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Sample records for rates predicts higher

  1. Predicting Higher Education Outcomes and Implications for a Postsecondary Institution Ratings System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Eddie G., II

    2016-01-01

    The accountability of colleges and universities is a high priority for those making policy decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine institutional characteristics predicting retention rates, graduation rates and transfer-out rates using publicly available data from the US Department of Education. Using regression analysis, it was…

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  3. Geometrical Sparing Factors for the Rectum and Bladder in the Prediction of Grade 2 and Higher Complications After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. Results: A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  4. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  5. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The "escape-and-radiate" hypothesis predicts that antipredator defenses facilitate adaptive radiations by enabling escape from constraints of predation, diversified habitat use, and subsequently speciation. Animals have evolved diverse strategies to reduce the direct costs of predation, including cryptic coloration and behavior, chemical defenses, mimicry, and advertisement of unprofitability (conspicuous warning coloration). Whereas the survival consequences of these alternative defenses for individuals are well-studied, little attention has been given to the macroevolutionary consequences of alternative forms of defense. Here we show, using amphibians as the first, to our knowledge, large-scale empirical test in animals, that there are important macroevolutionary consequences of alternative defenses. However, the escape-and-radiate hypothesis does not adequately describe them, due to its exclusive focus on speciation. We examined how rates of speciation and extinction vary across defensive traits throughout amphibians. Lineages that use chemical defenses show higher rates of speciation as predicted by escape-and-radiate but also show higher rates of extinction compared with those without chemical defense. The effect of chemical defense is a net reduction in diversification compared with lineages without chemical defense. In contrast, acquisition of conspicuous coloration (often used as warning signals or in mimicry) is associated with heightened speciation rates but unchanged extinction rates. We conclude that predictions based on the escape-and-radiate hypothesis must incorporate the effect of traits on both speciation and extinction, which is rarely considered in such studies. Our results also suggest that knowledge of defensive traits could have a bearing on the predictability of extinction, perhaps especially important in globally threatened taxa such as amphibians. PMID:26483488

  6. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  7. Magnet Hospitals: Higher Rates of Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah A

    2014-06-10

    Patient satisfaction with care is an important indicator of quality of care. As of 2013-2014, 30% of the Value-Based Purchasing score Medicare is using to determine hospital reimbursement is based on patient reports of care. This study determined whether significant relationships exists between Magnet (N = 160), Magnet-in-progress (N = 99), and non-Magnet hospital (N = 1,742) status and the highest ratings on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey questions related to patient satisfaction with care. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected and compiled from three sources (the American Hospital Association, American Nurses Credentialing Center, and HCAHPS databases). Analysis revealed that Magnet and Magnet-in-progress hospitals have significantly (p < .007) higher scores than non-Magnet hospitals on six of the seven questions regarding patient-reported satisfaction with care. The implications of these results for nursing are discussed. PMID:24915864

  8. Base Rates, Contingencies, and Prediction Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus; Avrahami, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A skew in the base rate of upcoming events can often provide a better cue for accurate predictions than a contingency between signals and events. The authors study prediction behavior and test people's sensitivity to both base rate and contingency; they also examine people's ability to compare the benefits of both for prediction. They formalize…

  9. Independent Ratings of Institutions of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The ReitOR Agency has for the first time posted its ratings of colleges and universities in the Volga Federal District of Russia based on criteria of public assessment, having designated institutions in the following priority areas of training: machine building, energy, communications and telecommunications, management and economics, and gas and…

  10. Public Rates of Return on Higher Education Investments, by State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtright, Stephen H.; Fry, Cary G.

    2007-01-01

    Public rates of return on higher education expenditures are calculated by state. Benefits accruing to states from their investments in higher education are measured by differential tax revenues collected from college-educated citizens versus high-school-educated citizens. For most states we find an adequate rate of return on such investments.…

  11. Contraceptives and dysplasia: higher rate for pill choosers.

    PubMed

    Stern, E; Clark, V A; Coffelt, C F

    1970-07-31

    Among women choosing the pill in preference to other contraceptive methods there is a higher rate of the cancer precursor, dysplasia of the cervix, before any possible effect of the pill. PMID:17739011

  12. Predicting discovery rates of genomic features.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon

    2014-06-01

    Successful sequencing experiments require judicious sample selection. However, this selection must often be performed on the basis of limited preliminary data. Predicting the statistical properties of the final sample based on preliminary data can be challenging, because numerous uncertain model assumptions may be involved. Here, we ask whether we can predict "omics" variation across many samples by sequencing only a fraction of them. In the infinite-genome limit, we find that a pilot study sequencing 5% of a population is sufficient to predict the number of genetic variants in the entire population within 6% of the correct value, using an estimator agnostic to demography, selection, or population structure. To reach similar accuracy in a finite genome with millions of polymorphisms, the pilot study would require ∼15% of the population. We present computationally efficient jackknife and linear programming methods that exhibit substantially less bias than the state of the art when applied to simulated data and subsampled 1000 Genomes Project data. Extrapolating based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project data, we predict that 7.2% of sites in the capture region would be variable in a sample of 50,000 African Americans and 8.8% in a European sample of equal size. Finally, we show how the linear programming method can also predict discovery rates of various genomic features, such as the number of transcription factor binding sites across different cell types. PMID:24637199

  13. Female Patients Require a Higher Propofol Infusion Rate for Sedation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shigeru; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Honda, Yuka; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Sedation may minimize physiologic and behavioral stress responses. In our facility, the infusion rate of propofol is adjusted according to the bispectral index (BIS) in all cases of implant-related surgery; multivariate analysis of retrospective data enabled us to extract independent factors that affect the dose of propofol in sedation that are considered useful indicators for achieving adequate sedation. The study population comprised all patients undergoing implant-related surgery under intravenous sedation in Okayama University Hospital from April 2009 to March 2013. The infusion rate of propofol was adjusted to maintain the BIS value at 70-80. The outcome was the average infusion rate of propofol, and potential predictor variables were age, sex, body weight, treatment time, and amount of midazolam. Independent variables that affected the average infusion rate of propofol were extracted with multiple regression analysis. One hundred twenty-five subjects were enrolled. In the multiple regression analysis, female sex was shown to be significantly associated with a higher average infusion rate of propofol. Females may require a higher infusion rate of propofol than males to achieve adequate sedation while undergoing implant-related surgery. PMID:27269663

  14. Predicting the migration rates of subaqueous dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrig, David; Smith, J. Dungan

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we develop a simple, physically based method for predicting what fraction of sediment moving over the crests of dunes will bypass their lee faces. The bypass fraction is found by calculating a characteristic excursion length for every grain size making up a particular train of dunes. All particles with excursion lengths greater than the downstream span of the lee face of the average dune are assumed not to contribute to dune propagation. Bypass fractions based on distributions of excursion lengths account for the discrepancies between total sediment discharge and dune migration rate measured by Stein [1965] and Guy et al. [1966] in laboratory flumes, as well as by us in the North Loup River of Nebraska. Calculations and these data agree over sediment-transporting conditions associated with the entire stability field for dunes composed of medium sand. The two laboratory studies show that commonly 30-60% of all sand moving over fully developed dunes is not deposited on slip faces. Measurements from the North Loup River reveal that of all sediment moving over the dune crests there, roughly 45% is not being captured on lee faces even though 99% of sediment is transported within 2 cm of the bed. The method developed herein successfully estimates measured values for the bypass fraction from 0 to 80%. Our analysis indicates that the division between grains that are deposited versus those that are bypassing falls within the range of sand sizes making up the suspended load at dune crests.

  15. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted With Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and, at higher speeds, it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation model. Further analysis with the model shows a relationship between changes in spreading rate due to enhanced mixing and changes in the far field radiated peak noise levels. The calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of the radiated peak noise level.

  16. Can arsenic occurrence rate in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 μg L–1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 μg L–1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology.

  17. Can arsenic occurrence rates in bedrock aquifers be predicted?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Marvinney, Robert G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Zheng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A high percentage (31%) of groundwater samples from bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta area, Maine was found to contain greater than 10 µg L−1 of arsenic. Elevated arsenic concentrations are associated with bedrock geology, and more frequently observed in samples with high pH, low dissolved oxygen, and low nitrate. These associations were quantitatively compared by statistical analysis. Stepwise logistic regression models using bedrock geology and/or water chemistry parameters are developed and tested with external data sets to explore the feasibility of predicting groundwater arsenic occurrence rates (the percentages of arsenic concentrations higher than 10 µg L−1) in bedrock aquifers. Despite the under-prediction of high arsenic occurrence rates, models including groundwater geochemistry parameters predict arsenic occurrence rates better than those with bedrock geology only. Such simple models with very few parameters can be applied to obtain a preliminary arsenic risk assessment in bedrock aquifers at local to intermediate scales at other localities with similar geology. PMID:22260208

  18. Frequency rates and correlates of contrapower harassment in higher education.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Eros R

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated incivility, sexual harassment, and racial-ethnic harassment simultaneously when the targets were faculty members and the perpetrators were students (i.e., academic contrapower harassment; ACH). The sample constituted 257 faculty members (90% were White and 53% were women) from a medium-sized state university in the Midwestern United States. They completed an anonymous survey, including an openended question about a critical ACH incident. The findings revealed that 72% of the total sample had experienced some type of mistreatment from students during the past 2 years. The author hypothesized gender differences in frequency rates for overall ACH, incivility, and sexual harassment; however, there were none. Hence, this hypothesis was not supported. The author also hypothesized that incivility would predict sexual and ethnic harassment. This hypothesis was generally supported. Furthermore, he hypothesized that demographic, work-related, and tolerance for faculty-student romance would predict ACH and its subscales. The findings generally supported this hypothesis, with somewhat different predictors by gender. He also hypothesized that harassed faculty, especially women, would experience worse job-related outcomes than never harassed faculty. Neither gender nor the interaction was significant, but the main effect for harassment was, with harassed faculty members experiencing worse job-related outcomes than nonharassed faculty members. Thus this hypothesis was partially supported. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20448231

  19. Using Enrollment Data to Predict Retention Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Melissa A.; Solverson, Natalie Walleser

    2016-01-01

    First- to second-year retention rates are one metric reported by colleges and universities to convey institutional success to a variety of external constituents. But how much of a retention rate is institutional inputs, and how much can be understood by examining student inputs? The authors utilize multi-year, multi-institutional data to examine…

  20. High-Precision Nucleation Rate Measurements for Higher Melting Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokeloh, Joachim; Wilde, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Nucleation of a crystal in undercooled melts of higher melting face-centered-cubic-metals has often been studied in the past. However, the data available were not of sufficient accuracy and only covered nucleation rates in too small of a range to allow precise conclusions concerning the nature of the underlying process as well as concerning important parameters such as the solid-liquid interface free energy that can in principle be deducted from such analyses. One way to circumvent ambiguities and analyze nucleation kinetics under well-defined conditions experimentally is given by performing statistically significant numbers of repeated single droplet experiments. Application of proper statistics analyses yields nucleation rates that are independent of a specific nucleation model. The first studies that were conducted in accordance with this approach on pure model materials revealed that the approach is valid. The results are comparable to those obtained by classic nucleation theory applied to experimental data, and it was shown that one might need to rethink the common assumption that heterogeneous nucleation is almost always responsible for solidification initiation. The current results also show that often-used models for the solid-liquid interface free energy might lead to overestimated values.

  1. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  2. Higher-than-predicted saltation threshold wind speeds on Titan.

    PubMed

    Burr, Devon M; Bridges, Nathan T; Marshall, John R; Smith, James K; White, Bruce R; Emery, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, exhibits extensive aeolian, that is, wind-formed, dunes, features previously identified exclusively on Earth, Mars and Venus. Wind tunnel data collected under ambient and planetary-analogue conditions inform our models of aeolian processes on the terrestrial planets. However, the accuracy of these widely used formulations in predicting the threshold wind speeds required to move sand by saltation, or by short bounces, has not been tested under conditions relevant for non-terrestrial planets. Here we derive saltation threshold wind speeds under the thick-atmosphere, low-gravity and low-sediment-density conditions on Titan, using a high-pressure wind tunnel refurbished to simulate the appropriate kinematic viscosity for the near-surface atmosphere of Titan. The experimentally derived saltation threshold wind speeds are higher than those predicted by models based on terrestrial-analogue experiments, indicating the limitations of these models for such extreme conditions. The models can be reconciled with the experimental results by inclusion of the extremely low ratio of particle density to fluid density on Titan. Whereas the density ratio term enables accurate modelling of aeolian entrainment in thick atmospheres, such as those inferred for some extrasolar planets, our results also indicate that for environments with high density ratios, such as in jets on icy satellites or in tenuous atmospheres or exospheres, the correction for low-density-ratio conditions is not required. PMID:25487154

  3. Higher-than-predicted saltation threshold wind speeds on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Marshall, John R.; Smith, James K.; White, Bruce R.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, exhibits extensive aeolian, that is, wind-formed, dunes, features previously identified exclusively on Earth, Mars and Venus. Wind tunnel data collected under ambient and planetary-analogue conditions inform our models of aeolian processes on the terrestrial planets. However, the accuracy of these widely used formulations in predicting the threshold wind speeds required to move sand by saltation, or by short bounces, has not been tested under conditions relevant for non-terrestrial planets. Here we derive saltation threshold wind speeds under the thick-atmosphere, low-gravity and low-sediment-density conditions on Titan, using a high-pressure wind tunnel refurbished to simulate the appropriate kinematic viscosity for the near-surface atmosphere of Titan. The experimentally derived saltation threshold wind speeds are higher than those predicted by models based on terrestrial-analogue experiments, indicating the limitations of these models for such extreme conditions. The models can be reconciled with the experimental results by inclusion of the extremely low ratio of particle density to fluid density on Titan. Whereas the density ratio term enables accurate modelling of aeolian entrainment in thick atmospheres, such as those inferred for some extrasolar planets, our results also indicate that for environments with high density ratios, such as in jets on icy satellites or in tenuous atmospheres or exospheres, the correction for low-density-ratio conditions is not required.

  4. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; et al

    2013-03-07

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of chargedmore » peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.« less

  5. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-03-07

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  6. Theophylline: constant-rate infusion predictions.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, C A; Sahebjami, H; Imhoff, T; Thomas, J P; Myre, S A

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a method of prospectively estimating appropriate aminophylline infusion rates in acutely ill, hospitalized patients with bronchospasm. Steady-state serum theophylline concentrations (Css), clearances (Cl), and half-lives (t1/2) were estimated by the Chiou method using serum concetrantions obtained 1 and 6 h after the start of a constant-rate intravenous aminophylline infusion in 10 male patients averaging 57 years of age. Using an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT) system for theophylline analysis, pharmacokinetic estimations were excellent for Css (r = 0.9103, p less than 0.01) and Cl (r = 0.9750, p less than 0.01). The mean estimation errors were 9.4% (range 0.8-21.5) for Css and 12.3% (range 1.3-28.0) for Cl. There was no correlation between patient age and Cl. This method is useful for rapidly individualizing aminophylline therapy in patients with acute bronchospasm. PMID:6740734

  7. Neocortex size predicts deception rate in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Richard W.; Corp, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    Human brain organization is built upon a more ancient adaptation, the large brain of simian primates: on average, monkeys and apes have brains twice as large as expected for mammals of their size, principally as a result of neocortical enlargement. Testing the adaptive benefit of this evolutionary specialization depends on finding an association between brain size and function in primates. However, most cognitive capacities have been assessed in only a restricted range of species under laboratory conditions. Deception of conspecifics in social circumstances is an exception, because a corpus of field data is available that encompasses all major lines of the primate radiation. We show that the use of deception within the primates is well predicted by the neocortical volume, when observer effort is controlled for; by contrast, neither the size of the rest of the brain nor the group size exert significant effects. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neocortical expansion has been driven by social challenges among the primates. Complex social manipulations such as deception are thought to be based upon rapid learning and extensive social knowledge; thus, learning in social contexts may be constrained by neocortical size. PMID:15306289

  8. PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

  9. Predictions of cell damage rates for Lifesat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Atwell, William; Hardy, Alva C.; Golightly, Michael J.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Shinn, Judy; Nealy, John E.; Katz, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The track model of Katz is used to make predictions of cell damage rates for possible Lifesat experiments. Contributions from trapped protons and electrons and galactic cosmic rays are considered for several orbits. Damage rates for survival and transformation of C3HT10-1/2 cells are predicted for various spacecraft shields.

  10. Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hao

    2015-10-01

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are widely used in mobile-phone and cameras. Hence, it is attractive if these image sensors can be used as the visible light communication (VLC) receivers (Rxs). However, using these CMOS image sensors are challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a VLC link using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate of the CMOS image sensor. We first discuss and analyze the features of using CMOS image sensor as VLC Rx, including the rolling shutter effect, overlapping of exposure time of each row of pixels, frame-to-frame processing time gap, and also the image sensor "blooming" effect. Then, we describe the procedure of synchronization and demodulation. This includes file format conversion, grayscale conversion, column matrix selection avoiding blooming, polynomial fitting for threshold location. Finally, the evaluation of bit-error-rate (BER) is performed satisfying the forward error correction (FEC) limit. PMID:26480122

  11. 'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; George, Pravin

    2004-09-01

    Individual differences in taste perception have been explained in part by variations in peripheral innervation associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter substances PTC and PROP. In the present study we report evidence of another source of individual differences that is independent of taste stimulus, taste quality, or gustatory nerve. Individuals who perceived taste from thermal stimulation alone (thermal taste) gave significantly higher taste ratings to chemical stimuli--often by a factor of >2:1--than did individuals who perceived no taste from thermal stimulation. This was true for all taste stimuli tested (sucrose, saccharin, sodium chloride, citric acid, quinine sulfate, MSG and PROP), for all three gustatory areas of the mouth (anterior tongue, posterior tongue and soft palate) and for whole-mouth stimulation. Moreover, the same individuals reported stronger sensations from the olfactory stimulus vanillin, particularly when it was sensed retronasally. The generality of the thermal-taster advantage and its extension to an olfactory stimulus suggests that it arises from individual differences in CNS processes that are involved in perception of both taste and flavor. PMID:15337686

  12. Comparison of CALPUFF and ISCST3 models for predicting downwind odor and source emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingjuan; Parker, David B.; Parnell, Calvin B.; Lacey, Ronald E.; Shaw, Bryan W.

    CALPUFF model and ISCST3 Gaussian dispersion models were evaluated for predicting downwind odor concentrations and back-calculating area source odor emission rates. The comparison between the predicted and field-sampled downwind concentrations indicates that the CALPUFF model could fairly well predict average downwind odor concentrations. However, ISCST3 tended to under predict downwind odor concentrations as compared to the measured concentrations. Both the CALPUFF and ISCST3 models failed to predict peak odor concentrations using the constant average emission rate. Odor emission rates obtained by back-calculating fluxes using CALPUFF and ISC models with the same field measurements of downwind odor concentrations are significantly different. It indicates that back-calculated emission rates are model specific. The modeled emission rates tended to be higher than flux chamber source sampling results. The flux chamber protocol may under-estimate odor emission rates.

