: The present double-blinded trial was done on patients needed sedation and referred to the ED of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. The patients were categorized into two random groups of haloperidol (5 mg) and midazolam receivers (2.5 mg for those weighing <50 kg and 5 mg in >50 kg), as intramuscular administration. The time to achieve sedation, need for rescue dose, need to resedation within the first 60 min, and adverse effects of drugs were compared among the groups. Results: Forty-eight patients were entered to the study. The mean age in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 44.8 ± 4.1 years and 45.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.91). The mean time of sedation in the haloperidol and midazolam groups was 5.6 ± 0.3 min and 5.2 ± 0.1 min, respectively (P = 0.31). The mean time of full consciousness after sedation was 36.2 ± 4.5 min and 38.2 ± 3.4 min in the haloperidol and midazolam groups, respectively (P = 0.72). On average, time to arousal in the midazolam group was 10.33 min more than the haloperidol group, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that administration of midazolam and haloperidol have similar efficacy in the treatment of restless symptoms with the same recovery time from drug effects for referring patients to the ED. In addition, none of the adverse effects were observed in this study. PMID:26759570

  8. Change blindness images.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-Qian; Xu, Kun; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Jiang, Bi-Ye; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-11-01

    Change blindness refers to human inability to recognize large visual changes between images. In this paper, we present the first computational model of change blindness to quantify the degree of blindness between an image pair. It comprises a novel context-dependent saliency model and a measure of change, the former dependent on the site of the change, and the latter describing the amount of change. This saliency model in particular addresses the influence of background complexity, which plays an important role in the phenomenon of change blindness. Using the proposed computational model, we are able to synthesize changed images with desired degrees of blindness. User studies and comparisons to state-of-the-art saliency models demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24029902

  9. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  10. Blind Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  11. A Note on the Interpretation of Weighted Kappa and its Relations to Other Rater Agreement Statistics for Metric Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Christof

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a formula for weighted kappa in terms of rater means, rater variances, and the rater covariance that is particularly helpful in emphasizing that weighted kappa is an absolute agreement measure in the sense that it is sensitive to differences in rater's marginal distributions. Specifically, rater mean differences will decrease…

  12. Inter-rater Reliability of Triages Performed by the Electronic Triage System

    PubMed Central

    Pourasghar, Faramarz; Daemi, Amin; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Ala, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the inter-rater reliability of triages performed by the Electronic Triage System (ETS) which has recently developed and used in hospital emergency department (ED). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted prospectively and studied 408 visitors of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital’s ED. The variables of interest were age, sex, nurse-assigned triage category, physician-assigned triage category, disease type (trauma, non-trauma), and the referred room within the ED. Cohen’s un-weighted kappa, linear weighted kappa, and quadratic weighted kappa were used to describe the reliability. Results: Un-weighted kappa observed to be 0.186 (95% CI: 0.123-0.249). Linear weighted kappa observed as 0.317 (95% CI: 0.251-0.384) and quadratic weighted kappa as 0.462 (95% CI: 0.336-0.589). In general, low agreement was seen between the triage nurses and ED physicians. For trauma patients and for those who were referred to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation room (CPR), all three types of kappa were higher than other visitors of the ED. Conclusion: Inter-rater reliability of the triages performed by the ETS observed as ranging from poor to moderate. Implementing interventions that would create a common language between nurses and physicians about the triage of the ED visitors seems necessary. The more agreement on the triage of trauma and CPR patients might be due to their condition and the more attention to them. PMID:27162918

  13. Qualities of Judgmental Ratings by Four Rater Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Anne S.

    Quality of performance data yielded by subjective judgment is of major concern to researchers in performance appraisal. However, some confusion exists in the analysis of quality on ratings obtained from different rating scale formats and from different raters. To clarify this confusion, a study was conducted to assess the quality of judgmental…

  14. Measuring the Joint Agreement between Multiple Raters and a Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A FORTRAN subroutine is presented to calculate a generalized measure of agreement between multiple raters and a set of correct responses at any level of measurement and among multiple responses, along with the associated probability value, under the null hypothesis. (Author)

  15. Prompt and Rater Effects in Second Language Writing Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessments have become the norm for evaluating language learners' writing abilities in international examinations of English proficiency. Two aspects of these assessments are usually systematically varied: test takers respond to different prompts, and their responses are read by different raters. This raises the possibility of undue…

  16. Interrater Reliability of the OPI: Using Academic Trainee Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halleck, Gene B.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the interrater reliability of proficiency-level judgments of graduate student trainee raters on oral proficiency interviews (OPIs). Trainees' ratings were compared with the judgments of a certified American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) tester for 150 interviews. (Author/JL)

  17. Expert and Naive Raters Using the PAG: Does it Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Edwin T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Questions the observed correlation between job experts and naive raters using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); and conducts a replication of the Smith and Hakel study (1979) with college students (N=39). Concluded that PAQ ratings from job experts and college students are not equivalent and therefore are not interchangeable. (LLL)

  18. Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…

  19. Rating Written Performance: What Do Raters Do and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiken, Folkert; Vedder, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship in L2 writing between raters' judgments of communicative adequacy and linguistic complexity by means of six-point Likert scales, and general measures of linguistic performance. The participants were 39 learners of Italian and 32 of Dutch, who wrote two short argumentative essays. The same writing tasks…

  20. Estimating Rater Severity with Multilevel and Multidimensional Item Response Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-chung

    Traditional approaches to the investigation of the objectivity of ratings for constructed-response items are based on classical test theory, which is item-dependent and sample-dependent. Item response theory overcomes this drawback by decomposing item difficulties into genuine difficulties and rater severity. In so doing, objectivity of ability…

  1. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may…

  2. An Examination of Rater Drift within a Generalizability Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.; Grabovsky, Irina; Nungester, Ronald J.; Swanson, Dave; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the long-term usefulness of estimated parameters used to adjust the scores from a performance assessment to account for differences in rater stringency. Ratings from four components of the USMLE[R] Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination data were analyzed. A generalizability-theory framework was used to examine the extent to…

  3. Rating Format Effects on Rater Agreement and Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, John H.; Troendle, G. Roger

    This study compares intra- and inter-rater agreement and reliability when using three different rating form formats to assess the same stimuli. One format requests assessment by marking detailed criteria without an overall judgement; the second format requests only an overall judgement without the use of detailed criteria; and the third format…

  4. Workplace-Based Assessment: Effects of Rater Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, M. J. B.; Schuwirth, L. W. T.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional psychometric approaches towards assessment tend to focus exclusively on quantitative properties of assessment outcomes. This may limit more meaningful educational approaches towards workplace-based assessment (WBA). Cognition-based models of WBA argue that assessment outcomes are determined by cognitive processes by raters which are…

  5. Two Models of Raters in a Structured Oral Examination: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Ainslie, Martha; Myers, Kathryn; Wood, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Oral examinations have become more standardized over recent years. Traditionally a small number of raters were used for this type of examination. Past studies suggested that more raters should improve reliability. We compared the results of a multi-station structured oral examination using two different rater models, those based in a station,…

  6. Do Raters Demonstrate Halo Error When Scoring a Series of Responses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Kirk

    This study investigated whether raters in two different training groups would demonstrate halo error when each rater scored all five responses to five different mathematics performance-based items from each student. One group of 20 raters was trained by an experienced scoring director with item-specific scoring rubrics and the opportunity to…

  7. Examining Rater Errors in the Assessment of Written Composition with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhard, George, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Rater errors (rater severity, halo effect, central tendency, and restriction of range) are described, and criteria are presented for evaluating rating quality based on a many-faceted Rasch (FACETS) model. Ratings of 264 compositions from the Eighth Grade Writing Test in Georgia by 15 raters illustrate the discussion. (SLD)

  8. The Influence of Training and Experience on Rater Performance in Scoring Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Two factors were investigated that are thought to contribute to consistency in rater scoring judgments: rater training and experience in scoring. Also considered were the relative effects of scoring rubrics and exemplars on rater performance. Experienced teachers of English (N = 20) scored recorded responses from the TOEFL iBT speaking test prior…

  9. Investigating Differences between American and Indian Raters in Assessing TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…

  10. Workplace-Based Assessment: Raters' Performance Theories and Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, M. J. B.; Van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Schuwirth, L. W. T.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and…

  11. Applying the Rasch Model To Explore Rater Influences on the Assessed Quality of Students' Writing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyagenda, Ismail S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to describe the Rasch model for measurement and apply the model to examine the relationship between raters, domains of written compositions, and student writing ability. Twenty raters were randomly selected from a group of 87 operational raters contracted to rate essays as part of the 1993 field test of the Georgia…

  12. Rater Behaviour When Judging Language Learners' Pragmatic Appropriateness in Extended Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydorenko, Tetyana; Maynard, Carson; Guntly, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The criteria by which raters judge pragmatic appropriateness of language learners' speech acts are underexamined, especially when raters evaluate extended discourse. To shed more light on this process, the present study investigated what factors are salient to raters when scoring pragmatic appropriateness of extended request sequences, and which…

  13. Rater Sensitivity to Lexical Accuracy, Sophistication and Range when Assessing Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Erik; Ruegg, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Although raters can be trained to evaluate the lexical qualities of student essays, the question remains as to what extent raters follow the "lexis" scale descriptors in the rating scale when evaluating or rate according to their own criteria. The current study examines the extent to which 27 trained university EFL raters take various lexical…

  14. Adjusting for Year to Year Rater Variation in IRT Linking--An Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to illustrate a polytomous IRT-based linking procedure that adjusts for rater variations. Test scores from two administrations of a statewide reading assessment were used. An anchor set of Year 1 students' constructed responses were rescored by Year 2 raters. To adjust for year-to-year rater variation in IRT…

  15. The Effect of Year-to-Year Rater Variation on IRT Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Year-to-year rater variation may result in constructed response (CR) parameter changes, making CR items inappropriate to use in anchor sets for linking or equating. This study demonstrates how rater severity affected the writing and reading scores. Rater adjustments were made to statewide results using an item response theory (IRT) methodology…

  16. Individual Differences in Rater Decision-Making Style: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beverly Anne

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of high-stakes, subjectively scored writing assessments have done much work to better understand the process that raters go through in applying a rating scale to a language performance to arrive at a score. However, there is still unexplained, systematic variability in rater scoring that resists rater training (see Hoyt & Kerns, 1999;…

  17. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  18. Rater Calibration when Observational Assessment Occurs at Large Scale: Degree of Calibration and Characteristics of Raters Associated with Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Anne H.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2012-01-01

    Observational assessment is used to study program and teacher effectiveness across large numbers of classrooms, but training a workforce of raters that can assign reliable scores when observations are used in large-scale contexts can be challenging and expensive. Limited data are available to speak to the feasibility of training large numbers of…

  19. Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Balance Error Scoring System in Pre-Adolescent School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six normally…

  20. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  1. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider or eye specialist can check your color vision in several ways. Testing for color blindness is ... Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. Color vision. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. ... PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 2, chap ...

  2. From Laboratory to Practice: Neglected Issues in Implementing Frame-of-Reference Rate-Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauenstein, Neil M. A.; Foti, Roseanne J.

    1989-01-01

    Data collected at two law enforcement agencies were used to address three specific issues concerning frame-of-reference rater training: (1) prototype-anchored rating system; (2) sensitivity and threshold analyses to identify idiosyncratic raters; and (3) areas of performance where supervisors and subordinates were likely to disagree on frame of…

  3. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624

  4. An examination of raters' and ratees' preferences in process and feedback in performance appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manshor, A T; Kamalanabhan, T J

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the raters' and the ratees' preferences in Malaysia regarding the performance appraisal process and feedback. A total of 52 managers (raters) and 122 subordinates (ratees) participated. Analysis by t test and correlation showed significant differences between raters and the ratees on most factors. Ratees preferred to have more frequent appraisals than once a year and preferred to have more frequent feedback from the managers about their performance. Ratees' preference for the purpose of information on performance was towards salary increase, promotion, training, and career development whereas the raters gave more importance to training and career development. PMID:10778271

  5. Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Wan; HU, Jun; ZHANG, Hui; WU, Pan; HE, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient – a popular statistic for measuring agreement – both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient. PMID:25852260

  6. Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Pan; He, Hua

    2015-02-25

    In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient - a popular statistic for measuring agreement - both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient. PMID:25852260

  7. Blindness Clues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults, yet researchers are still in the dark about many of the factors that cause this incurable disease. But new insight from University of Florida (UF) and German researchers about a genetic link between rhesus monkeys with macular degeneration and humans could unlock…

  8. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard SE

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10–20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18–65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)–number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P<0.05), PDQ (P<0.01), CGI-I (P<0.001), MADRS (P<0.05), and UPSA (P<0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated. PMID:25687662

  9. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard S E

    2015-07-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10-20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)-number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P < 0.05), PDQ (P < 0.01), CGI-I (P < 0.001), MADRS (P < 0.05), and UPSA (P < 0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾ 5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated. PMID:25687662

  10. Grant Peer Review: Improving Inter-Rater Reliability with Training

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, David N.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Naney, Linda; Mathis, Randy

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public Health professors from U.S. research universities watched the training video we produced and assigned scores to the National Institutes of Health scoring criteria proposal summary descriptions. For both novice and experienced reviewers, the training video increased scoring accuracy (the percentage of scores that reflect the true rating scale values), inter-rater reliability, and the amount of time reading the review criteria compared to the no video condition. The increase in reliability for experienced reviewers is notable because it is commonly assumed that reviewers—especially those with experience—have good understanding of the grant review rating scale. Our findings suggest that both experienced and novice reviewers who had not received the type of training developed in this study may not have appropriate understanding of the definitions and meaning for each value of the rating scale and that experienced reviewers may overestimate their knowledge of the rating scale. Lastly, the results underscore the benefits of and need for specialized peer reviewer training.

  11. Grant Peer Review: Improving Inter-Rater Reliability with Training.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; McKnight, Patrick E; Naney, Linda; Mathis, Randy

    2015-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public Health professors from U.S. research universities watched the training video we produced and assigned scores to the National Institutes of Health scoring criteria proposal summary descriptions. For both novice and experienced reviewers, the training video increased scoring accuracy (the percentage of scores that reflect the true rating scale values), inter-rater reliability, and the amount of time reading the review criteria compared to the no video condition. The increase in reliability for experienced reviewers is notable because it is commonly assumed that reviewers--especially those with experience--have good understanding of the grant review rating scale. The findings suggest that both experienced and novice reviewers who had not received the type of training developed in this study may not have appropriate understanding of the definitions and meaning for each value of the rating scale and that experienced reviewers may overestimate their knowledge of the rating scale. The results underscore the benefits of and need for specialized peer reviewer training. PMID:26075884

  12. Grant Peer Review: Improving Inter-Rater Reliability with Training

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, David N.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Naney, Linda; Mathis, Randy

    2015-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public Health professors from U.S. research universities watched the training video we produced and assigned scores to the National Institutes of Health scoring criteria proposal summary descriptions. For both novice and experienced reviewers, the training video increased scoring accuracy (the percentage of scores that reflect the true rating scale values), inter-rater reliability, and the amount of time reading the review criteria compared to the no video condition. The increase in reliability for experienced reviewers is notable because it is commonly assumed that reviewers—especially those with experience—have good understanding of the grant review rating scale. The findings suggest that both experienced and novice reviewers who had not received the type of training developed in this study may not have appropriate understanding of the definitions and meaning for each value of the rating scale and that experienced reviewers may overestimate their knowledge of the rating scale. The results underscore the benefits of and need for specialized peer reviewer training. PMID:26075884

  13. Native and Nonnative Rater Behavior in Grading Korean Students' English Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate rating behavior between Korean and native English speaking (NES) raters. Five Korean English teachers and five NES teachers graded 420 essays written by Korean college freshmen and completed survey questionnaires. The grading data were analyzed with FACETS program. The results revealed Korean raters'…

  14. Complementing Human Judgment of Essays Written by English Language Learners with E-Rater[R] Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary K.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    E-rater[R] is an automated essay scoring system that uses natural language processing techniques to extract features from essays and to model statistically human holistic ratings. Educational Testing Service has investigated the use of e-rater, in conjunction with human ratings, to score one of the two writing tasks on the TOEFL-iBT[R] writing…

  15. A Cross-Linguistic Investigation of the Effect of Raters' Accent Familiarity on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky; Alegre, Analucia; Eisenberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The project aimed to examine the effect of raters' familiarity with accents on their judgments of non-native speech. Participants included three groups of raters who were either from Spanish Heritage, Spanish Non-Heritage, or Chinese Heritage backgrounds (n = 16 in each group) using Winke & Gass's (2013) definition of a heritage learner as…

  16. Effects of Rating Task Instructions on Consistency and Accuracy of Expert Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, John H.; Troendle, G. Roger

    The effect of different types of rating task instructions on rater behavior was examined using experts, as opposed to novices, as raters. The experts were instructed to (1) form a global categorical judgment (early hypothesis generation); (2) assess 19 detailed elements; or (3) both. Subjects were 8 dental faculty members who ranged in age from 28…

  17. The inter-rater reliability of Strain Index and OCRA Checklist task assessments in cheese processing.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Robert; Gallu, Tommaso; Gilkey, David; Reiser, Raoul; Murgia, Lelia; Rosecrance, John

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inter-rater reliability of two physical exposure assessment methods of the upper extremity, the Strain Index (SI) and Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist. These methods are commonly used in occupational health studies and by occupational health practitioners. Seven raters used the SI and OCRA Checklist to assess task-level physical exposures to the upper extremity of workers performing 21 cheese manufacturing tasks. Inter-rater reliability was characterized using a single-measure, agreement-based intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-rater reliability of SI assessments was moderate to good (ICC = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73), a similar finding to prior studies. Inter-rater reliability of OCRA Checklist assessments was excellent (ICC = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89). Task complexity had a small, but non-significant, effect on inter-rater reliability SI and OCRA Checklist scores. Both the SI and OCRA Checklist assessments possess adequate inter-rater reliability for the purposes of occupational health research and practice. The OCRA Checklist inter-rater reliability scores were among the highest reported in the literature for semi-quantitative physical exposure assessment tools of the upper extremity. The OCRA Checklist however, required more training time and time to conduct the risk assessments compared to the SI. PMID:26154218

  18. Managing Rater Effects through the Use of FACETS Analysis: The Case of a University Placement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Siew Mei; Tan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Rating essays is a complex task where students' grades could be adversely affected by test-irrelevant factors such as rater characteristics and rating scales. Understanding these factors and controlling their effects are crucial for test validity. Rater behaviour has been extensively studied through qualitative methods such as questionnaires and…

  19. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  20. Comparison of "E-Rater"[R] Automated Essay Scoring Model Calibration Methods Based on Distributional Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mo; Williamson, David M.; Breyer, F. Jay; Trapani, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes two separate, related studies that provide insight into the effectiveness of "e-rater" score calibration methods based on different distributional targets. In the first study, we developed and evaluated a new type of "e-rater" scoring model that was cost-effective and applicable under conditions of absent human rating and…

  1. Comparing Native and Non-Native Raters of US Federal Government Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel Lunde

    2013-01-01

    Previous Language Testing research has largely reported that although many raters' characteristics affect their evaluations of language assessments (Reed & Cohen, 2001), being a native speaker or non-native speaker rater does not significantly affect final ratings (Kim, 2009). In Second Language Acquisition, some researchers conclude that…

  2. A Simulation Study of Rater Agreement Measures with 2x2 Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ato, Manuel; Lopez, Juan Jose; Benavente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between six rater agreement measures obtained using three different approaches was achieved by means of a simulation study. Rater coefficients suggested by Bennet's [sigma] (1954), Scott's [pi] (1955), Cohen's [kappa] (1960) and Gwet's [gamma] (2008) were selected to represent the classical, descriptive approach, [alpha] agreement…

  3. A Surgery Oral Examination: Interrater Agreement and the Influence of Rater Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study measured interrater reliability among 140 United States and Canadian surgery exam raters and the influences of age, years in practice, and experience as an examiner on individual scores. Results indicate three aspects of examinee performance influenced scores: verbal style, dress, and content of answers. No rater characteristic…

  4. Monitoring Rater Performance over Time: A Framework for Detecting Differential Accuracy and Differential Scale Category Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myford, Carol M.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we describe a framework for monitoring rater performance over time. We present several statistical indices to identify raters whose standards drift and explain how to use those indices operationally. To illustrate the use of the framework, we analyzed rating data from the 2002 Advanced Placement English Literature and Composition…

  5. The Effect of Raters and Rating Conditions on the Reliability of the Missionary Teaching Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ure, Abigail C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how 2 different rating conditions, the controlled rating condition (CRC) and the uncontrolled rating condition (URC), effected rater behavior and the reliability of a performance assessment (PA) known as the Missionary Teaching Assessment (MTA). The CRC gives raters the capability to manipulate (pause, rewind, fast-forward)…

  6. Evaluating Rater Responses to an Online Training Program for L2 Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Catherine; Barkhuizen, Gary; Knoch, Ute; von Randow, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The use of online rater self-training is growing in popularity and has obvious practical benefits, facilitating access to training materials and rating samples and allowing raters to reorient themselves to the rating scale and self monitor their behaviour at their own convenience. However there has thus far been little research into rater…

  7. Exploring the Role of First Impressions in Rater-Based Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Medical education relies heavily on assessment formats that require raters to assess the competence and skills of learners. Unfortunately, there are often inconsistencies and variability in the scores raters assign. To ensure the scores from these assessment tools have validity, it is important to understand the underlying cognitive processes that…

  8. How Well Do Raters Agree on the Development Stage of Caenorhabditis elegans?

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Annabel A.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Marsh, Gary M.; Fisher, Alfred L.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of inter-rater reliability is a topic that is infrequently addressed in Caenorhabditis elegans research, despite the existence of sophisticated statistical methods and the strong interest in the field in obtaining reliable and accurate data. This study applies statistical modeling as a robust means of analyzing the performance of worm researchers measuring the stage of worm development in terms of the two independent factors that comprise “agreement”, which are (1) accuracy, representing trueness, a lack of systematic differences, or lack of bias, and (2) precision, representing reliability or the extent to which random differences are small. In our study, multiple raters assessed the same sample of worms to determine the developmental stage of each animal, and we collected data linking each scorer with their assessment for each worm. To describe the agreement of the raters, we developed a structural equation model with latent variables and thresholds, which assumes that all the raters are jointly scoring each worm. This common factor model separately quantifies the two aspects of agreement. The stage-specific thresholds examine accuracy and characterize the relative biases of each rater during the scoring process. The factor loadings for each rater examine the precision and characterizes the random error of the rater. Within our group, we found that the overall agreement was good, while certain adjustments in particular raters would have decreased systematic differences. Hence, the use of developmental stage as an experimental outcome can be both accurate and precise. PMID:26172989

  9. A Bayesian Approach to Ranking and Rater Evaluation: An Application to Grant Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Jing; Stokes, S. Lynne; Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of ordinal data from multirater ranking studies. The model for a rater's score includes four latent factors: one is a latent item trait determining the true order of items and the other three are the rater's performance characteristics, including bias, discrimination, and measurement error…

  10. The Inter-rater Reliability of the Functional Movement Screen within an athletic population using Untrained Raters.

    PubMed

    Elias, Jade E

    2013-07-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a commonly used screening tool designed to identify restrictions to movement patterns and increased injury risk using 7 predesigned tests. The purpose of this study was to analyse the inter- rater reliability of scoring of the FMS using a group of 'untrained' subjects. Additionally, the study also examined if clinical experience level had any effect on reliability. Twenty fully qualified Physiotherapists working at the English Institute of Sport, with elite athletes, volunteered to participate in the study. The group comprised of both Level 2 and Level 3 physiotherapists, based on clinical experience levels. Five elite athletes, free from injury, were recruited and videoed completing 6 of the 7 FMS tests, using a 3 camera system. The videos were scored by each Physiotherapist using the standardised scoring sheet, as developed by Cook et al. (2006) (4,5). Each practitioner marked each athlete completing the 6 tests. The total scores were calculated for each athlete (maximum score of 18). The inter- rater reliability of the test was shown to be high, ICC 0.906. An independent t-test showed no significant differences between the Level 2 and Level 3 practitioners in the total scores (p = 0.502). The results of the test indicate that the FMS is a reliable screening tool when used by 'untrained' practitioners in determining faulty movement patterns and that clinical experience level does not affect the reliability, therefore it may be a useful tool in the screening of athletic populations. PMID:23838983

  11. Inter-rater reliability of manual and automated region-of-interest delineation for PiB PET

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Bedda L.; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Laymon, Charles M.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.; Berginc, Michael D.; James, Jeffrey A.; Hoge, Jessica A.; Price, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging studies of Alzheimer’s disease is the reliable detection of early amyloid deposition in human brain. Manual region-of-interest (ROI) delineation on structural magnetic resonance (MR) images is generally the reference standard for the extraction of count-rate data from PET images, as compared to automated MR-template(s) methods that utilize spatial normalization and a single set of ROIs. The goal of this work was to assess the inter-rater reliability of manual ROI delineation for PiB PET amyloid retention measures and the impact of CSF dilution correction (CSF) on this reliability for data acquired in elderly control (n=5) and AD (n=5) subjects. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to measure reliability. As a secondary goal, ICC scores were also computed for PiB outcome measures obtained by an automated MR-template ROI method and one manual rater; to assess the level of reliability that could be achieved using different processing methods. Fourteen ROIs were evaluated that included anterior cingulate (ACG), precuneus (PRC) and cerebellum (CER). The PiB outcome measures were the volume of distribution (VT), summed tissue uptake (SUV), and corresponding ratios that were computed using CER as reference (DVR and SUVR). Substantial reliability (ICC = 0.932) was obtained across 3 manual raters for VT and SUV measures when CSF correction was applied across all outcomes and regions and was similar in the absence of CSF correction. The secondary analysis revealed substantial reliability in primary cortical areas between the automated and manual SUV [ICC = 0.979 (ACG/PRC)] and SUVR [ICC = 0.977/0.952 (ACG/PRC)] outcomes. The current study indicates the following rank order among the various reliability results in primary cortical areas and cerebellum (high to low): 1) VT or SUV manual delineation, with or without CSF correction; 2) DVR or SUVR manual delineation, with or without CSF

  12. Inter-rater agreement among orthodontists in a blocked experiment.

    PubMed

    Korn, E L; Baumrind, S

    1985-01-01

    Five orthodontists were asked to predict for 64 patients a particular dichotomous outcome of treatment based on pre-treatment X-ray films. The orthodontists rated the cases in blocks of size 4-6 with the knowledge of the number of positive outcomes in each block. We discuss the reasons why this blocked design is appropriate whenever clinicians are asked to rate cases which have not been randomly selected from a clinical practice similar to their own. We give a simple description of the inter-rater agreement for this type of blocked experiment as well as a procedure to test that the agreement is no better than that expected by random independent assignment. PMID:3992073

  13. The Effect of Spiritual Intervention on Postmenopausal Depression in Women Referred to Urban Healthcare Centers in Isfahan: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Zohre; Zandiyeh, Zahra; Moeini, Mahin; Gholami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Depression is not only common after menopause, but also affects postmenopausal women more than other women. Some studies show the positive effects of spiritual intervention on postmenopausal women and depressed patients. However, there is inadequate experimental data for supporting the effectiveness of such interventions. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of a spiritual intervention on postmenopausal depression in women referred to urban healthcare centers in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on postmenopausal women referred to the healthcare centers of Isfahan. Sixty-four women with postmenopausal depression were assigned randomly into an experimental group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 32). The experimental group received eight sessions of spiritual intervention while the control group received two sessions of training on healthy diet for postmenopausal women. All subjects in the experimental group and the control group responded to the Beck’s depression inventory at the start of the study, at the end of the fourth week, and a month after the last educational session. In addition to descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, independent samples t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Before the intervention, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of mean depression scores (20.76 ± 4.61 vs. 19.58 ± 5.27, P = 0.33). However, immediately after intervention and after one month, the mean depression scores of 11.01 ± 7.85 and 11.21 ± 9.23 in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (19.22 ± 4.94 and 19.34 ± 4.92, respectively) (P = 0.001). In repeated measures analysis of variance, Mauchly’s test of sphericity was not significant (P = 0.672), and in the test of within-subjects effects, a significant interaction was found between the spiritual intervention and time. Conclusions

  14. The Hierarchical Rater Model for Rated Test Items and Its Application to Large-Scale Educational Assessment Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patz, Richard J.; Junker, Brian W.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Mariano, Louis T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the hierarchical rater model (HRM) of R. Patz (1996) and shows how it can be used to scale examinees and items, model aspects of consensus among raters, and model individual rater severity and consistency effects. Also shows how the HRM fits into the generalizability theory framework. Compares the HRM to the conventional item response…

  15. The Development and Maintenance of Rating Quality in Performance Writing Assessment: A Longitudinal Study of New and Experienced Raters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.

    2011-01-01

    Raters are central to writing performance assessment, and rater development--training, experience, and expertise--involves a temporal dimension. However, few studies have examined new and experienced raters' rating performance longitudinally over multiple time points. This study uses operational data from the writing section of the MELAB (n =…

  16. Intra and Inter-Rater Reliability of Screening for Movement Impairments: Movement Control Tests from The Foundation Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mischiati, Carolina R.; Comerford, Mark; Gosford, Emma; Swart, Jacqueline; Ewings, Sean; Botha, Nadine; Stokes, Maria; Mottram, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-season screening is well established within the sporting arena, and aims to enhance performance and reduce injury risk. With the increasing need to identify potential injury with greater accuracy, a new risk assessment process has been produced; The Performance Matrix (battery of movement control tests). As with any new method of objective testing, it is fundamental to establish whether the same results can be reproduced between examiners and by the same examiner on consecutive occasions. This study aimed to determine the intra-rater test re-test and inter-rater reliability of tests from a component of The Performance Matrix, The Foundation Matrix. Twenty participants were screened by two experienced musculoskeletal therapists using nine tests to assess the ability to control movement during specific tasks. Movement evaluation criteria for each test were rated as pass or fail. The therapists observed participants real-time and tests were recorded on video to enable repeated ratings four months later to examine intra-rater reliability (videos rated two weeks apart). Overall test percentage agreement was 87% for inter-rater reliability; 98% Rater 1, 94% Rater 2 for test re-test reliability; and 75% for real-time versus video. Intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICCs) were excellent between raters (0.81) and within raters (Rater 1, 0.96; Rater 2, 0.88) but poor for real-time versus video (0.23). Reliability for individual components of each test was more variable: inter-rater, 68-100%; intra-rater, 88-100% Rater 1, 75-100% Rater 2; and real-time versus video 31-100%. Cohen’s Kappa values for inter-rater reliability were 0.0-1.0; intra-rater 0.6-1.0 for Rater 1; -0.1-1.0 for Rater 2; and -0.1-1 for real-time versus video. It is concluded that both inter and intra-rater reliability of tests in The Foundation Matrix are acceptable when rated by experienced therapists. Recommendations are made for modifying some of the criteria to improve reliability where

  17. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  18. Consensus Conference Follow-up: Inter-rater Reliability Assessment of the Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) Rater Scale, a Medical Literature Rating Tool for Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Worster, Andrew; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Vallera, Teresa; Upadhye, Suneel; Sherbino, Jonathan; Haynes, R. Brian

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies published in general and specialty medical journals have the potential to improve emergency medicine (EM) practice, but there can be delayed awareness of this evidence because emergency physicians (EPs) are unlikely to read most of these journals. Also, not all published studies are intended for or ready for clinical practice application. The authors developed “Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine” (BEEM) to ameliorate these problems by searching for, identifying, appraising, and translating potentially practice-changing studies for EPs. An initial step in the BEEM process is the BEEM rater scale, a novel tool for EPs to collectively evaluate the relative clinical relevance of EM-related studies found in more than 120 journals. The BEEM rater process was designed to serve as a clinical relevance filter to identify those studies with the greatest potential to affect EM practice. Therefore, only those studies identified by BEEM raters as having the highest clinical relevance are selected for the subsequent critical appraisal process and, if found methodologically sound, are promoted as the best evidence in EM. Objectives The primary objective was to measure inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the BEEM rater scale. Secondary objectives were to determine the minimum number of EP raters needed for the BEEM rater scale to achieve acceptable reliability and to compare performance of the scale against a previously published evidence rating system, the McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE), in an EP population. Methods The authors electronically distributed the title, conclusion, and a PubMed link for 23 recently published studies related to EM to a volunteer group of 134 EPs. The volunteers answered two demographic questions and rated the articles using one of two randomly assigned seven-point Likert scales, the BEEM rater scale (n = 68) or the MORE scale (n = 66), over two separate administrations. The IRR of each scale was measured using

  19. SEQUENTIAL TESTING OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS IN INTER-RATER RELIABILITY STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mei; Liu, Aiyi; Chen, Zhen; Li, Zhaohai

    2014-01-01

    Inter-rater reliability is usually assessed by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient. Using two-way analysis of variance to model raters and subjects as random effects, we derive group sequential testing procedures for the design and analysis of reliability studies in which multiple raters evaluate multiple subjects. Compared with the conventional fixed sample procedures, the group sequential test has smaller average sample number. The performance of the proposed technique is examined using simulation studies and critical values are tabulated for a range of two-stage design parameters. The methods are exemplified using data from the Physician Reliability Study for diagnosis of endometriosis. PMID:25525316

  20. Intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269

  1. Intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269

  2. Inter-rater and test–retest reliability of quality assessments by novice student raters using the Jadad and Newcastle–Ottawa Scales

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Carolina; Hall, Geoffrey B C; McKinnon, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Quality assessment of included studies is an important component of systematic reviews. Objective The authors investigated inter-rater and test–retest reliability for quality assessments conducted by inexperienced student raters. Design Student raters received a training session on quality assessment using the Jadad Scale for randomised controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for observational studies. Raters were randomly assigned into five pairs and they each independently rated the quality of 13–20 articles. These articles were drawn from a pool of 78 papers examining cognitive impairment following electroconvulsive therapy to treat major depressive disorder. The articles were randomly distributed to the raters. Two months later, each rater re-assessed the quality of half of their assigned articles. Setting McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program. Participants 10 students taking McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program courses. Main outcome measures The authors measured inter-rater reliability using κ and the intraclass correlation coefficient type 2,1 or ICC(2,1). The authors measured test–retest reliability using ICC(2,1). Results Inter-rater reliability varied by scale question. For the six-item Jadad Scale, question-specific κs ranged from 0.13 (95% CI −0.11 to 0.37) to 0.56 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.83). The ranges were −0.14 (95% CI −0.28 to 0.00) to 0.39 (95% CI −0.02 to 0.81) for the NOS cohort and −0.20 (95% CI −0.49 to 0.09) to 1.00 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.00) for the NOS case–control. For overall scores on the six-item Jadad Scale, ICC(2,1)s for inter-rater and test–retest reliability (accounting for systematic differences between raters) were 0.32 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.52) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.67), respectively. Corresponding ICC(2,1)s for the NOS cohort were −0.19 (95% CI −0.67 to 0.35) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.83), and for the NOS case–control, the ICC(2

  3. Examining rating quality in writing assessment: rater agreement, error, and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stefanie A; Engelhard, George

    2012-01-01

    The use of performance assessments in which human raters evaluate student achievement has become increasingly prevalent in high-stakes assessment systems such as those associated with recent policy initiatives (e.g., Race to the Top). In this study, indices of rating quality are compared between two measurement perspectives. Within the context of a large-scale writing assessment, this study focuses on the alignment between indices of rater agreement, error, and accuracy based on traditional and Rasch measurement theory perspectives. Major empirical findings suggest that Rasch-based indices of model-data fit for ratings provide information about raters that is comparable to direct measures of accuracy. The use of easily obtained approximations of direct accuracy measures holds significant implications for monitoring rating quality in large-scale rater-mediated performance assessments. PMID:23270978

  4. Fabric filter blinding mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.; Shang, J.Y.

    1982-08-01

    This discussion of various bag/cloth filter degradation mechanisms is mostly common sense. However, this information is occasionally lost in the subtleties of real-system operation. Although this paper is written with reference to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) applications, the insights are generally applicable. For enumeration of particular filter fabric and baghouse experiences in FBC applications, the reader is referred to a report by Davy McKee Corporatin (no date). A fabric filter is a composite matrix of fibers oriented to retain the dust particles from dust-laden gas. The cleaned gas passes through the fabric filter; the retained dust particles are deposited on the surface of (and within) the fiber matrix. The retained dust can be later removed through mechanical means. The fabric may be made of any fibrous material, spun in yarn, and then woven, impacted, needled, or bonded into a felt. Deep penetration of aggregated fine particles, lack of dust removal during filter cleaning, and chars or condensed aerosols may contribute to the increase in pressure drop across the filter. This increases the filter operation power consumption and, consequently, reduces the filtration capacity. The phenomenon of building a high-pressure drop in spite of filter cleaning provisions is known as blinding. In order to maintain an acceptable gas throughput, blinding problems must be addressed. Recommendations are given: maintain temperature above dew point, use filter aids, by-pass filter during start-up or operational upsets, etc.

  5. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  6. Grant Peer Review: Improving Inter-Rater Reliability with Training

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sattler, David N.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Naney, Linda; Mathis, Randy

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public Health professors from U.S. research universities watched the training video we produced and assigned scores to the National Institutes of Health scoring criteria proposal summary descriptions. For both novice and experienced reviewers, the training video increased scoring accuracy (the percentage of scores that reflect the true rating scale values), inter-ratermore » reliability, and the amount of time reading the review criteria compared to the no video condition. The increase in reliability for experienced reviewers is notable because it is commonly assumed that reviewers—especially those with experience—have good understanding of the grant review rating scale. Our findings suggest that both experienced and novice reviewers who had not received the type of training developed in this study may not have appropriate understanding of the definitions and meaning for each value of the rating scale and that experienced reviewers may overestimate their knowledge of the rating scale. Lastly, the results underscore the benefits of and need for specialized peer reviewer training.« less

  7. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  8. Inter-rater Reliability of Sustained Aberrant Movement Patterns as a Clinical Assessment of Muscular Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Frank; Carrier, Kathy; Alwood, Becky

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of clinical manifestation of muscle fatigue is an effective procedure in establishing therapeutic exercise dose. Few studies have evaluated physical therapist reliability in establishing muscle fatigue through detection of changes in quality of movement patterns in a live setting. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of physical therapists’ ability to detect altered movement patterns due to muscle fatigue. Design: A reliability study in a live setting with multiple raters. Participants: Forty-four healthy individuals (ages 19-35) were evaluated by six physical therapists in a live setting. Methods: Participants were evaluated by physical therapists for altered movement patterns during resisted shoulder rotation. Each participant completed a total of four tests: right shoulder internal rotation, right shoulder external rotation, left shoulder internal rotation and left shoulder external rotation. Results: For all tests combined, the inter-rater reliability for a single rater scoring ICC (2,1) was .65 (95%, .60, .71) This corresponds to moderate inter-rater reliability between physical therapists. Limitations: The results of this study apply only to healthy participants and therefore cannot be generalized to a symptomatic population. Conclusion: Moderate inter-rater reliability was found between physical therapists in establishing muscle fatigue through the observation of sustained altered movement patterns during dynamic resistive shoulder internal and external rotation. PMID:27347241

  9. Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. PMID:24950531

  10. Inter‐rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry

    PubMed Central

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real

  11. Exploring examiner judgement of professional competence in rater based assessment.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Fiona L; Marshall, Stephen; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip D

    2016-10-01

    Exercise physiology courses have transitioned to competency based, forcing Universities to rethink assessment to ensure students are competent to practice. This study built on earlier research to explore rater cognition, capturing factors that contribute to assessor decision making about students' competency. The aims were to determine the source of variation in the examination process and document the factors impacting on examiner judgment. Examiner judgement was explored from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Twenty-three examiners viewed three video encounters of student performance on an OSCE. Once rated, analysis of variance was performed to determine where the variance was attributed. A semi-structured interview drew out the examiners reasoning behind their ratings. Results highlighted variability of the process of observation, judgement and rating, with each examiner viewing student performance from different lenses. However, at a global level, analysis of variance indicated that the examiner had a minimal impact on the variance, with the majority of variance explained by the student performance on task. One anomaly noted was in the assessment of technical competency, whereby the examiner had a large impact on the rating, linked to assessing according to curriculum content. The thought processes behind judgement were diverse and if the qualitative results had been used in isolation, may have led to the researchers drawing conclusions that the examined performances would have yielded widely different ratings. However, as a cohort, the examiners were able to distinguish good and poor levels of competency with the majority of student competency linked to the varying ability of the student. PMID:26796200

  12. Can training improve the quality of inferences made by raters in competency modeling? A quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Sanchez, Juan I

    2007-05-01

    A quasi-experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of frame-of-reference training on the quality of competency modeling ratings made by consultants. Human resources consultants from a large consulting firm were randomly assigned to either a training or a control condition. The discriminant validity, interrater reliability, and accuracy of the competency ratings were significantly higher in the training group than in the control group. Further, the discriminant validity and interrater reliability of competency inferences were highest among an additional group of trained consultants who also had competency modeling experience. Together, these results suggest that procedural interventions such as rater training can significantly enhance the quality of competency modeling. PMID:17484560

  13. Unsupervised Blind Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena-Galle, R.; Kann, L.; Mugnier, L.; Gudimetla, R.; Johnson, R.; Gladysz, S.

    2013-09-01

    "Blind" deconvolution is rarely executed blindly. All available methods have parameters which the user fine-tunes until the most visually-appealing reconstruction is achieved. The "art" of deconvolution is to find constraints which allow for the best estimate of an object to be recovered, but in practice these parameterized constraints often reduce deconvolution to the struggle of trial and error. In the course of AFOSR-sponsored activities we are developing a general maximum a posteriori framework for the problem of imaging through atmospheric turbulence, with the emphasis on multi-frame blind deconvolution. Our aim is to develop deconvolution strategy which is reference-less, i.e. no calibration PSF is required, extendable to longer exposures, and applicable to imaging with adaptive optics. In the first part of the project the focus has been on developing a new theory of statistics of images taken through turbulence, both with-, and without adaptive optics. Images and their Fourier transforms have been described as random phasor sums, their fluctuations controlled by wavefront "cells" and moments of the phase. The models were validated using simulations and real data from the 3.5m telescope at the Starfire Optical Range in New Mexico. Another important ingredient of the new framework is the capability to estimate the average PSF automatically from the target observations. A general approach, applicable to any type of object, has been proposed. Here use is made of an object-cancelling transformation of the image sequence. This transformation yields information about the atmospheric PSF. Currently, the PSF estimation module and the theoretical constraints on PSF variability are being incorporated into multi-frame blind deconvolution. In preliminary simulation tests we obtained significantly sharper images with respect to the starting observations and PSF estimates which closely track the input kernels. Thanks to access to the SOR 3.5m telescope we are now testing

  14. Measuring teacher dispositions using the DAATS battery: a multifaceted Rasch analysis of rater effect.

    PubMed

    Lang, W Steve; Wilkerson, Judy R; Rea, Dorothy C; Quinn, David; Batchelder, Heather L; Englehart, Dierdre S; Jennings, Kelly J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which raters' subjectivity impacts measures of teacher dispositions using the Dispositions Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards (DAATS) battery. This is an important component of the collection of evidence of validity and reliability of inferences made using the scale. It also provides needed support for the use of subjective affective measures in teacher training and other professional preparation programs, since these measures are often feared to be unreliable because of rater effect. It demonstrates the advantages of using the Multi-Faceted Rasch Model as a better alternative to the typical methods used in preparation programs, such as Cohen's Kappa. DAATS instruments require subjective scoring using a six-point rating scale derived from the affective taxonomy as defined by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1956). Rater effect is a serious challenge and can worsen or drift over time. Errors in rater judgment can impact the accuracy of ratings, and these effects are common, but can be lessened through training of raters and monitoring of their efforts. This effort uses the multifaceted Rasch measurement models (MFRM) to detect and understand the nature of these effects. PMID:24992248

  15. Cultural values and performance appraisal: assessing the effects of rater self-construal on performance ratings.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vipanchi; Roch, Sylvia G

    2013-01-01

    Much of the prior research investigating the influence of cultural values on performance ratings has focused either on conducting cross-national comparisons among raters or using cultural level individualism/collectivism scales to measure the effects of cultural values on performance ratings. Recent research has shown that there is considerable within country variation in cultural values, i.e. people in one country can be more individualistic or collectivistic in nature. Taking the latter perspective, the present study used Markus and Kitayama's (1991) conceptualization of independent and interdependent self-construals as measures of individual variations in cultural values to investigate within culture variations in performance ratings. Results suggest that rater self-construal has a significant influence on overall performance evaluations; specifically, raters with a highly interdependent self-construal tend to show a preference for interdependent ratees, whereas raters high on independent self-construal do not show a preference for specific type of ratees when making overall performance evaluations. Although rater self-construal significantly influenced overall performance evaluations, no such effects were observed for specific dimension ratings. Implications of these results for performance appraisal research and practice are discussed. PMID:23885636

  16. Assessment of Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts (AIMIT): an inter- and intra-rater reliability study of a new method of detection of interpersonal motivational systems in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fassone, G; Valcella, F; Pallini, S; Scarcella, F; Tombolini, L; Ivaldi, A; Prunetti, E; Manaresi, F; Liotti, G

    2012-01-01

    Assessing Interpersonal Motivations in Transcripts (AIMIT) is a coding system aiming to systematically detect the activity of interpersonal motivational systems (IMS) in the therapeutic dialogue. An inter- and intra-rater reliability study has been conducted. Sixteen video-recorded psychotherapy sessions were selected and transcribed according to the AIMIT criteria. Sessions relate to 16 patients with an Axis II diagnosis, with a mean Global Assessment of Functioning of 51. For the intra-rater reliability evaluation, five sessions have been selected and assigned to five independent coders who where asked to make a first evaluation, and then a second independent one 14 days later. For the inter-rater reliability study, the sessions coded by the therapist-coder were jointly revised with another coder and finally classified as gold standard. The 16 standard sessions were sent to other evaluators for the independent coding. The agreement (κ) was estimated according to the following parameters for each coding unit: evaluation units supported by the 'codable' activation of one or more IMS; motivational interaction with reference to the ongoing relation between patient and therapist; an interaction between the patient and another person reported/narrated by the patient; detection of specific IMS: attachment (At), caregiving (CG), rank (Ra), sexuality (Se), peer cooperation (PC); and transitions from one IMS to another were also scored. The intra-rater agreement was evaluated through the parameters 'cod', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC' described above. A total of 2443 coding units were analysed. For the nine parameters on which the agreement was calculated, eight ['coded (Cod)', 'ongoing relation (Rel)', 'narrated relation (Nar)', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC'] have κ values comprised between 0.62 (CG) and 0.81 (Cod) and were therefore satisfactory. The scoring of 'transitions' showed agreement values slightly below desired cut-off (0.56). Intra-rater reliability was

  17. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... many disables? The fastest growing segment? Myths of disability The Law The Rules Accessibility Resources Page Updates, additions Contact Us For assistance contact your NOAA Line Office Section 508 Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked ...