  13. Urate predicts rate of clinical decline in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Ascherio, Alberto; LeWitt, Peter A.; Xu, Kui; Eberly, Shirley; Watts, Arthur; Matson, Wayne R.; Marras, Connie; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Bogdanov, Mikhail B.; Schwid, Steven R.; Tennis, Marsha; Tanner, Caroline M.; Beal, M. Flint; Lang, Anthony E.; Oakes, David; Fahn, Stanley; Shoulson, Ira; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Context The risk of Parkinson disease (PD) and its rate of progression may decline with increasing blood urate, a major antioxidant. Objective To determine whether serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of urate predict clinical progression in patients with PD. Design, Setting, and Participants 800 subjects with early PD enrolled in the DATATOP trial. Pre-treatment urate was measured in serum for 774 subjects and in CSF for 713. Main Outcome Measures Treatment-, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for clinical disability requiring levodopa therapy, the pre-specified primary endpoint. Results The HR of progressing to endpoint decreased with increasing serum urate (HR for 1 standard deviation increase = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.93). In analyses stratified by α-tocopherol treatment (2,000 IU/day), a decrease in the HR for the primary endpoint was seen only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol (HR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89, versus those treated HR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.08). Results were similar for the rate of change in the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). CSF urate was also inversely related to both the primary endpoint (HR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.96) and to the rate of change in UPDRS. As with serum urate, these associations were present only among subjects not treated with α-tocopherol. Conclusion Higher serum and CSF urate at baseline were associated with slower rates of clinical decline. The findings strengthen the link between urate and PD and the rationale for considering CNS urate elevation as a potential strategy to slow PD progression. PMID:19822770

  14. Predicting the extent of metabolism using in vitro permeability rate measurements and in silico permeability rate predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hosey, Chelsea M; Benet, Leslie Z

    2015-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) can be utilized to predict drug disposition, including interactions with other drugs and transporter or metabolizing enzyme effects based on the extent of metabolism and solubility of a drug. However, defining the extent of metabolism relies upon clinical data. Drugs exhibiting high passive intestinal permeability rates are extensively metabolized. Therefore, we aimed to determine if in vitro measures of permeability rate or in silico permeability rate predictions could predict the extent of metabolism, to determine a reference compound representing the permeability rate above which compounds would be expected to be extensively metabolized, and to predict the major route of elimination of compounds in a two-tier approach utilizing permeability rate and a previously published model predicting the major route of elimination of parent drug. Twenty-two in vitro permeability rate measurement data sets in Caco-2 and MDCK cell lines and PAMPA were collected from the literature, while in silico permeability rate predictions were calculated using ADMET Predictor™ or VolSurf+. The potential for permeability rate to differentiate between extensively and poorly metabolized compounds was analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Compounds that yielded the highest sensitivity-specificity average were selected as permeability rate reference standards. The major route of elimination of poorly permeable drugs was predicted by our previously published model and the accuracies and predictive values were calculated. The areas under the receiver operating curves were >0.90 for in vitro measures of permeability rate and >0.80 for the VolSurf+ model of permeability rate, indicating they were able to predict the extent of metabolism of compounds. Labetalol and zidovudine predicted greater than 80% of extensively metabolized drugs correctly and greater than 80% of poorly metabolized drugs correctly in Caco

  15. Mass gathering medicine: event factors predicting patient presentation rates.

    PubMed

    Locoh-Donou, Samuel; Yan, Guofen; Berry, Thomas; O'Connor, Robert; Sochor, Mark; Charlton, Nathan; Brady, William

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the event characteristics of mass gatherings that predict patient presentation rates held in a southeastern US university community. We conducted a retrospective review of all event-based emergency medical services (EMS) records from mass gathering patient presentations over an approximate 23 month period, from October 24, 2009 to August 27, 2011. All patrons seen by EMS were included. Event characteristics included: crowd size, venue percentage filled seating, venue location (inside/outside), venue boundaries (bounded/unbounded), presence of free water (i.e., without cost), presence of alcohol, average heat index, presence of climate control (i.e., air conditioning), and event category (football, concerts, public exhibitions, non-football athletic events). We identified 79 mass gathering events, for a total of 670 patient presentations. The cumulative patron attendance was 917,307 persons. The patient presentation rate (PPR) for each event was calculated as the number of patient presentations per 10,000 patrons in attendance. Overdispersed Poisson regression was used to relate this rate to the event characteristics while controlling for crowd size. In univariate analyses, increased rates of patient presentations were strongly associated with outside venues [rate ratio (RR) = 3.002, p < 0.001], unbounded venues (RR = 2.839, p = 0.001), absence of free water (RR = 1.708, p = 0.036), absence of climate control (RR = 3.028, p < 0.001), and a higher heat index (RR = 1.211 per 10-unit heat index increase, p = 0.003). The presence of alcohol was not significantly associated with the PPR. Football events had the highest PPR, followed sequentially by public exhibitions, concerts, and non-football athletic events. In multivariate models, the strong predictors from the univariate analyses retained their predictive significance for the PPR, together with heat index and percent seating. In the setting of mass event

  16. Do Geographic Regions with Higher Suicide Rates Also Have Higher Rates of Nonfatal Intentional Self-Harm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Carmody, Thomas; Bossarte, Robert; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Elliott, Stephen; Currier, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal intentional self-harm events in eight U.S. states were compared using emergency department, hospital, and vital statistics data. Nonfatal event rates increased by an estimated 24.20% over 6 years. Case fatality ratios varied widely, but two northeastern states' total event rates (fatal plus nonfatal) were very high (New…

  17. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  18. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, A. Susan M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach, and specific skills tests in English and math. Test scores were used to predict academic achievement and progress after the first year, achievement in specific course types, enrollment, and dropout after the first year. All tests showed positive significant correlations with the criteria. The trial-studying test was consistently the best predictor in the admission procedure. We found no significant differences between the predictive validity of the trial-studying test and prior educational performance, and substantial shared explained variance between the two predictors. Only applicants with lower trial-studying scores were significantly less likely to enroll in the program. In conclusion, the trial-studying test yielded predictive validities similar to that of prior educational performance and possibly enabled self-selection. In admissions aimed at student-program fit, or in admissions in which past educational performance is difficult to use, a trial-studying test is a good instrument to predict academic performance. PMID:27073859

  19. Towards a quantitative prediction of the blob detection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchert, G.; Carralero, D.; Manz, P.; Stroth, U.; Wolfrum, E.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the particle and energy flux to the plasma facing components of a future fusion power plant, the transport carried by filaments of increased pressure, called blobs, is of critical importance. To understand this transport the rate of the filaments has to be known. The novel approach presented here allows the prediction of both the blob generation and detection rates based on background plasma parameters only. The prediction is in a good overall agreement with recent experiments in ASDEX Upgrade.

  20. Predictions and observations of SEU rates in space

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.L.

    1997-12-01

    This paper summarizes the available data on the observation and prediction of SEU rates in space. It considers three questions: (1) How good can a prediction be? (2) How bad can a prediction be? (3) How does the quality of the prediction depend on the type of orbit? The paper considers one hundred and twenty-six reports of predicted and observed rates. These include updated predictions for the CRRES devices. The analysis then excludes solar particle events, single event burnout, cases with poor statistics, and cases that are essentially duplicates; leaving 77 comparisons. The heavy ion predictions based on the CREME environments and the proton predictions based on the AP8 environments are both very successful for their basic environments, but are less accurate for low earth orbits (LEO). The quality of the results depends on the use of the proper shielding around the part. The results appear consistent with suggested modifications in these environments based on recent space measurements. The methods that are used for upset rate predictions appear to be adequate for the current generation of devices.

  1. Method for predicting photocatalytic oxidation rates of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2003-01-01

    In designing a photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) system for a given air pollution source, destruction rates for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are required. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic method of predicting PCO rate constants by correlating rate constants with physical-chemical characteristics of compounds. Accordingly, reaction rate constants were determined for destruction of volatile organics over a titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst in a continuous mixed-batch reactor. It was found that PCO rate constants for alkanes and alkenes vary linearly with gas-phase ionization potential (IP) and with gas-phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constant. The correlations allow rates of destruction of compounds not tested in this research to be predicted based on physical-chemical characteristics. PMID:12568248

  2. Compressive behaviour of dam concrete at higher strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caverzan, A.; Peroni, M.; Solomos, G.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical behaviour of concrete when subjected to impact or blast has still many aspects requiring further study. Dam concrete is characterized by large coarse aggregates, hence large specimen sizes are needed in order to study a representative volume of the material. Exploiting an innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, the dynamic behaviour of concrete of 64 mm maximum aggregate size has been investigated. Direct dynamic compression tests have been performed on medium and large size cylindrical samples. Full stress-strain curves have been obtained, which have allowed the estimation of fracturing energies and of the relevant dynamic increase factor. The experimental campaign has also included a reference standard concrete in order to highlight the peculiarity of the dam concrete at high strain rates and to validate the transition of this type of testing to very large specimens.

  3. Using Classification Trees to Predict Alumni Giving for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2009-01-01

    As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-giving to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a…

  4. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  5. Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making. PMID:26391126

  6. Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

  7. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  8. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  9. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  10. DSMC predictions of non-equilibrium reaction rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2010-04-01

    A set of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) chemical-reaction models recently proposed by Bird and based solely on the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels of the species involved is applied to calculate nonequilibrium chemical-reaction rates for atmospheric reactions in hypersonic flows. The DSMC non-equilibrium model predictions are in good agreement with theoretical models and experimental measurements. The observed agreement provides strong evidence that modeling chemical reactions using only the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels provides an accurate method for predicting non-equilibrium chemical-reaction rates.

  11. From minutes to years: predicting organotrifluoroborate solvolysis rates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Chao, Daniel; Li, Ying; Ting, Richard; Oh, Jihyoon; Perrin, David M

    2015-03-01

    Organotrifluoroborates solvolyze in water at rates that vary over five orders of magnitude. The negative logarithm of the solvolytic rate constant, pk(B-F), correlates exceptionally well with the pKa of the analogous carboxylic acid (R(2) = 0.984). This unforeseen correlation may be of predictive value for several applications including Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions and the design of (18)F-organotrifluoroborate radioprosthetic groups. PMID:25639468

  12. Predicting online ratings based on the opinion spreading process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Predicting users' online ratings is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a rating prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another based on the primitive user-item rating matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise rating prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-based collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.

  13. Prediction Accuracy of Error Rates for MPTB Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S. P.; Campbell, A. B.; Davis, D.; McMorrow, D.; Petersen, E. L.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Ritter, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the accuracy of radiation-induced upset-rate predictions in space using the results of ground-based measurements together with standard environmental and device models. The study is focused on two part types - 16 Mb NEC DRAM's (UPD4216) and 1 Kb SRAM's (AMD93L422) - both of which are currently in space on board the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed (MPTB). To date, ground-based measurements of proton-induced single event upset (SEM cross sections as a function of energy have been obtained and combined with models of the proton environment to predict proton-induced error rates in space. The role played by uncertainties in the environmental models will be determined by comparing the modeled radiation environment with the actual environment measured aboard MPTB. Heavy-ion induced upsets have also been obtained from MPTB and will be compared with the "predicted" error rate following ground testing that will be done in the near future. These results should help identify sources of uncertainty in predictions of SEU rates in space.

  14. Prediction of Rate Constants for Catalytic Reactions with Chemical Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ex machina: A computational method for predicting rate constants for reactions within microporous zeolite catalysts with chemical accuracy has recently been reported. A key feature of this method is a stepwise QM/MM approach that allows accuracy to be achieved while using realistic models with accessible computer resources. PMID:27329206

  15. What Predicts Method Effects in Child Behavior Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Justin A.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Jensen, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether child, parent, and teacher characteristics such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), parental depressive symptoms, the number of years of teaching experience, number of children in the classroom, and teachers' disciplinary self-efficacy predict deviations from maternal ratings in a…

  16. Predicting binary merger event rates for advanced LIGO/Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Daniel; Belczynski, Chris; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Bulik, Tomek; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We discuss estimates of the rates of mergers of binary systems composed of neutron stars and/or stellar mass black holes. We use the StarTrack population synthesis code, and make predictions for the detection rate of compact binary coalescences with the advanced LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave detectors. Because these instruments are sensitive to massive (M > 20M⊙) stellar-mass binary black holes mergers out to high redshift (z > 1), we discuss the cosmological effects which must be taken into account when calculating LIGO detection rates, including a generalization of the calculation of the ``peanut factor'' and the sensitive time-volume.

  17. Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.

  18. Predictive Rate-Distortion for Infinite-Order Markov Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-06-01

    Predictive rate-distortion analysis suffers from the curse of dimensionality: clustering arbitrarily long pasts to retain information about arbitrarily long futures requires resources that typically grow exponentially with length. The challenge is compounded for infinite-order Markov processes, since conditioning on finite sequences cannot capture all of their past dependencies. Spectral arguments confirm a popular intuition: algorithms that cluster finite-length sequences fail dramatically when the underlying process has long-range temporal correlations and can fail even for processes generated by finite-memory hidden Markov models. We circumvent the curse of dimensionality in rate-distortion analysis of finite- and infinite-order processes by casting predictive rate-distortion objective functions in terms of the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. Examples demonstrate that the resulting algorithms yield substantial improvements.

  19. Predicted maximal heart rate for upper body exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Hill, M; Talbot, C; Price, M

    2016-03-01

    Age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRMAX ) equations are commonly used for the purpose of prescribing exercise regimens, as criteria for achieving maximal exertion and for diagnostic exercise testing. Despite the growing popularity of upper body exercise in both healthy and clinical settings, no recommendations are available for exercise modes using the smaller upper body muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to determine how well commonly used age-adjusted prediction equations for HRMAX estimate actual HRMAX for upper body exercise in healthy young and older adults. A total of 30 young (age: 20 ± 2 years, height: 171·9 ± 32·8 cm, mass: 77·7 ± 12·6 kg) and 20 elderly adults (age: 66 ± 6 years, height: 162 ± 8·1 cm, mass: 65·3 ± 12·3 kg) undertook maximal incremental exercise tests on a conventional arm crank ergometer. Age-adjusted maximal heart rate was calculated using prediction equations based on leg exercise and compared with measured HRMAX data for the arms. Maximal HR for arm exercise was significantly overpredicted compared with age-adjusted prediction equations in both young and older adults. Subtracting 10-20 beats min(-1) from conventional prediction equations provides a reasonable estimate of HRMAX for upper body exercise in healthy older and younger adults. PMID:25319169

  20. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2014-06-19

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ{sup (j)} of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j′-th time point where j≤j′≤j+n. To model the variation of φ{sup (j)}, we assume that φ{sup (j)} depends on φ{sup (j−m)}, φ{sup (j−m+1)},…, φ{sup (j−1)} and the interest rate r{sub j+n} at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value r{sub j+n+1} of the interest rate at the next time point when the value r{sub j+n} of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate r{sub j+n+d} at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  1. Prediction of interest rate using CKLS model with stochastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Khor Chia; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2014-06-01

    The Chan, Karolyi, Longstaff and Sanders (CKLS) model is a popular one-factor model for describing the spot interest rates. In this paper, the four parameters in the CKLS model are regarded as stochastic. The parameter vector φ(j) of four parameters at the (J+n)-th time point is estimated by the j-th window which is defined as the set consisting of the observed interest rates at the j'-th time point where j≤j'≤j+n. To model the variation of φ(j), we assume that φ(j) depends on φ(j-m), φ(j-m+1),…, φ(j-1) and the interest rate rj+n at the (j+n)-th time point via a four-dimensional conditional distribution which is derived from a [4(m+1)+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. Treating the (j+n)-th time point as the present time point, we find a prediction interval for the future value rj+n+1 of the interest rate at the next time point when the value rj+n of the interest rate is given. From the above four-dimensional conditional distribution, we also find a prediction interval for the future interest rate rj+n+d at the next d-th (d≥2) time point. The prediction intervals based on the CKLS model with stochastic parameters are found to have better ability of covering the observed future interest rates when compared with those based on the model with fixed parameters.

  2. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  3. The Increasing Predictive Validity of Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Schnittker, Jason; Bacak, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not. PMID:24465452

  4. Modeling and predicting drug resistance rate and strength.

    PubMed

    Fullybright, R; Dwivedi, A; Mallawaarachchi, I; Sinsin, B

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistance has been worsening in human infectious diseases medicine over the past several decades. Our ability to successfully control resistance depends to a large extent on our understanding of the features characterizing the process. Part of that understanding includes the rate at which new resistance has been emerging in pathogens. Along that line, resistance data covering 90 infectious diseases, 118 pathogens, and 337 molecules, from 1921 through 2007, are modeled using various statistical tools to generate regression models for the rate of new resistance emergence and for cumulative resistance build-up in pathogens. Thereafter, the strength of the association between the number of molecules put on the market and the number of resulting cases of resistance is statistically tested. Predictive models are presented for the rate at which new resistance has been emerging in infectious diseases medicine, along with predictive models for the rate of cumulative resistance build-up in the aggregate of 118 pathogens as well as in ten individual pathogens. The models are expressed as a function of time and/or as a function of the number of molecules put on the market by the pharmaceutical industry. It is found that molecules significantly induce resistance in pathogens and that new or cumulative drug resistance across infectious diseases medicine has been arising at exponential rates. PMID:27209288

  5. Pilots Rate Augmented Generalized Predictive Control for Reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soloway, Don; Haley, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results from the research being conducted in reconfigurable fight controls at NASA Ames. A study was conducted with three NASA Dryden test pilots to evaluate two approaches of reconfiguring an aircraft's control system when failures occur in the control surfaces and engine. NASA Ames is investigating both a Neural Generalized Predictive Control scheme and a Neural Network based Dynamic Inverse controller. This paper highlights the Predictive Control scheme where a simple augmentation to reduce zero steady-state error led to the neural network predictor model becoming redundant for the task. Instead of using a neural network predictor model, a nominal single point linear model was used and then augmented with an error corrector. This paper shows that the Generalized Predictive Controller and the Dynamic Inverse Neural Network controller perform equally well at reconfiguration, but with less rate requirements from the actuators. Also presented are the pilot ratings for each controller for various failure scenarios and two samples of the required control actuation during reconfiguration. Finally, the paper concludes by stepping through the Generalized Predictive Control's reconfiguration process for an elevator failure.

  6. Rate-Based Model Predictive Control of Turbofan Engine Clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative model predictive control strategy is developed for control of nonlinear aircraft propulsion systems and sub-systems. At the heart of the controller is a rate-based linear parameter-varying model that propagates the state derivatives across the prediction horizon, extending prediction fidelity to transient regimes where conventional models begin to lose validity. The new control law is applied to a demanding active clearance control application, where the objectives are to tightly regulate blade tip clearances and also anticipate and avoid detrimental blade-shroud rub occurrences by optimally maintaining a predefined minimum clearance. Simulation results verify that the rate-based controller is capable of satisfying the objectives during realistic flight scenarios where both a conventional Jacobian-based model predictive control law and an unconstrained linear-quadratic optimal controller are incapable of doing so. The controller is evaluated using a variety of different actuators, illustrating the efficacy and versatility of the control approach. It is concluded that the new strategy has promise for this and other nonlinear aerospace applications that place high importance on the attainment of control objectives during transient regimes.