  18. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the GAITRite system among individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer S; Jasani, Hardika; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E; Mansfield, Avril

    2014-01-01

    Technology-based assessment tools with semi-automated processing, such as pressure-sensitive mats used for gait assessment, may be considered to be objective; therefore it may be assumed that rater reliability is not a concern. However, user input is often required and rater reliability must be determined. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter- and intra-rater reliability of spatial and temporal characteristics of gait in stroke patients using the GAITRite system. Forty-six individuals with stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation walked across the pressure-sensitive mat 2-4 times at preferred walking speeds, with or without a gait aid. Five raters independently processed gait data. Three raters re-processed the data after a delay of at least one month. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals of the ICC were determined for velocity, step time, step length, and step width. Inter-rater reliability for velocity, step time, and step length were high (ICC>0.90). Intra-rater reliability was generally greater than inter-rater reliability (from 0.81 to >0.99 for inter-rater versus 0.77 to >0.99 for intra-rater reliability). Overall, this study suggests that GAITRite is a reliable assessment tool; however, there still remains subjectivity in processing the data, resulting in no patients with perfect agreement between raters. Additional logic checking within the processing software or standardization of training could help to reduce potential errors in processing. PMID:24630463

  19. Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Cifu, David X; Hudak, Anne M; Goldberg, Gary; Kunz, Richard D; Sima, Adam P

    2015-04-01

    The existing gold standard for diagnosing a suspected previous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is clinical interview. But it is prone to bias, especially for parsing the physical versus psychological effects of traumatic combat events, and its inter-rater reliability is unknown. Several standardized TBI interview instruments have been developed for research use but have similar limitations. Therefore, we developed the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) retrospective concussion diagnostic interview, blast version (VCU rCDI-B), and undertook this cross-sectional study aiming to 1) measure agreement among clinicians' mTBI diagnosis ratings, 2) using clinician consensus develop a fully structured diagnostic algorithm, and 3) assess accuracy of this algorithm in a separate sample. Two samples (n = 66; n = 37) of individuals within 2 years of experiencing blast effects during military deployment underwent semistructured interview regarding their worst blast experience. Five highly trained TBI physicians independently reviewed and interpreted the interview content and gave blinded ratings of whether or not the experience was probably an mTBI. Paired inter-rater reliability was extremely variable, with kappa ranging from 0.194 to 0.825. In sample 1, the physician consensus prevalence of probable mTBI was 84%. Using these diagnosis ratings, an algorithm was developed and refined from the fully structured portion of the VCU rCDI-B. The final algorithm considered certain symptom patterns more specific for mTBI than others. For example, an isolated symptom of "saw stars" was deemed sufficient to indicate mTBI, whereas an isolated symptom of "dazed" was not. The accuracy of this algorithm, when applied against the actual physician consensus in sample 2, was almost perfect (correctly classified = 97%; Cohen's kappa = 0.91). In conclusion, we found that highly trained clinicians often disagree on historical blast-related mTBI determinations. A fully structured interview

  20. The behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R): factor analysis, internal consistency, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, and convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis revealed three factors (i.e., Flexibility towards objects, Flexibility towards the environment, and Flexibility towards persons) and results of several analyses indicated an excellent internal consistency and good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the total scale. These data suggest that the BFRS-R may provide a reliable rating of behavioral flexibility when used by direct-care staff and parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:17826945

  1. Rater Biases in Genetically Informative Research Designs: Comment on Bartels, Boomsma, Hudziak, van Beijsterveldt, and van den Oord (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Rater biases are of interest to behavior genetic researchers, who often use ratings data as a basis for studying heritability. Inclusion of multiple raters for each sibling pair (M. Bartels, D. I. Boomsma, J. J. Hudziak, T. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, & E. J. C. G. van den Oord, 2007) is a promising strategy for controlling bias variance and may…

  2. Evaluating the Construct-Coverage of the e-rater[R] Scoring Engine. Research Report. ETS RR-09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Thomas; Higgins, Derrick; Wolff, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the construct coverage of the e-rater[R[ scoring engine. The matter of construct coverage depends on whether one defines writing skill, in terms of process or product. Originally, the e-rater engine consisted of a large set of components with a proven ability to predict human holistic scores. By organizing these capabilities…

  3. Do ESL Essay Raters' Evaluation Criteria Change with Experience? A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to identify similarities and differences in the English as a second language (ESL) essay holistic scores and evaluation criteria of raters with different levels of experience. Each of 31 experienced and 29 novice raters rated a sample of ESL essays holistically and analytically and…

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Batteries: Performance of Clinical Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three experienced neuropsychologists rated brain damaged and control subjects for brain damage using the Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery. Using either battery, raters were accurate in judging the presence of brain damage. There was a high degree of consistency between raters and test batteries when both…

  5. Impact of Rater Characteristics and Prosodic Features of Speaker Accentedness on Ratings of International Teaching Assistants' Oral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Okim

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have examined degree of fidelity between raters' assessments of oral performances and objectively observable prosodic indices of accentedness. Prosodic indices of accentedness quantify trait-relevant variance, whereas rater background variables represent trait-irrelevant variance. The present study, therefore, investigated the…

  6. Liking and attributions of motives as mediators of the relationships between individuals' reputations, helpful behaviors, and raters' reward decisions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Diane E; Erez, Amir; Kiker, D Scott; Motowidlo, Stephan J

    2002-08-01

    Two studies investigated the mediating effects of liking and attributions of motives on the relationship between a ratee's reputation and helpful behaviors and raters' reward decisions. During managerial simulations, raters evaluated individuals after watching videotapes in which the individual's reputation and helpful behaviors were manipulated. Results indicated an interaction effect between reputation and helpful behaviors such that a helpful person with a good reputation received more rewards than did a helpful person with a bad reputation. In contrast, an unhelpful person with a good reputation did not receive better rewards than an unhelpful person with a bad reputation. Moreover, raters' liking of ratees and the motives raters attributed to ratees' helpful behaviors mediated the relationship between the manipulations and raters' reward decisions. PMID:12184583

  7. Rater Perceptions of Bias Using the Multiple Mini-Interview Format: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alweis, Richard L.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Donato, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) format appears to mitigate individual rater biases. However, the format itself may introduce structural systematic bias, favoring extroverted personality types. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of these biases from the perspective of the interviewer. Methods: A sample of MMI…

  8. Improving Creativity Performance Assessment: A Rater Effect Examination with Many Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Su-Pin; Chen, Po-Hsi; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Product assessment is widely applied in creative studies, typically as an important dependent measure. Within this context, this study had 2 purposes. First, the focus of this research was on methods for investigating possible rater effects, an issue that has not received a great deal of attention in past creativity studies. Second, the…

  9. The Accuracy of Performance Task Scores after Resolution of Rater Disagreement: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, James A.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    When multiple raters score a writing sample, on occasion they will award discrepant scores. To report a single score to the examinee, some method of resolving those differences must be applied to the ratings before an operational score can be reported. Several forms of resolving score discrepancies have been described in the literature. Initial…

  10. A Comparison of Teacher Effectiveness Measures Calculated Using Three Multilevel Models for Raters Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of cross-classified random effects models (CCrem) and cross-classified multiple membership random effects models (CCMMrem) to model rater bias and estimate teacher effectiveness. Effect estimates are compared using CTT versus item response theory (IRT) scaling methods and three models (i.e., conventional multilevel…

  11. Rater Language Background as a Source of Measurement Error in the Testing of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rater language background affects the scoring of short-answer, open-ended test items in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs). Four native English and four native Spanish-speaking certified bilingual teachers scored 107 responses of fourth- and fifth-grade Spanish-speaking ELLs to mathematics items administered in…

  12. A Critical Review of Some Qualitative Research Methods Used to Explore Rater Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suto, Irenka

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, many assessment systems rely predominantly on human raters to score examinations. Arguably, this facilitates the assessment of multiple sophisticated educational constructs, strengthening assessment validity. It can introduce subjectivity into the scoring process, however, engendering threats to accuracy. The present objectives…

  13. Variability in ESL Essay Rating Processes: The Role of the Rating Scale and Rater Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols…

  14. A Study on the Impact of Fatigue on Human Raters When Scoring Speaking Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Mollaun, Pamela; Xi, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The scoring of constructed responses may introduce construct-irrelevant factors to a test score and affect its validity and fairness. Fatigue is one of the factors that could negatively affect human performance in general, yet little is known about its effects on a human rater's scoring quality on constructed responses. In this study, we…

  15. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  16. Raters' L2 Background as a Potential Source of Bias in Rating Oral Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winke, Paula; Gass, Susan; Myford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Based on evidence that listeners may favor certain foreign accents over others (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Major, Fitzmaurice, Bunta, & Balasubramanian, 2002; Tauroza & Luk, 1997) and that language-test raters may better comprehend and/or rate the speech of test takers whose native languages (L1s) are more familiar on some level (Carey, Mannell, &…

  17. The Assessment of Ideal Body Size by Subjects and Objective Raters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carol R.; Adams, Henry E.

    Research has indicated that bulimics desire to weigh below the minimum healthy weight for their height. In order to examine differences between subjects' and raters' assessment of ideal body size, women participants were separated into four groups, consisting of 11 bulimics and 36 normal-weight females divided into dieters, restrained normals, and…

  18. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  19. Rater Agreement on IQ and Achievement Tests Effect on Evaluations of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noord, Robert G.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of rater reliability of common IQ and achievement tests on subsequent learning disorder eligibility determinations, particularly with respect to difficulty level of individual subtests and expertise of the scorer. The study corroborates previous findings of strong interrater reliability on most subtests of common IQ and…

  20. The FCE Speaking Test: Using rater Reports To Help Interpret Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reports research using oral examiner verbal reports that attempts to gain insights into the rating process in the Cambridge First Certificate in English Speaking Test. Raters' verbal reports of the decision-making process were analyzed and heeded aspects of the test performances were identified, with a view to better understanding how test scores…

  1. Evaluation by Native and Non-Native English Teacher-Raters of Japanese Students' Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijikata-Someya, Yuko; Ono, Masumi; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of summary writing is well documented in prior studies, few have investigated the evaluation of written summaries. Due to the complex nature of L2 summary writing, which requires one to read the original material and summarize its content in the L2, raters often emphasize different features when judging the quality of L2…

  2. The Impact of Statistically Adjusting for Rater Effects on Conditional Standard Errors of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…

  3. Comparing Foreign Accent in L1 Attrition and L2 Acquisition: Range and Rater Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Monika S.; Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the methodology of global foreign accent ratings in studies on L2 speech production. In three experiments, we test how variation in raters, range within speech samples, as well as instructions and procedures affects ratings of accent in predominantly monolingual speakers of German, non-native speakers of German, as well as…

  4. Does a Rater's Familiarity with a Candidate's Pronunciation Affect the Rating in Oral Proficiency Interviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michael D.; Mannell, Robert H.; Dunn, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that could affect inter-examiner reliability in the pronunciation assessment component of speaking tests. We hypothesized that the rating of pronunciation is susceptible to variation in assessment due to the amount of exposure examiners have to nonnative English accents. An inter-rater variability analysis was…

  5. Examining Rater Effects of the TGMD-2 on Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Park, Ilhyeok; Kang, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children's performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity…

  6. The Effect of Instrument-Specific Rater Training on Interrater Reliability and Counseling Skills Performance Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Paul Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of instrument-specific rater training on interrater reliability (IRR) and counseling skills performance differentiation. Strong IRR is of primary concern to effective program evaluation (McCullough, Kuhn, Andrews, Valen, Hatch, & Osimo, 2003; Schanche, Nielsen, McCullough, Valen, &…

  7. Usability by Raters of the Barber Scales of Self-Regard for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Lucie W.; Barton, Kimberly

    The seven Barber Scales of Self-Regard for Preschool Children were developed to provide instruments for assessing levels of development for individual children. The purpose of this study was to probe into the question of whether or not raters (mothers, fathers, teachers) had difficulties rating children on the scales. Two sources of evidence were…

  8. Kappa as a Parameter of a Symmetry Model for Rater Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Christof

    2001-01-01

    If two raters assign targets to categories, the ratings can be arranged in a two-dimensional contingency table. This article presents a model for the frequencies in such a contingency table for which Cohen's kappa is a parameter. Illustrates the model using data from a study of the psychobiology of depression. (Author/SLD)

  9. IRR (Inter-Rater Reliability) of a COP (Classroom Observation Protocol)--A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning; Feldman, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding broad utility of COPs (classroom observation protocols), there has been limited documentation of the psychometric properties of even the most popular COPs. This study attempted to fill this void by closely examining the item and domain-level IRR (inter-rater reliability) of a COP that was used in a federally funded striving readers…

  10. The Effect of Rater Training on Reducing Social Style Bias in Peer Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a quasiexperimental control group design in a university setting to test the effect of a rater-training program on reducing social style bias in intragroup peer evaluations after controlling for ability based on GPA. Comparison of rating scores of the test group to the control group indicated minimal social style rating bias in…

  11. Analysis of Rater Severity on Written Expression Exam Using Many Faceted Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Gerardo; Nieto, Eloísa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a Many Faceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) approach can be applied to performance assessment focusing on rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of MFRM analysis procedures, and an example to illustrate how to examine the effects of various sources of variability on test takers'…

  12. The Equivalence of Multiple Rater Kappa Statistics and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Using the Gini-Light-Margolin concept of "partioning" variance for qualitative data, correspondences are established between various kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients under general conditions (multiple raters and polychotomous category systems). A measure of marginal symmetry for multiple ratings. (Author/TJH)

  13. Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, S.; Pararajasegaram, R.

    2001-01-01

    Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, "The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness" (referred to as "VISION 2020--The Right to Sight"), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020. PMID:11285666

  14. Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

  15. Ultrasound assessment for grading structural tendon changes in supraspinatus tendinopathy: an inter-rater reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Hjarbaek, John; Eshoej, Henrik; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Vobbe, Jette; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participants (24 patients) were included for assessing inter-rater reliability of measurements of fibrillar disruption, neovascularity, as well as the number and total length of calcifications and tendon thickness. Linear weighted κ, intraclass correlation (ICC), SEM, limits of agreement (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were used to evaluate reliability. Results ‘Moderate—almost perfect’ κ was found for grading fibrillar disruption, neovascularity and number of calcifications (k 0.60–0.96). For total length of calcifications and tendon thickness, ICC was ‘excellent’ (0.85–0.90), with SEM(Agreement) ranging from 0.63 to 2.94 mm and MDC(group) ranging from 0.28 to 1.29 mm. In general, SEM, LOA and MDC showed larger variation for calcifications than for tendon thickness. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability was moderate to almost perfect when a standardised procedure was applied for measuring structural changes on captured US images and movie sequences of relevance for patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy. Future studies should test intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the method in vivo for use in clinical practice, in addition to validation against a gold standard, such as MRI. Trial registration number NCT01984203; Pre-results. PMID:27221128

  16. Attenuation of Change Blindness in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Connolly, Brenda; Collis, Jess M.; Findlay, John M.; McConachie, Helen; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the difficulty most people find in detecting a difference between two pictures when these are presented successively, with a brief interruption between. Attention at the site of the change is required for detection. A number of studies have investigated change blindness in adults and children with autism spectrum…

  17. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Roodman, A

    2003-12-16

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  18. Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy; Killoran, John

    2007-01-01

    Although the term deaf-blind implies a complete absence of hearing and sight, in reality, it refers to children with varying degrees of vision and hearing losses. The type and severity differ from child to child. The key feature of deaf-blindness is that the combination of losses limits access to auditory and visual information. Children with…

  19. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  20. Blindness and Yoga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  1. Blind Pre-School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  2. The mental health of individuals referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder in adulthood: A clinic report.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ailsa J; Murphy, Clodagh M; Wilson, Ellie; Gillan, Nicola; Brown, Cordelia; Robertson, Dene M; Craig, Michael C; Deeley, Quinton; Zinkstok, Janneke; Johnston, Kate; McAlonan, Grainne M; Spain, Deborah; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of autism spectrum disorders has increased the demand for diagnostic services in adulthood. High rates of mental health problems have been reported in young people and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, sampling and methodological issues mean prevalence estimates and conclusions about specificity in psychiatric co-morbidity in autism spectrum disorder remain unclear. A retrospective case review of 859 adults referred for assessment of autism spectrum disorder compares International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision diagnoses in those that met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (n = 474) with those that did not (n = 385). Rates of psychiatric diagnosis (>57%) were equivalent across both groups and exceeded general population rates for a number of conditions. The prevalence of anxiety disorders, particularly obsessive compulsive disorder, was significantly higher in adults with autism spectrum disorder than adults without autism spectrum disorder. Limitations of this observational clinic study, which may impact generalisability of the findings, include the lack of standardised structured psychiatric diagnostic assessments by assessors blind to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and inter-rater reliability. The implications of this study highlight the need for careful consideration of mental health needs in all adults referred for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. PMID:26471427

  3. How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Jurgen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients (n=59) to investigate concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind design. Found that the great majority of patients and physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given and physicians could distinguish between…

  4. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  5. Inter-Rater Reliability of Total Body Score-A Scale for Quantification of Corpse Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, Marta; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-05-01

    The degree of body decomposition can be quantified using Total Body Score (TBS), a scale frequently used in taphonomic or entomological studies of decomposition. Here, the inter-rater reliability of the scale is analyzed. The study was made on 120 laymen, which were trained in the use of the scale. Participants scored decomposition of pig carcasses from photographs. It was found that the scale, when used by different people, gives homogeneous results irrespective of the user qualifications (the Krippendorff's alfa for all participants was 0.818). The study also indicated that carcasses in advanced decomposition receive significantly less accurate scores. Moreover, it was found that scores for cadavers in mosaic decomposition (i.e., representing signs of at least two stages of decomposition) are less accurate. These results demonstrate that the scale may be regarded as inter-rater reliable. Some propositions for refinement of the scale were also discussed. PMID:27093214

  6. Assessment and correlation of customer and rater response to cold-start and warmup driveability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A program was conducted from January 14 through March 8, 1991, at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas, to establish a relationship between demerits observed in CRC Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability assessments to customer satisfaction levels, and to determine which of several performance deficiencies associated with low volatility gasolines are most troublesome to customers during normal vehicle warmup. Customers used their vehicles in daily service, and a subset of the test fleet was evaluated by trained raters using the established CRC test procedure. There were 7,206 driveability performance assessments by customers which were correlated with 661 trained-rater cold-start driveability evaluations. One hundred sixty-seven SwRI employees participated in the program. Hesitation was the most widely observed problem and was the primary cause of dissatisfaction. The gasoline-ethanol and hydrocarbon-only fuel sets had distinctly different malfunction patterns. Hesitation was strongly associated with gasoline ethanol blends, while surge and stumble were strongly associated with hydrocarbon-only fuels. The current total weighted demerit (TWD) system was found to correlate poorly with customer satisfaction; however, customer observations of problems correlated no better with customer satisfaction. If TWD is to be an indicator of customer perception of driveability performance there should be uniform weighting of rater-observed malfunctions, and start-time should be assigned a greater weighting and a shorter grace period.

  7. The Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of an Instrumented Spasticity Assessment in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Schless, Simon-Henri; Desloovere, Kaat; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Huenaerts, Catherine; Bar-On, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the impact of spasticity, there is a lack of objective, clinically reliable and valid tools for its assessment. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of various performance- and spasticity-related parameters collected with a manually controlled instrumented spasticity assessment in four lower limb muscles in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method The lateral gastrocnemius, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris and hip adductors of 12 children with spastic CP (12.8 years, ±4.13 years, bilateral/unilateral involvement n=7/5) were passively stretched in the sagittal plane at incremental velocities. Muscle activity, joint motion, and torque were synchronously recorded using electromyography, inertial sensors, and a force/torque load-cell. Reliability was assessed on three levels: (1) intra- and (2) inter-rater within session, and (3) intra-rater between session. Results Parameters were found to be reliable in all three analyses, with 90% containing intra-class correlation coefficients >0.6, and 70% of standard error of measurement values <20% of the mean values. The most reliable analysis was intra-rater within session, followed by intra-rater between session, and then inter-rater within session. The Adds evaluation had a slightly lower level of reliability than that of the other muscles. Conclusions Limited intrinsic/extrinsic errors were introduced by repeated stretch repetitions. The parameters were more reliable when the same rater, rather than different raters performed the evaluation. Standardisation and training should be further improved to reduce extrinsic error when different raters perform the measurement. Errors were also muscle specific, or related to the measurement set-up. They need to be accounted for, in particular when assessing pre-post interventions or longitudinal follow-up. The parameters of the instrumented spasticity assessment demonstrate a wide range of applications for both research and clinical environments in the

  8. Inter-rater reliability of assessed prenatal maternal occupational exposures to solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Hein, Misty J; Stewart, Patricia A; Correa, Adolfo; Echeverria, Diana; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2011-12-01

    Because direct measurements of past occupational exposures are rarely available in population-based case-control studies, exposure assessment of job histories by multiple expert raters is frequently used; however, the subjective nature of this method makes measuring reliability an important quality control step. We evaluated inter-rater reliability of 7729 retrospective jobs reported in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Jobs were classified as exposed, unexposed, or exposure unknown by two independent industrial hygienists; exposed jobs were further evaluated for intensity, frequency, and routes. Exposure prevalence ranged from 0.1-9.8%. Inter-rater reliability for exposure (yes/no), assessed by kappa coefficients, was fair to good for cadmium (κ = 0.46), chlorinated solvents (κ = 0.59), cobalt (κ = 0.54), glycol ethers (κ = 0.50), nickel compounds (κ = 0.65), oil mists (κ = 0.63), and Stoddard Solvent (κ = 0.55); PAHs (κ = 0.24) and elemental nickel (κ = 0.37) had poor agreement. After a consensus conference resolved disagreements, an additional 4962 jobs were evaluated. Inter-rater reliability improved or stayed the same for cadmium (κ = 0.51), chlorinated solvents (κ = 0.81), oil mists (κ = 0.63), PAHs (κ = 0.52), and Stoddard solvent (κ = 0.92) in the second job set. Inter-rater reliability varied by exposure agent and prevalence, demonstrating the importance of measuring reliability in studies using a multiple expert rater method of exposure assessment. PMID:22074298

  9. Intra-Rater, Inter-Rater and Test-Retest Reliability of an Instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) Test in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Hobert, Markus A.; Maetzler, Walter; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Terwee, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The “Timed Up and Go” (TUG) is a widely used measure of physical functioning in older people and in neurological populations, including Parkinson’s Disease. When using an inertial sensor measurement system (instrumented TUG [iTUG]), the individual components of the iTUG and the trunk kinematics can be measured separately, which may provide relevant additional information. Objective The aim of this study was to determine intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the iTUG in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Methods Twenty eight PD patients, aged 50 years or older, were included. For the iTUG the DynaPort Hybrid (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands) was worn at the lower back. The device measured acceleration and angular velocity in three directions at a rate of 100 samples/s. Patients performed the iTUG five times on two consecutive days. Repeated measurements by the same rater on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by different raters on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by the same rater on different days were used to calculate test-retest reliability. Results Nineteen ICC values (15%) were ≥ 0.9 which is considered as excellent reliability. Sixty four ICC values (49%) were ≥ 0.70 and < 0.90 which is considered as good reliability. Thirty one ICC values (24%) were ≥ 0.50 and < 0.70, indicating moderate reliability. Sixteen ICC values (12%) were ≥ 0.30 and < 0.50 indicating poor reliability. Two ICT values (2%) were < 0.30 indicating very poor reliability. Conclusions In conclusion, in patients with Parkinson’s disease the intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability of the individual components of the instrumented TUG (iTUG) was excellent to good for total duration and for turning durations, and good to low for the sub durations and for the kinematics of the SiSt and StSi. The results of this fully

  10. Inter-rater reliability of three standardized functional tests in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Tidstrand, Johan; Horneij, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Background Of all patients with low back pain, 85% are diagnosed as "non-specific lumbar pain". Lumbar instability has been described as one specific diagnosis which several authors have described as delayed muscular responses, impaired postural control as well as impaired muscular coordination among these patients. This has mostly been measured and evaluated in a laboratory setting. There are few standardized and evaluated functional tests, examining functional muscular coordination which are also applicable in the non-laboratory setting. In ordinary clinical work, tests of functional muscular coordination should be easy to apply. The aim of this present study was to therefore standardize and examine the inter-rater reliability of three functional tests of muscular functional coordination of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain. Methods Nineteen consecutive individuals, ten men and nine women were included. (Mean age 42 years, SD ± 12 yrs). Two independent examiners assessed three tests: "single limb stance", "sitting on a Bobath ball with one leg lifted" and "unilateral pelvic lift" on the same occasion. The standardization procedure took altered positions of the spine or pelvis and compensatory movements of the free extremities into account. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and by percentage agreement. Results The inter-rater reliability for the right and the left leg respectively was: for the single limb stance very good (κ: 0.88–1.0), for sitting on a Bobath ball good (κ: 0.79) and very good (κ: 0.88) and for the unilateral pelvic lift: good (κ: 0.61) and moderate (κ: 0.47). Conclusion The present study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability for two standardized tests, that is, the single-limb stance and sitting on a Bobath-ball with one leg lifted. Inter-rater reliability for the unilateral pelvic lift test was moderate to good. Validation of the tests in their ability to evaluate lumbar

  11. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  12. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  13. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  14. Prevent Blindness America

    MedlinePlus

    ... to eNews Close Donate A Lifetime of Healthy Vision See well to learn, work, play, and live ... the sight-saving work of
 Prevent Blindness. Donate Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevalence of Adult Vision ...