  7. Prediction of the oocyte recovery rate in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Ström Holst, B; Larsson, B; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Lagerstedt, A S; Linde-Forsberg, C

    2001-12-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of predicting the recovery rate of oocytes for use in a sperm-zona pellucida binding assay, ovaries were obtained from 67 bitches of 37 different breeds, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered by mincing the ovaries with a scalpel. The mean number of COCs recovered was 37.2 +/- 34.1 (range 0-145) per ovary. Age significantly affected COC recovery rates. From bitches 1-6 years old, 54.2 +/- 35.1 COCs/ovary were recovered, compared to 26.4 +/- 29.0 from bitches 7-13 years old (P = 0.003). The morphology of the uterus or the presence or absence of ovarian structures had no significant effect on COC recovery rates, although there was a tendency for more COCs to be recovered from ovaries with only follicles visible on the surface. There were no significant correlations between body weight or ovarian weight and COC recovery rates. There was a high correlation in the COC recovery rate between the two ovaries of a bitch, enabling an approximate estimation of the COC recovery rate from the second ovary when the COCs from the first ovary have been recovered. The large variation in COC recovery rates between bitches stresses the need for storage of canine oocytes in order to secure a high enough number of oocytes for a homologous sperm-zona pellucida binding assay in the dog. PMID:11848251

  8. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  9. Combining Review Text Content and Reviewer-Item Rating Matrix to Predict Review Rating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingkun; Huang, Yongfeng; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    E-commerce develops rapidly. Learning and taking good advantage of the myriad reviews from online customers has become crucial to the success in this game, which calls for increasingly more accuracy in sentiment classification of these reviews. Therefore the finer-grained review rating prediction is preferred over the rough binary sentiment classification. There are mainly two types of method in current review rating prediction. One includes methods based on review text content which focus almost exclusively on textual content and seldom relate to those reviewers and items remarked in other relevant reviews. The other one contains methods based on collaborative filtering which extract information from previous records in the reviewer-item rating matrix, however, ignoring review textual content. Here we proposed a framework for review rating prediction which shows the effective combination of the two. Then we further proposed three specific methods under this framework. Experiments on two movie review datasets demonstrate that our review rating prediction framework has better performance than those previous methods. PMID:26880879

  10. Combining Review Text Content and Reviewer-Item Rating Matrix to Predict Review Rating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingkun; Huang, Yongfeng; Li, Xing

    2016-01-01

    E-commerce develops rapidly. Learning and taking good advantage of the myriad reviews from online customers has become crucial to the success in this game, which calls for increasingly more accuracy in sentiment classification of these reviews. Therefore the finer-grained review rating prediction is preferred over the rough binary sentiment classification. There are mainly two types of method in current review rating prediction. One includes methods based on review text content which focus almost exclusively on textual content and seldom relate to those reviewers and items remarked in other relevant reviews. The other one contains methods based on collaborative filtering which extract information from previous records in the reviewer-item rating matrix, however, ignoring review textual content. Here we proposed a framework for review rating prediction which shows the effective combination of the two. Then we further proposed three specific methods under this framework. Experiments on two movie review datasets demonstrate that our review rating prediction framework has better performance than those previous methods. PMID:26880879

  11. Prediction of protein folding rates from simplified secondary structure alphabet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Protein folding is a very complicated and highly cooperative dynamic process. However, the folding kinetics is likely to depend more on a few key structural features. Here we find that secondary structures can determine folding rates of only large, multi-state folding proteins and fails to predict those for small, two-state proteins. The importance of secondary structures for protein folding is ordered as: extended β strand > α helix > bend > turn > undefined secondary structure>310 helix > isolated β strand > π helix. Only the first three secondary structures, extended β strand, α helix and bend, can achieve a good correlation with folding rates. This suggests that the rate-limiting step of protein folding would depend upon the formation of regular secondary structures and the buckling of chain. The reduced secondary structure alphabet provides a simplified description for the machine learning applications in protein design. PMID:26247139

  12. An analytical prediction of pilot ratings utilizing human pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K.; Washizu, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to analytically predict pilot ratings, an evaluation method of a manual control system which consists of an aircraft and a human pilot, is proposed and examined. The method is constructed upon the assumptions that the control mission determines the critical frequency the pilot should bring to his focus, and that the degree of closed-loop stability and the human compensation necessary to attain the stability determine the human subjective evaluation of the system. As a result, a simple evaluation chart is introduced. The chart enables prediction of the subjective evaluation, if the controlled element dynamics and the mission are given. The chart is in good accord with almost all of the existing results of pilot ratings. This method has the following advantages: (1) simplicity, in a sense that the method needs to evaluate only two typical controlled element parameters, namely, the gain slope and the phase at the critical control frequency; (2) applicability to unstable controlled elements; (3) predictability of controllability limits of manual control; (4) possibility of estimating human compensatory dynamics.

  13. Variations in the Rate at Which Students Cross the Boundaries between Australian Vocational and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the rate at which students are crossing the boundaries between Australian vocational and higher education. It finds that public universities admit a higher proportion of students on the basis of a vocational education qualification than do private colleges and that private colleges broadly do not admit a higher proportion of…

  14. Prediction of Rate Constant for Supramolecular Systems with Multiconfigurations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Li; Guo, Zhen; Yin, Xianzhen; Wang, Caifen; Sun, Lixin; Shao, Qun; Gu, Jingkai; York, Peter; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-25

    The control of supramolecular systems requires a thorough understanding of their dynamics, especially on a molecular level. It is extremely difficult to determine the thermokinetic parameters of supramolecular systems, such as drug-cyclodextrin complexes with fast association/dissociation processes by experimental techniques. In this paper, molecular modeling combined with novel mathematical relationships integrating the thermodynamic/thermokinetic parameters of a series of isomeric multiconfigurations to predict the overall parameters in a range of pH values have been employed to study supramolecular dynamics at the molecular level. A suitable form of Eyring's equation was derived and a two-stage model was introduced. The new approach enabled accurate prediction of the apparent dissociation/association (koff/kon) and unbinding/binding (k-r/kr) rate constants of the ubiquitous multiconfiguration complexes of the supramolecular system. The pyronine Y (PY) was used as a model system for the validation of the presented method. Interestingly, the predicted koff value ((40 ± 1) × 10(5) s(-1), 298 K) of PY is largely in agreement with that previously determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ((5 ± 3) × 10(5) s(-1), 298 K). Moreover, the koff/kon and k-r/kr for flurbiprofen-β-cylcodextrin and ibuprofen-β-cyclodextrin systems were also predicted and suggested that the association processes are diffusion-controlled. The methodology is considered to be especially useful in the design and selection of excipients for a supramolecular system with preferred association and dissociation rate constants and understanding their mechanisms. It is believed that this new approach could be applicable to a wide range of ligand-receptor supramolecular systems and will surely help in understanding their complex mechanism. PMID:26840799

  15. A specific absorption rate prediction concept for parallel transmission MR.

    PubMed

    Graesslin, Ingmar; Homann, Hanno; Biederer, Sven; Börnert, Peter; Nehrke, Kay; Vernickel, Peter; Mens, Giel; Harvey, Paul; Katscher, Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a limiting factor in high-field MR. SAR estimation is typically performed by numerical simulations using generic human body models. However, SAR concepts for single-channel radiofrequency transmission cannot be directly applied to multichannel systems. In this study, a novel and comprehensive SAR prediction concept for parallel radiofrequency transmission MRI is presented, based on precalculated magnetic and electric fields obtained from electromagnetic simulations of numerical body models. The application of so-called Q-matrices and further computational optimizations allow for a real-time estimation of the SAR prior to scanning. This SAR estimation method was fully integrated into an eight-channel whole body MRI system, and it facilitated the selection of different body models and body positions. Experimental validation of the global SAR in phantoms demonstrated a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the predictions. An initial in vivo validation showed good qualitative agreement between simulated and measured amplitude of (excitation) radiofrequency field. The feasibility and practicability of this SAR prediction concept was shown paving the way for safe parallel radiofrequency transmission in high-field MR. PMID:22231647

  16. 1984-2008. Predictions for Higher Education. From the 25th Anniversary Colloquium. [Proceedings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, Melvene Draheim, Ed.

    Predictions on higher education for 1984-2009 are presented in the proceedings of a colloquium of the Institute for Studies in Higher Education of Florida State University. Presentations were made at the colloquium by 10 graduates of the university whose current positions represent administration-management, instruction, research, and student…

  17. Self‐Rated Health Predicts Healthcare Utilization in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Manemann, Sheila M.; Dunlay, Shannon M.; Spertus, John A.; Moser, Debra K.; Berardi, Cecilia; Kane, Robert L.; Weston, Susan A.; Redfield, Margaret M.; Roger, Véronique L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) patients experience impaired functional status, diminished quality of life, high utilization of healthcare resources, and poor survival. Yet, the identification of patient‐centered factors that influence prognosis is lacking. Methods and Results We determined the association of 2 measures of self‐rated health with healthcare utilization and skilled nursing facility (SNF) admission in a community cohort of 417 HF patients prospectively enrolled between October 2007 and December 2010 from Olmsted County, MN. Patients completed a 12‐item Short Form Health Survey (SF‐12). Low self‐reported physical functioning was defined as a score ≤25 on the SF‐12 physical component. The first question of the SF‐12 was used as a measure of self‐rated general health. After 2 years, 1033 hospitalizations, 1407 emergency department (ED) visits, and 19,780 outpatient office visits were observed; 87 patients were admitted to a SNF. After adjustment for confounding factors, an increased risk of hospitalizations (1.52 [1.17 to 1.99]) and ED visits (1.48 [1.04 to 2.11]) was observed for those with low versus moderate‐high self‐reported physical functioning. Patients with poor and fair self‐rated general health also experienced an increased risk of hospitalizations (poor: 1.73 [1.29 to 2.32]; fair: 1.46 [1.14 to 1.87]) and ED visits (poor: 1.73 [1.16 to 2.56]; fair: 1.48 [1.13 to 1.93]) compared with good‐excellent self‐rated general health. No association between self‐reported physical functioning or self‐rated general health with outpatient visits and SNF admission was observed. Conclusion In community HF patients, self‐reported measures of physical functioning predict hospitalizations and ED visits, indicating that these patient‐reported measures may be useful in risk stratification and management in HF. PMID:24870937

  18. Automatic Prediction of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Paolo; Izzo, Raffaele; Orrico, Ada; Scala, Paolo; Attanasio, Marcella; Mirra, Marco; De Luca, Nicola; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients. Methods A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were collected ad hoc. Subjects who experienced a vascular event (i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke, syncopal event) were considered as high-risk subjects. Several data-mining algorithms (such as support vector machine, tree-based classifier, artificial neural network) were used to develop automatic classifiers and their accuracy was tested by assessing the receiver-operator characteristics curve. Moreover, we tested the echographic parameters, which have been showed as powerful predictors of future vascular events. Results The best predictive model was based on random forest and enabled to identify high-risk hypertensive patients with sensitivity and specificity rates of 71.4% and 87.8%, respectively. The Heart Rate Variability based classifier showed higher predictive values than the conventional echographic parameters, which are considered as significant cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Combination of Heart Rate Variability measures, analyzed with data-mining algorithm, could be a reliable tool for identifying hypertensive patients at high risk to develop future vascular events. PMID:25793605

  19. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  20. Theoretical prediction of regression rates in swirl-injection hybrid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, K.; Shimada, T.

    2016-07-01

    The authors theoretically and analytically predict what times regression rates of swirl injection hybrid rocket engines increase higher than the axial injection ones by estimating heat flux from boundary layer combustion to the fuel port. The schematic of engines is assumed as ones whose oxidizer is injected from the opposite side of the nozzle such as ones of Yuasa et al. propose. To simplify the estimation, we assume some hypotheses such as three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric flows have been assumed. The results of this prediction method are largely consistent with Yuasa's experiments data in the range of high swirl numbers.

  1. A model for predicting wear rates in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Lopez, Oscar; Pajares, Antonia; Constantino, Paul J; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-09-01

    It is hypothesized that wear of enamel is sensitive to the presence of sharp particulates in oral fluids and masticated foods. To this end, a generic model for predicting wear rates in brittle materials is developed, with specific application to tooth enamel. Wear is assumed to result from an accumulation of elastic-plastic micro-asperity events. Integration over all such events leads to a wear rate relation analogous to Archard׳s law, but with allowance for variation in asperity angle and compliance. The coefficient K in this relation quantifies the wear severity, with an arbitrary distinction between 'mild' wear (low K) and 'severe' wear (high K). Data from the literature and in-house wear-test experiments on enamel specimens in lubricant media (water, oil) with and without sharp third-body particulates (silica, diamond) are used to validate the model. Measured wear rates can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on contact asperity conditions, accounting for the occurrence of severe enamel removal in some human patients (bruxing). Expressions for the depth removal rate and number of cycles to wear down occlusal enamel in the low-crowned tooth forms of some mammals are derived, with tooth size and enamel thickness as key variables. The role of 'hard' versus 'soft' food diets in determining evolutionary paths in different hominin species is briefly considered. A feature of the model is that it does not require recourse to specific material removal mechanisms, although processes involving microplastic extrusion and microcrack coalescence are indicated. PMID:24953823

  2. Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío

    2014-01-01

    In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

  3. Melt rate predictions for slurry-fed glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1996-03-01

    Numerous bench-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to support high-level waste vitrification projects within DOE. These projects include the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (MNDP). Testing for these projects has investigated aspects of the vitrification process such as the pumpability of the slurry feed, melter processing rates, melter scale-up, and off-gas decontamination factors for feed constituents. The high costs for testing have generated interest in using modeling to predict major processing impacts on the vitrification systems from any given feed material. Important components required for such modeling include feed composition, feed rheology, melter glass temperature, melter geometry, and melter power configurations. I Some work has already been performed in modeling glass melters, but little attention has been given to feed composition (Routt 1982).

  4. Sediment rating curve & Co. - a contest of prediction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, T.; Zimmermann, A.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the recent technological progress in sediment monitoring, often the calculation of sediment yield (SSY) still relies on intermittent measurements because of the use of historic records, instrument-failure in continuous recording or financial constraints. Therefore, available measurements are usually inter- and even extrapolated using the sediment rating curve approach, which uses continuously available discharge data to predict sediment concentrations. Extending this idea by further aspects like the inclusion of other predictors (e.g. rainfall, discharge-characteristics, etc.), or the consideration of prediction uncertainty led to a variety of new methods. Now, with approaches such as Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Networks, Tree-based regression, GLMs, etc., the user is left to decide which method to apply. Trying multiple approaches is usually not an option, as considerable effort and expertise may be needed for their application. To establish a helpful guideline in selecting the most appropriate method for SSY-computation, we initiated a study to compare and rank available methods. Depending on problem attributes like hydrological and sediment regime, number of samples, sampling scheme, and availability of ancillary predictors, the performance of different methods is compared. Our expertise allowed us to "register" Random Forests, Quantile Regression Forests and GLMs for the contest. To include many different methods and ensure their sophisticated use we invite scientists that are willing to benchmark their favourite method(s) with us. The more diverse the participating methods are, the more exciting the contest will be.

  5. Congruence and predictive power of mothers' and teachers' ratings of mastery motivation in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hauser-Cram, P; Krauss, M W; Warfield, M E; Steele, A

    1997-10-01

    The congruence between mothers' and teachers' ratings of mastery motivation among 3-year-old children with mental retardation was investigated. The extent to which maternal and teacher ratings of task persistence at entry to preschool are predictive of observed mastery behaviors at age 5 was tested. Results indicate that mothers rated their children's task persistence behaviors higher than did teachers. Further, once the child's cognitive level and teacher ratings were controlled for statistically, maternal ratings of the child's mastery behaviors were predictive of the child's task mastery performance 2 years subsequent. Implications for educational planning were discussed. PMID:9339064

  6. Predicting Hyper-Chaotic Time Series Using Adaptive Higher-Order Nonlinear Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Shu; Xiao, Xian-Ci

    2001-03-01

    A newly proposed method, i.e. the adaptive higher-order nonlinear finite impulse response (HONFIR) filter based on higher-order sparse Volterra series expansions, is introduced to predict hyper-chaotic time series. The effectiveness of using the adaptive HONFIR filter for making one-step and multi-step predictions is tested based on very few data points by computer-generated hyper-chaotic time series including the Mackey-Glass equation and four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. A comparison is made with some neural networks for predicting the Mackey-Glass hyper-chaotic time series. Numerical simulation results show that the adaptive HONFIR filter proposed here is a very powerful tool for making prediction of hyper-chaotic time series.

  7. Emotional exhaustion and workload predict clinician-rated and objective patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L.; Manser, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic, and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables, and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. Regression analysis (multilevel) was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience) and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability) characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety was associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios. Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables and support to the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety. PMID:25657627

  8. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis; Visser, G Henk

    2003-02-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold climate. Growth rate of knot chicks was very high compared to other, mainly temperate, shorebirds of their size, but strongly correlated with weather-induced and seasonal variation in availability of invertebrate prey. Red knot chicks sought less parental brooding and foraged more at the same mass and temperature than chicks of three temperate shorebird species studied in The Netherlands. Fast growth and high muscular activity in the cold tundra environment led to high energy expenditure, as measured using doubly labelled water: total metabolised energy over the 18-day prefledging period was 89% above an allometric prediction, and among the highest values reported for birds. A comparative simulation model based on our observations and data for temperate shorebird chicks showed that several factors combine to enable red knots to meet these high energy requirements: (1) the greater cold-hardiness of red knot chicks increases time available for foraging; (2) their fast growth further shortens the period in which chicks depend on brooding; and (3) the 24-h daylight increases potential foraging time, though knots apparently did not make full use of this. These mechanisms buffer the loss of foraging time due to increased need for brooding at arctic temperatures, but not enough to satisfy the high energy requirements without invoking (4) a higher foraging intake rate as an explanation. Since surface-active arthropods were not more abundant in our arctic study site than in a temperate grassland, this may be due to easier detection or capture of prey in the tundra. The model also suggested that the cold-hardiness of red knot chicks is critical in allowing them sufficient feeding time

  9. Chloride-Mass-Balance: Cautions in Predicting Increased Recharge Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tyler , S. W.; Albright , W. H.; Singleton , M. J.

    2005-02-01

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6 m deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20% of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  10. Transient erosion rates predicted from topographic curvature of ridges (Feather River, California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, M. D.; Mudd, S. M.; Walcott, R.; Yoo, K.; Attal, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rates of erosion can control the morphology of entire landscapes. Methods to quantify erosion are expensive and time consuming, but potentially these rates may be predicted rapidly over large spatial extents using topographic metrics. In landscapes with similar vegetation, climate and geology, mean basin slope has been shown to be linearly correlated with erosion rate, except in rapidly eroding landscapes where hillslopes steepen to approach a threshold slope. However landscape evolution models in which hillslope sediment flux is non-linearly dependent on slopes predict the curvature of ridges to be linearly proportional to erosion rates (Roering et al 2007). The curvature of hilltops may respond to higher erosion rates than mean basin slope as ridge curvature is only limited by whether soil production can keep pace with channel erosion rates. We test the utility of ridge-top curvature for estimating erosion rates using high resolution (1m) Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) derived digital elevation data. Cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) derived erosion rates for our field site in the Feather River, California, suggests erosion rates vary over an order of magnitude (0.01 to >0.2cm yr-1) (Riebe et al 2000). These data, combined with new CRN-derived erosion rates, are used to demonstrate erosion scales linearly with hilltop curvature, where hillslopes are judged to have adjusted to the erosion rate in the channel at their toe. From this relationship we determine the diffusion coefficient which controls the relationship between hillslope gradient and sediment flux, allowing estimation of erosion rates throughout our field area. Previous workers have demonstrated that mean hillslope angle can stand as a proxy for erosion rates only at rates <~0.25mm yr-1, until threshold angles are reached (e.g. Binnie et al 2007). Using an algorithm to extract a network of ridgelines and sample the mean hilltop curvature for a series of drainage basins in the study area, we show that

  11. Unfolded protein ensembles, folding trajectories, and refolding rate prediction.

    PubMed

    Das, A; Sin, B K; Mohazab, A R; Plotkin, S S

    2013-09-28

    Computer simulations can provide critical information on the unfolded ensemble of proteins under physiological conditions, by explicitly characterizing the geometrical properties of the diverse conformations that are sampled in the unfolded state. A general computational analysis across many proteins has not been implemented however. Here, we develop a method for generating a diverse conformational ensemble, to characterize properties of the unfolded states of intrinsically disordered or intrinsically folded proteins. The method allows unfolded proteins to retain disulfide bonds. We examined physical properties of the unfolded ensembles of several proteins, including chemical shifts, clustering properties, and scaling exponents for the radius of gyration with polymer length. A problem relating simulated and experimental residual dipolar couplings is discussed. We apply our generated ensembles to the problem of folding kinetics, by examining whether the ensembles of some proteins are closer geometrically to their folded structures than others. We find that for a randomly selected dataset of 15 non-homologous 2- and 3-state proteins, quantities such as the average root mean squared deviation between the folded structure and unfolded ensemble correlate with folding rates as strongly as absolute contact order. We introduce a new order parameter that measures the distance travelled per residue, which naturally partitions into a smooth "laminar" and subsequent "turbulent" part of the trajectory. This latter conceptually simple measure with no fitting parameters predicts folding rates in 0 M denaturant with remarkable accuracy (r = -0.95, p = 1 × 10(-7)). The high correlation between folding times and sterically modulated, reconfigurational motion supports the rapid collapse of proteins prior to the transition state as a generic feature in the folding of both two-state and multi-state proteins. This method for generating unfolded ensembles provides a powerful approach to

  12. Unfolded protein ensembles, folding trajectories, and refolding rate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Sin, B. K.; Mohazab, A. R.; Plotkin, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    Computer simulations can provide critical information on the unfolded ensemble of proteins under physiological conditions, by explicitly characterizing the geometrical properties of the diverse conformations that are sampled in the unfolded state. A general computational analysis across many proteins has not been implemented however. Here, we develop a method for generating a diverse conformational ensemble, to characterize properties of the unfolded states of intrinsically disordered or intrinsically folded proteins. The method allows unfolded proteins to retain disulfide bonds. We examined physical properties of the unfolded ensembles of several proteins, including chemical shifts, clustering properties, and scaling exponents for the radius of gyration with polymer length. A problem relating simulated and experimental residual dipolar couplings is discussed. We apply our generated ensembles to the problem of folding kinetics, by examining whether the ensembles of some proteins are closer geometrically to their folded structures than others. We find that for a randomly selected dataset of 15 non-homologous 2- and 3-state proteins, quantities such as the average root mean squared deviation between the folded structure and unfolded ensemble correlate with folding rates as strongly as absolute contact order. We introduce a new order parameter that measures the distance travelled per residue, which naturally partitions into a smooth "laminar" and subsequent "turbulent" part of the trajectory. This latter conceptually simple measure with no fitting parameters predicts folding rates in 0 M denaturant with remarkable accuracy (r = -0.95, p = 1 × 10-7). The high correlation between folding times and sterically modulated, reconfigurational motion supports the rapid collapse of proteins prior to the transition state as a generic feature in the folding of both two-state and multi-state proteins. This method for generating unfolded ensembles provides a powerful approach to

  13. Predicting Academic Success in Higher Education: What's More Important than Being Smart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappe, Rutger; van der Flier, Henk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the combined predictive validity of intelligence and personality factors on multiple measures of academic achievement. Students in a college of higher education in the Netherlands (N = 137) completed a survey that measured intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, motivation, and four specific personality traits.…

  14. Reading the IT Leaves: Four Predictions for Higher Education Technology in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2011-01-01

    No start to the new year is complete without media prognostications for the 12 months ahead. Leaving the social, political, and economic fad predictions to others, "CT" asked four members of its editorial and conference advisory boards to identify information technology trends in higher education that are beginning to take real hold in 2011--the…

  15. Retention in Higher Education: Faculty and Student Perceptions of Retention Programs and Factors Impacting Attrition Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Malinda; O'Leary, Erin; Webb, Shekeita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine faculty and student perceptions of what factors are contributing to drop-out rates in a Northern Indiana higher educational facility and to study whether or not the drop-out prevention programs that are in place are effective. Survey links were sent out to all adjuncts and some full-time faculty at a local…

  16. Indigenous Australian Students' Participation Rates in Higher Education: Exploring the Role of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina; Kowal, Emma; Paradies, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous Australians are underrepresented and considerably disadvantaged within the Australian system of higher education. The various measures taken by Australian universities over the past decades have produced varying levels of success in increasing Indigenous participation and completion rates. In order to continue improving Indigenous…

  17. Dynamics of Rate of Returns for Postgraduate Education in Taiwan: The Impact of Higher Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Hai; Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Lin, Chien-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of rate of returns for postgraduate education and the determinants of wage premiums for postgraduate labor, especially for the impact of higher education expansions, in terms of quantity and quality, since the late 1990s in Taiwan. Utilizing quasi-panel data over the 1990-2004 period and employing the double fixed…

  18. Higher infused lymphocyte dose predicts higher lymphocyte recovery, which in turn, predicts superior overall survival following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hiwase, Devendra K; Hiwase, Smita; Bailey, Michael; Bollard, Geraldine; Schwarer, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) younger than 70 years. However, despite this aggressive therapy most patients will still die of progressive disease. Recent reports have suggested that lymphocyte recovery is an important predictor of relapse or progressive disease in a number of hematologic malignancies including MM. We have conducted retrospective analysis of factors that could predict overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with MM who had ASCT. One hundred nineteen patients with multiple myeloma underwent ASCT. The median OS and PFS were 64 and 32 months, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that absolute lymphocyte count on day 30 following ASCT (ALC-30), international staging system (ISS) stage at diagnosis, and age at diagnosis significantly influenced OS and PFS following ASCT. OS (96 versus 48 months, P = .04) and PFS (43 versus 29 months, P = .03) following ASCT were higher in patients with ALC-30 >or=1.0 x 10(9)/L compared to patients ALC-30 <1.0 x 10(9)/L. Higher ALC-60, ALC-100, ALC-180, and ALC-365 did not predict superior OS and PFS. Patients with early-stage disease had significantly higher OS (ISS stages I, II, and III: 96, 53, and 29 months, respectively; P = .0023) and PFS (ISS stages I, II, and III: 55.5, 31, and 12 months, respectively; P = .027) compared to patients with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. On univariate analysis, the type of initial chemotherapy (melphalan, VAD, PCAB), lymphocyte count on day of leukapheresis, and the lymphocyte dose infused (LY-DO) significantly influenced lymphocyte recovery following ASCT. Patients who received higher lymphocyte dose (LY-DO) >or=0.2 x 10(9)/kg had higher median ALC-15 (0.25 versus 0.19 x 10(9)/L; P = .3), ALC-30 (1.20 versus 0.99 x 10(9)/L; P = .08), ALC-60 (1.90 versus 1.01 x 10(9)/L; P = .013), ALC-100 (1.58 versus 1.03 x 10

  19. Higher Fibrinogen Levels Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, T.C.; Snell-Bergeon, J.K.; Maahs, D.M; Kinney, G.L.; Rewers, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether fibrinogen levels predict independently progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data from a prospective cohort - the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study - were evaluated. Fibrinogen levels at baseline were separated into quartiles. CAC was measured twice and averaged at baseline and at follow-up 2.4 ± 0.4 years later. CAC progressors were defined as participants whose square-root transformed CAC volume increased by ≥ 2.53 or development mm of clinical coronary artery disease during the follow-up period. Results Fibrinogen levels were higher in progressors than in non-progressors (276 ± 61 mg/dl versus 259 ± 61 mg/dl, p = 0.0003). CAC progression, adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, increased in the highest quartile. Conclusions Higher fibrinogen levels predict CAC progression in type 1 diabetes subjects, independent of standard cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20079495

  20. Higher-order prediction terms and fixing the renormalization scale using the BLM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, Abolfazl; Khellat, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    There is an ambiguity in the perturbative series of QCD observables on how to choose the renormalization and even more the factorization scale. There are many approaches to overcome this obstacle and to fix the scales. Among them, there is the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) approach which is based on an intriguing principle. Based on the BLM approach, we intend to absorb the nf-terms in the pQCD series that rightly determines the running behavior of the running coupling into the running coupling. We make an extensive use of the BLM approach to investigate the details of predicting higher order correction terms of some QCD observables. By this way we test different methods to improve the prediction process. It is also found out that an overall normalization could change BLM predictions effectively.

  1. Implementation of Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Zhu, Linfa; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear response of composite plates under large strain and high strain rate loading. A recently developed strain dependent micromechanics model is extended to account for the shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of shear deformation effects are investigated to improve the development strain rate dependent micromechanics model. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio is developed. The revised micromechanics model is implemented into higher order laminate theory. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate transverse shear effects during impact.

  2. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m-2 year-1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity.

  3. Subalpine Pyrenees received higher nitrogen deposition than predicted by EMEP and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Marion; Lamaze, Thierry; Couvidat, Florian; Pornon, André

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere is expected to be the third greatest driver of biodiversity loss by the year 2100. Chemistry-transport models are essential tools to estimate spatially explicit N deposition but the reliability of their predictions remained to be validated in mountains. We measured N deposition and air concentration over the subalpine Pyrenees. N deposition was found to range from 797 to 1,463 mg N m−2 year−1. These values were higher than expected from model predictions, especially for nitrate, which exceeded the estimations of EMEP by a factor of 2.6 and CHIMERE by 3.6. Our observations also displayed a reversed reduced-to-oxidized ratio in N deposition compared with model predictions. The results highlight that the subalpine Pyrenees are exposed to higher levels of N deposition than expected according to standard predictions and that these levels exceed currently recognized critical loads for most high-elevation habitats. Our study reveals a need to improve the evaluation of N deposition in mountains which are home to a substantial and original part of the world’s biodiversity. PMID:26255956

  4. ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANT PREDICTION FROM INFRARED INTERFEROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for predicting reactivity parameters of organic chemicals from spectroscopic data is being developed to assist in assessing the environmental fate of pollutants. he prototype system, which employs multiple linear regression analysis using selected points from the Fourier...

  5. Predicting Translation Initiation Rates for Designing Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Benjamin; Hargest, Thomas; Gilbert, Charlie; Ellis, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In synthetic biology, precise control over protein expression is required in order to construct functional biological systems. A core principle of the synthetic biology approach is a model-guided design and based on the biological understanding of the process, models of prokaryotic protein production have been described. Translation initiation rate is a rate-limiting step in protein production from mRNA and is dependent on the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region and the start of the coding sequence. Translation rate calculators are programs that estimate protein translation rates based on the sequence of these regions of an mRNA, and as protein expression is proportional to the rate of translation initiation, such calculators have been shown to give good approximations of protein expression levels. In this review, three currently available translation rate calculators developed for synthetic biology are considered, with limitations and possible future progress discussed. PMID:25152877

  6. Cooperative system based on soft computing methods to realize higher precision of computer color recipe prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Eiji; Takagi, Hideyuki; Auslander, David M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper proposes a combinational model of neural networks (NNs) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to obtain highly precise outputs. Performance of the model is evaluated by application to a computerized color recipe prediction task, which requires relating surface spectral reflectance of a target color to several pigment concentrations. For GA search, first, predictive concentrations of color pigments are initialized by a random initializer, a multi-elite generator based on rules, and an NN which predicts pigment concentrations from the surface spectral reflectance. Then the GA starts searching for more precise pigment concentration vectors depending on a fitness function which is constructed based on three functions: (1) an NN to predict which pigments to use, (2) a rule base to deal with knowledge of color, and (3) an NN to calculate color difference to take into account human visual sensitivity. This hybrid model predicts color pigment concentrations with higher precision by fine-tuning the results of NN approaches. It may possibly show great potential in another precision problem.

  7. Do Higher Sea-cliff Retreat Rates Imply Faster Sea-cliff Retreat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, A.; Katz, O.; Porat, N.

    2015-12-01

    Inland retreat of sea cliffs in response to post LGM (last glacial maximum) sea-level rise is an ongoing process that affects coastal environments and communities worldwide. Here, we examine a globally recurring pattern where reported sea-cliff retreat rates since the 20th century often appear to exceed longer-term millennial-scale ('background') rates that rarely exceed ~0.1 m/yr. Focusing on Israel's 30-km-long Mediterranean 'Sharon' sea-cliff as a case study we demonstrate that such apparent increase in rates may also reflect a widely acknowledged sampling bias in geologic rate estimates inferred from observation time windows ('Tobs') shorter than process episodicity. We show that this possible bias leads to an ambiguity in conventional rate estimates obtained by averaging observed retreat distances over Tobs, and that as a result despite ubiquitous and robust observations of cliff retreat since the 20th century (e.g., aerial photographs) recent/current retreat rates for many of the world's episodically retreating sea cliffs remain essentially unknown. To address this present limitation in our ability to detect and quantify recent changes in sea-cliff retreat rates we use airborne LiDAR to measure the continuous wave-driven volumetric erosion of collapsed material from the cliff base as an effective upper-bound constraint for the m/yr rate of episodic retreat of the cliff itself. We find that while conventional retreat rate estimates since the 20th century along the Sharon sea cliff artefactually increase up to several m/yr as an inverse function of Tobs, the LiDAR-constrained retreat rates are not susceptible to this sampling bias, are comparable to the cliff's background retreat rate of 0.03-0.07 m/yr since the mid Holocene and thus indicate no recent acceleration in retreat. This ability to unambiguously constrain sea-cliff retreat rates with annual to decadal-scale observations directly impacts the global-scale push to quantify, better understand and

  8. Significantly Higher Prevalence Rate of Asthma and Bipolar Disorder Co-Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Asthma and bipolar disorder (BD) are 2 distinct diseases that share similar pathophysiology. This study aimed to determine their relationship thorough a meta-analysis of articles on their comorbidity rate. The aim of the study is to examine the overall prevalence rate of BD in asthmatic patients and of asthma in BD patients compared to healthy controls. Electronic research of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. Articles discussing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma and the prevalence rate of asthma in those with/without BD, as well as clinical trials in humans and case-controlled trials or cohort studies, were all included. Case reports or series and nonclinical trials were excluded. Through a random-effects model, a meta-analysis of the results of 4 studies comparing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma, and in 6 studies comparing the prevalence rate of asthma in subjects with/without BD were performed. There were significantly higher prevalence rates of BD in asthmatic patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001) and of asthma in BD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Only the patient's mean age significantly modulated the odds ratio of the prevalence rate of asthma in BD patients (slope = 0.015, P < 0.001). Only 10 studies were included and most were cross-sectional studies. The possible confounding effect of medication on BD or asthma onset was not investigated. Any possible etiology of the comorbidity was also not determined. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of the significantly high comorbid rate of BD and asthma, and the positive association with age. Special attention must be given to the comorbidity of asthma and BD, especially in older patients. PMID:27043688

  9. Cellular Microcystin Content in N-Limited Microcystis aeruginosa Can Be Predicted from Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Long, Benedict M.; Jones, Gary J.; Orr, Philip T.

    2001-01-01

    Cell quotas of microcystin (QMCYST; femtomoles of MCYST per cell), protein, and chlorophyll a (Chl a), cell dry weight, and cell volume were measured over a range of growth rates in N-limited chemostat cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa MASH 01-A19. There was a positive linear relationship between QMCYST and specific growth rate (μ), from which we propose a generalized model that enables QMCYST at any nutrient-limited growth rate to be predicted based on a single batch culture experiment. The model predicts QMCYST from μ, μmax (maximum specific growth rate), QMCYSTmax (maximum cell quota), and QMCYSTmin (minimum cell quota). Under the conditions examined in this study, we predict a QMCYSTmax of 0.129 fmol cell−1 at μmax and a QMCYSTmin of 0.050 fmol cell−1 at μ = 0. Net MCYST production rate (RMCYST) asymptotes to zero at μ = 0 and reaches a maximum of 0.155 fmol cell−1 day−1 at μmax. MCYST/dry weight ratio (milligrams per gram [dry weight]) increased linearly with μ, whereas the MCYST/protein ratio reached a maximum at intermediate μ. In contrast, the MCYST/Chl a ratio remained constant. Cell volume correlated negatively with μ, leading to an increase in intracellular MCYST concentration at high μ. Taken together, our results show that fast-growing cells of N-limited M. aeruginosa are smaller, are of lower mass, and have a higher intracellular MCYST quota and concentration than slow-growing cells. The data also highlight the importance of determining cell MCYST quotas, as potentially confusing interpretations can arise from determining MCYST content as a ratio to other cell components. PMID:11133456

  10. Predicting Supervisor, Peer, and Self Ratings of Intern Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel-Flom, Penelope

    1975-01-01

    Relationships between the ratings of interns by their supervisors, their peers, and the interns themselves on four dimensions are compared and analyzed in relationship to earlier measures of aptitude, achievement, and personality. Findings reported show supervisor ratings to be highest and admission variables to be unrelated to intern performance.…

  11. Background Factors Predicting Teacher Ratings of Children's School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye

    This study examined background factors in children that influence teachers' ratings on the Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale (CARS). Sixteen classrooms in five schools were selected to include a range of socio-economic and cultural groupings from Inner London, England Primary Schools. Teachers used the CARS and an additional short scale of overall…

  12. A Study of the Predictability of School District Bond Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedra, Kenneth David

    School district bond ratings, issued on request by Standard and Poor's Corporation or Moody's Investors Service, hold implications for school districts' financial management. Ultimately, the bond rating assigned is a factor affecting the total cost of the bond issuance, related to the principal and interest payments over the life of the debt. A…

  13. Predicted slowdown in the rate of Atlantic sea ice loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, Stephen G.; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate models initialized from historical climate states and subject to anthropogenic forcings can produce skillful decadal predictions of sea surface temperature change in the subpolar North Atlantic. The skill derives largely from initialization, which improves the representation of slow changes in ocean circulation and associated poleward heat transport. We show that skillful predictions of decadal trends in Arctic winter sea ice extent are also possible, particularly in the Atlantic sector. External radiative forcing contributes to the skill of retrospective decadal sea ice predictions, but the spatial and temporal accuracy is greatly enhanced by the more realistic representation of ocean heat transport anomalies afforded by initialization. Recent forecasts indicate that a spin-down of the thermohaline circulation that began near the turn of the century will continue, and this will result in near-neutral decadal trends in Atlantic winter sea ice extent in the coming years, with decadal growth in select regions.

  14. Data Collection Ratings and Best Prediction of Lactation Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best prediction (BP) has been used in the US to calculate lactation yields of milk, fat, protein, and somatic cell score (SCS) from test day data since 1998, when it replaced the test interval method (TIM) used since 1969. It is more complex than TIM but also more accurate, particularly when testing...

  15. Improved Prediction of Atmospheric Heating and Cooling Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Kinne, S.; Toon, O. B.

    1991-01-01

    The demands of accurate predictions of radiative transfer for climate applications are well-documented. While much effort is being devoted to evaluating the accuracy of the GCM radiative transfer schemes, the problem of developing accurate, computationally efficient schemes for climate models still remains. This paper discusses our efforts in developing accurate and fast computational methods for global and regional climate models.

  16. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  17. Predicting NonInertial Effects with Algebraic Stress Models which Account for Dissipation Rate Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongen, T.; Machiels, L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of turbulence models which account for rotational effects in noninertial frames of reference are evaluated for the case of incompressible, fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow. The different types of models are a Coriolis-modified eddy-viscosity model, a realizable algebraic stress model, and an algebraic stress model which accounts for dissipation rate anisotropies. A direct numerical simulation of a rotating channel flow is used for the turbulent model validation. This simulation differs from previous studies in that significantly higher rotation numbers are investigated. Flows at these higher rotation numbers are characterized by a relaminarization on the cyclonic or suction side of the channel, and a linear velocity profile on the anticyclonic or pressure side of the channel. The predictive performance of the three types of models are examined in detail, and formulation deficiencies are identified which cause poor predictive performance for some of the models. Criteria are identified which allow for accurate prediction of such flows by algebraic stress models and their corresponding Reynolds stress formulations.

  18. Morbidity Rate Prediction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Using the Support Vector Machine and the Aedes aegypti Infection Rate in Similar Climates and Geographical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kesorn, Kraisak; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phumee, Atchara; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, several researchers have proposed highly accurate prediction models that have typically relied on climate parameters. However, climate factors can be unreliable and can lower the effectiveness of prediction when they are applied in locations where climate factors do not differ significantly. The purpose of this study was to improve a dengue surveillance system in areas with similar climate by exploiting the infection rate in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and using the support vector machine (SVM) technique for forecasting the dengue morbidity rate. Methods and Findings Areas with high incidence of dengue outbreaks in central Thailand were studied. The proposed framework consisted of the following three major parts: 1) data integration, 2) model construction, and 3) model evaluation. We discovered that the Ae. aegypti female and larvae mosquito infection rates were significantly positively associated with the morbidity rate. Thus, the increasing infection rate of female mosquitoes and larvae led to a higher number of dengue cases, and the prediction performance increased when those predictors were integrated into a predictive model. In this research, we applied the SVM with the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to forecast the high morbidity rate and take precautions to prevent the development of pervasive dengue epidemics. The experimental results showed that the introduced parameters significantly increased the prediction accuracy to 88.37% when used on the test set data, and these parameters led to the highest performance compared to state-of-the-art forecasting models. Conclusions The infection rates of the Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes and larvae improved the morbidity rate forecasting efficiency better than the climate parameters used in classical frameworks. We demonstrated that the SVM-R-based model has high generalization performance and obtained the highest prediction performance compared to classical models as measured by

  19. The Utility of Thin Slice Ratings for Predicting Language Growth in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2016-01-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5?min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and…

  20. Stagnation-point heat-transfer rate predictions at aeroassist flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Jones, Jim J.; Rochelle, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented for the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates used in the design process of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle over its entire aeropass trajectory. The prediction methods used in this investigation demonstrate the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to a wide range of flight conditions and their usefulness in a design process. The heating rates were computed by a viscous-shock-layer (VSL) code at the lower altitudes and by a Navier-Stokes (N-S) code for the higher altitude cases. For both methods, finite-rate chemically reacting gas was considered, and a temperature-dependent wall-catalysis model was used. The wall temperature for each case was assumed to be radiative equilibrium temperature, based on total heating. The radiative heating was estimated by using a correlation equation. Wall slip was included in the N-S calculation method, and this method implicitly accounts for shock slip. The N-S/VSL combination of projection methods was established by comparison with the published benchmark flow-field code LAURA results at lower altitudes, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo results at higher altitude cases. To obtain the design heating rate over the entire forward face of the vehicle, a boundary-layer method (BLIMP code) that employs reacting chemistry and surface catalysis was used. The ratio of the VSL or N-S method prediction to that obtained from the boundary-layer method code at the stagnation point is used to define an adjustment factor, which accounts for the errors involved in using the boundary-layer method.