  15. Comparison of EP2006, a filgrastim biosimilar, to the reference: a phase III, randomized, double-blind clinical study in the prevention of severe neutropenia in patients with breast cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, K.; Semiglazov, V.; Krasnozhon, D.; Davidenko, I.; Nelyubina, L.; Nakov, R.; Stiegler, G.; Singh, P.; Schwebig, A.; Kramer, S.; Harbeck, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biosimilars of filgrastim are in widespread clinical use in Europe. This phase III study compares biosimilar filgrastim (EP2006), with the US-licensed reference product, Neupogen®, in breast cancer patients receiving (neo)adjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy (TAC). Patients and methods A total of 218 patients receiving 5 µg/kg/day filgrastim over six chemotherapy cycles were randomized 1:1:1:1 into four arms. Two arms received only one product (nonalternating), biosimilar or reference, and two arms (alternating) received alternating treatments during each cycle (biosimilar then reference or vice versa). The primary end point was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1. Results The baseline characteristics were balanced between the four treatment arms. Noninferiority of biosimilar versus the reference was demonstrated: DSN (days) in cycle 1 was 1.17 ± 1.11 (biosimilar, N = 101) and 1.20 ± 1.02 (reference, N = 103), 97.5% confidence interval lower boundary for the difference was −0.26 days (above the predefined limit of −1 day). No clinically meaningful differences were observed regarding any other efficacy parameter: incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN); hospitalization due to FN; incidence of infections; depth and time of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir and time to ANC recovery during cycle 1 and across all cycles. The pattern and frequency of adverse events were similar across all treatments. Conclusion This study demonstrates that biosimilar and the reference filgrastim are similar with no clinically meaningful differences regarding efficacy and safety in prevention of severe neutropenia. Biosimilar filgrastim could represent an important alternative to the reference product, potentially benefiting public health by increasing access to filgrastim treatment. Study number NCT01519700. PMID:26122726

  16. Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League's Kicking and Handball Tests.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Ashley J; Hopper, Luke S; Joyce, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League's National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways. The skills tests created by the Australian Football League required players to either handball (striking the ball with the hand) or kick to a series of 6 randomly generated targets. Assessors subjectively rate each skill execution giving a 0-5 score for each disposal. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the skills tests at an adolescent sub-elite level. Male Australian footballers were recruited from sub-elite adolescent teams (n = 121, age = 15.7 ± 0.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m, mass = 69.17 ± 8.08 kg). The coaches (n = 7) of each team were also recruited. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Inter-class correlations (ICC) and Limits of Agreement statistics. Both the kicking (ICC = 0.96, p < .01) and handball tests (ICC = 0.89, p < .01) demonstrated strong reliability and acceptable levels of absolute agreement. Content validity was determined by examining the test scores sensitivity to laterality and distance. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing coaches' perceptions of skill to actual test outcomes. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) examined the main effect of laterality, with scores on the dominant hand (p = .04) and foot (p < .01) significantly higher compared to the non-dominant side. Follow-up univariate analysis reported significant differences at every distance in the kicking test. A poor correlation was found between coaches' perceptions of skill and testing outcomes. The results of this study demonstrate both skill tests demonstrate acceptable inter-rater reliable. Partial content validity was confirmed for the kicking test, however further research is required to confirm validity of

  17. Intra-rater reliability of an experienced physiotherapist in locating myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Marco; Bertoli, Paolo; Cescon, Corrado; Macmillan, Fiona; Coutts, Fiona; Gatti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are considered the principal clinical feature of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). An MTrP consists of spot tenderness within a taut band of muscle fibers and its stimulation can produce both local and referred pain. The clinical diagnosis of MPS depends on correct history taking and a physical examination aimed at identifying the presence of MTrP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a palpation protocol used for locating an MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were examined by an experienced physiotherapist. During each of eight experimental sessions, subjects were examined twice in randomized order using a palpation protocol. An anatomical landmark system was defined and the MTrP location established using X and Y values. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(1,1) values were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.30–0.81) for X and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.61–0.91) for Y. The Bland–Altman plots for X and Y showed a mean of difference of 0.04 and −0.2 mm, respectively. Limits of agreement for X ranged from −26.3 to 26.2 mm and for Y from −27 to 26.4 mm. Discussion: The ICC(1,1) for the observed values revealed a moderate to high correlation and the Bland–Altman analysis showed means of difference very close to zero with narrow limits of agreement. An experienced physiotherapist can reliably identify MTrP locations in upper trapezius muscle using a palpation protocol. PMID:24179324

  18. Measuring the Pain Area: An Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability Study Using Image Analysis Software.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Felipe Jose Jandre; de Barros E Silva, Veronica; de Lucena, Raphaela Nunes; Mendes Cardoso, Bruno Alexandre; Nogueira, Leandro Calazans

    2016-01-01

    Pain drawings have frequently been used for clinical information and research. The aim of this study was to investigate intra- and inter-rater reliability of area measurements performed on pain drawings. Our secondary objective was to verify the reliability when using computers with different screen sizes, both with and without mouse hardware. Pain drawings were completed by patients with chronic neck pain or neck-shoulder-arm pain. Four independent examiners participated in the study. Examiners A and B used the same computer with a 16-inch screen and wired mouse hardware. Examiner C used a notebook with a 16-inch screen and no mouse hardware, and Examiner D used a computer with an 11.6-inch screen and a wireless mouse. Image measurements were obtained using GIMP and NIH ImageJ computer programs. The length of all the images was measured using GIMP software to a set scale in ImageJ. Thus, each marked area was encircled and the total surface area (cm(2) ) was calculated for each pain drawing measurement. A total of 117 areas were identified and 52 pain drawings were analyzed. The intrarater reliability between all examiners was high (ICC = 0.989). The inter-rater reliability was also high. No significant differences were observed when using different screen sizes or when using or not using the mouse hardware. This suggests that the precision of these measurements is acceptable for the use of this method as a measurement tool in clinical practice and research. PMID:25490926

  19. Using Google Street View to Audit the Built Environment: Inter-rater Reliability Results

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.; Schootman, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Observational field audits are recommended for public health research to collect data on built environment characteristics. A reliable, standardized alternative to field audits that uses publicly available information could provide the ability to efficiently compare results across different study sites and time. Purpose This study aimed to assess inter-rater reliability of built environment audits conducted using Google Street View imagery. Methods In 2011, street segments from St. Louis and Indianapolis were geographically stratified to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics in both cities. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using observed agreement and the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa statistic (PABAK). Results The mean PABAK for all items was 0.84. Ninety-five percent of the items had substantial (PABAK≥0.60) or nearly perfect (PABAK≥0.80) agreement. Conclusions Using Google Street View imagery to audit the built environment is a reliable method for assessing characteristics of the built environment. PMID:23054943

  20. CRM Assessment: Determining the Generalization of Rater Calibration Training. Summary of Research Report: Gold Standards Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which pilot instructors are trained to assess crew resource management (CRM) skills accurately during Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) scenarios is critical. Pilot instructors must make accurate performance ratings to ensure that proper feedback is provided to flight crews and appropriate decisions are made regarding certification to fly the line. Furthermore, the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) requires that instructors be trained explicitly to evaluate both technical and CRM performance (i.e., rater training) and also requires that proficiency and standardization of instructors be verified periodically. To address the critical need for effective pilot instructor training, the American Institutes for Research (AIR) reviewed the relevant research on rater training and, based on "best practices" from this research, developed a new strategy for training pilot instructors to assess crew performance. In addition, we explored new statistical techniques for assessing the effectiveness of pilot instructor training. The results of our research are briefly summarized below. This summary is followed by abstracts of articles and book chapters published under this grant.

  1. The inter-rater reliability of the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Elizabeth; O'Caoimh, Rónán; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Paúl, Constança; Orfilia, Frances; Clarnette, Roger; Fitzgerald, Carol; Svendrovski, Anton; Cornally, Nicola; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Molloy, D William

    2016-09-01

    Predicting risk of adverse healthcare outcomes is important to enable targeted delivery of interventions. The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC), designed for use by public health nurses (PHNs), measures the 1-year risk of hospitalisation, institutionalisation and death in community-dwelling older adults according to a five-point global risk score: from low (score 1,2) to medium (3) to high (4,5). We examined the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the RISC between student PHNs (n=32) and expert raters using six cases (two low, medium and high-risk), scored before and after RISC training. Correlations increased for each adverse outcome, statistically significantly for institutionalisation (r=0.72 to 0.80, p=0.04) and hospitalisation (r=0.51 to 0.71, p<0.01) but not death. Training improved accuracy for low-risk but not all high-risk cases. Overall, the RISC showed good IRR, which increased after RISC training. That reliability fell for some high-risk cases suggests that the training programme requires adjustment to improve IRR further. PMID:27594063

  2. Deutschunterricht fuer Blinde. (German Instruction for the Blind)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaverkova, Irena

    1978-01-01

    The working group "German for the Blind" of the Slovakian Modern Language Association in Bratislava (Czechoslovakia) outlines its program to investigate didactic-methodological-psychological problems in foreign language teaching for the blind, to develop modern and effective methods, textbooks and aids for blind schools and for adult…

  3. Sighted Children Learn About Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffers, Wenda L.

    1977-01-01

    In a 20-lesson unit, sighted second-to fourth-grade students were taught about the long cane, guide dogs, daily living skills, eye physiology, causes of blindness, eye care, braille, and attitudes toward blindness. (CL)

  4. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  5. Culture and Change Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Takahiko; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Research on perception and cognition suggests that whereas East Asians view the world holistically, attending to the entire field and relations among objects, Westerners view the world analytically, focusing on the attributes of salient objects. These propositions were examined in the change-blindness paradigm. Research in that paradigm finds…

  6. Folklore of Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner-Lampl, A.; Oliver, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    This article uses both case examples and reports from archives and oral literature to illustrate the broad range of connections between blindness and superstitions, folklore, beliefs, and mythology. Clinicians are urged to be aware of these beliefs as they counsel individuals adapting to the loss of vision. (Author/DB)

  7. Blinded by Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Huge infusion of technology is coming into education; nothing can stop it, because so much money is involved. With computer marketers in driver seat instead of teachers, schools risk being blinded by science. Vendors have coopted progressive education buzzwords, including "frontal teaching,""linear thinking," and "computer equity." Limited…

  8. Homer: The Blind Bard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doorley, Rachelle; King, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This article describes notable cultural, historical, and artistic elements emanating from sculptures originating in ancient Greece. The "blind bard" and its connection to the legendary Greek poet, Homer; Homer's impact on literary history; trends among Roman sculptures; and Roman replication of Greek art are described. Questions to consider are…

  9. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future. PMID:25268248

  10. Swimming: An Introduction to Swimming, Diving, and SCUBA Diving for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals. Leisure Pursuit Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    The annotated guide lists information sources available from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in print, disc, cassette, and braille formats concerning swimming and diving with special reference to blind swimmers. The guide begins with a brief sketch of a champion swimmer who is also legally blind and an…

  11. Programs for the Deaf Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The directory lists 30 programs for deaf-blind children and youth, the 10 regional offices of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, and five programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind. Provided for each program is address, director's name, and phone number. (DB)

  12. Beyond Essay Length: Evaluating e-rater[R]'s Performance on TOEFL[R] Essays. Research Reports. Report 73. RR-04-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodorow, Martin; Burstein, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between essay length and holistic scores assigned to Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) essays by e-rater[R], the automated essay scoring system developed by ETS. Results show that an early version of the system, e-rater99, accounted for little variance in human reader scores beyond that which…

  13. Inter-rater reliability of malaria parasite counts and comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The introduction of artemesinin-based treatment for falciparum malaria has led to a shift away from symptom-based diagnosis. Diagnosis may be achieved by using rapid non-microscopic diagnostic tests (RDTs), of which there are many available. Light microscopy, however, has a central role in parasite identification and quantification and remains the main method of parasite-based diagnosis in clinic and hospital settings and is necessary for monitoring the accuracy of RDTs. The World Health Organization has prepared a proficiency testing panel containing a range of malaria-positive blood samples of known parasitaemia, to be used for the assessment of commercially available malaria RDTs. Different blood film and counting methods may be used for this purpose, which raises questions regarding accuracy and reproducibility. A comparison was made of the established methods for parasitaemia estimation to determine which would give the least inter-rater and inter-method variation Methods Experienced malaria microscopists counted asexual parasitaemia on different slides using three methods; the thin film method using the total erythrocyte count, the thick film method using the total white cell count and the Earle and Perez method. All the slides were stained using Giemsa pH 7.2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to find the inter-rater reliability for the different methods. The paired t-test was used to assess any systematic bias between the two methods, and a regression analysis was used to see if there was a changing bias with parasite count level. Results The thin blood film gave parasite counts around 30% higher than those obtained by the thick film and Earle and Perez methods, but exhibited a loss of sensitivity with low parasitaemia. The thick film and Earle and Perez methods showed little or no bias in counts between the two methods, however, estimated inter-rater reliability was slightly better for the thick film method. Conclusion The thin film

  14. Reference Books in Special Media. Reference Circular No. 82-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    Based on information contained in producers' catalogs and on responses to a survey conducted by the Reference Section of the Library of Congress National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, this publication lists reference materials produced in braille or in large type, and sound recordings of reference works available…

  15. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  16. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  17. Inter-Rater Reliability of the Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Modified Ashworth Scale in Assessing Poststroke Elbow Flexor Spasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Gunaydin, Rezzan; Koc, Aysegul; Altundal Ercan, Ulku

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is commonly used in clinical practice for grading spasticity. However, it was modified recently by omitting grade "1+" of the MAS and redefining grade "2". The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater reliability of MAS and modified MAS (MMAS) for the assessment of poststroke elbow flexor spasticity.…

  18. Using Consensus Building Procedures with Expert Raters to Establish Comparison Scores of Behavior for Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffery, Rose; Johnson, Austin H.; Bowler, Mark C.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Harrison, Sayward E.

    2015-01-01

    To date, rater accuracy when using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) has been evaluated by comparing DBR-derived data to scores yielded through systematic direct observation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method for establishing comparison scores using expert-completed DBR alongside best practices in consensus building…

  19. Leveraging Data Sampling and Practical Knowledge: Field Instructors' Perceptions about Inter-Rater Reliability Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soslau, Elizabeth; Lewis, Kandia

    2014-01-01

    For accreditation and programmatic decision making, education school administrators use inter-rater reliability analyses to judge credibility of student-teacher assessments. Although weak levels of agreement between university-appointed supervisors and cooperating teachers are usually interpreted to indicate that the process is not being…

  20. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  1. Cross-National Differences in the Assessment of Psychopathy: Do They Reflect Variations in Raters' Perceptions of Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, David J.; Hart, Stephen D.; Michie, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Cross-national differences in the prevalence of psychopathy have been reported. This study examined whether rater effects could account for these differences. Psychopathy was assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Videotapes of 6 Scottish prisoners and 6 Canadian prisoners were rated by 10 Scottish and 10…

  2. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  3. Tool for Assessing Responsibility-Based Education (TARE): Instrument Development, Content Validity, and Inter-Rater Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Paul M.; Craig, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have stressed the importance of personal and social responsibility in physical activity settings; however, there is a lack of instrumentation to study the implementation of responsibility-based teaching strategies. The development, content validity, and initial inter-rater reliability testing of the Tool for Assessing…

  4. A Completely Blind Video Integrity Oracle.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Anish; Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made toward developing still picture perceptual quality analyzers that do not require any reference picture and that are not trained on human opinion scores of distorted images. However, there do not yet exist any such completely blind video quality assessment (VQA) models. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by developing a new VQA model called the video intrinsic integrity and distortion evaluation oracle (VIIDEO). The new model does not require the use of any additional information other than the video being quality evaluated. VIIDEO embodies models of intrinsic statistical regularities that are observed in natural vidoes, which are used to quantify disturbances introduced due to distortions. An algorithm derived from the VIIDEO model is thereby able to predict the quality of distorted videos without any external knowledge about the pristine source, anticipated distortions, or human judgments of video quality. Even with such a paucity of information, we are able to show that the VIIDEO algorithm performs much better than the legacy full reference quality measure MSE on the LIVE VQA database and delivers performance comparable with a leading human judgment trained blind VQA model. We believe that the VIIDEO algorithm is a significant step toward making real-time monitoring of completely blind video quality possible. PMID:26599970

  5. Stochastic blind motion deblurring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can, therefore, only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often nonconvex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms. PMID:25974941

  6. The intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest, intra-rater reliability and agreement of compensatory stepping thresholds. A protocol was developed to establish anteroposterior single-stepping thresholds, anteroposterior multiple-stepping thresholds, and lateral single-stepping thresholds. Healthy, young subjects stood on a microprocessor-controlled treadmill, and responded to three series of progressively challenging surface translations. Subjects were instructed to "try not to step" when establishing single-stepping thresholds or "try to take only one step" when establishing multiple-stepping thresholds. Stepping thresholds were defined as the minimum disturbance magnitude that consistently elicited a single or second compensatory step. Thresholds were expressed as the ankle torque necessary to maintain upright posture. Thresholds studied included anterior single-stepping thresholds (τ = 273.0 ± 82.3 N m), posterior single-stepping, thresholds (τ = 235.5 ± 98.0 N m), anterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 977.0 ± 416.3 N m), posterior multiple-stepping thresholds (τ = 701.9 ± 237.5 N m), stability-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 225.7 ± 77.7 Nm), and mobility-side lateral single-stepping thresholds (τ = 236.8 ± 85.4 N m). Based on intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots, all thresholds demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.87-0.97) and agreement. These results suggest that compensatory stepping thresholds have sufficient repeatability to be used in clinical and research-related assessments of fall-risk. Additional study is needed to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities and validity of thresholds specific to the patient populations of interest. PMID:24300837

  7. How to assess and compare inter-rater reliability, agreement and correlation of ratings: an exemplary analysis of mother-father and parent-teacher expressive vocabulary rating pairs

    PubMed Central

    Stolarova, Margarita; Wolf, Corinna; Rinker, Tanja; Brielmann, Aenne

    2014-01-01

    This report has two main purposes. First, we combine well-known analytical approaches to conduct a comprehensive assessment of agreement and correlation of rating-pairs and to dis-entangle these often confused concepts, providing a best-practice example on concrete data and a tutorial for future reference. Second, we explore whether a screening questionnaire developed for use with parents can be reliably employed with daycare teachers when assessing early expressive vocabulary. A total of 53 vocabulary rating pairs (34 parent–teacher and 19 mother–father pairs) collected for two-year-old children (12 bilingual) are evaluated. First, inter-rater reliability both within and across subgroups is assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Next, based on this analysis of reliability and on the test-retest reliability of the employed tool, inter-rater agreement is analyzed, magnitude and direction of rating differences are considered. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients of standardized vocabulary scores are calculated and compared across subgroups. The results underline the necessity to distinguish between reliability measures, agreement and correlation. They also demonstrate the impact of the employed reliability on agreement evaluations. This study provides evidence that parent–teacher ratings of children's early vocabulary can achieve agreement and correlation comparable to those of mother–father ratings on the assessed vocabulary scale. Bilingualism of the evaluated child decreased the likelihood of raters' agreement. We conclude that future reports of agreement, correlation and reliability of ratings will benefit from better definition of terms and stricter methodological approaches. The methodological tutorial provided here holds the potential to increase comparability across empirical reports and can help improve research practices and knowledge transfer to educational and therapeutic settings. PMID:24994985

  8. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: a prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice.