  1. Predicting aeolian sand transport rates: A reevaluation of models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Douglas J.; Li, Bailiang

    2012-01-01

    Eight aeolian sand-transport models are evaluated using a field data set and a new approach to estimating shear velocity. The models are those of Bagnold (1937), Kawamura (1951), Zingg (1953), Owen (1964), Kadib (1965), Hsu (1971), Lettau and Lettau (1978) and Sørensen (2004). All of these models predict transport as a function of shear velocity to the third power. Shear velocities are estimated using wind profile data (log-linear slope) with the von Kármán constant and with the apparent von Kármán parameter and the results of the different approaches are evaluated based on comparison of regression statistics and RMS error. The models were not adjusted to account for sediment moisture content or local surface slope effects. All of the models have about the same statistical explanatory power, so evaluations were made by comparing slopes and intercepts of best fit (least-squares) lines and RMSE. From this basis, we conclude that predictions made with the Bagnold (1937) model best match our observations, with the models of Kadib (1965) and Hsu (1971) performing nearly as well. The Lettau and Lettau (1978) and Kawamura (1951) model predictions match observations least.

  2. What Factors Predict Student Self-Rated Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance J.; Adlaf, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Data from a randomly selected sample of 840 Ontario students were used to examine factors that affect self-rated physical health. Analyses focused on demographics, family structure, financial situation, child-parent relationship, school achievement, self-esteem, alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as factors which directly and indirectly influence…

  3. Predicting the College Attendance Rate of Graduating High School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    An important element of school counseling is providing assessments on the collective future needs and activities of a graduating school class. The College Attendance Rate (CAR) is defined here as the proportion of seniors graduating from a given high school, during a given year, that will enroll full-time at an academic college sometime during the…

  4. MERGERS IN {Lambda}CDM: UNCERTAINTIES IN THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF THE MERGER RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Bundy, Kevin; Wetzel, Andrew; Ma, Chung-Pei; Croton, Darren; Khochfar, Sadegh; Hernquist, Lars; Genel, Shy; Van den Bosch, Frank; Somerville, Rachel S.; Keres, Dusan; Stewart, Kyle; Younger, Joshua D.

    2010-12-01

    Different theoretical methodologies lead to order-of-magnitude variations in predicted galaxy-galaxy merger rates. We examine how this arises and quantify the dominant uncertainties. Modeling of dark matter and galaxy inspiral/merger times contribute factor of {approx}2 uncertainties. Different estimates of the halo-halo merger rate, the subhalo 'destruction' rate, and the halo merger rate with some dynamical friction time delay for galaxy-galaxy mergers, agree to within this factor of {approx}2, provided proper care is taken to define mergers consistently. There are some caveats: if halo/subhalo masses are not appropriately defined the major-merger rate can be dramatically suppressed, and in models with 'orphan' galaxies and under-resolved subhalos the merger timescale can be severely over-estimated. The dominant differences in galaxy-galaxy merger rates between models owe to the treatment of the baryonic physics. Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations without strong feedback and some older semi-analytic models (SAMs), with known discrepancies in mass functions, can be biased by large factors ({approx}5) in predicted merger rates. However, provided that models yield a reasonable match to the total galaxy mass function, the differences in properties of central galaxies are sufficiently small to alone contribute small (factor of {approx}1.5) additional systematics to merger rate predictions. But variations in the baryonic physics of satellite galaxies in models can also have a dramatic effect on merger rates. The well-known problem of satellite 'over-quenching' in most current SAMs-whereby SAM satellite populations are too efficiently stripped of their gas-could lead to order-of-magnitude under-estimates of merger rates for low-mass, gas-rich galaxies. Models in which the masses of satellites are fixed by observations (or SAMs adjusted to resolve this 'over-quenching') tend to predict higher merger rates, but with factor of {approx}2 uncertainties stemming from the

  5. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies. PMID:27467860

  6. Culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness predicts higher or lower well-being.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Dmitrieva, Julia O; Heller, Daniel; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Grossmann, Igor; Tamir, Maya; Uchida, Yukiko; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Floerke, Victoria A; Uhrig, Meike; Bokhan, Tatiana; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-12-01

    Pursuing happiness can paradoxically impair well-being. Here, the authors propose the potential downsides to pursuing happiness may be specific to individualistic cultures. In collectivistic (vs. individualistic) cultures, pursuing happiness may be more successful because happiness is viewed--and thus pursued--in relatively socially engaged ways. In 4 geographical regions that vary in level of collectivism (United States, Germany, Russia, East Asia), we assessed participants' well-being, motivation to pursue happiness, and to what extent they pursued happiness in socially engaged ways. Motivation to pursue happiness predicted lower well-being in the United States, did not predict well-being in Germany, and predicted higher well-being in Russia and in East Asia. These cultural differences in the link between motivation to pursue happiness and well-being were explained by cultural differences in the socially engaged pursuit of happiness. These findings suggest that culture shapes whether the pursuit of happiness is linked with better or worse well-being, perhaps via how people pursue happiness. PMID:26347945

  7. Augmenting data rate performance for higher order modulation in triangular index profile multicore fiber interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.

  8. Predictive Potential of Heart Rate Complexity Measurement: An Indication for Laparotomy Following Solid Organ Injury

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Ali; Paydar, Shahram; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Erjaee, Gholamhussian; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Nowroozi, Abbas; Moslemi, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been recently used as a predictor of prognosis in trauma patients. Objectives: We applied nonlinear analysis of HRV in patients with blunt trauma and intraperitoneal bleeding to assess our ability to predict the outcome of conservative management. Patients and Methods: An analysis of electrocardiography (ECG) from 120 patients with blunt trauma was conducted at the onset of admission to the emergency department. ECGs of 65 patients were excluded due to inadequacy of noise-free length. Of the remaining 55 patients, 47 survived (S group) and eight patients died in the hospital (Non-S group). Nineteen patients were found to have intra-abdominal bleeding, eight of which ultimately underwent laparotomy to control bleeding (Op group) and 11 underwent successful non-operative management (non-Op). Demographic data including vital signs, glasgow coma scale (GCS), arterial blood gas and injury severity scores (ISS) were recorded. Heart rate complexity (HRC) methods, including entropy, were used to analyze the ECG. Results: There were no differences in age, gender, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure between the S and Non-S groups. However, approximate entropy, used as a method of HRC measurement, and GCS were significantly higher in S group, compared to the Non-S group. The base deficit and ISS were significantly higher in the Non-S group. Regarding age, sex, ISS, base deficit, vital signs and GCS, no difference was found between Op and Non-Op groups. Approximate entropy was significantly lower in the Op group, compared to the Non-Op group. Conclusions: The loss of HRC at the onset of admission may predict mortality in patients with blunt trauma. Lower entropy, in recently admitted patients with intra-abdominal bleeding, may indicate laparotomy when the vital signs are stable. PMID:26839850

  9. Individuals with higher metabolic rates have lower levels of reactive oxygen species in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K; Rudolf, Agata M; Anderson, Graeme J; Cairns, Andrew G; Mullen, William; Hartley, Richard C; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the effect of energy metabolism on oxidative stress, but much ambiguity over the relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS (such as hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) in the mitochondria is primarily inferred indirectly from measurements in vitro, which may not reflect actual ROS production in living animals. Here, we measured in vivo H2O2 content using the recently developed MitoB probe that becomes concentrated in the mitochondria of living organisms, where it is converted by H2O2 into an alternative form termed MitoP; the ratio of MitoP/MitoB indicates the level of mitochondrial H2O2 in vivo. Using the brown trout Salmo trutta, we tested whether this measurement of in vivo H2O2 content over a 24 h-period was related to interindividual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR). We showed that the H2O2 content varied up to 26-fold among fish of the same age and under identical environmental conditions and nutritional states. Interindividual variation in H2O2 content was unrelated to mitochondrial density but was significantly associated with SMR: fish with a higher mass-independent SMR had a lower level of H2O2. The mechanism underlying this observed relationship between SMR and in vivo H2O2 content requires further investigation, but may implicate mitochondrial uncoupling which can simultaneously increase SMR but reduce ROS production. To our knowledge, this is the first study in living organisms to show that individuals with higher oxygen consumption rates can actually have lower levels of H2O2. PMID:26382073

  10. Individuals with higher metabolic rates have lower levels of reactive oxygen species in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rudolf, Agata M.; Anderson, Graeme J.; Cairns, Andrew G.; Mullen, William; Hartley, Richard C.; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the effect of energy metabolism on oxidative stress, but much ambiguity over the relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS (such as hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) in the mitochondria is primarily inferred indirectly from measurements in vitro, which may not reflect actual ROS production in living animals. Here, we measured in vivo H2O2 content using the recently developed MitoB probe that becomes concentrated in the mitochondria of living organisms, where it is converted by H2O2 into an alternative form termed MitoP; the ratio of MitoP/MitoB indicates the level of mitochondrial H2O2 in vivo. Using the brown trout Salmo trutta, we tested whether this measurement of in vivo H2O2 content over a 24 h-period was related to interindividual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR). We showed that the H2O2 content varied up to 26-fold among fish of the same age and under identical environmental conditions and nutritional states. Interindividual variation in H2O2 content was unrelated to mitochondrial density but was significantly associated with SMR: fish with a higher mass-independent SMR had a lower level of H2O2. The mechanism underlying this observed relationship between SMR and in vivo H2O2 content requires further investigation, but may implicate mitochondrial uncoupling which can simultaneously increase SMR but reduce ROS production. To our knowledge, this is the first study in living organisms to show that individuals with higher oxygen consumption rates can actually have lower levels of H2O2. PMID:26382073

  11. Predicting Fruit Fly's Sensing Rate From Insect Flight Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jane; Chang, Song

    2013-11-01

    Without sensory feedbacks, flies cannot fly. Exactly how sensory feedback controls work in flying insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure in order to stabilize their flight? What kinds of neural computations and muscle activities are involved in order to correct their flight course or to turn? How often and how fast do animals adjust their wings to remain stable? To understand the algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we have developed a simulation tool to study flapping flight, where motions of the insect body and wings are coupled instantaneously. To stabilize the flight in the simulation, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds both on the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting these findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we give a sharper bound on the sensing rate and further reason that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing-beat in order to stabilize their flight.

  12. Higher-order QCD predictions for dark matter production at the LHC in simplified models with s-channel mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backović, Mihailo; Krämer, Michael; Maltoni, Fabio; Martini, Antony; Mawatari, Kentarou; Pellen, Mathieu

    2015-10-01

    Weakly interacting dark matter particles can be pair-produced at colliders and detected through signatures featuring missing energy in association with either QCD/EW radiation or heavy quarks. In order to constrain the mass and the couplings to standard model particles, accurate and precise predictions for production cross sections and distributions are of prime importance. In this work, we consider various simplified models with s-channel mediators. We implement such models in the FeynRules/ MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework, which allows to include higher-order QCD corrections in realistic simulations and to study their effect systematically. As a first phenomenological application, we present predictions for dark matter production in association with jets and with a top-quark pair at the LHC, at next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD, including matching/merging to parton showers. Our study shows that higher-order QCD corrections to dark matter production via s-channel mediators have a significant impact not only on total production rates, but also on shapes of distributions. We also show that the inclusion of next-to-leading order effects results in a sizeable reduction of the theoretical uncertainties.

  13. A polymorphism in the VKORC1-regulator calumenin predicts higher warfarin doses in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Voora, D; Koboldt, DC; King, CR; Lenzini, PA; Eby, CS; Porche-Sorbet, R; Deych, E; Crankshaw, M; Milligan, PE; McLeod, HL; Patel, SR; Cavallari, LH; Ridker, PM; Grice, GR; Miller, RD; Gage, BF

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin demonstrates wide interindividual variability that is partly mediated by variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. Whether variants in CALU (vitamin K reductase regulator) influence warfarin dose is unknown. Methods and Results We resequenced CALU regions in a discovery cohort of dose-outliers: patients with high(>90th percentile, n=55) or low(<10th percentile, n=53) dose requirements(after accounting for known genetic and nongenetic variables). One CALU variant, rs339097, was associated with high-doses(p=0.01). We validated this variant as a predictor of higher warfarin doses in two replication cohorts: 1)496 patients of mixed ethnicity, 2)194 African-American patients. The G allele of rs339097(African-American and Caucasian allele frequency 0.14 and 0.002, respectively), was associated with a 14.5%(SD±7%) greater therapeutic dose(p=0.03) in the first replication cohort and a higher than predicted dose in the second replication cohort(allele frequency=0.14, one-sided p=0.03). Conclusions CALU rs339097 A>G is associated with higher warfarin dose requirements independent of known genetic and nongenetic predictors of warfarin dose in African-Americans. PMID:20200517

  14. Predicting terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological and soil information: case study of Perak state, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramli, A T; Apriantoro, N H; Heryansyah, A; Basri, N A; Sanusi, M S M; Abu Hanifah, N Z H

    2016-03-01

    An extensive terrestrial gamma radiation dose (TGRD) rate survey has been conducted in Perak State, Peninsular Malaysia. The survey has been carried out taking into account geological and soil information, involving 2930 in situ surveys. Based on geological and soil information collected during TGRD rate measurements, TGRD rates have been predicted in Perak State using a statistical regression analysis which would be helpful to focus surveys in areas that are difficult to access. An equation was formulated according to a linear relationship between TGRD rates, geological contexts and soil types. The comparison of in situ measurements and predicted TGRD dose rates was tabulated and showed good agreement with the linear regression equation. The TGRD rates in the study area ranged from 38 nGy h(-1) to 1039 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 224  ±  138 nGy h(-1). This value is higher than the world average as reported in UNSCEAR 2000. The TGRD rates contribute an average dose rate of 1.37 mSv per year. An isodose map for the study area was developed using a Kriging method based on predicted and in situ TGRD rate values. PMID:26583298

  15. Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR) Dose Predicts Insulin Independence in Clinical Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Papas, Klearchos K.; Bellin, Melena D.; Sutherland, David E. R.; Suszynski, Thomas M.; Kitzmann, Jennifer P.; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S.; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Mueller, Kathryn R.; Beilman, Gregory J.; Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Colton, Clark K.; Koulmanda, Maria; Weir, Gordon C.; Wilhelm, Josh J.; Qian, Dajun; Niland, Joyce C.; Hering, Bernhard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reliable in vitro islet quality assessment assays that can be performed routinely, prospectively, and are able to predict clinical transplant outcomes are needed. In this paper we present data on the utility of an assay based on cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in predicting clinical islet autotransplant (IAT) insulin independence (II). IAT is an attractive model for evaluating characterization assays regarding their utility in predicting II due to an absence of confounding factors such as immune rejection and immunosuppressant toxicity. Methods Membrane integrity staining (FDA/PI), OCR normalized to DNA (OCR/DNA), islet equivalent (IE) and OCR (viable IE) normalized to recipient body weight (IE dose and OCR dose), and OCR/DNA normalized to islet size index (ISI) were used to characterize autoislet preparations (n = 35). Correlation between pre-IAT islet product characteristics and II was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Preparations that resulted in II had significantly higher OCR dose and IE dose (p<0.001). These islet characterization methods were highly correlated with II at 6–12 months post-IAT (area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.94 for IE dose and 0.96 for OCR dose). FDA/PI (AUC = 0.49) and OCR/DNA (AUC = 0.58) did not correlate with II. OCR/DNA/ISI may have some utility in predicting outcome (AUC = 0.72). Conclusions Commonly used assays to determine whether a clinical islet preparation is of high quality prior to transplantation are greatly lacking in sensitivity and specificity. While IE dose is highly predictive, it does not take into account islet cell quality. OCR dose, which takes into consideration both islet cell quality and quantity, may enable a more accurate and prospective evaluation of clinical islet preparations. PMID:26258815

  16. From Plants to Birds: Higher Avian Predation Rates in Trees Responding to Insect Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Mäntylä, Elina; Alessio, Giorgio A.; Blande, James D.; Heijari, Juha; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Laaksonen, Toni; Piirtola, Panu; Klemola, Tero

    2008-01-01

    Background An understanding of the evolution of potential signals from plants to the predators of their herbivores may provide exciting examples of co-evolution among multiple trophic levels. Understanding the mechanism behind the attraction of predators to plants is crucial to conclusions about co-evolution. For example, insectivorous birds are attracted to herbivore-damaged trees without seeing the herbivores or the defoliated parts, but it is not known whether birds use cues from herbivore-damaged plants with a specific adaptation of plants for this purpose. Methodology We examined whether signals from damaged trees attract avian predators in the wild and whether birds could use volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions or net photosynthesis of leaves as cues to detect herbivore-rich trees. We conducted a field experiment with mountain birches (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), their main herbivore (Epirrita autumnata) and insectivorous birds. Half of the trees had herbivore larvae defoliating trees hidden inside branch bags and half had empty bags as controls. We measured predation rate of birds towards artificial larvae on tree branches, and VOC emissions and net photosynthesis of leaves. Principal Findings and Significance The predation rate was higher in the herbivore trees than in the control trees. This confirms that birds use cues from trees to locate insect-rich trees in the wild. The herbivore trees had decreased photosynthesis and elevated emissions of many VOCs, which suggests that birds could use either one, or both, as cues. There was, however, large variation in how the VOC emission correlated with predation rate. Emissions of (E)-DMNT [(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene], β-ocimene and linalool were positively correlated with predation rate, while those of highly inducible green leaf volatiles were not. These three VOCs are also involved in the attraction of insect parasitoids and predatory mites to herbivore-damaged plants, which suggests that

  17. Low-Fidelity Polymerases of Alphaviruses Recombine at Higher Rates To Overproduce Defective Interfering Particles

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mounce, Bryan C.; Rozen-Gagnon, Kathryn; Hooikaas, Peter Jan; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Moratorio, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low-fidelity RNA-dependent RNA polymerases for many RNA virus mutators have been shown to confer attenuated phenotypes, presumably due to increased mutation rates. Additionally, for many RNA viruses, replication to high titers results in the production of defective interfering particles (DIs) that also attenuate infection. We hypothesized that fidelity, recombination, and DI production are tightly linked. We show that a Sindbis virus mutator replicating at a high multiplicity of infection manifests an earlier and greater accumulation of DIs than its wild-type counterpart. The isolated DIs interfere with the replication of full-length virus in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the ability of the mutator virus to overproduce DIs could be linked to an increased recombination frequency. These data confirm that RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity and recombination are inversely correlated for this mutator. Our findings suggest that defective interference resulting from higher recombination rates may be more detrimental to RNA virus mutators than the increase in mutational burden. IMPORTANCE Replication, adaptation, and evolution of RNA viruses rely in large part on their low-fidelity RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Viruses artificially modified in their polymerases to decrease fidelity (mutator viruses) are attenuated in vivo, demonstrating the important role of fidelity in viral fitness. However, attenuation was attributed solely to the modification of the viral mutation rate and the accumulation of detrimental point mutations. In this work, we described an additional phenotype of mutator viruses: an increased recombination rate leading to defective interfering particle (DI) overproduction. Because DIs are known for their inhibitory effect on viral replication, our work suggests that fidelity variants may be attenuated in vivo via several mechanisms. This has important implications in the development of fidelity variants as live attenuated vaccine strains

  18. Prediction of reaeration rates in square, stirred tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.R.

    1999-03-01

    In the biological treatment of wastewaters, aeration is an important process employed to raise the dissolved oxygen (DO) level to allow aerobic bacteria to reduce biochemical oxygen demand of the effluent and thus to improve the water quality. Experiments were conducted on the oxygen transfer coefficient, k{sub L}a{sub 20}, through surface aeration in geometrically similar square tanks, with a rotor of diameter D fitted with six flat blades. An optimal geometric similarity of various linear dimensions, which produced maximum k{sub L}a{sub 20} for any rotational speed of rotor N by an earlier study, was maintained. A simulation equation uniquely correlating k = k{sub L}a{sub 20}({nu}/g{sup 2}){sup 1/3} ({nu} and g are kinematic viscosity of water and gravitational constant, respectively), and a parameter governing the theoretical power per unit volume, X = N{sup 3}D{sup 2}/(g{sup 4/3}{nu}{sup 1/3}), is developed. Such a simulation equation can be used to predict maximum k for any N in any size of such geometrically similar square tanks. An example illustrating the application of results is presented. Also, it has been established that neither the Reynolds criterion nor the Froude criterion is singularly valid to simulate either k or K = k{sub L}a{sub 20}/N, simultaneously in all the sizes of tanks, even though they re geometrically similar. Occurrence of scale effects due to the Reynolds and the Froude laws of similitude on both k and K are also evaluated.

  19. Predicted Rupture Force of a Single Molecular Bond Becomes Rate Independent at Ultralow Loading Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua

    2014-02-01

    We present for the first time a theoretical model of studying the saturation of the rupture force of a single molecular bond that causes the rupture force to be rate independent under an ultralow loading rate. This saturation will obviously bring challenges to understanding the rupture behavior of the molecular bond using conventional methods. This intriguing feature implies that the molecular bond has a nonzero strength at a vanishing loading rate. We find that the saturation behavior is caused by bond rebinding when the loading rate is lower than a limiting value depending on the loading stiffness.

  20. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-01

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers. PMID:25049376

  1. Heart rate variability predicts the emotional state in dogs.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Maki; Kubo, Takatomi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Kazushi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-07-01

    Although it is known that heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful indicator of emotional states in animals, there are few reports of research in dogs. Thus, we investigated the relationship between HRV and emotional states in dogs. The electrocardiogram and behavior in two situations that elicited a positive and negative emotion, in addition to baseline (when dogs were not presented any social stimuli), were recorded in 33 healthy house dogs. After testing, we chose 15seconds from each situation and baseline and calculated three HRV parameters: standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (RMSSD), and mean R-R intervals (mean RRI). In comparing these parameters with baseline, only SDNN was lower in a positive situation. In contrast, only RMSSD was lower in a negative situation. A change in HRV occurred with a stimulus eliciting emotion, and was able to distinguish between positive and negative situations. Thus, HRV is useful for estimating the emotional state in dogs. PMID:27129806

  2. Resting high frequency heart rate variability selectively predicts cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Beffara, Brice; Bret, Amélie G; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial

    2016-10-01

    This study explores whether the vagal connection between the heart and the brain is involved in prosocial behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory postulates that vagal activity underlies prosocial tendencies. Even if several results suggest that vagal activity is associated with prosocial behaviors, none of them used behavioral measures of prosociality to establish this relationship. We recorded the resting state vagal activity (reflected by High Frequency Heart Rate Variability, HF-HRV) of 48 (42 suitale for analysis) healthy human adults and measured their level of cooperation during a hawk-dove game. We also manipulated the consequence of mutual defection in the hawk-dove game (severe vs. moderate). Results show that HF-HRV is positively and linearly related to cooperation level, but only when the consequence of mutual defection is severe (compared to moderate). This supports that i) prosocial behaviors are likely to be underpinned by vagal functioning ii) physiological disposition to cooperate interacts with environmental context. We discuss these results within the theoretical framework of the Polyvagal Theory. PMID:27343804

  3. Climatological observations and predicted sublimation rates at Lake Hoare, Antarctica.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, G.D.; McKay, C.P.; Simmons, G.M., Jr.; Wharton, R.A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In December 1985, an automated meteorological station was established at Lake Hoare in the dry valley region of Antarctica. Here, we report on the first year-round observations available for any site in Taylor Valley. This dataset augments the year-round data obtained at Lake Vanda (Wright Valley) by winter-over crews during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The mean annual solar flux at Lake Hoare was 92 W m-2 during 1986, the mean air temperature -17.3 degrees C, and the mean 3-m wind speed 3.3 m s-1. The local climate is controlled by the wind regime during the 4-month sunless winter and by seasonal and diurnal variations in the incident solar flux during the remainder of the year. Temperature increases of 20 degrees-30 degrees C are frequently observed during the winter due to strong fo??hn winds descending from the Polar Plateau. A model incorporating nonsteady molecular diffusion into Kolmogorov-scale eddies in the interfacial layer and similarity-theory flux-profiles in the surface sublayer, is used to determine the rate of ice sublimation from the acquired meteorological data. Despite the frequent occurrence of strong winter fo??hns, the bulk of the annual ablation occurs during the summer due to elevated temperatures and persistent moderate winds. The annual ablation from Lake Hoare is estimated to have been 35.0 +/- 6.3 cm for 1986.

  4. Higher-order Lie symmetries in identifiability and predictability analysis of dynamic models.

    PubMed

    Merkt, Benjamin; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations (ODEs) has manifold applications not only in physics but also in the life sciences. When estimating the ODE parameters from experimentally observed data, the modeler is frequently concerned with the question of parameter identifiability. The source of parameter nonidentifiability is tightly related to Lie group symmetries. In the present work, we establish a direct search algorithm for the determination of admitted Lie group symmetries. We clarify the relationship between admitted symmetries and parameter nonidentifiability. The proposed algorithm is applied to illustrative toy models as well as a data-based ODE model of the NFκB signaling pathway. We find that besides translations and scaling transformations also higher-order transformations play a role. Enabled by the knowledge about the explicit underlying symmetry transformations, we show how models with nonidentifiable parameters can still be employed to make reliable predictions. PMID:26274260

  5. Higher-order Lie symmetries in identifiability and predictability analysis of dynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, Benjamin; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations (ODEs) has manifold applications not only in physics but also in the life sciences. When estimating the ODE parameters from experimentally observed data, the modeler is frequently concerned with the question of parameter identifiability. The source of parameter nonidentifiability is tightly related to Lie group symmetries. In the present work, we establish a direct search algorithm for the determination of admitted Lie group symmetries. We clarify the relationship between admitted symmetries and parameter nonidentifiability. The proposed algorithm is applied to illustrative toy models as well as a data-based ODE model of the NFκ B signaling pathway. We find that besides translations and scaling transformations also higher-order transformations play a role. Enabled by the knowledge about the explicit underlying symmetry transformations, we show how models with nonidentifiable parameters can still be employed to make reliable predictions.

  6. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  7. Higher order QCD predictions for associated Higgs production with anomalous couplings to gauge bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Verónica; Williams, Ciaran

    2016-08-01

    We present predictions for the associated production of a Higgs boson at NLO+PS accuracy, including the effect of anomalous interactions between the Higgs and gauge bosons. We present our results in different frameworks, one in which the interaction vertex between the Higgs boson and Standard Model W and Z bosons is parameterized in terms of general Lorentz structures, and one in which Electroweak symmetry breaking is manifestly linear and the resulting operators arise through a six-dimensional effective field theory framework. We present analytic calculations of the Standard Model and Beyond the Standard Model contributions, and discuss the phenomenological impact of the higher order pieces. Our results are implemented in the NLO Monte Carlo program MCFM, and interfaced to shower Monte Carlos through the Powheg box framework.

  8. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  9. Predicting secondary organic aerosol formation rates in southeast Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Matthew; Allen, David T.

    2005-04-01

    Rates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, due to the reactions of aromatics and monoterpenes, were estimated for southeast Texas by incorporating a modified version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center's chemical mechanism (SAPRC99) into the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx version 3.10). The model included explicit representation of the reactions of five SOA precursors (α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, d-limonene, and Δ3-carene). Reactions of each SOA precursor with O3, OH radical, and NO3 radical were included. The model also included separate reactions for low- and high-SOA-yield aromatic groups with the OH radical. SOA yields in the mechanisms were estimated using compound-specific yield information (ΔSOA/ΔHC) derived from smog chamber experiments conducted by J. R. Odum and colleagues and R. J. Griffin and colleagues. The form of the SOA yield model was based on the work of J. R. Odum and colleagues and is a function of existing organic aerosol concentrations. Existing organic aerosol concentrations were estimated on the basis of ambient measurements of total organic carbon in southeast Texas. The reactions of monoterpenes (predominantly α-pinene and β-pinene) with ozone led to the most regional SOA formation, followed by monoterpenes with the nitrate radical. Aromatic-OH reactions led to less regional SOA formation compared to monoterpenes; however, this formation occurs close to the urban and industrial areas of Houston. In contrast, SOA formation due to the reactions of monoterpenes occurred in the forested areas north of the urban area. The results of this study are in qualitative agreement with estimates of SOA formation based on ambient data from the same time period.

  10. Strategies Associated with Higher Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Screening Rates for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jean Y.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Conrey, Elizabeth J.; Rodgers, Loren E.; Shellhaas, Cynthia; Farr, Sherry L.; Robbins, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus do not receive a postpartum screening test for type 2 diabetes, even though they are at increased risk. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with high rates of postpartum glucose screening. Methods This cross-sectional analysis assessed characteristics associated with postpartum diabetes screening for patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-affected pregnancies self-reported by randomly sampled licensed obstetricians/gynecologists (OBs/GYNs) in Ohio in 2010. Results Responses were received from 306 OBs/GYNs (56.5% response rate), among whom 69.9% reported frequently (always/most of the time) screening women with GDM-affected pregnancies for abnormal glucose tolerance at the postpartum visit. Compared to infrequent screeners, OBs/GYNs who frequently screen for postpartum glucose tolerance were statistically (p < 0.05) more likely to have a clinical protocol addressing postpartum testing (67.2% vs. 26.7%), an electronic reminder system for providers (10.8% vs. 2.2%) and provide reminders to patients (16.4% vs. 4.4%). Frequent screeners were more likely to use recommended fasting blood glucose or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (61.8% vs. 34.6%, p < 0.001) than infrequent screeners. Conclusions Strategies associated with higher postpartum glucose screening for GDM patients included clinical protocols for postpartum testing, electronic medical records to alert providers of the need for testing, and reminders to patients. PMID:23789581

  11. College Going Rates: A Performance Measure in California's Higher Education Accountability Framework. Commission Report 07-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As part of its work in developing an accountability framework for higher education, the Commission conducted an analysis of college-going rates in California. This analysis showed that: (1) California has serious inequities in access to higher education. College-going rates vary greatly depending on students' ethnicity, gender, and the type of…

  12. Prediction of Human Glomerular Filtration Rate from Preterm Neonates to Adults: Evaluation of Predictive Performance of Several Empirical Models.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Staschen, Carl-Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of several allometric empirical models (body weight dependent, age dependent, fixed exponent 0.75, a data-dependent single exponent, and maturation models) to predict glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in preterm and term neonates, infants, children, and adults without any renal disease. In this analysis, the models were developed from GFR data obtained from inulin clearance (preterm neonates to adults; n = 93) and the predictive performance of these models were evaluated in 335 subjects (preterm neonates to adults). The primary end point was the prediction of GFR from the empirical allometric models and the comparison of the predicted GFR with measured GFR. A prediction error within ±30% was considered acceptable. Overall, the predictive performance of the four models (BDE, ADE, and two maturation models) for the prediction of mean GFR was good across all age groups but the prediction of GFR in individual healthy subjects especially in neonates and infants was erratic and may be clinically unacceptable. PMID:26801317

  13. Predicting METs from the heart rate index in persons with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Rossow, Lindy M; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fahs, Christopher A; Motl, Robert W; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have altered heart rate modulation and very low aerobic fitness. These attributes may impact the relationship between metabolic equivalent units (METs) and the heart rate index (HRindex-the ratio between heart rate during activity and resting heart rate), thereby altering the HRindex thresholds for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. This study examined whether the relationship between METs and HRindex differs between persons with and without DS and attempted to develop thresholds for activity intensity based on the HRindex for persons with DS. METs were measured with portable spirometry and heart rate with a monitor in 18 persons with DS (25 ± 7 years; 10 women) and 18 persons without DS (26 ± 5 years; 10 women) during 6 over-ground walking trials, each lasting 6min, at the preferred walking speed and at 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5m/s. The relationship between METs and HRindex in the two groups was analyzed with multi-level modeling with random intercepts and slopes. Group, HRindex, and the square of HRindex were significant predictors of METs (p<0.001; R(2)=0.65). Absolute percent error did not differ significantly between groups across speeds (DS: 19.6 ± 14.4%; non-DS: 21.0 ± 14.5%). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated somewhat greater variability in the difference between actual and predicted METs in participants with than without DS. The HRindex threshold for moderate-intensity activity was 1.32 and 1.20 for persons with and without DS, respectively. The HRindex threshold for vigorous-intensity activity was 1.80 and 1.65 for persons with and without DS, respectively. Persons with DS have an altered relationship between METs and HRindex and higher HRindex thresholds for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. PMID:24981191

  14. Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…

  15. Non-culprit coronary lesions in young patients have higher rates of atherosclerotic progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantao; Han, Yunfeng; Jing, Jing; Tu, Shengxian; Chen, Weiren; Reiber, Johan H C; Chen, Yundai

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether non-culprit coronary lesions (NCCLs) in young patients (<45 years) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stents have higher rates of atherosclerotic progression than older patients. Eight hundred and forty-eight consecutive patients who underwent successful PCI with stents and second coronary angiography in a single center from January 7, 2008 to May 7, 2013 were enrolled. NCCL progression was assessed using three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography and was defined as ≥ 10% diameter reduction of preexisting stenoses of ≥ 50%, ≥ 30% diameter reduction of <50% stenoses, development of a new stenosis of ≥ 30% in a previously normal segment, or progression to total occlusion. The mean time interval between two catheterization was 10.79 months; 136 (16.0%) patients exhibited progression of NCCLs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis (stepwise) showed young age to be an independent determinant of NCCL progression. Compared with the older patients(≥ 45 years), the crude hazard ratio (HR) for NCCL progression in the young patients(<45 years) was 2.17 (95% CI 1.42-3.30; P < 0.001); the association remained significant after adjustment for sex, ST elevation myocardial infarction, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting blood glucose, smoking, drinking, hypertension, family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, medication use and NCCL characteristics (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.72; P = 0.029). NCCLs in young patients (<45 years) with coronary artery disease have high rates of atherosclerotic progression. PMID:25749848

  16. Nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates and higher multipole excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gernhäuser, R.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Marginean, N.; Pietralla, N.

    2012-07-01

    Next-generation γ beams from laser Compton-backscattering facilities like ELI-NP (Bucharest)] or MEGa-Ray (Livermore) will drastically exceed the photon flux presently available at existing facilities, reaching or even exceeding 1013 γ/sec. The beam structure as presently foreseen for MEGa-Ray and ELI-NP builds upon a structure of macro-pulses (˜120 Hz) for the electron beam, accelerated with X-band technology at 11.5 GHz, resulting in a micro structure of 87 ps distance between the electron pulses acting as mirrors for a counterpropagating intense laser. In total each 8.3 ms a γ pulse series with a duration of about 100 ns will impinge on the target, resulting in an instantaneous photon flux of about 1018 γ/s, thus introducing major challenges in view of pile-up. Novel γ optics will be applied to monochromatize the γ beam to ultimately ΔE/E˜10-6. Thus level-selective spectroscopy of higher multipole excitations will become accessible with good contrast for the first time. Fast responding γ detectors, e.g. based on advanced scintillator technology (e.g. LaBr3(Ce)) allow for measurements with count rates as high as 106-107 γ/s without significant drop of performance. Data handling adapted to the beam conditions could be performed by fast digitizing electronics, able to sample data traces during the micro-pulse duration, while the subsequent macro-pulse gap of ca. 8 ms leaves ample time for data readout. A ball of LaBr3 detectors with digital readout appears to best suited for this novel type of nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates.

  17. Nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates and higher multipole excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Marginean, N.; Pietralla, N.

    2012-07-09

    Next-generation {gamma} beams from laser Compton-backscattering facilities like ELI-NP (Bucharest)] or MEGa-Ray (Livermore) will drastically exceed the photon flux presently available at existing facilities, reaching or even exceeding 10{sup 13}{gamma}/sec. The beam structure as presently foreseen for MEGa-Ray and ELI-NP builds upon a structure of macro-pulses ({approx}120 Hz) for the electron beam, accelerated with X-band technology at 11.5 GHz, resulting in a micro structure of 87 ps distance between the electron pulses acting as mirrors for a counterpropagating intense laser. In total each 8.3 ms a {gamma} pulse series with a duration of about 100 ns will impinge on the target, resulting in an instantaneous photon flux of about 10{sup 18}{gamma}/s, thus introducing major challenges in view of pile-up. Novel {gamma} optics will be applied to monochromatize the {gamma} beam to ultimately {Delta}E/E{approx}10{sup -6}. Thus level-selective spectroscopy of higher multipole excitations will become accessible with good contrast for the first time. Fast responding {gamma} detectors, e.g. based on advanced scintillator technology (e.g. LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)) allow for measurements with count rates as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7}{gamma}/s without significant drop of performance. Data handling adapted to the beam conditions could be performed by fast digitizing electronics, able to sample data traces during the micro-pulse duration, while the subsequent macro-pulse gap of ca. 8 ms leaves ample time for data readout. A ball of LaBr{sub 3} detectors with digital readout appears to best suited for this novel type of nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates.

  18. Epidural insertion simulator of higher insertion resistance & drop rate after puncture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, K; Sakai, A; Hayashi, T; Saito, H

    2008-01-01

    Accidents such as dural puncture remain one of the problems of epidural anesthesia, and unskilled doctors can repeat such accidents. The purpose of the current research was to provide a new simulator for epidural insertion training. No reference data regarding the resistance force used when inserting a needle into patients have been reported. A comparative study was conducted to aid in the development of a new simulator. Pork loin (n=5) were employed as a substitute for patients. Thickness was set at 2 cm so as to improve the reproducibility. The authors took the conventional simulator apart, and picked a block as an analogue of muscle and ligamentum flavum. A new simulator was made of a melamine foam resin block and a latex rubber sheet. An epidural needle fixed on a motorized stage was inserted at the speed of 2 mm per second. The reaction force was measured while the needle was inserted into each specimen. Waveform of the pork loin exhibited two slopes of different inclines up to peaks and then falls after puncture. The conventional simulator showed a simple increase up to peak and a slow fall after puncture. In contrast, the new simulator showed two slopes up to peak and then a sudden fall after puncture. The insertion resistances were 2.5 N/s for the porcine, 0.8 N/s for the conventional and 2.1 N/s for the new simulator. The drop rates were 5 N/s for the porcine, 0.6 N/s for the conventional and 24 N/s for the new simulator. The higher insertion resistance and drop rate for the new simulator than the conventional simulator will be suitable for epidural insertion training. PMID:19163400

  19. Student and Teacher Ratings of Instructional Quality: Consistency of Ratings over Time, Agreement, and Predictive Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Göllner, Richard; Werth, Sarah; Voss, Thamar; Schmitz, Bernhard; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the agreement between teacher and student ratings of instructional quality is, at best, moderate, and the associations between measures of instructional quality and outcomes such as standardized achievement are typically small and somewhat mixed across both perspectives. One explanation for these low-to-moderate…

  20. Relative in vitro growth rates of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) - the most rapidly growing higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, P; Adelmann, K; Zimmer, S; Schmidt, C; Appenroth, K-J

    2015-01-01

    Relative growth rates (RGR), doubling times (DT) and relative weekly yields (RY) of 39 clones (ecotypes) from 13 species representing all five genera of duckweeds were determined under standardised cultivation conditions. RGR ranged overall from 0.153 to 0.519 day(-1) , DT from 1.34 to 4.54 days and RY from 2.9 to 37.8 week(-1) . The RGR and RY data can be compared directly to other published findings to only a limited extent on account of missing clonal designations for and limited accessibility to previously investigated clones, as well as the use of different data denominators. However, they are consistent with the published results of other comparative duckweed studies of similar scope in showing that RGR does not vary primarily at the level of the genus or species, but rather reflects the adaptation of individual clones to specific local conditions. The RGR data support the widely held assumption that duckweeds can grow faster than other higher plants and that they can thus surpass land-based agricultural crops in productivity. Duckweeds are highly promising for the production of biomass for nutrition and energy, but extensive clonal comparison will be required to identify the most suitable isolates for this purpose. PMID:24803032

  1. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, p<0.001), but normal or hypoactive pelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, p<0.01). Among sexually active women (n=370), a strong pelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  2. Verifying the performance of artificial neural network and multiple linear regression in predicting the mean seasonal municipal solid waste generation rate: A case study of Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Sama; Karimi-Jashni, Ayoub

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the mass of solid waste generation plays an important role in integrated solid waste management plans. In this study, the performance of two predictive models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was verified to predict mean Seasonal Municipal Solid Waste Generation (SMSWG) rate. The accuracy of the proposed models is illustrated through a case study of 20 cities located in Fars Province, Iran. Four performance measures, MAE, MAPE, RMSE and R were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The MLR, as a conventional model, showed poor prediction performance. On the other hand, the results indicated that the ANN model, as a non-linear model, has a higher predictive accuracy when it comes to prediction of the mean SMSWG rate. As a result, in order to develop a more cost-effective strategy for waste management in the future, the ANN model could be used to predict the mean SMSWG rate. PMID:26482809

  3. Putative extremely high rate of proteome innovation in lancelets might be explained by high rate of gene prediction errors

    PubMed Central

    Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2016-01-01

    A recent analysis of the genomes of Chinese and Florida lancelets has concluded that the rate of creation of novel protein domain combinations is orders of magnitude greater in lancelets than in other metazoa and it was suggested that continuous activity of transposable elements in lancelets is responsible for this increased rate of protein innovation. Since morphologically Chinese and Florida lancelets are highly conserved, this finding would contradict the observation that high rates of protein innovation are usually associated with major evolutionary innovations. Here we show that the conclusion that the rate of proteome innovation is exceptionally high in lancelets may be unjustified: the differences observed in domain architectures of orthologous proteins of different amphioxus species probably reflect high rates of gene prediction errors rather than true innovation. PMID:27476717

  4. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  5. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  6. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  7. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  8. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  9. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures. PMID:26441786

  10. An Interactive Point Kernel Program For Photon Dose Rate Prediction of Cylindrical Source/Shield Arrangements.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-10-26

    Version 00 The program ZYLIND is an interactive point kernel program for photon dose rate prediction of a homogeneous cylindrical source shielded by cylindrical (radial) or plane (axial) layered shields.