    PubMed

    Njoo, K H; Van der Does, E

    1994-09-01

    The presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger point symptoms. Using the symptoms and signs as described by Simons' 1990 definition and two other former sets of criteria, 61 non-specific low back pain patients and 63 controls were examined in general practice by 5 observers, working in pairs. From the two major criteria of Simons' 1990 definition only 'localized tenderness' has good discriminative ability and inter-rater reliability (kappa > 0.5). This study does not find proof for the clinical usefulness of 'referred pain', which has neither of these two abilities. The criteria 'jump sign' and 'recognition', on the condition that localized tenderness is present, also have good discriminative ability and inter-rater reliability. Trigger points defined by the criteria found eligible in this study allow significant distinction between non-specific low back pain patients and controls. This is not the case with trigger points defined by Simons' 1990 criteria. Concerning reliability there is also a significant difference between the two different criteria sets. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of trigger points is increased when localized tenderness and the presence of either jump sign or patient's recognition of his pain complaint are used as criteria for the presence of trigger points in the M. quadratus lumborum and the M. gluteus medius. PMID:7838580

  9. Establishing the definition and inter-rater reliability of cortical silent period calculation in subjects with focal hand dystonia and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R.; Prochaska, Kristina D.; Mundfrom, Shannon L.; Perkins, Ariel E.; Poepping, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a clearly defined manual method for calculating cortical silent period (CSP) length that can be employed successfully and reliably by raters after minimal training in subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and healthy subjects. A secondary purpose was to explore intra-subject variability of the CSP in subjects with FHD vs. healthy subjects. Methods Two raters previously naïve to CSP identification and one experienced rater independently analyzed 170 CSP measurements collected in six subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and nine healthy subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to quantify inter-rater reliability within the two groups of subjects. The relative variability of CSP in each group was calculated by coefficient of variation (CV). Relative variation between raters within repeated measures of individual subjects was also quantified by CV. Results Reliability measures were as follows: mean of three raters: all subjects: ICC= 0.976; within healthy subjects: ICC=0.965; in subjects with FHD: ICC= 0.956. The median within-subject variability for the healthy group was CV=7.33% and in subjects with FHD: CV= 11.78%. The median variability of calculating individual subject CSP duration between raters was CV=10.23% in subjects with dystonia and CV=10.46% in healthy subjects. Conclusions Manual calculation of CSP results in excellent reliability between raters of varied levels of experience. Healthy subjects display less variability in CSP. Despite greater variability, the CSP in impaired subjects can be reliably calculated across raters. PMID:19686807

  10. Compact multiframe blind deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Hope, Douglas A; Jefferies, Stuart M

    2011-03-15

    We describe a multiframe blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithm that uses spectral ratios (the ratio of the Fourier spectra of two data frames) to model the inherent temporal signatures encoded by the observed images. In addition, by focusing on the separation of the object spectrum and system transfer functions only at spatial frequencies where the measured signal is above the noise level, we significantly reduce the number of unknowns to be determined. This "compact" MFBD yields high-quality restorations in a much shorter time than is achieved with MFBD algorithms that do not model the temporal signatures; it may also provide higher-fidelity solutions. PMID:21403711

  11. THE VALUE OF MOBILITY INSTRUCTION AS A TECHNIQUE TO MOTIVATE BLIND INDIVIDUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COUCHELL, PETER, JR.; AND OTHERS

    A 3-YEAR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE THE BLIND WITH MOBILITY INSTRUCTION, TO SHOW AGENCIES AND COMMUNITIES THE NEED FOR SUCH INSTRUCTION, AND TO OBTAIN INFORMATION ABOUT MOTIVATION AND MOBILITY. OF THE 73 BLIND PERSONS IN MECKLENBURG COUNTY (NORTH CAROLINA) WHO INQUIRED BY INDIVIDUAL APPLICATION OR WERE REFERRED BY OTHER…

  12. Making Tactile Charts on a Personal Computer for Blind Students in the Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Tsuguo; Ohtake, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    This article describes how to make tactile charts for students who are blind and in the allied health professions on the basis of medical images and how students who are blind evaluate these charts. Editing rules for creating the charts are discussed. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Steven B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Clifford, Erin R.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a theoretical and experimental attempt to relate and contrast 2 traditionally separate research programs: inattentional blindness and attention capture. Inattentional blindness refers to failures to notice unexpected objects and events when attention is otherwise engaged. Attention capture research has traditionally used…

  14. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Moskova-Doumanova V, Berger W, Wissinger B, Hamel CP, Schorderet DF, De Baere E, Sharon D, Banin ... I, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Wissinger B, Léveillard T, Hamel CP, Schorderet DF, De Baere E, Berger W, Jacobson ...

  15. Not quite so blind: Semantic processing despite inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Schnuerch, Robert; Kreitz, Carina; Gibbons, Henning; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We often fail to detect clearly visible, yet unexpected objects when our attention is otherwise engaged, a phenomenon widely known as inattentional blindness. The potentially devastating consequences and the mediators of such failures of awareness have been studied extensively. Surprisingly, however, hardly anything is known about whether and how we process the objects that go unnoticed during inattentional blindness. In 2 experiments, we demonstrate that the meaning of objects undetected due to inattentional blindness interferes with the classification of attended stimuli. Responses were significantly slower when the semantic content of an undetected stimulus contradicted that of the attended, to-be-judged object. We thus clarify the depth of the "blindness" caused by inattention, as we provide compelling evidence that failing to detect the unexpected does not preclude its processing, even at postperceptual stages. Despite inattentional blindness, our mind obviously still has access to something as refined as meaning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766509

  16. Corneal blindness: a global perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcher, J. P.; Srinivasan, M.; Upadhyay, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance. The epidemiology of corneal blindness is complicated and encompasses a wide variety of infectious and inflammatory eye diseses that cause corneal scarring, which ultimately leads to functional blindness. In addition, the prevalence of corneal disease varies from country to country and even from one population to another. While cataract is responsible for nearly 20 million of the 45 million blind people in the world, the next major cause is trachoma which blinds 4.9 million individuals, mainly as a result of corneal scarring and vascularization. Ocular trauma and corneal ulceration are significant causes of corneal blindness that are often underreported but may be responsible for 1.5-2.0 million new cases of monocular blindness every year. Causes of childhood blindness (about 1.5 million worldwide with 5 million visually disabled) include xerophthalmia (350,000 cases annually), ophthalmia neonatorum, and less frequently seen ocular diseases such as herpes simplex virus infections and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Even though the control of onchocerciasis and leprosy are public health success stories, these diseases are still significant causes of blindness--affecting a quarter of a million individuals each. Traditional eye medicines have also been implicated as a major risk factor in the current epidemic of corneal ulceration in developing countries. Because of the difficulty of treating corneal blindness once it has occurred, public health prevention programmes are the most cost-effective means of decreasing the global burden of corneal blindness. PMID:11285665

  17. Sex Education for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Vernon, McCay; Clemente, Brenda; Olney, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a model sex education program developed for youths and adults who are deafblind by the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults. In addition, it also discusses major related issues and presents general recommendations and a resource for further information. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Blind-Anchor-Nut-Installation Fixture (BANIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Norman F., Jr.; Linker, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Blind-anchor-nut-installation fixture, BANIF, developed for replacing or installing anchor nuts in blind holes or other inaccessible places. Attachment of anchor nut to BANIF enables placement of anchor nut on blind side of component.

  19. The Intra-Rater Reliability of Nine Content-Validated Technical Skill Assessment Instruments (TSAI) for Athletic Taping Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagumen, Niko G.; Butterwick, Dale J.; Paskevich, David M.; Fung, Tak S.; Donnon, Tyrone L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the intra-rater reliability of nine content-validated Technical Skill Assessment Instruments (TSAI) for the skills of athletic taping. Setting: University of Calgary. Subjects: Canadian Certified Athletic Therapists, CAT(C), with a mean ± SD of 9.6 ± 10.8 years as a CAT(C), 7.8 ± 10.9 years as a Supervisory Athletic…

  20. The inter-rater reliability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health set for spinal cord injury nursing.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Xie, Sumei; Li, Yun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yingmin; Gao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has potential to be used as a clinical assessment instrument directly. However, difficulty in operationalizing the ICF qualifiers has led to unsatisfactory inter-rater reliability of ICF instruments in previous studies. The ICF set for spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing contains a group of categories that can reflect the functioning of SCI patients from the perspective of nurses. The aim of this study was to explore the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing. Detailed measuring guidelines were prepared for each category of the ICF set. Two trained nurses then used the ICF set to independently rate 40 SCI patients within the first 3 days after their admission. The results showed that the percentage of the observed agreement between the nurses ranged from 42.5 to 100% (median 75%, interquartile range 62.5-87.5%). The weighted κ ranged from -0.03 to 1.00 (median 0.68, interquartile range 0.45-0.84). A total of 50 categories (79.4%) showed weighted κ greater than 0.4 and 39 categories (61.9%) had weighted κ greater than 0.6. The medians of the weighted κ for the body functions, body structures, activity and participation and environmental factors components were 0.6, 0.64, 0.84, and 0.11, respectively. This study indicated that the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing was acceptable. Establishment of detailed measuring guidelines could help reduce the differences between raters. Simpler and clearer measuring guidelines are recommended and the definitions of some categories need to be clarified in future studies. PMID:27171607

  1. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Pessi; Mäkelä, Hanna; Hietanen, Jari K; Astikainen, Piia

    2014-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness). Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli. PMID:24498165

  2. Inter-rater reliability and review of the VA unresolved narratives.

    PubMed Central

    Eagon, J. C.; Hurdle, J. F.; Lincoln, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    To better understand how VA clinicians use medical vocabulary in every day practice, we set out to characterize terms generated in the Problem List module of the VA's DHCP system that were not mapped to terms in the controlled-vocabulary lexicon of DHCP. When entered terms fail to match those in the lexicon, a note is sent to a central repository. When our study started, the volume in that repository had reached 16,783 terms. We wished to characterize the potential reasons why these terms failed to match terms in the lexicon. After examining two small samples of randomly selected terms, we used group consensus to develop a set of rating criteria and a rating form. To be sure that the results of multiple reviewers could be confidently compared, we analyzed the inter-rater agreement of our rating process. Two rates used this form to rate the same 400 terms. We found that modifiers and numeric data were common and consistent reasons for failure to match, while others such as use of synonyms and absence of the concept from the lexicon were common but less consistently selected. PMID:8947642

  3. Multilevel multitrait-multimethod latent analysis of structurally different and interchangeable raters of school climate.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2015-09-01

    Informant-based systems of assessment are common platforms for measuring a variety of educational and psychological constructs where the use of multiple informants is considered best practice. In many instances, structurally different informant types (e.g., students and teachers) are solicited on the basis of their unique roles with the target of measurement. The use of multiple informants provides an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which the obtained ratings are influenced by the trait of focus and extraneous sources that can be attributed to the rater. Data from a multilevel multitrait-multimethod design in which students (N = 35,565) and teachers (N = 9,112), from 340 middle schools, responded to items measuring 3 dimensions of school climate were evaluated through a multilevel correlated trait-correlated method latent variable model. Results indicated that ratings of school climate obtained by students and teachers demonstrated high levels of convergent validity, and that school-level ratings obtained by students and teachers were equitable in the assessment of teasing and bullying. Student ratings of support and structure yielded somewhat stronger evidence of convergent validity than ratings obtained by teachers as revealed by their respective trait factor loadings. This was explained in part by the higher levels of common method effects that were observed for teachers. PMID:25751606

  4. Inter-rater reliability of the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients (SMES).

    PubMed

    Halsaa, K E; Sødring, K M; Bjelland, E; Finsrud, K; Bautz-Holter, E

    1999-12-01

    The Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is an instrument for physiotherapists to evaluate motor function and activities in stroke patients. The rating reflects quality as well as quantity of the patient's unassisted performance within three domains: leg, arm and gross function. The inter-rater reliability of the method was studied in a sample of 30 patients admitted to a stroke rehabilitation unit. Three therapists were involved in the study; two therapists assessed the same patient on two consecutive days in a balanced design. Cohen's weighted kappa and McNemar's test of symmetry were used as measures of item reliability, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to express the reliability of the sumscores. For 24 out of 32 items the weighted kappa statistic was excellent (0.75-0.98), while 7 items had a kappa statistic within the range 0.53-0.74 (fair to good). The reliability of one item was poor (0.13). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the three sumscores was 0.97, 0.91 and 0.97. We conclude that the Sødring Motor Evaluation of Stroke patients is a reliable measure of motor function in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:10599901

  5. Blindness from quinine toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, P; Spalton, D J; Smith, S E

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of quinine overdose in a 47-year-old man who presented with blindness. Fundus photography demonstrates the acute and subsequent retinal changes, and his visual recovery to normal acuity with visual field constriction is documented. Pupillary and electrodiagnostic findings are recorded. Stellate ganglion block has been widely advocated as a helpful therapeutic measure, but out patient was treated with a unilateral stellate ganglion block without apparent benefit to that eye. From a review of the literature we believe that quinine produces its effects by toxicity on the retina rather than by vasoconstriction and that stellate ganglion block probably does not alter the natural history of the retinal toxicity. Images PMID:3281709

  6. Test-retest, inter- and intra-rater reliability of the flexicurve for evaluation of the spine in children

    PubMed Central

    Sedrez, Juliana A.; Candotti, Cláudia T.; Rosa, Maria I. Z.; Medeiros, Fernanda S.; Marques, Mariana T.; Loss, Jefferson F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The early evaluation of the spine in children is desirable because it is at this stage of development that the greatest changes in the body structures occur. Objective: To determine the test-retest, intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Flexicurve instrument for the evaluation of spinal curvatures in children. Method: Forty children ranging from 5 to 15 years of age were evaluated by two independent evaluators using the Flexicurve to model the spine. The agreement was evaluated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM), and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC). Results: In relation to thoracic kyphosis, the Flexicurve was shown to have excellent correlation in terms of test-retest reliability (ICC2,2=0.87) and moderate correlation in terms of intra-(ICC2,2=0.68) and inter-rater reliability (ICC2,2=0.72). In relation to lumbar lordosis, it was shown to have moderate correlation in terms of test-retest reliability (ICC2,2=0.66) and intra- (ICC2,2=0.50) and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.56). Conclusion: This evaluation of the reliability of the Flexicurve allows its use in school screening. However, to monitor spinal curvatures in the sagittal plane in children, complementary clinical measures are necessary. Further studies are required to investigate the concurrent validity of the instrument in order to identify its diagnostic capacity. PMID:26786078

  7. Inter-rater agreement and reliability of the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments) Checklist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The COSMIN checklist is a tool for evaluating the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health-related patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the inter-rater agreement and reliability of each item score of the COSMIN checklist (n = 114). Methods 75 articles evaluating measurement properties were randomly selected from the bibliographic database compiled by the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Group, Oxford, UK. Raters were asked to assess the methodological quality of three articles, using the COSMIN checklist. In a one-way design, percentage agreement and intraclass kappa coefficients or quadratic-weighted kappa coefficients were calculated for each item. Results 88 raters participated. Of the 75 selected articles, 26 articles were rated by four to six participants, and 49 by two or three participants. Overall, percentage agreement was appropriate (68% was above 80% agreement), and the kappa coefficients for the COSMIN items were low (61% was below 0.40, 6% was above 0.75). Reasons for low inter-rater agreement were need for subjective judgement, and accustom to different standards, terminology and definitions. Conclusions Results indicated that raters often choose the same response option, but that it is difficult on item level to distinguish between articles. When using the COSMIN checklist in a systematic review, we recommend getting some training and experience, completing it by two independent raters, and reaching consensus on one final rating. Instructions for using the checklist are improved. PMID:20860789

  8. No training blind image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying; Mou, Xuanqin; Ji, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    State of the art blind image quality assessment (IQA) methods generally extract perceptual features from the training images, and send them into support vector machine (SVM) to learn the regression model, which could be used to further predict the quality scores of the testing images. However, these methods need complicated training and learning, and the evaluation results are sensitive to image contents and learning strategies. In this paper, two novel blind IQA metrics without training and learning are firstly proposed. The new methods extract perceptual features, i.e., the shape consistency of conditional histograms, from the joint histograms of neighboring divisive normalization transform coefficients of distorted images, and then compare the length attribute of the extracted features with that of the reference images and degraded images in the LIVE database. For the first method, a cluster center is found in the feature attribute space of the natural reference images, and the distance between the feature attribute of the distorted image and the cluster center is adopted as the quality label. The second method utilizes the feature attributes and subjective scores of all the images in the LIVE database to construct a dictionary, and the final quality score is calculated by interpolating the subjective scores of nearby words in the dictionary. Unlike the traditional SVM based blind IQA methods, the proposed metrics have explicit expressions, which reflect the relationships of the perceptual features and the image quality well. Experiment results in the publicly available databases such as LIVE, CSIQ and TID2008 had shown the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the performances are fairly acceptable.

  9. Comparison of Algorithm-based Estimates of Occupational Diesel Exhaust Exposure to Those of Multiple Independent Raters in a Population-based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Algorithm-based exposure assessments based on patterns in questionnaire responses and professional judgment can readily apply transparent exposure decision rules to thousands of jobs quickly. However, we need to better understand how algorithms compare to a one-by-one job review by an exposure assessor. We compared algorithm-based estimates of diesel exhaust exposure to those of three independent raters within the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study, and identified conditions under which disparities occurred in the assessments of the algorithm and the raters. Methods: Occupational diesel exhaust exposure was assessed previously using an algorithm and a single rater for all 14 983 jobs reported by 2631 study participants during personal interviews conducted from 2001 to 2004. Two additional raters independently assessed a random subset of 324 jobs that were selected based on strata defined by the cross-tabulations of the algorithm and the first rater’s probability assessments for each job, oversampling their disagreements. The algorithm and each rater assessed the probability, intensity and frequency of occupational diesel exhaust exposure, as well as a confidence rating for each metric. Agreement among the raters, their aggregate rating (average of the three raters’ ratings) and the algorithm were evaluated using proportion of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa (κw). Agreement analyses on the subset used inverse probability weighting to extrapolate the subset to estimate agreement for all jobs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models were used to identify patterns in questionnaire responses that predicted disparities in exposure status (i.e., unexposed versus exposed) between the first rater and the algorithm-based estimates. Results: For the probability, intensity and frequency exposure metrics, moderate to moderately high agreement was observed among raters (κw = 0.50–0.76) and between the

  10. Blind prediction of natural video quality.

    PubMed

    Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C; Charrier, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    We propose a blind (no reference or NR) video quality evaluation model that is nondistortion specific. The approach relies on a spatio-temporal model of video scenes in the discrete cosine transform domain, and on a model that characterizes the type of motion occurring in the scenes, to predict video quality. We use the models to define video statistics and perceptual features that are the basis of a video quality assessment (VQA) algorithm that does not require the presence of a pristine video to compare against in order to predict a perceptual quality score. The contributions of this paper are threefold. 1) We propose a spatio-temporal natural scene statistics (NSS) model for videos. 2) We propose a motion model that quantifies motion coherency in video scenes. 3) We show that the proposed NSS and motion coherency models are appropriate for quality assessment of videos, and we utilize them to design a blind VQA algorithm that correlates highly with human judgments of quality. The proposed algorithm, called video BLIINDS, is tested on the LIVE VQA database and on the EPFL-PoliMi video database and shown to perform close to the level of top performing reduced and full reference VQA algorithms. PMID:24723532

  11. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging. PMID:26982878

  12. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  13. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  14. Treatment of Acne Vulgaris With Salicylic Acid Chemical Peel and Pulsed Dye Laser: A Split Face, Rater-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lekakh, Olga; Mahoney, Anne Marie; Novice, Karlee; Kamalpour, Julia; Sadeghian, Azeen; Mondo, Dana; Kalnicky, Cathy; Guo, Rong; Peterson, Anthony; Tung, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) has been used to treat acne lesions and scar erythema by interrupting superficial vasculature. Salicylic acid chemical peels are employed chiefly due to their lipophilic, comedolytic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Although studies have looked at peels and laser therapy independently in acne management, we examined these treatments in combination. Our primary objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of concurrent use of salicylic acid peels with PDL versus salicylic acid peels alone in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Adult patients with moderate to severe acne were included. Subjects received a total of 3 treatments at 3-week intervals. Per randomized split-face treatment, at week 0, one half of the subject’s face was treated with PDL (595 nm) followed by whole face application of a 30% salicylic acid peel. At weeks 3 and 6, the treatments were repeated. At 0 and 9 weeks, patients were assessed with the Global Evaluation Acne (GEA) scale and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Nineteen subjects were enrolled, and 18 completed the study. Significant improvement in acne was seen in both the combined (laser and peel) and chemical peel alone treatment arms (P < .0005 and P = .001). Using the GEA scale score, compared to week 0, the mean difference in acne improvement at week 9 was -1.61 in the combination therapy group versus -1.11 in the peel only group. Based on the GEA scale scoring, a statistically significant greater difference in acne improvement was seen, from week 0 to week 9, in the combination treatment group compared with the peel only group (P = .003). Conclusion: While acne subjects had significant benefit from the salicylic acid peel alone, they experienced greater significant benefit from PDL treatment used in conjunction with salicylic acid peels. The adjunctive utilization of PDL to salicylic acid peel therapy can lead to better outcomes in acne management. PMID:26705462

  15. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  16. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  17. Reusable captive blind fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A one piece reusable fastener capable of joining materials together from one side (blind backside) comprises a screw driven pin ending in a wedge-shaped expander cone. The cone cooperates within a slotted collar end which has a number of tangs on a cylindrical body. The fastener is set by inserting it through aligned holes in the workpieces to be joined. Turning the pin in one direction draws the cone into the collar, deforming the tangs radially outward to mate with tapered back-tapered hold in the workpiece, thus fastening the two pieces together. Reversing the direction of the pin withdraws the cone from the collar, and allows the tangs to resume their contracted configuration without withdrawing the fastener from the insertion hole. The fastener is capable of joining materials together from only one side with substantial strength in tension and shear over many resue attachment cycles, with no special operations on the main assembly parts other than the tapering of the back end of the insertion hole.

  18. Empathy's blind spot.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to mount a philosophical challenge to the currently highly visible research and discourse on empathy. The notion of empathetic perspective-shifting-a conceptually demanding, high-level construal of empathy in humans that arguably captures the core meaning of the term-is criticized from the standpoint of a philosophy of normatively accountable agency. Empathy in this demanding sense fails to achieve a true understanding of the other and instead risks to impose the empathizer's self-constitutive agency upon the person empathized with. Attempts to 'simulate' human agency, or attempts to emulate its cognitive or emotional basis, will likely distort their target phenomena in profound ways. Thus, agency turns out to be empathy's blind spot. Elements of an alternative understanding of interpersonal relatedness are also discussed, focusing on aspects of 'interaction theory'. These might do some of the work that high-level constructs of empathy had been supposed to do without running into similar conceptual difficulties. PMID:24420745

  19. Frame-of-Reference Training Effectiveness: Effects of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Affective, Cognitive, Skill-Based, and Transfer Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierdorff, Erich C.; Surface, Eric A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence supporting frame-of-reference (FOR) training as an effective intervention for calibrating raters is convincing. Yet very little is known about who does better or worse in FOR training. We conducted a field study of how motivational factors influence affective, cognitive, and behavioral learning outcomes, as well as near transfer…

  20. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  1. American Foundation for the Blind

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Electronic Materials Webinars and Online Courses Accessible Technology AccessWorld ® : Technology News for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Find Assistive Technology Products Using Technology: Apps, Guides, Video Demonstrations, and ...

  2. Programs for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This directory lists contact information for programs for the deaf-blind in the United States in 3 categories: (1) programs for deaf-blind children and youth (29 programs listed); (2) Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youth and Adults (1 national and 10 regional offices); and (3) programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind (4…

  3. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  4. A Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Before concluding Repetition Blindness is a perceptual phenomenon, alternative explanations based on memory retrieval problems and report bias must be rejected. Memory problems were minimized by requiring a judgment about only a single briefly displayed field. Bias and sensitivity effects were empirically measured with an ROC-curve analysis method based on confidence ratings. Results from five experiments support the hypothesis that Repetition Blindness can be a perceptual phenomenon.

  5. ESTIMATED STATISTICS ON BLINDNESS AND VISION PROBLEMS. NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS FACT BOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HATFIELD, ELIZABETH M.

    CURRENT ESTIMATES AND SOME TREND DATA ARE PRESENTED ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS -- POPULATION GROWTH (1940-1960), PREVALENCE OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, NEW CASES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, AGE DISTRIBUTION OF LEGALLY BLIND PERSONS, CAUSES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, CHANGING PATTERNS IN CAUSES OF LEGAL BLINDNESS, CASES OF GLAUCOMA, SCHOOL CHILDREN NEEDING EYE CARE,…

  6. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  7. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  8. Genetics Home Reference: bradyopsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... cannot respond to light. This delay causes temporary blindness in response to changing light conditions and interferes ... Prolonged electroretinal response suppression MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Electroretinography Prevent Blindness: Living Well with Low Vision These resources from ...