  11. ANN Models for Prediction of Sound and Penetration Rate in Percussive Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivade, Sangshetty B.; Murthy, Chivukula Surya Naryana; Vardhan, Harsha

    2015-10-01

    In the recent years, new techniques such as; Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate the needed parameters. Soft computing techniques are now being used as alternate statistical tool. In this study, ANN models were developed to predict rock properties of sedimentary rock, by using penetration and sound level produced during percussive drilling. The data generated in the laboratory investigation was utilized for the development of ANN models for predicting rock properties like, uniaxial compressive strength, abrasivity, tensile strength, and Schmidt rebound number using air pressure, thrust, bit diameter, penetration rate and sound level. Further, ANN models were also developed for predicting penetration rate and sound level using air pressure, thrust, bit diameter and rock properties as input parameters. The constructed models were checked using various prediction performance indices. ANN models were more acceptable for predicting rock properties.

  12. The utility of Thin Slice ratings for predicting language growth in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine M; Ingersoll, Brooke R

    2016-04-01

    Literature on "Thin Slice" ratings indicates that a number of personality characteristics and behaviors can be accurately predicted by ratings of very short segments (<5 min) of behavior. This study examined the utility of Thin Slice ratings of young children with autism spectrum disorder for predicting developmental skills and language gains over time. A total of 22 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder participated in a battery of developmental assessments and a video-taped therapist-child interaction at Time 1. They then participated in follow-up testing of language skills and a second therapist-child interaction 6 months later (Time 2). Groups of approximately 25 naïve undergraduate students provided impression ratings ("Thin Slice ratings") about each child's skills and behaviors during 2-min segments taken from the therapist-child interaction videos at each time point. Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 were highly correlated with child scores on several developmental assessments at Time 1. In addition, Thin Slice ratings at Time 1 predicted gain in parent-reported expressive vocabulary over the course of 6 months, over and above the predictive utility of Time 1 vocabulary size. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the concurrent and predictive validity of Thin Slice ratings in young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25991846

  13. Heating Rate Sensitive Multi-Shape Memory Polypropylene: A Predictive Material.

    PubMed

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2016-06-01

    Here we report on a novel type of smart material that is capable of specifically responding to the changing rate of an environmental signal. This is shown on the example of lightly cross-linked syndiotactic polypropylene that reacts to a temperature increase by adapting its shape change according to the applied heating rate. In general, a material with such properties can be used to predict a system failure when used in a defined environment and is therefore called "predictive material". PMID:27203229

  14. A Prediction Model for Community Colleges Using Graduation Rate as the Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosai, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a prediction model using graduation rate as the performance indicator is obtained for community colleges for three cohort years, 2003, 2004, and 2005 in the states of California, Florida, and Michigan. Multiple Regression analysis, using an aggregate of seven predictor variables, was employed in determining this prediction model.…

  15. Higher Rates of Misdiagnosis in Pediatric Patients versus Adults Hospitalized with Imported Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Arguin, Paul M.; Daily, Johanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the availability of effective anti-malarial prophylaxis, imported adult and pediatric malaria occurs in the United States and this can pose diagnostic issues. We examined the clinical characteristics and diagnostic challenges of imported malaria requiring adult or pediatric inpatient admission at Montefiore Medical Center (MMC) in the Bronx which provides care for a large population of immigrants from malaria endemic areas. Study Design We conducted a retrospective single center review of patients admitted with a diagnosis of malaria at MMC from 2005 through 2012. We extracted historical, clinical, and laboratory values from the electronic medical record and patient charts. Results We identified 95 patients who were diagnosed and hospitalized with malaria from 2005–2012, 33 (35%) of them children and 17 (18%) with severe malaria. Most patients contracted malaria while visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in West Africa. Only 38% of travelers took prophylaxis, and fewer than half reported taking it as prescribed. Misdiagnosis by emergency room or primary care doctors was observed in almost one quarter of all of the patients. Misdiagnosis occurred significantly more frequently in children (43%) compared to adults (13%) (p=0.002). Pediatric patients were more likely to present with abdominal pain (42% vs 15%, p=0.005). Conclusions Pediatric patients admitted for imported malaria at MMC had a higher rate of misdiagnosis and presented with more gastrointestinal symptoms than hospitalized adults. By describing the clinical characteristics of patients with imported malaria, we hope to improve diagnostic accuracy by healthcare workers and raise awareness that VFRs may require more intensive pre-travel counseling. PMID:25322145

  16. Bit-rate prediction for look-ahead coding with AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Compression of digitized video highly depends on, and varies with, the signal to be compressed. The relation of quantizer, distortion and rate needs to be modeled when control in a system involving video compression is asked for. An experimental analysis of the optimized video codec AVC of ITU-T and MPEG shows that its rate behavior can be modeled accurately enough to predict bit-rate on macroblock-level. Given information of allocated rates from a pre-encoding analysis step, the bit-rate profile at any different quantizer setting for the video can be predicted. Experiments, comparing predicted rate against actual encoding rate show good performance of the model.These reflect the performance of the model in rate-control schemes. A simple example pre-analysis rate-control based on the model will determine beforehand a possible rate-profile that the actual encoding should be able to follow with small quality variations. For a signal of varying complexity, a varying number of bits will be used to obtain constant quality. Such variations are limited by peak bit-rates and buffer-sizes that are defined by hypothetical reference decoders in AVC.

  17. Harnessing atomistic simulations to predict the rate at which dislocations overcome obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroukhani, S.; Nguyen, L. D.; Leung, K. W. K.; Singh, C. V.; Warner, D. H.

    2016-05-01

    Predicting the rate at which dislocations overcome obstacles is key to understanding the microscopic features that govern the plastic flow of modern alloys. In this spirit, the current manuscript examines the rate at which an edge dislocation overcomes an obstacle in aluminum. Predictions were made using different popular variants of Harmonic Transition State Theory (HTST) and compared to those of direct Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The HTST predictions were found to be grossly inaccurate due to the large entropy barrier associated with the dislocation-obstacle interaction. Considering the importance of finite temperature effects, the utility of the Finite Temperature String (FTS) method was then explored. While this approach was found capable of identifying a prominent reaction tube, it was not capable of computing the free energy profile along the tube. Lastly, the utility of the Transition Interface Sampling (TIS) approach was explored, which does not need a free energy profile and is known to be less reliant on the choice of reaction coordinate. The TIS approach was found capable of accurately predicting the rate, relative to direct MD simulations. This finding was utilized to examine the temperature and load dependence of the dislocation-obstacle interaction in a simple periodic cell configuration. An attractive rate prediction approach combining TST and simple continuum models is identified, and the strain rate sensitivity of individual dislocation obstacle interactions is predicted.

  18. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals. PMID:26437681

  19. Prediction of Chemical Vapor Deposition Rates on Monofilaments and Its Implications for Fiber Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M.; Veitch, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Deposition rates are predicted in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on monofilaments. Deposition of silicon from silane in a hydrogen carrier gas is chosen as a relevant example. The effects of gas and surface chemistry are studied in a two-dimensional axisymmetric flow field for this chemically well-studied system. Model predictions are compared to experimental CVD rate measurements. The differences in some physical and chemical phenomena between such small diameter (about 150 microns) fiber substrates and other typical CVD substrates are highlighted. The influence of the Soret mass transport mechanism is determined to be extraordinarily significant. The difficulties associated with the accurate measurement and control of the fiber temperature are discussed. Model prediction sensitivities are investigated with respect to fiber temperatures, fiber radii, Soret transport, and chemical kinetic parameters. The implications of the predicted instantaneous rates are discussed relative to the desired fiber properties for both the batch and the continuous processes.

  20. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher systemic lupus erythematosus activity, but not predictive of disease flare-up

    PubMed Central

    Schoindre, Yoland; Jallouli, Moez; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Ghillani, Pascale; Galicier, Lionel; Aumaître, Olivier; Francès, Camille; Le Guern, Véronique; Lioté, Frédéric; Smail, Amar; Limal, Nicolas; Perard, Laurent; Desmurs-Clavel, Hélène; Thi Huong, Du Le; Asli, Bouchra; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Sailler, Laurent; Ackermann, Félix; Papo, Thomas; Sacré, Karim; Fain, Olivier; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Cacoub, Patrice; Leroux, Gaëlle; Cohen-Bittan, Judith; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Lechat, Philippe; Musset, Lucile; Piette, Jean-Charles; Amoura, Zahir; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have found an association between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and higher SLE activity. We studied the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score, and we assessed for the first time the role of vitamin D in predicting SLE flare-ups. Methods Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in 170 patients with SLE who were prospectively followed up for 6 months (Plaquenil LUpus Systemic study, ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00413361). Results The mean SLEDAI score was 2.03±2.43 and 12.3% patients had active disease (SLEDAI ≥6). The mean 25(OH)D level was 20.6±9.8 ng/mL. Deficiency (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL) was observed in 27 (15.9%), insufficiency (10≤25(OH)D<30) in 112 (65.9%) and optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D≥30) in 31 (18.2%) patients. In multivariate analysis, female gender (p=0.018), absence of defined antiphospholipid syndrome (p=0.002) and higher creatinine clearance (p=0.004) were predictive of lower 25(OH)D levels. In multivariate analysis, lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with high SLE activity (p=0.02). Relapse-free survival rate was not statistically different according to the vitamin D status during the 6-month follow-up (p=0.22). Conclusions We found a low vitamin D status in the majority of patients with SLE, and a modest association between lower 25(OH)D levels and high disease activity. There was no association between baseline 25(OH)D levels and relapse-free survival rate. PMID:25379192

  1. Prediction of change in protein unfolding rates upon point mutations in two state proteins.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyashree; Naganathan, Athi N; Gromiha, M Michael

    2016-09-01

    Studies on protein unfolding rates are limited and challenging due to the complexity of unfolding mechanism and the larger dynamic range of the experimental data. Though attempts have been made to predict unfolding rates using protein sequence-structure information there is no available method for predicting the unfolding rates of proteins upon specific point mutations. In this work, we have systematically analyzed a set of 790 single mutants and developed a robust method for predicting protein unfolding rates upon mutations (Δlnku) in two-state proteins by combining amino acid properties and knowledge-based classification of mutants with multiple linear regression technique. We obtain a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.79/s and a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.71 between predicted unfolding rates and experimental observations using jack-knife test. We have developed a web server for predicting protein unfolding rates upon mutation and it is freely available at https://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/proteinunfolding/unfoldingrace.html. Prominent features that determine unfolding kinetics as well as plausible reasons for the observed outliers are also discussed. PMID:27264959

  2. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat "unconventional" aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method was able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  3. A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings for large commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A model-based technique for predicting pilot opinion ratings is described. Features of this procedure, which is based on the optimal-control model for pilot/vehicle systems, include (1) capability to treat 'unconventional' aircraft dynamics, (2) a relatively free-form pilot model, (3) a simple scalar metric for attentional workload, and (4) a straightforward manner of proceeding from descriptions of the flight task environment and requirements to a prediction of pilot opinion rating. The method is able to provide a good match to a set of pilot opinion ratings obtained in a manned simulation study of large commercial aircraft in landing approach.

  4. Statistical evaluation of the SES predictions issued in Greece: alarm and success rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Kazuo

    1993-08-01

    Earthquake prediction, based on continuous measurements of the electric field of the Earth, has been systematically carried out by Varotsos and co-workers in Greece. Predictions were issued by telegrams to Greek authorities. Statistical evaluation of these predictions was made by comparing telegram prediction information with earthquake parameters determined by the US Geological Survey. The space-time domain selected for this evaluation was 20-24°E, 36-41°N, from January, 1987, to June, 1989. Successfully predicted earthquakes are defined here as those that occurred within 22 days of the prediction, within 100 km of the predicted epicenter and with a magnitude difference (predicted minus true) rot greater than 0.7. Twelve predictions were issued for earthquakes with expected Ms⩾ 5.3. Following our criteria, ten were successful, two were not. The magnitudes of the predicted earthquakes varied from 4.1 to 5.5. For earthquakes with Mb( USGS) ⩾ 5.0, the ratio of the predicted to the total number of earthquakes is 6/12 (50%) and the success rate of the prediction is also {6}/{12} (50%), with a probability gain of a factor of 4. With a confidence level of 99.8%, the possibility of this success rate being explained by a random model of earthquake occurrence, taking into account a regional factor which includes high seismicity in the prediction area, can be rejected. For earthquakes with Mb( USGS) < 4.5, a statistical significance could not be obtained because of the large number of small earthquakes.

  5. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  6. Effect of heart rate correction on pre- and post-exercise heart rate variability to predict risk of mortality—an experimental study on the FINCAVAS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pradhapan, Paruthi; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtinen, Rami; Nikus, Kjell; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Viik, Jari

    2014-01-01

    The non-linear inverse relationship between RR-intervals and heart rate (HR) contributes significantly to the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and their performance in mortality prediction. To determine the level of influence HR exerts over HRV parameters' prognostic power, we studied the predictive performance for different HR levels by applying eight correction procedures, multiplying or dividing HRV parameters by the mean RR-interval (RRavg) to the power 0.5–16. Data collected from 1288 patients in The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS), who satisfied the inclusion criteria, was used for the analyses. HRV parameters (RMSSD, VLF Power and LF Power) were calculated from 2-min segment in the rest phase before exercise and 2-min recovery period immediately after peak exercise. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to determine the predictive performance for each parameter with and without HR corrections in rest and recovery phases. The division of HRV parameters by segment's RRavg to the power 2 (HRVDIV-2) showed the highest predictive performance under the rest phase (RMSSD: 0.67/0.66; VLF Power: 0.70/0.62; LF Power: 0.79/0.65; cardiac mortality/non-cardiac mortality) with minimum correlation to HR (r = −0.15 to 0.15). In the recovery phase, Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis revealed good risk stratification capacity at HRVDIV-2 in both groups (cardiac and non-cardiac mortality). Although higher powers of correction (HRVDIV-4and HRVDIV-8) improved predictive performance during recovery, they induced an increased positive correlation to HR. Thus, we inferred that predictive capacity of HRV during rest and recovery is augmented when its dependence on HR is weakened by applying appropriate correction procedures. PMID:24917825

  7. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  8. Predicting demographically sustainable rates of adaptation: can great tit breeding time keep pace with climate change?

    PubMed Central

    Gienapp, Phillip; Lof, Marjolein; Reed, Thomas E.; McNamara, John; Verhulst, Simon; Visser, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Populations need to adapt to sustained climate change, which requires micro-evolutionary change in the long term. A key question is how the rate of this micro-evolutionary change compares with the rate of environmental change, given that theoretically there is a ‘critical rate of environmental change’ beyond which increased maladaptation leads to population extinction. Here, we parametrize two closely related models to predict this critical rate using data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major). We used stochastic dynamic programming to predict changes in optimal breeding time under three different climate scenarios. Using these results we parametrized two theoretical models to predict critical rates. Results from both models agreed qualitatively in that even ‘mild’ rates of climate change would be close to these critical rates with respect to great tit breeding time, while for scenarios close to the upper limit of IPCC climate projections the calculated critical rates would be clearly exceeded with possible consequences for population persistence. We therefore tentatively conclude that micro-evolution, together with plasticity, would rescue only the population from mild rates of climate change, although the models make many simplifying assumptions that remain to be tested. PMID:23209174

  9. Short term Heart Rate Variability to predict blood pressure drops due to standing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing from a bed or chair may cause a significant lowering of blood pressure (ΔBP), which may have severe consequences such as, for example, falls in older subjects. The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model to predict the ΔBP due to standing in healthy subjects, based on their Heart Rate Variability, recorded in the 5 minutes before standing. Methods Heart Rate Variability was extracted from an electrocardiogram, recorded from 10 healthy subjects during the 5 minutes before standing. The blood pressure value was measured before and after rising. A mathematical model aiming to predict ΔBP based on Heart Rate Variability measurements was developed using a robust multi-linear regression and was validated with the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation technique. Results The model predicted correctly the ΔBP in 80% of experiments, with an error below the measurement error of sphygmomanometer digital devices (±4.5 mmHg), a false negative rate of 7.5% and a false positive rate of 10%. The magnitude of the ΔBP was associated with a depressed and less chaotic Heart Rate Variability pattern. Conclusions The present study showes that blood pressure lowering due to standing can be predicted by monitoring the Heart Rate Variability in the 5 minutes before standing. PMID:26391336

  10. Humor Ability Reveals Intelligence, Predicts Mating Success, and Is Higher in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…

  11. Predicting University Preference and Attendance: Applied Marketing in Higher Education Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert W.; Zallocco, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    A multi-attribute attitude model was used to determine whether a multicriteria scale can be used to predict student preferences for and attendance at universities. Data were gathered from freshmen attending five state universities in Ohio. The results indicate a high level of predictability. (Author/MLW)

  12. Swfoldrate: predicting protein folding rates from amino acid sequence with sliding window method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Pu; Lin, Wei-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding is the process by which a protein processes from its denatured state to its specific biologically active conformation. Understanding the relationship between sequences and the folding rates of proteins remains an important challenge. Most previous methods of predicting protein folding rate require the tertiary structure of a protein as an input. In this study, the long-range and short-range contact in protein were used to derive extended version of the pseudo amino acid composition based on sliding window method. This method is capable of predicting the protein folding rates just from the amino acid sequence without the aid of any structural class information. We systematically studied the contributions of individual features to folding rate prediction. The optimal feature selection procedures are adopted by means of combining the forward feature selection and sequential backward selection method. Using the jackknife cross validation test, the method was demonstrated on the large dataset. The predictor was achieved on the basis of multitudinous physicochemical features and statistical features from protein using nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) regression model, the method obtained an excellent agreement between predicted and experimentally observed folding rates of proteins. The correlation coefficient is 0.9313 and the standard error is 2.2692. The prediction server is freely available at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/swfrate/input.jsp. PMID:22933332

  13. Emotionally excited eyeblink-rate variability predicts an experience of transportation into the narrative world

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Ryota; Hino, Kojun; Shimazu, Makoto; Liang, Yingzong; Okada, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 years, SD = 13.18 years, range 18–63 years) were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1) in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2) in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor and Purpura, 1997). The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed SD) of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members. PMID:26029123

  14. Predicted and measured effects of pressure and crossflow velocity on composite propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model for prediction of burning rates of composite (ammonium perchlorate oxidizer) solid propellants as a function of pressure and crossflow velocity was developed. Included in this model is the capability for treatment of multimodal oxidizer particle sizes and metalized formulations. In addition, an experimental device for measuring the effects of crossflow velocity on propellant burning rate was developed and used to characterize a series of AP/HTPB propellants with systematically varied formulation parameters. Model predictions of zero-crossflow burning rate versus pressure characteristics were found to be in agreement with data, while the agreement between erosive burning predictions and data is, in general, good. The experimental data indicate that the dominant factor influencing the sensitivity of composite propellant burning rate to crossflow is the base (no-crossflow) burning rate versus pressure characteristics of the propellant (lower base burning rate leading to increased crossflow sensitivity). Finally, the model was used to examine the effects of motor scaling on erosive burning: erosive burning is predicted to diminish with increasing motor size, in agreement with experience.