  9. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  10. Changing pattern of childhood blindness in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, P; Deshpande, M; Sudrik, S; Taras, S; Kishore, H; Gilbert, C

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in Maharashtra, India. Methods Children aged <16 years with a visual acuity of <6/60 in the better eye, attending 35 schools for the blind were examined between 2002 and 2005, and causes were classified using the World Health Organization's system. Results 1985 students were examined, 1778 of whom fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major causes of visual loss were congenital anomalies (microphthalmos or anophthalmos; 735, 41.3%), corneal conditions (mainly scarring; 395, 22.2%), cataract or aphakia (n = 107, 6%), and retinal disorders (mainly dystrophies; n = 199, 11.2%). More than one third of children (34.5%) were blind from conditions which could have been prevented or treated, 139 of whom were referred for surgery. Low vision devices improved near‐acuity in 79 (4.4%) children, and 72 (4%) benefited from refraction. No variation in causes by sex or region was observed. Conclusions Congenital anomalies accounted for 41% of blindness, which is higher than in a similar study conducted 10 years ago. Corneal scarring seems to be declining in importance, low vision and optical services need to be improved, and research is needed to determine the aetiology of congenital anomalies. PMID:16809383

  11. Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur

    PubMed Central

    Sagana, Anna; Sauerland, Melanie; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon that people can be easily misled about the choices they made in the recent past. The aim of this study was to explore the cognitive mechanisms underlying choice blindness. Specifically, we tested whether memory impairment may account for choice blindness. A total of N = 88 participants provided sympathy ratings on 10-point scales for 20 female faces. Subsequently, participants motivated some of their ratings. However, on three trials, they were presented with sympathy ratings that deviated from their original ratings by three full scale points. On nearly 41% of the trials, participants failed to detect (i.e., were blind) the manipulation. After a short interval, participants were informed that some trials had been manipulated and were asked to recall their original ratings. Participants adopted the manipulated outcome in only 3% of the trials. Furthermore, the extent to which the original ratings were accurately remembered was not higher for detected as compared with non-detected trials. From a theoretical point of view our findings indicate that memory impairment does not fully account for blindness phenomena. PMID:24904467

  12. Qualitative soil moisture assessment in semi-arid Africa: the role of experience and training on inter-rater reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderer, M.; Komakech, H.; Müller, D.; Seibert, J.

    2015-03-01

    Soil and water management is particularly relevant in semi-arid regions to enhance agricultural productivity. During periods of water scarcity soil moisture differences are important indicators of the soil water deficit and are traditionally used for allocating water resources among farmers of a village community. Here we present a simple, inexpensive soil wetness classification scheme based on qualitative indicators which one can see or touch on the soil surface. It incorporates the local farmers' knowledge on the best soil moisture conditions for seeding and brick making in the semi-arid environment of the study site near Arusha, Tanzania. The scheme was tested twice in 2014 with farmers, students and experts (April: 40 persons, June: 25 persons) for inter-rater reliability, bias of individuals and functional relation between qualitative and quantitative soil moisture values. During the test in April farmers assigned the same wetness class in 46% of all cases while students and experts agreed in about 60% of all cases. Students who had been trained in how to apply the method gained higher inter-rater reliability than their colleagues with only a basic introduction. When repeating the test in June, participants were given improved instructions, organized in small sub-groups, which resulted in a higher inter-rater reliability among farmers. In 66% of all classifications farmers assigned the same wetness class and the spread of class assignments was smaller. This study demonstrates that a wetness classification scheme based on qualitative indicators is a robust tool and can be applied successfully regardless of experience in crop growing and education level when an in-depth introduction and training is provided. The use of a simple and clear layout of the assessment form is important for reliable wetness class assignments.

  13. Qualitative soil moisture assessment in semi-arid Africa - the role of experience and training on inter-rater reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinderer, M.; Komakech, H. C.; Müller, D.; Wiesenberg, G. L. B.; Seibert, J.

    2015-08-01

    Soil and water management is particularly relevant in semi-arid regions to enhance agricultural productivity. During periods of water scarcity, soil moisture differences are important indicators of the soil water deficit and are traditionally used for allocating water resources among farmers of a village community. Here we present a simple, inexpensive soil wetness classification scheme based on qualitative indicators which one can see or touch on the soil surface. It incorporates the local farmers' knowledge on the best soil moisture conditions for seeding and brick making in the semi-arid environment of the study site near Arusha, Tanzania. The scheme was tested twice in 2014 with farmers, students and experts (April: 40 persons, June: 25 persons) for inter-rater reliability, bias of individuals and functional relation between qualitative and quantitative soil moisture values. During the test in April farmers assigned the same wetness class in 46 % of all cases, while students and experts agreed on about 60 % of all cases. Students who had been trained in how to apply the method gained higher inter-rater reliability than their colleagues with only a basic introduction. When repeating the test in June, participants were given improved instructions, organized in small subgroups, which resulted in a higher inter-rater reliability among farmers. In 66 % of all classifications, farmers assigned the same wetness class and the spread of class assignments was smaller. This study demonstrates that a wetness classification scheme based on qualitative indicators is a robust tool and can be applied successfully regardless of experience in crop growing and education level when an in-depth introduction and training is provided. The use of a simple and clear layout of the assessment form is important for reliable wetness class assignments.

  14. Validity and intra-rater reliability of an Android phone application to measure cervical range-of-motion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability using a customized Android phone application to measure cervical-spine range-of-motion (ROM) has not been previously validated against a gold-standard three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system. Findings Twenty-one healthy individuals (age:31 ± 9.1 years, male:11) participated, with 16 re-examined for intra-rater reliability 1–7 days later. An Android phone was fixed on a helmet, which was then securely fastened on the participant’s head. Cervical-spine ROM in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation were performed in sitting with concurrent measurements obtained from both a 3DMA system and the phone. The phone demonstrated moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.53-0.98, Spearman ρ = 0.52-0.98) concurrent validity for ROM measurements in cervical flexion, extension, lateral-flexion and rotation. However, cervical rotation demonstrated both proportional and fixed bias. Excellent intra-rater reliability was demonstrated for cervical flexion, extension and lateral flexion (ICC = 0.82-0.90), but poor for right- and left-rotation (ICC = 0.05-0.33) using the phone. Possible reasons for the outcome are that flexion, extension and lateral-flexion measurements are detected by gravity-dependent accelerometers while rotation measurements are detected by the magnetometer which can be adversely affected by surrounding magnetic fields. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the tested Android phone application is valid and reliable to measure ROM of the cervical-spine in flexion, extension and lateral-flexion but not in rotation likely due to magnetic interference. The clinical implication of this study is that therapists should be mindful of the plane of measurement when using the Android phone to measure ROM of the cervical-spine. PMID:24742001

  15. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Method: Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeated-measures reliability study. MF muscles thickness at rest and during contraction, MF muscles CSAs at rest, and bladder diameters at rest and during pelvic floor muscles (PFM) contraction were measured through RUSI. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. Finding: The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs) values with 95% confidence interval (CI) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM) were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. The intra-rater reliability for the bladder wall displacement was high (ICCs for rest and PFM contraction state: 0.96 and 0.95 respectively), for the MF muscles CSAs at the L4 level was good to high (ICCs 0.75 and 0.91 for right (Rt) and left (Lt) side respectively), and for the thickness of MF muscles at two levels, at rest and during two tasks was moderate to high (ICCs: 0.64 to 0.87). Conclusion: The Trans-Abdominal (TA) method of RUSI is a reliable method to quantify the PFM contraction in healthy subjects. Also, the RUSI is a reliable method to measure the MF muscles CSAs, the MF muscles thickness at rest and during functional tasks in healthy subjects. PMID:26153153

  16. Inter-Rater Reliability and Validity of the Australian Football League’s Kicking and Handball Tests

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Ashley J.; Hopper, Luke S.; Joyce, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Talent identification tests used at the Australian Football League’s National Draft Combine assess the capacities of athletes to compete at a professional level. Tests created for the National Draft Combine are also commonly used for talent identification and athlete development in development pathways. The skills tests created by the Australian Football League required players to either handball (striking the ball with the hand) or kick to a series of 6 randomly generated targets. Assessors subjectively rate each skill execution giving a 0-5 score for each disposal. This study aimed to investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the skills tests at an adolescent sub-elite level. Male Australian footballers were recruited from sub-elite adolescent teams (n = 121, age = 15.7 ± 0.3 years, height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m, mass = 69.17 ± 8.08 kg). The coaches (n = 7) of each team were also recruited. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using Inter-class correlations (ICC) and Limits of Agreement statistics. Both the kicking (ICC = 0.96, p < .01) and handball tests (ICC = 0.89, p < .01) demonstrated strong reliability and acceptable levels of absolute agreement. Content validity was determined by examining the test scores sensitivity to laterality and distance. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing coaches’ perceptions of skill to actual test outcomes. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) examined the main effect of laterality, with scores on the dominant hand (p = .04) and foot (p < .01) significantly higher compared to the non-dominant side. Follow-up univariate analysis reported significant differences at every distance in the kicking test. A poor correlation was found between coaches’ perceptions of skill and testing outcomes. The results of this study demonstrate both skill tests demonstrate acceptable inter-rater reliable. Partial content validity was confirmed for the kicking test, however further research is required to confirm

  17. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  18. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  19. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  20. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  1. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  2. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  3. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  4. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  5. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  6. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  7. Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse as Coexisting Disabilities: Considerations for Counselors Serving Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, D. Shane; Nelipovich, Michael; Sneed, Zach

    2002-01-01

    This article identifies the potential affect of alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) on people who are blind or visually impaired, the barriers to providing effective AODA services for those people, and strategies for improving services for people with coexisting blindness or visual impairments and AODA. (Contains references.) (CR)

  8. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  9. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  10. Assessing the rhinoplasty outcome: inter-rater variability of aesthetic perception in the light of objective facial analysis.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Kerem; Gode, Sercan; Karahan, Ceyda; Midilli, Rasit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success of rhinoplasty by evaluating the inter-rater variability in the light of primary indication as functional or cosmetic. Subjective aesthetic perception was compared with objective facial analysis. 45 rhinoplasty patients were included in the study. 25 had cosmetic plus functional reasons with septal deviation (group 1) and 20 had pure cosmetic reasons without septal deviation (group 2). Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, four individuals (patient, surgeon, 2 independent surgeons) rated the aesthetic appearance of the nose with visual analogue scale. Facial photogrammetric analysis was applied. The patient's aesthetic perception score was significantly correlated with the two independent surgeons (p < 0.05) whereas not with the primary surgeons. Regarding the objective parameters, patient's aesthetic perception was significantly correlated with the dorsal alignment in both groups (p < 0.05). General satisfaction score was significantly correlated with the nasal breathing as well as with the aesthetic perception scores in both groups. This correlation was higher for aesthetic perception in group 1 and nasal breathing in group 2. Inter-rater variability of outcome perception was higher in cosmetic patients. Nasal dorsal alignment was the only objective parameter which was correlated with the patient's perception. Patient's perception of outcome has better represented the objective photogrammetric analysis rather than the primary surgeons. An interesting finding was the more significant correlation of general satisfaction with aesthetic perception in the functional group whereas nasal breathing in the cosmetic group. PMID:25563240

  11. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  12. Computer Reader for the Blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Optacon II uses the same basic technique of converting printed information into a tactile image as did Optacon. Optacon II can also be connected directly to a personal computer, which opens up a new range of job opportunities for the blind. Optacon II is not limited to reading printed words, it can convert any graphic image viewed by the camera. Optacon II demands extensive training for blind operators. TSI provides 60-hour training courses at its Mountain View headquarters and at training centers around the world. TeleSensory discontinued production of the Optacon as of December 1996.

  13. Night blindness and ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    Al Binali, H A Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  14. Inter-Rater Agreement of Pressure Ulcer Risk and Prevention Measures in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators(®) (NDNQI).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Shirley Moore; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this descriptive multi-site study, we examined inter-rater agreement on 11 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators(®) (NDNQI(®) ) pressure ulcer (PrU) risk and prevention measures. One hundred twenty raters at 36 hospitals captured data from 1,637 patient records. At each hospital, agreement between the most experienced rater and each other team rater was calculated for each measure. In the ratings studied, 528 patients were rated as "at risk" for PrU and, therefore, were included in calculations of agreement for the prevention measures. Prevalence-adjusted kappa (PAK) was used to interpret inter-rater agreement because prevalence of single responses was high. The PAK values for eight measures indicated "substantial" to "near perfect" agreement between most experienced and other team raters: Skin assessment on admission (.977, 95% CI [.966-.989]), PrU risk assessment on admission (.978, 95% CI [.964-.993]), Time since last risk assessment (.790, 95% CI [.729-.852]), Risk assessment method (.997, 95% CI [.991-1.0]), Risk status (.877, 95% CI [.838-.917]), Any prevention (.856, 95% CI [.76-.943]), Skin assessment (.956, 95% CI [.904-1.0]), and Pressure-redistribution surface use (.839, 95% CI [.763-.916]). For three intervention measures, PAK values fell below the recommended value of ≥.610: Routine repositioning (.577, 95% CI [.494-.661]), Nutritional support (.500, 95% CI [.418-.581]), and Moisture management (.556, 95% CI [.469-.643]). Areas of disagreement were identified. Findings provide support for the reliability of 8 of the 11 measures. Further clarification of data collection procedures is needed to improve reliability for the less reliable measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038340

  15. [The punishment of blinding and the life of the blind].

    PubMed

    Büttner, Jan Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with a group of people who were deprived of their eyesight by private acts of force or by executions of lawful sentences. In early medieval texts blinding is frequently mentioned in connection with popes, kings, princes or bishops. However, since the High Middle Ages these dignitaries were increasingly spared the loss of their eyes. It may be said that on the whole, from the eighth to the twelfth century, blinding was overwhelmingly used to dispose of political adversaries, but did then rapidly turn into a criminal punishment. In the earliest 'Landfriedensordnungen' of the late eleventh century, the loss of the perpetrator's eyes crops up as punishment for breach of the peace, while later it was applied to a variety of more or less serious offences. The destiny of the blinded in the early Middle Ages is only highlighted by sketches of a few individual cases; for the High and late Middle Ages--apart from a few notable exceptions--it is only possible to reflect on the general situation of blind people in society, since the sources usually do not differentiate between those having lost their sight through human violence or due to other causes. PMID:20506724

  16. Arkansas School Provides Computer Training to Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technological Horizons in Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes a program and equipment used to teach computer programing to blind and visually impaired students at the Arkansas Enterprises for the Blind in Little Rock. Requirements for admission to this program are given. (JN)

  17. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  18. Indiana School for the Blind Visits Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows highlights of the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, and the Indian Creek Public High School visit to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June 2011. Both blind a...

  19. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  20. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  1. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  2. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  3. Floating device aligns blind connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resel, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Panel-mounted connectors overcome the misalignment of blind connectors in electronic rack mounted equipment. The connector is free to move in the vertical direction by the action of a parallelogram mount. This freedom of motion maintains the guide pin hole centerline parallel to the guide pin centerline at all times.

  4. Piagetian Reasoning and the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatwell, Yvette

    Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…

  5. Multihandicapped Blind. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lloyd

    The final report of the Garden Grove unified school district project for 1969 through 1972 (funded through Title III) involving six multiply handicapped, legally blind children, 7- to 10-years-old, who were previously excluded from special education (SE) classes is presented. Described as the main procedural objective is development of a…

  6. Investigating Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teacher Raters' Judgements of Oral Proficiency in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of raters' language background on their judgements of the speaking performance in the College English Test-Spoken English Test (CET-SET) of China, by comparing the rating patterns of non-native English-speaking (NNES) teacher raters, who are currently employed to assess performance on the CET-SET, with those…

  7. An Examination of the Link between Rater Calibration Performance and Subsequent Scoring Accuracy in Graduate Record Examinations[R] (GRE[R]) Writing. Research Report. ETS RR-11-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker-Pedley, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A pseudo-experimental study was conducted to examine the link between rater accuracy calibration performances and subsequent accuracy during operational scoring. The study asked 45 raters to score a 75-response calibration set and then a 100-response (operational) set of responses from a retired Graduate Record Examinations[R] (GRE[R]) writing…

  8. The Spatial Cognition of Blind Pedestrians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollyfield, Rebecca L.; Foulke, Emerson

    1983-01-01

    Four groups (sighted, blindfolded sighted, legally blind, and blind) of adults were trained to traverse a five-block route in a residential neighborhood and were then asked to reconstruct the route from memory. Results showed the blind and sighted adults demonstrated similar abilities to learn routes but showed significant differences in memorial…

  9. Programs for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The directory lists 28 state or multistate programs for deaf blind children and youth, the national center and 10 regional offices of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults, and 4 programs for training teachers of the deaf-blind. Information usually provided includes, address, director's name, and phone number. (DB)

  10. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1997-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This one-year collection of three serial issues focuses on problem solving skills for children with deaf-blindness, the history and change in the education of children who are deaf-blind since the rubella epidemic of the 1960's, and early identification of infants who are deaf-blind. Specific articles include: (1) "Research to Practice Focus on:…

  11. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  12. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This collection of three issues focuses on competencies for teachers of learners who are deaf-blind, living with deaf-blindness, and resources in Australia for parents and families of students who are deaf-blind. Articles include: (1) "Research-to-Practice Focus: Competencies for Teachers of Learners Who Are Deafblind" (Marianne Riggio), which…

  13. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  14. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  15. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  16. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  17. Congenital Blindness Leads to Enhanced Vibrotactile Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Catherine Y.; Wood, Amanda G.; Reutens, David C.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in comparison with the sighted, blind individuals display superior non-visual perceptual abilities and differ in brain organisation. In this study, we investigated the performance of blind and sighted participants on a vibrotactile discrimination task. Thirty-three blind participants were classified into one of…

  18. Model Deaf/Blind Prevocational Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Denis W.; And Others

    Presented is a report of a 4-month project designed to review literature on projects pertaining to deaf-blind prevocational training, to implement a model prevocational program for six severely handicapped deaf-blind students (10 years old), and to conduct two workshops in the area of prevocational training for deaf-blind students. Provided in…

  19. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1720 - Whom we refer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Treatment of Alcoholism Or Drug Addiction § 416.1720 Whom we refer. We will refer you to an approved facility for treatment of your alcoholism or drug addiction if— (a) You are disabled; (b) You are not blind; (c) You are not 65 years old or older; and (d) Alcoholism or drug addiction is a contributing...

  4. Poor Reliability between Cochrane Reviewers and Blinded External Reviewers When Applying the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool in Physical Therapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Ospina, Maria; da Costa, Bruno R.; Egger, Matthias; Saltaji, Humam; Fuentes, Jorge; Ha, Christine; Cummings, Greta G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test the inter-rater reliability of the RoB tool applied to Physical Therapy (PT) trials by comparing ratings from Cochrane review authors with those of blinded external reviewers. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PT were identified by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for meta-analysis of PT interventions. RoB assessments were conducted independently by 2 reviewers blinded to the RoB ratings reported in the Cochrane reviews. Data on RoB assessments from Cochrane reviews and other characteristics of reviews and trials were extracted. Consensus assessments between the two reviewers were then compared with the RoB ratings from the Cochrane reviews. Agreement between Cochrane and blinded external reviewers was assessed using weighted kappa (κ). Results In total, 109 trials included in 17 Cochrane reviews were assessed. Inter-rater reliability on the overall RoB assessment between Cochrane review authors and blinded external reviewers was poor (κ  =  0.02, 95%CI: −0.06, 0.06]). Inter-rater reliability on individual domains of the RoB tool was poor (median κ  = 0.19), ranging from κ  =  −0.04 (“Other bias”) to κ  =  0.62 (“Sequence generation”). There was also no agreement (κ  =  −0.29, 95%CI: −0.81, 0.35]) in the overall RoB assessment at the meta-analysis level. Conclusions Risk of bias assessments of RCTs using the RoB tool are not consistent across different research groups. Poor agreement was not only demonstrated at the trial level but also at the meta-analysis level. Results have implications for decision making since different recommendations can be reached depending on the group analyzing the evidence. Improved guidelines to consistently apply the RoB tool and revisions to the tool for different health areas are needed. PMID:24824199

  5. The impact of revised DSM-5 criteria on the relative distribution and inter-rater reliability of eating disorder diagnoses in a residential treatment setting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Murray, Helen B; Tromp, Marilou D P; Hartmann, Andrea S; Stone, Melissa T; Levendusky, Philip G; Becker, Anne E

    2015-09-30

    This study evaluated the relative distribution and inter-rater reliability of revised DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders in a residential treatment program. Consecutive adolescent and young adult females (N=150) admitted to a residential eating disorder treatment facility were assigned both DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnoses by a clinician (n=14) via routine clinical interview and a research assessor (n=4) via structured interview. We compared the frequency of diagnostic assignments under each taxonomy and by type of assessor. We evaluated concordance between clinician and researcher assignment through inter-rater reliability kappa and percent agreement. Significantly fewer patients received either clinician or researcher diagnoses of a residual eating disorder under DSM-5 (clinician-12.0%; researcher-31.3%) versus DSM-IV (clinician-28.7%; researcher-59.3%), with the majority of reassigned DSM-IV residual cases reclassified as DSM-5 anorexia nervosa. Researcher and clinician diagnoses showed moderate inter-rater reliability under DSM-IV (κ=.48) and DSM-5 (κ=.57), though agreement for specific DSM-5 other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) presentations was poor (κ=.05). DSM-5 revisions were associated with significantly less frequent residual eating disorder diagnoses, but not with reduced inter-rater reliability. Findings support specific dimensions of clinical utility for revised DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders. PMID:26160205

  6. The Relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling Measures and Rater Judgements of Spoken and Written General English Language Proficiency on the CELPIP-General Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Scott Roy

    2015-01-01

    Independent confirmation that vocabulary in use unfolds across levels of performance as expected can contribute to a more complete understanding of validity in standardized English language tests. This study examined the relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling (LFP) measures and rater judgements of test-takers' overall levels of…

  7. Linguistic Discrimination in Writing Assessment: How Raters React to African American "Errors," ESL Errors, and Standard English Errors on a State-Mandated Writing Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; VanBrackle, Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Raters of Georgia's (USA) state-mandated college-level writing exam, which is intended to ensure a minimal university-level writing competency, are trained to grade holistically when assessing these exams. A guiding principle in holistic grading is to not focus exclusively on any one aspect of writing but rather to give equal weight to style,…

  8. The Santa Barbara Assets and Risks Assessment to Predict Recidivism among Male and Female Juveniles: An Investigation of Inter-Rater Reliability and Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Sharkey, Jill D.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to advance our understanding of the assessment of numerous factors associated with recidivism among females and males involved in the juvenile justice system. In particular, this study examined the reliability (i.e., inter-rater) and validity (i.e., construct, criterion, and predictive) of the Santa Barbara Assets and Risks…

  9. Driver Performance Measurement Research. Volume 2: Guide for Training Observer/Raters in the Driver Performance Measurements Procedure. (Including Course and Content).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, R. O.; And Others

    The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement Project. This volume (Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observers/raters in the driver performance measurement procedures developed in this research by MSU. The guide includes a training course plan and content materials…

  10. Towards the Real-Time Evaluation of Collaborative Activities: Integration of an Automatic Rater of Collaboration Quality in the Classroom from the Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chounta, Irene-Angelica; Avouris, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of a real time evaluation method of collaboration quality in a monitoring application that supports teachers in class orchestration. The method is implemented as an automatic rater of collaboration quality and studied in a real time scenario of use. We argue that automatic and semi-automatic methods which…

  11. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony.

    PubMed

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures. PMID:17725074

  12. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  13. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  14. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Results Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. Conclusions The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials. PMID:26401129

  15. A new quantum blind signature with unlinkability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhang, Jian-Biao; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, some quantum blind signature protocols have been proposed. However, the previous schemes cannot satisfy the unlinkability requirement. To overcome the drawback of unlinkability in the previous schemes, we propose a new quantum blind signature based on Bell states with the help of an authentic party. In this paper, we provide a method to inject a randomizing factor into a message when it is signed by the signer and then get rid of the blind factor from the blinded signature when it is verified by the verifier. Even when the message owner publishes the message-signature pair, the signer cannot identify the association between the message-signature pair and the blind signature he generated. Therefore, our scheme really realizes unlinkability property. At last, analysis results show that this scheme satisfies the basis security requirements of a weak signature such as no-counterfeiting, no-disavowing, blindness and traceability, and our total efficiency is not less than the previous schemes.

  16. A blind deconvolution method for attenuative materials based on asymmetrical Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haoran; Chen, Jian; Yang, Keji

    2016-08-01

    During propagation in attenuative materials, ultrasonic waves are distorted by frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation. As a result, reference signals for blind deconvolution in attenuative materials are asymmetrical and should be accurately estimated by considering attenuation. In this study, an asymmetrical Gaussian model is established to estimate the reference signals from these materials, and a blind deconvolution method based on this model is proposed. Based on the symmetrical Gaussian model, the asymmetrical one is formulated by adding an asymmetrical coefficient. Upon establishing the model, the reference signal for blind deconvolution is determined via maximum likelihood estimation, and the blind deconvolution is implemented with an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. To verify the feasibility of the established model, spectra of ultrasonic signals from attenuative polyethylene plates with different thicknesses are measured and estimated. The proposed blind deconvolution method is applied to the A-scan signal and B-scan image from attenuative materials. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of separating overlapping echoes and therefore achieves a high temporal resolution. PMID:27586747

  17. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  18. Minimum entropy deconvolution and blind equalisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E. H.; Mulligan, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between minimum entropy deconvolution, developed primarily for geophysics applications, and blind equalization are pointed out. It is seen that a large class of existing blind equalization algorithms are directly related to the scale-invariant cost functions used in minimum entropy deconvolution. Thus the extensive analyses of these cost functions can be directly applied to blind equalization, including the important asymptotic results of Donoho.

  19. The therapeutic alliance in cognitive-behavioral treatment of children referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, Alan E; Marciano, Paul L; Whitley, Moira K

    2005-08-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic alliance in evidence-based treatment for children (N = 185, 47 girls, 138 boys; ages 3-14 years) referred clinically for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Different alliances (child-therapist, parent-therapist) were assessed from each participant's perspective at 2 points over the course of treatment. As predicted, both child-therapist and parent-therapist alliances related to therapeutic change, family experience of barriers to participation in treatment, and treatment acceptability. Greater alliance was associated with greater therapeutic change, fewer perceived barriers, and greater treatment acceptability. The findings could not be attributed to the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage, parent psychopathology and stress, and child dysfunction or to rater effects (common rater variance in the predictors and criteria). PMID:16173860

  20. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  1. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  2. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  3. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  4. Difference Blindness/Blindness Difference: Student Explorations of "Disability" over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelly; And Others

    This case study describes the Internet correspondence using MOO, a multiuser, object-oriented site, that was developed between six third-grade girls and TCC, an adult with blindness. The changes from the students' original attitudes toward blindness, that blindness posed a barrier to communication and relationship-building, into their acceptance…

  5. Astronomy with the color blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-12-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the field, although one should be cautious in assuming that such an image shows what the subject would "really look like" if a person could see it without the aid of a telescope. The details of how the eye processes light have a significant impact on how such images should be understood, and the step from perception to interpretation is even more problematic when the viewer is color blind. We report here on an approach to manipulating stacked tricolor images that, while abandoning attempts to portray the color distribution "realistically," do result in enabling those suffering from deuteranomaly (the most common form of color blindness) to perceive color distinctions they would otherwise not be able to see.

  6. Inter-rater reliability for movement pattern analysis (MPA): measuring patterning of behaviors versus discrete behavior counts as indicators of decision-making style

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from movement pattern analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective), inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor) was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = 0.89). Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring patterning versus discrete behavioral counts of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns. PMID:24999336

  7. Intra and Inter-Rater Reliability and Convergent Validity of FIT-HaNSA in Individuals with Grade П Whiplash Associated Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pierrynowski, Michael; McPhee, Colleen; P. Mehta, Saurabh; C. MacDermid, Joy; Gross, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) are common following a motor vehicle accident. The Functional Impairment Test - Hand, and Neck/Shoulder/Arm (FIT-HaNSA) assesses upper extremity physical performance. It has been validated in patients with shoulder pathology but not in those with WAD. Objectives: Establish the Intra and inter-rater reliability and the known-group and construct validity of the FIT-HaNSA in patients with Grade II WAD (WAD2). Methods: Twenty-five patients with WAD2 and 41 healthy controls were recruited. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), cervical range of motion (CROM), and FIT-HaNSA were completed at two sessions conducted 2 to 7 days apart by two raters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to describe Intra and inter-rater reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to quantify the associations between scores of the FIT-HaNSA and other measures in the WAD2 group (convergent construct validity). Results: The Intra and inter-ICCs for the FIT-HaNSA scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.89 in the control group and 0.78 to 0.85 in the WAD2 group. Statistically significant differences in FIT-HaNSA performance between the two groups suggested known group construct validity (P < 0.001). The correlations between the NPRS, NDI, DASH, CROM and FIT-HaNSA were generally poor (ρ < 0.4). Conclusion: The study results indicate that the total FIT-HaNSA score has good Intra and inter-rater reliability and the construct validity in WAD2 and healthy controls. PMID:27350797

  8. The Heritability of Psychopathic Personality in 14 to 15 year Old Twins: A Multi-Rater, Multi-Measure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    No study has yet examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale (CPS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14 to 15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a one-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while non-shared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific non-shared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the way in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343

  9. Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  10. Should we trust our judgments about the proficiency of Motivational Interviewing counselors? A glimpse at the impact of low inter-rater reliability

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Chris; Darnell, Doyanne; Yi, Sheng Kung Michael; Steyvers, Mark; Bumgardner, Kristin; Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Imel, Zac; Atkins, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Standardized rating systems are often used to evaluate the proficiency of Motivational Interviewing (MI) counselors. The published inter-rater reliability (degree of coder agreement) in many studies using these instruments has varied a great deal; some studies report MI proficiency scores that have only fair inter-rater reliability, and others report scores with excellent reliability. How much can we to trust the scores with fair versus excellent reliability? Using a Monte Carlo statistical simulation, we compared the impact of fair (0.50) versus excellent (0.90) reliability on the error rates of falsely judging a given counselor as MI proficient or not proficient. We found that improving the inter-rater reliability of any given score from 0.5 to 0.9 would cause a marked reduction in proficiency judgment errors, a reduction that in some MI evaluation situations would be critical. We discuss some practical tradeoffs inherent in various MI evaluation situations, and offer suggestions for applying findings from formal MI research to problems faced by real-world MI evaluators, to help them minimize the MI proficiency judgment errors bearing the greatest cost.

  11. LABORATORY METHODS IN PHYSICS FOR THE BLIND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENDERSON, DAVID RAY.

    THE PAPER DESCRIBES AUDITORY AND TACTILE ADAPTATION OF PHYSICS LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR USE BY BLIND STUDENTS, TOGETHER WITH FIVE METHODS OF DRAWING RAISED LINE AND INDENTED DIAGRAMS FOR USE IN PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS. A SURVEY OF PHYSICS LABORATORY METHODS IN SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND IN THE UNITED STATES AND SEVEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES, AND TWO SIMPLE…

  12. Public-Facilities Locator For The Blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic system guides blind people to important locations in public buildings, With system, sightless person easily determines directions and distances of restrooms, water fountains, stairways, emergency exits, and elevators. Circuitry uncomplicated and inexpensive, in both transmitter and receiver. Readily-available light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and integrated-circuit chips used to build locator aid for the blind.

  13. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  14. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and Betsy Bixler), which summarizes services…

  15. Resources for Helping Blind Music Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaligo, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Explains that there are two forms of braille in existence, literary and music, and maintains that music educators can help blind students learn to read music through the use of braille. Provides resources for teaching blind music students, including college-bound musicians, from parents and colleagues to recorded music, publications, and…

  16. Chemistry Lab Adapted for Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a project at the University of Louisville in which chemistry laboratories are being adapted for use by blind students. Describes the operational analysis of tasks normally performed in labs. Provides specific recommendations on how to utilize new technologies to enable blind students to conduct hands-on learning experiments. (TW)

  17. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and Western railroad bridge, mile 1.1 at...

  18. The Exercise Capacity of Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, L. W.; Evans, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether blind children in a well-equipped modern institution are receiving enough physical education activities to maintain good physical condition, the physiological characteristics of 20 institutionalized blind children were measured according to body composition, pulmonary function, and tolerance for exercise. (Author)

  19. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  20. A blind test of monthly homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.

    2012-04-01

    metrics: the root mean square error, the error in (linear and nonlinear) trend estimates and contingency scores. The metrics are computed on the station data and the network average regional climate signal, as well as on monthly data and yearly data, for both temperature and precipitation. Because the test was blind, we can state with confidence that relative homogenisation improves the quality of climate station data. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Still a group of better algorithms can be found that includes Craddock, PRODIGE, MASH, ACMANT and USHCN. Clearly algorithms developed for solving the multiple breakpoint problem with an inhomogeneous reference perform best. The results suggest that the correction algorithms are currently an important weakness of many methods. For more information on the COST Action on homogenisation see: http://www.homogenisation.org/

  1. CD-ROM: A New Light for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mates, Barbara T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes ways of using CD-ROM technology for the benefit of blind and visually impaired library patrons. Science, reference, and American historical documents that can be converted to braille, large print, or voice output from CD-ROMs are described, and hardware, software, and staff considerations are discussed. (LRW)

  2. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  3. On Praising Convergent Thinking: Creativity as Blind Variation and Selective Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-01-01

    Arthur Cropley (2006) emphasized the critical place that convergent thinking has in creativity. Although he briefly refers to the blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity, his discussion could not reflect the most recent theoretical and empirical developments in BVSR, especially the resulting combinatorial models.…

  4. Using Tactile Strategies with Students Who Are Blind and Have Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, June E.; Chen, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests ways to use tactile teaching strategies with students who have severe and multiple disabilities including blindness. Guidelines address tactile modeling, tactile mutual attention, presenting tactile information, providing effective tactile representation, hypersensitivity to touch, and a team approach. (Contains references.)…

  5. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired ... Saskatchewan Yukon Territory Other (International) Organization Name Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired ...

  6. Continuous-Variable Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-01

    Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice’s input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.

  7. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  8. A Case of Blind Loop Syndrome Caused by Infection with Giardia duodenalis Diagnosed with Double Balloon Enteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Mandai, Yasushi; Saito, Masaya; Yoshihama, Sayuri; Saito, Keiko; Minemura, Shoko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 75-year-old man who had undergone partial gastrectomy was referred to our hospital due to worsening leg edema, loose stools and malnutrition. Double balloon enteroscopy followed by insertion of an indwelling ileus tube was performed to investigate the microbial flora and for washing inside the blind loop. Trophozoites of Giardia were detected in the sampled fluid from the blind loop and DNA analysis disclosed an assemblage of genotype A-II of Giardia duodenalis. Treatment with oral metronidazole was effective. This case emphasizes the importance of a correct diagnosis when treating patients with blind loop syndrome in the digestive tract. PMID:25408630

  9. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  10. The PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. M.

    2009-03-10

    Dielectron measurements by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC are limited by the combinatorial background from electrons and positrons which are not produced in the same pair. The Hadron Blind Detector will allow a substantial reduction of this background by correctly identifying dielectrons from photon conversions and pion Dalitz decays which dominate the signal in the low mass region of the spectrum. Triple GEM stacks, with a CsI photocathode deposited on the uppermost GEM, detect Cherenkov light produced by electrons in a CF{sub 4} radiator. The transparency of CF{sub 4}, high quantum efficiency of CsI in the UV, and absence of a window between the gas radiator and the GEMs allow a large photoelectron yield, while minimizing the hadron signal. Results from the HBD in RHIC's Run-7 and preparations for upcoming runs are discussed.

  11. Auditory display for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for providing an auditory display of two-dimensional patterns as an aid to the blind is described. It includes a scanning device for producing first and second voltages respectively indicative of the vertical and horizontal positions of the scan and a further voltage indicative of the intensity at each point of the scan and hence of the presence or absence of the pattern at that point. The voltage related to scan intensity controls transmission of the sounds to the subject so that the subject knows that a portion of the pattern is being encountered by the scan when a tone is heard, the subject determining the position of this portion of the pattern in space by the frequency and interaural difference information contained in the tone.

  12. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-01

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation. PMID:24476238

  13. Efficient Universal Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G.

    2013-12-01

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party’s quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party’s computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog⁡2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  14. An epidemiological study of blindness in an Indian rural community.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R N; Verma, B L

    1978-06-01

    A house-to-house survey of blindness in an Indian rural community covering a population of 20 134 in 12 villages revealed a prevalence rate of 35 blind and 144 partially blind persons per 10 000 population. Blindness was significantly associated with the age, sex, marital status, occupation, and socioeconomic status of the respondents. Caratact, glaucoma, smallpox and trachoma were the main causes of blindness. Preventive measures can reduce the toll of blindness in such a community. PMID:681587

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Wagner syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals may also experience nearsightedness ( myopia ), progressive night blindness, or a narrowing of their field of vision. ... Topic: Retinal Disorders Health Topic: Vision Impairment and Blindness Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited eye disorder that leads to blindness in male infants at birth or soon after ... hereditaria congenital progressive oculo-acoustico-cerebral degeneration Episkopi blindness Fetal iritis syndrome Norrie syndrome Norrie-Warburg syndrome ...

  17. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  18. Biomechanical measures in participants with shoulder pain: Intra-rater reliability.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lori A; Elmore, Kevin A; Darter, Benjamin J; Timmons, Mark K

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical measures are used to characterize the mechanisms of treatment for shoulder pain. The objective was to characterize test-retest reliability and measurement error of shoulder surface electromyographic(sEMG) and kinematic measures. Individuals(n = 12) with subacromial pain syndrome were tested at 2 visits. Five repetitions of shoulder scapular plane elevation were performed while collecting sEMG of the upper trapezius(UT), middle trapezius(MT), lower trapezius(LT), serratus anterior(SA) middle-deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles during ascending and descending phases. Simultaneously, electromagnetic sensors measured 3-dimensional kinematics of scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and clavicular elevation/depression and clavicular protraction/retraction. Kinematic and sEMG variables were reduced for the total phase of ascending and descending elevation (30°-120°, 120°-30°), at 30° intervals for sEMG, and at every 30° discrete kinematic angle. The intraclass correlation coefficients(ICC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.99 for sEMG and 0.23-0.95 for kinematics. Correspondingly, the standard error of the measurement(SEM) and minimal detectable change(MDC) for sEMG measures varied from 2.3% to 103.8% of a reference contraction(REF-contraction). For kinematics, the SEM and MDC varied from 1.4° to 5.9°. Between-day reliability was good to very good, except for scapular internal/external rotation kinematics, and sEMG for the LT, UT, and SA. sEMG error values were highest (>25%REF-contraction) for most of the LT, UT, and SA variables. Kinematic error values indicate changes or differences of 2°-3° are meaningful, except for upward/downward rotation and internal/external rotation with MDCs of 4°-6°. Generally, data from the total phase of movement had better reliability and lower error than the data from sEMG interval or kinematic discrete angles. PMID:26578162

  19. Library and Information Services to Individuals with Disabilities. Reference Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Ruth, Comp.; Strauss, Carol, Comp.

    This bibliography lists selective sources of information on providing library services for adults and children with disabilities. Its emphasis is on visual or physical disabilities that prevent reading or using standard printed materials. The selections, based on the holdings of the Reference Section, National Library Service for the Blind and…

  20. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images. PMID:27298618

  1. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    PubMed Central

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images. PMID:27298618

  2. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system. PMID:23894729

  3. A Comparison of Proposed Biosimilar LA-EP2006 and Reference Pegfilgrastim for the Prevention of Neutropenia in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2), a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Donskih, Roman; Jones, C. Michael; Nixon, Allen; Vidal, Maria J.; Nakov, Roumen; Singh, Pritibha; Schaffar, Gregor; Gascón, Pere; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In highly regulated markets, there are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2) was a confirmatory efficacy and safety study designed to compare proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 with reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta, Amgen) in early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Methods. A total of 308 patients were randomized to LA-EP2006 or reference pegfilgrastim. Each patient received TAC (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) on day 1 of each cycle, for six or more cycles. Pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006 or reference) was given subcutaneously (6 mg in 0.6 mL) on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1 (number of consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 109/L), with equivalence confirmed if 90% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 1-day margin. Results. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. DSN was equivalent between groups at mean ± SD 1.36 ± 1.13 (LA-EP2006, n = 155) and 1.19 ± 0.98 (reference, n = 153) in cycle 1. With a treatment difference (reference minus LA-EP2006) of −0.16 days (90% CI −0.36 to 0.04; 95% CI −0.40 to 0.08), LA-EP2006 was equivalent to reference pegfilgrastim. Secondary efficacy parameters were similar between groups during cycle 1 and across cycles. Safety profiles were also similar between groups. No neutralizing antibodies against pegfilgrastim, filgrastim, or polyethylene glycol were detected. Conclusion. LA-EP2006 and reference pegfilgrastim were therapeutically equivalent and comparable regarding efficacy and safety in the prevention of neutropenia in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving TAC. Implications for Practice: The

  4. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  5. Psychosocial implications of blindness and low vision in students of a school for children with blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ishtiaq, Rizwan; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Rana, Muhammad Atif; Jamil, Abdur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the psychosocial implications of blindness and low vision in students of blind school Bahawalpur. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in Higher Secondary School for blind, Bahawalpur after getting approval from Institutional review board of Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Bahawalpur and Principal of Blind School, Bahawalpur. Forty willing students filled a customized questionnaire, consisting of questions about logistic variables and questions regarding areas of satisfaction. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 18. Results: Out of 40, 55% (22/40) of them were found depressed (as assessed through DSM-lV), 50% (20/40) were having difficulty in making new contact but 52.5% (21/40) were satisfied with family care. Conclusion: Sixty percent (24/40) of blind school children experienced difficulty in their life. This study showed that blindness or low vision does have psychological implications like feeling of guilt, anxiety, sadness & depression. PMID:27182255

  6. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. PMID:22339937

  7. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration.

    PubMed

    Sroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Blind image deconvolution is required in many applications of microscopy imaging, remote sensing, and astronomical imaging. Unfortunately in a single-channel framework, serious conceptual and numerical problems are often encountered. Very recently, an eigenvector-based method (EVAM) was proposed for a multichannel framework which determines perfectly convolution masks in a noise-free environment if channel disparity, called co-primeness, is satisfied. We propose a novel iterative algorithm based on recent anisotropic denoising techniques of total variation and a Mumford-Shah functional with the EVAM restoration condition included. A linearization scheme of half-quadratic regularization together with a cell-centered finite difference discretization scheme is used in the algorithm and provides a unified approach to the solution of total variation or Mumford-Shah. The algorithm performs well even on very noisy images and does not require an exact estimation of mask orders. We demonstrate capabilities of the algorithm on synthetic data. Finally, the algorithm is applied to defocused images taken with a digital camera and to data from astronomical ground-based observations of the Sun. PMID:18237981

  8. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  9. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements.

  10. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or... skilled in the diseases of the eye (e.g., an ophthalmologist or an eye, ear, nose and throat...

  11. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or... skilled in the diseases of the eye (e.g., an ophthalmologist or an eye, ear, nose and throat...

  12. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  13. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements. PMID:26196609

  14. Teaching Introductory Statistics to Blind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Stephen M.; Harrington, Charles F.; Walls, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of learning statistics, particularly distributions and their characteristics, can be potentially monumental for vision impaired and blind students. The authors provide some practical advice for teaching these students.

  15. Considerations in the Treatment of the Adult Blind Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Dennis G.

    1986-01-01

    Contends that blindness is not a single clinical determinant, but, rather, that two groups of blind people exist. For those congenitally blind, lack of vision can cause developmental difficulties. For those who later acquire blindness, the premorbid psychodynamics and object relationships are most important in understanding the persons' reactions…

  16. Programs for Deaf-Blind Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This report of the annual survey of programs for deaf-blind children and adults lists, by state, programs for deaf-blind children and youth, Helen Keller Centers for deaf-blind youth and adults, and programs for training teachers of deaf-blind students. Provided are program names, addresses, telephone numbers, and names of directors. (DB)

  17. Programs for Deaf-Blind Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annual directory lists programs for deaf-blind children and adults including programs for deaf-blind children and youth (national and state level), the Helen Keller Centers for deaf-blind youth and adults, and programs for training teachers of deaf-blind students. (DB)

  18. Multiply-Impaired Blind Children: A National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Milton D.

    In 1966, a national survey reported on 8,887 multiply impaired (MI) blind children. About 56% were boys; 85% had been blind since before age 3, and half were totally blind. The principal causes of blindness were retrolental fibroplasia and congenital cataracts. Almost 63% had two or more additional disabilities (86.8% of those under age 6), such…

  19. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  20. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  1. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  2. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  3. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  4. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  5. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  6. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  7. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  8. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  9. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for blind... be provided to blind individuals as vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation...

  10. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for blind... be provided to blind individuals as vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation...

  11. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for blind... be provided to blind individuals as vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation...

  12. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  13. 5 CFR 2634.403 - Qualified blind trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified blind trusts. 2634.403 Section... Qualified blind trusts. (a) Definition. A qualified blind trust is a trust in which the filer, his spouse... instrument which establishes a blind trust must adhere substantively to model drafts circulated by the...

  14. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for blind... be provided to blind individuals as vocational rehabilitation services under the Rehabilitation...

  15. Computers and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current status and potential for automated library reference services in the areas of community information systems, online catalogs, remote online reference services, and telephone reference services. Several models of the reference procedure which might be used in developing expert systems are examined. (19 references) (CLB)

  16. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  17. Prevention of Blindness in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trutneva, K.

    The booklet describes approaches used in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to prevent blindness. It contrasts conditions prior to 1917 (300 eye doctors mainly located in large cities and 2,000 hospital beds for the 300,000 totally blind and 7,000,000 people with trachoma) with conditions in 1971 when in the Ukraine alone there were 3,000 eye…

  18. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  19. Cryptanalysis of Quantum Blind Signature Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Huijuan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the cryptanalysis of two quantum blind signature schemes and one quantum proxy blind signature protocol. We show that in these protocols the verifier can forge the signature under known message attack. The attack strategies are described in detail respectively. This kind of problem deserves more research attention in the following related study. We further point out that the arbitrator should be involved in the procedure of any dispute and some discussions of these protocols are given.

  20. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY...-145, which shall be captioned ``Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who are Blind, Deaf-blind... following issues: The wireless phone features and functions in the current marketplace that are...

  1. Bridging the gap between DeafBlind minds: interactional and social foundations of intention attribution in the Seattle DeafBlind community

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Terra

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with social and interactional processes that simplify pragmatic acts of intention attribution. The empirical focus is a series of interactions among DeafBlind people in Seattle, Washington, where pointing signs are used to individuate objects of reference in the immediate environment. Most members of this community are born deaf and slowly become blind. They come to Seattle using Visual American Sign Language, which has emerged and developed in a field organized around visual modes of access. As vision deteriorates, however, links between deictic signs (such as pointing) and the present, remembered, or imagined environment erode in idiosyncratic ways across the community of language-users, and as a result, it becomes increasingly difficult for participants to converge on objects of reference. In the past, DeafBlind people addressed this problem by relying on sighted interpreters. Under the influence of the recent “pro-tactile” movement, they have turned instead to one another to find new solutions to these referential problems. Drawing on analyses of 120 h of videorecorded interaction and language-use, detailed fieldnotes collected during 12 months of sustained anthropological fieldwork, and more than 15 years of involvement in this community in a range of capacities, I argue that DeafBlind people are generating new and reciprocal modes of access to their environment, and this process is aligning language with context in novel ways. I discuss two mechanisms that can account for this process: embedding in the social field and deictic integration. I argue that together, these social and interactional processes yield a deictic system set to retrieve a restricted range of values from the extra-linguistic context, thereby attenuating the cognitive demands of intention attribution and narrowing the gap between DeafBlind minds. PMID:26500576

  2. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs. PMID:22944750

  3. Audiotactile integration is reduced in congenital blindness in a spatial ventriloquism task.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Bruns, Patrick; Zampini, Massimiliano; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    In the ventriloquism effect, the presentation of spatially discrepant visual information biases the localization of simultaneously presented sounds. Recently, an analogous spatial influence of touch on audition has been observed. By manipulating hand posture, it has been demonstrated that this audiotactile ventriloquist effect predominantly operates in an external frame of reference. In the present study, we examined the contribution of developmental vision to audiotactile interactions as indicated by the ventriloquism effect. Congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults were asked to report the perceived location of sounds presented from a left, a central or a right location. Auditory stimuli were either delivered alone or concurrently with touches at the left or the right hand. The hands were located to the right and to the left of the lateral speakers and participants either adopted an uncrossed or a crossed hand posture. While sighted controls and late blind participants similarly mislocalized auditory stimuli toward the concurrent tactile stimuli in bimodal trials, the congenitally blind showed a reduced ventriloquism effect. All groups showed a reduced audiotactile ventriloquism effect in the crossed hand condition. However, the magnitude of the reduction was significantly larger in the group of congenitally blind than in the group of sighted controls. These results suggest reduced audio-tactile interactions in spatial processing following a lack of visual input from birth. PMID:22051726

  4. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind Braille readers

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J.; Lisak, Joy A.; Vargas, Maria G.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at about 100-ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50-ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25-ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared to 100-micron reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker: 50-Hz, 50-micron; target-masker delays ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged, but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers. PMID:20980584

  5. Towards a Framework for Developing Semantic Relatedness Reference Standards

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Pedersen, Ted; McInnes, Bridget; Melton, Genevieve B.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to develop a framework for creating reference standards for functional testing of computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Currently, research on computerized approaches to semantic relatedness between biomedical concepts relies on reference standards created for specific purposes using a variety of methods for their analysis. In most cases, these reference standards are not publicly available and the published information provided in manuscripts that evaluate computerized semantic relatedness measurement approaches is not sufficient to reproduce the results. Our proposed framework is based on the experiences of medical informatics and computational linguistics communities and addresses practical and theoretical issues with creating reference standards for semantic relatedness. We demonstrate the use of the framework on a pilot set of 101 medical term pairs rated for semantic relatedness by 13 medical coding experts. While the reliability of this particular reference standard is in the “moderate” range; we show that using clustering and factor analyses offers a data-driven approach to finding systematic differences among raters and identifying groups of potential outliers. We test two ontology-based measures of relatedness and provide both the reference standard containing individual ratings and the R program used to analyze the ratings as open-source. Currently, these resources are intended to be used to reproduce and compare results of studies involving computerized measures of semantic relatedness. Our framework may be extended to the development of reference standards in other research areas in medical informatics including automatic classification, information retrieval from medical records and vocabulary/ontology development. PMID:21044697

  6. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-04-15

    There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal domain. We therefore compared the capacity to detect small temperature increases in innocuous heat in a group of 12 congenitally blind and 12 age and sex-matched normally sighted participants. In addition, we also tested for group differences in the effects of spatial summation on temperature discrimination. Thermal stimuli were delivered with either a 2.56 or 9 cm(2) Peltier-based thermode. We applied for 5-8s lasting non-painful thermal stimuli to the forearm and asked participants to detect small increments in temperature (ΔT = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6°C) that occurred at random time intervals. Blank trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy and are more susceptible to spatial summation of heat. PMID:25639543

  7. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  8. The Night Vision Aid for Legally Blind People with Night Blindness: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissette, Diane L.; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    1983-01-01

    The Night Vision Aid (NVA) was evaluated to determine its effectiveness as an orientation and mobility aid for legally blind persons with night blindness. On the average, the NVA did not significantly improve the Ss' mobility at night; the majority of them preferred the Wide Angle Mobility Light. (CL)

  9. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  10. The effect of vertical and horizontal symmetry on memory for tactile patterns in late blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fantino, Micaela; Herbert, Andrew M; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-02-01

    Visual stimuli that exhibit vertical symmetry are easier to remember than stimuli symmetric along other axes, an advantage that extends to the haptic modality as well. Critically, the vertical symmetry memory advantage has not been found in early blind individuals, despite their overall superior memory, as compared with sighted individuals, and the presence of an overall advantage for identifying symmetric over asymmetric patterns. The absence of the vertical axis memory advantage in the early blind may depend on their total lack of visual experience or on the effect of prolonged visual deprivation. To disentangle this issue, in this study, we measured the ability of late blind individuals to remember tactile spatial patterns that were either vertically or horizontally symmetric or asymmetric. Late blind participants showed better memory performance for symmetric patterns. An additional advantage for the vertical axis of symmetry over the horizontal one was reported, but only for patterns presented in the frontal plane. In the horizontal plane, no difference was observed between vertical and horizontal symmetric patterns, due to the latter being recalled particularly well. These results are discussed in terms of the influence of the spatial reference frame adopted during exploration. Overall, our data suggest that prior visual experience is sufficient to drive the vertical symmetry memory advantage, at least when an external reference frame based on geocentric cues (i.e., gravity) is adopted. PMID:23150215

  11. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  12. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  13. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  14. Auditory motion processing after early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Fine, Ione

    2014-01-01

    Studies showing that occipital cortex responds to auditory and tactile stimuli after early blindness are often interpreted as demonstrating that early blind subjects “see” auditory and tactile stimuli. However, it is not clear whether these occipital responses directly mediate the perception of auditory/tactile stimuli, or simply modulate or augment responses within other sensory areas. We used fMRI pattern classification to categorize the perceived direction of motion for both coherent and ambiguous auditory motion stimuli. In sighted individuals, perceived motion direction was accurately categorized based on neural responses within the planum temporale (PT) and right lateral occipital cortex (LOC). Within early blind individuals, auditory motion decisions for both stimuli were successfully categorized from responses within the human middle temporal complex (hMT+), but not the PT or right LOC. These findings suggest that early blind responses within hMT+ are associated with the perception of auditory motion, and that these responses in hMT+ may usurp some of the functions of nondeprived PT. Thus, our results provide further evidence that blind individuals do indeed “see” auditory motion. PMID:25378368

  15. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind. PMID:22944753

  16. Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2012-09-01

    Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3×10-3, which is comparable to that (7.5×10-3) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10-3 was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.

  17. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Tool Designed to Measure Food and Beverage Outlets and Outdoor Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8–229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69–89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. PMID:26022774

  18. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The development and inter-rater reliability of a tool designed to measure food and beverage outlets and outdoor advertising.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E

    2015-07-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8-229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69-89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. PMID:26022774

  19. Guidance-assist system for the blind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farcy, Rene; Damaschini, Roland M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose navigational aid systems for the blind relying on active laser profilometry and infrared proximetry with a real time vibrotactile interface. The Teletact and the Vigitact are small hand held or badge worn devices to improve the spatial perception, the mobility and the security of blind people. The Teletact is a hand held laser telemeter and gives an accurate 3D spatial perception up to ten meters. The Vigitact is an infrared scanner and provides an automatic vigilance from knees to head up to two meters. Both devices are now commercially available. We will report on the basic functional parts of these devices, the results of everyday use by blind people, and future technological improvements.

  20. Blind and myopic ants in heterogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S; Lee, D-S; Kahng, B

    2014-11-01

    The diffusion processes on complex networks may be described by different Laplacian matrices due to heterogeneous connectivity. Here we investigate the random walks of blind ants and myopic ants on heterogeneous networks: While a myopic ant hops to a neighbor node every step, a blind ant may stay or hop with probabilities that depend on node connectivity. By analyzing the trajectories of blind ants, we show that the asymptotic behaviors of both random walks are related by rescaling time and probability with node connectivity. Using this result, we show how the small eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrices generating the two random walks are related. As an application, we show how the return-to-origin probability of a myopic ant can be used to compute the scaling behaviors of the Edwards-Wilkinson model, a representative model of load balancing on networks. PMID:25493841

  1. Blind and myopic ants in heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S.; Lee, D.-S.; Kahng, B.

    2014-11-01

    The diffusion processes on complex networks may be described by different Laplacian matrices due to heterogeneous connectivity. Here we investigate the random walks of blind ants and myopic ants on heterogeneous networks: While a myopic ant hops to a neighbor node every step, a blind ant may stay or hop with probabilities that depend on node connectivity. By analyzing the trajectories of blind ants, we show that the asymptotic behaviors of both random walks are related by rescaling time and probability with node connectivity. Using this result, we show how the small eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrices generating the two random walks are related. As an application, we show how the return-to-origin probability of a myopic ant can be used to compute the scaling behaviors of the Edwards-Wilkinson model, a representative model of load balancing on networks.

  2. Vibrotactile Guidance for Wayfinding of Blind Walkers.

    PubMed

    Flores, German; Kurniawan, Sri; Manduchi, Roberto; Martinson, Eric; Morales, Lourdes M; Sisbot, Emrah Akin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a vibrotactile interface in the form of a belt for guiding blind walkers. This interface enables blind walkers to receive haptic directional instructions along complex paths without negatively impacting users' ability to listen and/or perceive the environment the way some auditory directional instructions do. The belt interface was evaluated in a controlled study with 10 blind individuals and compared to the audio guidance. The experiments were videotaped and the participants' behaviors and comments were content analyzed. Completion times and deviations from ideal paths were also collected and statistically analyzed. By triangulating the quantitative and qualitative data, we found that the belt resulted in closer path following to the expense of speed. In general, the participants were positive about the use of vibrotactile belt to provide directional guidance. PMID:25781953

  3. A Blind Reversible Robust Watermarking Scheme for Relational Databases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Nguyen, Thai-Son; Lin, Chia-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Protecting the ownership and controlling the copies of digital data have become very important issues in Internet-based applications. Reversible watermark technology allows the distortion-free recovery of relational databases after the embedded watermark data are detected or verified. In this paper, we propose a new, blind, reversible, robust watermarking scheme that can be used to provide proof of ownership for the owner of a relational database. In the proposed scheme, a reversible data-embedding algorithm, which is referred to as “histogram shifting of adjacent pixel difference” (APD), is used to obtain reversibility. The proposed scheme can detect successfully 100% of the embedded watermark data, even if as much as 80% of the watermarked relational database is altered. Our extensive analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against a variety of data attacks, for example, alteration attacks, deletion attacks, mix-match attacks, and sorting attacks. PMID:24223033

  4. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  5. Management of a blind painful eye.

    PubMed

    Merbs, Shannath L

    2006-06-01

    Debilitating ocular pain poses a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist. When the pain is intractable and the eye has very poor vision and is disfigured, surgical removal of the eye has traditionally been the definitive treatment of choice. Because many people are uncomfortable psychologically with removal of their eye, however painful, and other patients are not good surgical candidates, an alternative to enucleation is sometimes warranted, and injection of a neurolytic substance can often induce long-lasting anesthesia for a blind painful eye. This article reviews a range of options for management of blind painful eye from anesthesia to enucleation. PMID:16701166

  6. Kurtosis Approach Nonlinear Blind Source Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu A.; Stubbemd, Allen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm for blind source signal separation for post-nonlinear mixtures. The mixtures are assumed to be linearly mixed from unknown sources first and then distorted by memoryless nonlinear functions. The nonlinear functions are assumed to be smooth and can be approximated by polynomials. Both the coefficients of the unknown mixing matrix and the coefficients of the approximated polynomials are estimated by the gradient descent method conditional on the higher order statistical requirements. The results of simulation experiments presented in this paper demonstrate the validity and usefulness of our approach for nonlinear blind source signal separation Keywords: Independent Component Analysis, Kurtosis, Higher order statistics.

  7. Kurtosis Approach for Nonlinear Blind Source Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu A.; Stubbemd, Allen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm for blind source signal separation for post-nonlinear mixtures. The mixtures are assumed to be linearly mixed from unknown sources first and then distorted by memoryless nonlinear functions. The nonlinear functions are assumed to be smooth and can be approximated by polynomials. Both the coefficients of the unknown mixing matrix and the coefficients of the approximated polynomials are estimated by the gradient descent method conditional on the higher order statistical requirements. The results of simulation experiments presented in this paper demonstrate the validity and usefulness of our approach for nonlinear blind source signal separation.

  8. Project Word-Back: Exploratory Follow-Up Study on Deaf-Blind (Rubella) Children in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffelin, Edward J.

    Project Word-Back, an exploratory followup study of 21 young deaf-blind (Rubella) children (6 to 9 years old), was conducted to establish a tentative reference source of information, obtain teacher estimates on selected aspects of the current functioning level of a sample of children, and provide basic data from which hypotheses may be formulated…

  9. Literacy and Children Who Are Blind and Who Have Additional Disabilities--the Challenges for Teachers and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Steve; McLinden, Mike

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an innovative action research project based at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom that involved the professional development of teachers and instruction using specially developed Moon tactile code materials to teach literacy to pupils who are blind and who have additional disabilities. (Contains references.)…

  10. Optical system design of solar-blind UV target simulator with long focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 200nm-300nm waveband from the sun is absorbed by atmosphere, which is often referred to the solar-blind region of the solar spectrum. Solar-blind characteristics of this waveband have important application value, especially in military fields. The application of solar-blind waveband has developed very rapidly, which is receiving more and more attention. Sometimes, to test the performance of a UV optical system, a standard solar-blind UV target simulator is needed as the UV light source. In this paper, an optical system of a solar-blind UV target simulator is designed with waveband 240nm-280nm. To simulate a far UV target, the focal length of this UV optical system needs to be long. Besides, different field of view (FOV) of the system should meet aplanatic condition. The optional materials are very few for UV optical systems, in which only CaF2 and JGS1 are commonly used. Various aberrations are difficult to be corrected. To save production cost and enhance the precision of fabrication and test, aspheric surfaces and binary elements are not adopted in the system. Moreover, doublet or triplet cannot be used in UV optical system considering possible cracking for different thermal expansion coefficients of different materials. After optimization, the system is composed of 4 lenses with focal length 500mm. MTF curves of different FOV coincide together. The maximum RMS radius of the optimized system has almost the same size as Airy disk, which proves the good image quality after system optimization. The aplanatic condition is met very well in this system. In the spot diagram, root mean square (RMS) radius changes from 3 microns to 3.6 microns, which has similar size with Airy disk and meets aplanatic condition very well. This optical system of solar-blind UV target simulator also has relatively loose tolerance data, which can prove the system is designed in an optimal state.

  11. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  12. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  13. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  14. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  15. Research on solar-blind UV optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baohua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Xiaoming; Ruan, Ningjuan

    2015-02-01

    Solar blind UV detecting system has many advantages such as strong environmental adaptability, low error rate, small volume and without refrigeration. To in-depth develop UV solar blind detection system research work has important significance for further improving solar blind UV detection technology. The working principle of solar blind UV detection system and the basic components were introduced firstly, and then the key technology of solar blind UV detection system was deeply analyzed. Finally, large coverage solar blind UV optical imaging system was designed according to the actual demand for greater coverage of the solar blind UV detection system. The result shows that the system has good imaging quality, simple and compact structure. This system can be used in various types of solar blind UV detection system, and is of high application value.

  16. Blind College Students--Counseling and Guidance Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Louise

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the personal, academic, mechanical, and placement support needed by blind college students. Financial, community, and commercial resources are identified, and suggestions are offered to counselors for developing programs that enhance faculty sensitivity and blind student development. (Author)

  17. The First Training Colleges for Teachers of the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the founding of the first schools for the education of blind students in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century and the long period of development for establishing institutions for training teachers of those blind students. (RK)

  18. Blind Students: Facing Challenges in a College Physics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazier, Mark; Parry, Michelle; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2000-01-01

    Introduces programs that assist blind students such as Tactile Access to Education for Visually Impaired Students (TAEVIS). Reports on two blind students who successfully completed physics courses and their learning strategies. Discusses the accessibility of visual aids. (YDS)

  19. Assessment of Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Seggern, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of materials dealing with the evaluation of library reference services is arranged by category including literature success, quality, and accuracy of answers; cost and task analysis; interviews and communication; classification of reference questions; reference collections; staff availability; use and nonuse of…

  20. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  1. Flying blind in anesthesia: A safety concern

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Mansoor; Khan, Mueenullah; Saeed, Abdulhamid Al; Alzahrani, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cases of sudden loss of display of all the monitors of Zeus anesthesia work station during operation, which is a major safety concern. Flying blind in anesthesia could be devastating. These cases attempt to highlight the need for greater vigilance by anesthesiologists and have implications for improvement in technology. PMID:25191208

  2. Does semantic preactivation reduce inattentional blindness?

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Schnuerch, Robert; Furley, Philip A; Gibbons, Henning; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We are susceptible to failures of awareness if a stimulus occurs unexpectedly and our attention is focused elsewhere. Such inattentional blindness is modulated by various parameters, including stimulus attributes, the observer's cognitive resources, and the observer's attentional set regarding the primary task. In three behavioral experiments with a total of 360 participants, we investigated whether mere semantic preactivation of the color of an unexpected object can reduce inattentional blindness. Neither explicitly mentioning the color several times before the occurrence of the unexpected stimulus nor priming the color more implicitly via color-related concepts could significantly reduce the susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Even putting the specific color concept in the main focus of the primary task did not lead to reduced inattentional blindness. Thus, we have shown that the failure to consciously perceive unexpected objects was not moderated by semantic preactivation of the objects' most prominent feature: its color. We suggest that this finding reflects the rather general principle that preactivations that are not motivationally relevant for one's current selection goals do not suffice to make an unexpected object overcome the threshold of awareness. PMID:25537740

  3. Cognitive Remediation of Blind Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Beth; And Others

    Thirteen congenitally blind students (6-18 years old) who participated in a 2-year Piagetian-oriented remedial program experienced significant gains on 22 of 26 reasoning variables (as measured by a Piagetian battery), compared to a non-treatment group of Ss which achieved significant gains on seven of 26 variables. Results suggested the need for…

  4. Teaching Science to the Blind Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberger, Rudolph J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to adapt physical science laboratories which depend on visual data input for blind students. Gives instructions for graph construction, use of the tape recorder, solving mathematical problems with a Braille abacus and other suggestions for physical science labs. (BR)

  5. PROGRAMMED LEARNING MATERIALS FOR THE BLIND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MALLINSON, GEORGE G.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED AS A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF USING PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WITH BLIND STUDENTS. FOUR TYPES OF STIMULUS-REPONSE MODES FOR PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WERE DEVELOPED--AUDIO STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, AUDIO STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-BRAILLE…

  6. [Recreation for Youth with Deaf Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Theresa, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter special issue focuses on recreational programming for people with deaf blindness. The following individual articles are presented: "Strategies To Promote Community Integrated Recreation: Guidelines for Leisure Coaches" by Joann Enos (which lists seven such strategies); "Assessing Recreation and Leisure Preferences" by Laura Rocchio…

  7. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Three issues of this newsletter on deaf-blind issues include announcements, reviews, news items, and the following articles: "'What's My Role?' A Comparison of the Responsibilities of Interpreters, Interveners, and Support Service Providers" (Susanne Morgan); "A Support Service Provider Program in Utah" (Cordie Weed); "Valued Outcomes for Students…

  8. CI-TAB: View for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the development and content of a comprehensive career education program for blind elementary and secondary students. Eight areas are explored in the program: job search skills, job behavior, hygiene and grooming, purchase habits, budgeting, banking, home management, and health care. (CL)

  9. Training Blind Adolescents in Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Social skills training four blind unassertive adolescent females include instructions, feedback, behavior rehearsal, modeling, and manual guidance. Most behaviors selected for modification changed markedly, although some decreased after four weeks, requiring "booster" sessions to promote a return to posttreatment levels. (Author/CL)

  10. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  11. Audiological Assessment of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.

    The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…

  12. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  13. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  14. Mobility and Orientation Instruction of Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luini, Eugene; Ryder, James

    A peripatologist taught 102 blind and partially sighted individuals of all ages mobility and orientation techniques. Volunteers assisted with transportation, followup, consultation, and direct teaching of mobility. Over a 3-year period, the number of lessons per client varied from one to 86, and the number of hours spent by the instructor in…

  15. Accommodating blind and partially sighted clients

    PubMed Central

    England, Gary; Gebbels, Tim; Whelan, Chantelle; Freeman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary surgeons provide an important service to blind and partially sighted guide dog owners. By adopting basic disability awareness and visual impairment training, practices can ensure that the assistance needs of those clients are met, facilitating access to veterinary care. PMID:25642013

  16. Environmental Programming for the Deaf-Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan School for the Blind, Lansing.

    Presented are the proceedings of an environmental programing workshop on deaf blind individuals at which principles, techniques, and examples of behavior modification were discussed and demonstrated. Rules for data collection are given as well as explanations of the categorizing, the measuring devices, and the data sheets involved in behavior…

  17. Graphic Biology Laboratory Modules for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Austin E.

    The goal of this project was to devise new methods of producing tactile facsimiles of microscopic images for the blind and visually impaired biology students at the secondary and college level. The numerous raised-line images that were produced were assembled along with brailled and large print student instructions, audio cassette tapes describing…

  18. Cognitive Development in Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    The paper reviews the literature and proposes a study on how nonlanguage deaf/blind children (ages 2 to 14) match and classify, the age at which the skills are reached, and the role of language in the process. The theories of J. Piaget and J. Bruner on the importance of language in stage development are explored. The Ss would be matched for age…

  19. Deaf Blind Children: Evaluating Their Multiple Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Scott, Ed.; And Others

    Prepared by specialists on the evaluation team at the Syracuse University Center for the Development of Blind Children, the book describes the procedures of the special diagnostic clinic within this unit. The diagnostic clinic was established to provide a unified approach to the evaluation and study of multiply handicapped children. Described in…

  20. Electronic Travel Aids for Blind Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Bradfield, Anna L.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes four of the most widely accepted and utilized Electronic Travel Aids for blind persons--the Lindsay Russell Pathsounder, the Mowat Sensor, the Sonicguide, and the C-5 Laser Cane. Current uses and applications of the four aids for specific populations of visually impaired persons are discussed. (Author)