  15. Can urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostrane and malonaldehyde predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aging?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qinghao; Wang, Jiawan; Wu, Anshi; Zhang, Rujin; Li, Lei; Yue, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about oxidative stress in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aging. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion rate of 8-isoprostane:creatinine (U8-isoPG:Cr) and malonaldehyde:creatinine (UMDA:Cr) to predict short-term POCD in elderly patients undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. 72 patients aged above 65 years were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Each patient underwent cognitive testing to determine POCD performed by an investigator before surgery and 1 week after surgery. Morning urine was collected at baseline, 1, 2, and 7 days postoperatively. U8-isoPG was performed using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and UMDA levels were measured by chemiluminescence detection. Creatinine levels were also analyzed if differences in the oxidative biomarkers were observed in the urine creatinine concentration. (1). Of 72 patients who completed cognitive testing, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was detected in 29.2 % (n = 21) of patients in 7 days. (2) U8-isoPG:Cr levels in 7 days postoperatively were significantly higher in POCD patients compared with the non-POCD group (p = 0.01). When measuring change from baseline, U8-isoPG:Cr levels were higher than that of control groups (p = 0.01). (3) UMDA:Cr levels were significantly elevated in 1 and 2 days postoperatively in both groups (p < 0.05). U8-isoPG:Cr level seems to be a valuable marker to detect lipid peroxidation early in POCD patients. However, it will also be important to take into account or reduce potential confounders to improve the identification of changes in the status of oxidative stress as a marker for POCD. PMID:23380806

  16. A Comparison of Retention Rates among America's 2-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tampa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was first to calculate the full-time and part-time retention rates for each category of 2-year institution and to examine the differences, if they existed, between and among the three types of colleges. Secondly, the study explored the differences in the full-time and part-time retention rates of first-time students within…

  17. Quasi-static magnetic measurements to predict specific absorption rates in magnetic fluid hyperthermia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coral, D. F.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; de Sousa, M. E.; Muraca, D.; Lassalle, V.; Nicolás, P.; Ferreira, M. L.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the issue on whether dynamic magnetic properties of polydispersed magnetic colloids modeled using physical magnitudes derived from quasi-static magnetic measurement can be extrapolated to analyze specific absorption rate data acquired at high amplitudes and frequencies of excitation fields is addressed. To this end, we have analyzed two colloids of magnetite nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and chitosan in water displaying, under a radiofrequency field, high and low specific heat power release. Both colloids are alike in terms of liquid carrier, surfactant and magnetic phase composition but differ on the nanoparticle structuring. The colloid displaying low specific dissipation consists of spaced magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 4.8 nm inside a large chitosan particle of 52.5 nm. The one displaying high specific dissipation consists of clusters of magnetic nanoparticles of mean size around 9.7 nm inside a chitosan particle of 48.6 nm. The experimental evaluation of Néel and Brown relaxation times (˜10-10 s and 10-4 s, respectively) indicate that the nanoparticles in both colloids magnetically relax by Néel mechanism. The isothermal magnetization curves analysis for this mechanism show that the magnetic nanoparticles behave in the interacting superparamagnetic regime. The specific absorption rates were determined calorimetrically at 260 kHz and up to 52 kA/m and were well modeled within linear response theory using the anisotropy density energy retrieved from quasi-static magnetic measurement, validating their use to predict heating ability of a given polydispersed particle suspension. Our findings provide new insight in the validity of quasi-static magnetic characterization to analyze the high frequency behavior of polydispersed colloids within the framework of the linear response and Wohlfarth theories and indicate that dipolar interactions play a key role being their strength larger for the colloid displaying higher dissipation, i

  18. Displacement rate dependence of irradiation creep as predicted by the production bias model

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.

    1996-04-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the non-swelling component of irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels is relatively independent of temperature but is sensitive to the displacement rate. An earlier model of Lewthwaite and Mosedale anticipated the sensitivity of displacement rate and attributed it to the flux sensitivity of point defect recombination. The point-defect recombination process does not yield the observed temperature dependence, however, although it does predict an inverse dependence of the creep rate on the square root of the displacement rate that was experimentally observed at relatively low temperatures.

  19. A simple algorithm for predicting proton SEU rates in space compared to the rates measured on the CRRES satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Abdel-Kader, W.G. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Barth, J.C.L. )

    1994-12-01

    A new simulation code, the Clemson Omnidirectional Spallation Model for Interaction in Circuits (COSMIC), is described and its predictions agree with SEU data from four devices flown as part of the microelectronics package experiment on the CRRES satellite. The code uses CUPID for determining the energy depositions in the sensitive volumes; it allows proton exposures with arbitrary angles of incidence including random omnidirectional exposure; and the user specifies the thickness of shielding on six sides of the sensitive volume. COSMIC is used as part of an algorithm developed to predict the rate proton induced single event upsets occur in the space radiation environment given by AP-8. In testing the algorithm, the position coordinates are taken from the satellite's ephemeris data, but calculations based on position coordinates from orbital codes were also in agreement with the measured values.

  20. Prediction of Daily Ratings of Psychosocial Functioning: Can Ratings of Personality Disorder Traits and Functioning be Distinguished?

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2014-01-01

    Current categorical and dimensional conceptualizations of personality disorder (PD) typically confound pathological PD traits with distress and impairment (dysfunction). The current study examines whether dimensions of personality pathology and psychosocial dysfunction can be psychometrically distinguished. To that end, we collected self-report ratings of personality pathology and dysfunction at baseline, along with daily ratings of dysfunctional behavior over ten consecutive days. Correlations revealed substantial overlap between traits and dysfunction measured at baseline. However, follow-up hierarchical regressions revealed that baseline dysfunction ratings incrementally predicted daily dysfunction ratings after accounting for personality trait ratings, suggesting that traits and dysfunction are at least partially differentiable. However, the incremental effects were stronger for some dysfunction domains (i.e., Self-Mastery and Basic Functioning) than for others (Well-Being and Interpersonal), suggesting that maladaptive trait measures are more confounded with the latter types of impairment. These findings suggest that distinguishing maladaptive PD traits from functioning in PD classification systems likely is more difficult than would be expected, a finding that has important implications for the competing Section II and Section III conceptualizations of PD presented in DSM-5. PMID:24730507

  1. Open-Source Learning Management Systems: A Predictive Model for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, S. Williams

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of pedagogical, technical, and institutional profile factors in an institution of higher education's decision to select an open-source learning management system (LMS). Drawing on the results of previous research that measured patterns of deployment of open-source software (OSS) in US higher education and…

  2. Predicting Public Confidence in Higher Education Institutions: An Analysis of Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that there are two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). This aim has been reified consistently for nearly a century. By 2002, the pursuit of higher education had reached record levels. However, more recently, public confidence…

  3. Time for prediction? The effect of presentation rate on predictive sentence comprehension during word-by-word reading.

    PubMed

    Wlotko, Edward W; Federmeier, Kara D

    2015-07-01

    Predictive processing is a core component of normal language comprehension, but the brain may not engage in prediction to the same extent in all circumstances. This study investigates the effects of timing on anticipatory comprehension mechanisms. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read two-sentence mini-scenarios previously shown to elicit prediction-related effects for implausible items that are categorically related to expected items ('They wanted to make the hotel look more like a tropical resort. So along the driveway they planted rows of PALMS/PINES/TULIPS.'). The first sentence of every pair was presented in its entirety and was self-paced. The second sentence was presented word-by-word with a fixed stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of either 500 msec or 250 msec that was manipulated in a within-subjects blocked design. Amplitudes of the N400 ERP component are taken as a neural index of demands on semantic processing. At 500 msec SOA, implausible words related to predictable words elicited reduced N400 amplitudes compared to unrelated words (PINES vs TULIPS), replicating past studies. At 250 msec SOA this prediction-related semantic facilitation was diminished. Thus, timing is a factor in determining the extent to which anticipatory mechanisms are engaged. However, we found evidence that prediction can sometimes be engaged even under speeded presentation rates. Participants who first read sentences in the 250 msec SOA block showed no effect of semantic similarity for this SOA, although these same participants showed the effect in the second block with 500 msec SOA. However, participants who first read sentences in the 500 msec SOA block continued to show the N400 semantic similarity effect in the 250 msec SOA block. These findings add to results showing that the brain flexibly allocates resources to most effectively achieve comprehension goals given the current processing environment. PMID:25987437

  4. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. PMID:25604971

  5. Jet algorithms in electron-positron annihilation: perturbative higher order predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    This article gives results on several jet algorithms in electron-positron annihilation: Considered are the exclusive sequential recombination algorithms Durham, Geneva, Jade-E0 and Cambridge, which are typically used in electron-positron annihilation. In addition also inclusive jet algorithms are studied. Results are provided for the inclusive sequential recombination algorithms Durham, Aachen and anti- k t , as well as the infrared-safe cone algorithm SISCone. The results are obtained in perturbative QCD and are N3LO for the two-jet rates, NNLO for the three-jet rates, NLO for the four-jet rates and LO for the five-jet rates.

  6. Higher rate alternative non-drug reinforcement produces faster suppression of cocaine seeking but more resurgence when removed.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Nall, Rusty W; Madden, Gregory J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    Relapse following removal of an alternative source of reinforcement introduced during extinction of a target behavior is called resurgence. This form of relapse may be related to relapse of drug taking following loss of alternative non-drug reinforcement in human populations. Laboratory investigations of factors mediating resurgence with food-maintained behavior suggest higher rates of alternative reinforcement produce faster suppression of target behavior but paradoxically generate more relapse when alternative reinforcement is discontinued. At present, it is unknown if a similar effect occurs when target behavior is maintained by drug reinforcement and the alternative is a non-drug reinforcer. In the present experiment three groups of rats were trained to lever press for infusions of cocaine during baseline. Next, during treatment, cocaine reinforcement was suspended and an alternative response was reinforced with either high-rate, low-rate, or no alternative food reinforcement. Finally, all reinforcement was suspended to test for relapse of cocaine seeking. Higher rate alternative reinforcement produced faster elimination of cocaine seeking than lower rates or extinction alone, but when treatment was suspended resurgence of cocaine seeking occurred following only high-rate alternative reinforcement. Thus, although higher rate alternative reinforcement appears to more effectively suppress drug seeking, should it become unavailable, it can have the unfortunate effect of increasing relapse. PMID:26988268

  7. Examining Life Goals and School Attendance Rates of Afghan Students Receiving Higher Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bek, Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study carried out to examine the relations between life goals and school attendance levels among Afghan students receiving higher education in Turkey. In total there were 198 Afghan students that participated in the study. Among which 159 were male and 39 female. All of these students were studying in 16 Turkish…

  8. A Waste of Resources? Social Rates of Return to Higher Education in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, John

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that popular assertions regarding the social benefits of additional higher education are dubious. Reveals four decisive factors: presumed economic growth; changes in graduates' and nongraduates' relative earnings; differences between the marginal and average student; and belief in scale economies. Unless economic growth favors…

  9. SEU rate prediction and measurement of GaAs SRAMs onboard the CRRES satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, T.R.; McDonald, P.T. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC ); Campbell, A.B.; Langworthy, J.B. )

    1993-12-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) launched in July of 1990 included experiments to study effects of Single Event Upset (SEU) on various microelectronic ICs. The MicroElectronics Package (MEP) subsection of the satellite experiments monitored upset rates on 65 devices over a 15 month period. One of the purposes of the SEU experiments was to determine if the soft error modeling techniques were of sufficient accuracy to predict error rates, and if not, to determine where the deficiencies existed. An analysis is presented on SPICE predicted, SEU ground tested, and CRRES observed heavy ion and proton soft error rates of GaAs SRAMs. Upset rates overestimated the susceptibility of the GaAs SRAMs. Differences are accounted to several factors.

  10. Development of a mechanistic model for predicting corrosion rate in multiphase oil/water/gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Gopal, M.; Jepson, W.P.

    1997-09-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to predict corrosion rates in multiphase (water/oil/CO{sub 2}) flow conditions. The model takes into account electrochemistry, reaction kinetics, and, mass transport effects. This paper describes the equations used to determine pH and bulk concentrations of various ions, which are then used to calculate the mass transfer rates to the corrosion surface. The result includes the determination of the mass transfer coefficients of various ionic species and corrosion rates. Details of relations used for determination of mass transfer coefficients for multiphase flows, and rates of electrochemical reaction kinetics are discussed and predicted results are compared with experimental observations. Agreement between model results and experimental data is good.

  11. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  12. Students-as-Customers' Satisfaction, Predictive Retention with Marketing Implications: The Case of Malaysian Higher Education Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stephen; Yeo, Amy Chu-May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate two areas of interest: first, to determine business student customer satisfiers that could be contributors to students' current and predicted retention in a higher educational institution (HEI) and second, to use these satisfiers to inform HEI marketing planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  13. Systematic and Systemic Approaches to Reducing Attrition Rates in Online Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyung, Seung Youn

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an online distance education program at Boise State University that used Keller's ARCS model, Kaufman's Organizational Elements Model, and Kirkpatrick's evaluation model to improve motivational appeal for the adult learners and reduce the attrition rate. Describes the interventions implemented and presents results of evaluations that…

  14. Forecasting Student Entrants, Flows and Success Rates. Technical Report. Studies in Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Stjepan; And Others

    This document is concerned with an information system to study the internal dynamics of student flows, choice of subjects and success rates, taking into account different regional affiliations and the socioeconomic backgrounds of students. Among the external factors to be considered will be the demographic dimension in terms of changes in the…

  15. Community College Responses to Calls for Higher Completion Rates: The Cases of Three Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand how three diverse community colleges are interpreting and acting on federal initiatives to increase completion rates. The study attempted to answer four main research questions: (1) How do a selection of Kansas community colleges, as organizations, interpret the initiative to increase completion…

  16. Choosing a Higher Education Study Abroad Destination: What Mainland Chinese Parents and Students Rate as Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodycott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mainland China is one of the largest sources of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Previous research has identified the push-pull factors and features that influence a student choice of study abroad destination. This article extends understanding by identifying and examining what 251 mainland Chinese parents and 100 students rated as most…

  17. Update on Graduation Rate Reporting: Issues and Opportunities. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alene

    2009-01-01

    Since the passage of the federal Student Right-to-Know Act of 1990 (SRTK), graduation rates have been a subject of much debate and controversy. Why all the fuss? The simple truth is that graduation from college does matter, and it matters more than ever. From the societal perspective, the United States is falling behind other nations in the…

  18. Higher Adenoma Detection Rates with Endocuff-Assisted Colonoscopy – A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fitzlaff, Rüdiger; Röming, Hermann; Ameis, Detlev; Heinecke, Achim; Kunsch, Steffen; Ellenrieder, Volker; Ströbel, Philipp; Schepke, Michael; Meister, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Endocuff is a device mounted on the tip of the colonoscope to help flatten the colonic folds during withdrawal. This study aimed to compare the adenoma detection rates between Endocuff-assisted (EC) colonoscopy and standard colonoscopy (SC). Methods This randomized prospective multicenter trial was conducted at four academic endoscopy units in Germany. Participants: 500 patients (235 males, median age 64[IQR 54–73]) for colon adenoma detection purposes were included in the study. All patients were either allocated to EC or SC. The primary outcome measure was the determination of the adenoma detection rates (ADR). Results The ADR significantly increased with the use of the Endocuff compared to standard colonoscopy (35.4%[95% confidence interval{CI} 29–41%] vs. 20.7%[95%CI 15–26%], p<0.0001). Significantly more sessile polyps were detected by EC. Overall procedure time and withdrawal time did not differ. Caecal and ileum intubation rates were similar. No major adverse events occurred in both groups. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95%[CI] 1.01–1.05), male sex (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.10–2.73), withdrawal time (OR 1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.30), procedure time (OR 1.07; 95%CI 1.04–1.10), colon cleanliness (OR 0.60; 95%CI 0.39–0.94) and use of Endocuff (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.34–3.27) were independent predictors of adenoma detection rates. Conclusions EC increases the adenoma detection rate by 14.7%(95%CI 6.9–22.5%). EC is safe, effective, easy to handle and might reduce colorectal interval carcinomas. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02034929. PMID:25470133

  19. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. PMID:26032851

  20. A meta-analysis of passage rate estimated by rumen evacuation with cattle and evaluation of passage rate prediction models.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, S J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Huhtanen, P

    2010-12-01

    A meta-analysis of studies using the flux/compartmental pool method with indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) as internal marker was conducted to study the effect of extrinsic characteristics and forage type on particle passage rate (k(p)) in cattle. Further, the k(p) prediction equations in the National Research Council (NRC) and the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) were evaluated. Data comprised 172 treatment means from 49 studies conducted in Europe and the United States. In total, 145 diets were fed to dairy cows and 27 to growing cattle. A prerequisite for inclusion of an experiment was that dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), proportion of concentrate in the diet, body weight, and diet chemical composition were determined or could be estimated. Mixed model regression analysis including a random study effect was used to generate prediction equations of k(p) and to investigate the relationships between NRC and CNCPS predictions and observed k(p) of iNDF. Prediction equations were evaluated by regressing residual values on the predicted values. The best-fit model when forage type was not included was k(p) (%/h) = 1.19+0.0879 × NDF intake (g/kg of body weight)+0.792 × proportion of concentrate NDF of total NDF+1.21 × diet iNDF:NDF ratio (adjusted residual mean square error = 0.23%/h). The best general equation accounting for an effect of forage type was as follows: k(p) (%/h) = F+1.54+0.0866 × NDF intake (g/kg of body weight) (adjusted residual mean square error = 0.21%/h), where F is the forage adjustment factor of the intercept. The value of F for grass silage, fresh grass, mixes of alfalfa and corn silage, and dry or ensiled alfalfa as sole forage component were 0.00, -0.91, +0.83, and +0.24, respectively. Relationships between predicted and observed k(p) were y = 0.53(± 0.187)+0.41( ± 0.0373) × predicted k(p) and y = 0.58(± 0.162)+0.46(± 0.0377) × predicted k(p) for the NRC and CNCPS models, respectively

  1. Slow rates of habituation predict greater zBMI gains over 12 months in lean children

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Slow rates of habituation are related to greater energy intake, and cross-sectionally to body weight. The present study is designed to assess whether slow rates of habituation are prospectively related to zBMI change over a 12 month period in 66 lean 8–12 year-old children, and whether the rate of habituation is a stable behavioral phenotype. Results showed slower rates of habituation predicted greater zBMI change, controlling for child sex, age, initial zBMI, dietary awareness and minority status. In addition, the rate of habituation was stable over the year of observation. These data suggest that slow rates of habituation may be a risk factor for weight gain and the development of obesity. Future research is needed to understand the mechanism for this effect, and assess whether the habituation phenotype interacts with other behavioral phenotypes, such as food reinforcement, to influence increases in zBMI. PMID:21741020

  2. Calcite precipitation rates in the field: Measurement and prediction for a travertine-depositing stream

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, J.S.; Lorah, M.M. )

    1988-10-01

    Rates of calcite precipitation from a travertine-depositing stream were determined from changes in stream composition between consecutive sampling points and were compared with rates predicted from a laboratory-derived rate law. The agreement in rates was generally within an order of magnitude and routinely within a factor of 3. Least agreement between measured and predicted rates was obtained for sections of flowpath where relatively little change in bulk chemical composition occurred, which were the sections with the greatest mass transfer calculation error, and for the stream segment including a waterfall, which was the section with the greatest error in estimated surface area. Reaction rate obtained from the mass of calcite precipitated onto seed crystals placed in the stream significantly underestimated the mass transfer rate. For the travertine-depositing stream of Warm River Cave and Falling Spring Creek, Virginia, the coupling of equilibrium speciation models with mass balance calculations and simple field measurements allowed successful field-based quantification of reaction rates.

  3. Increased Earthquake Rates in the Central and Eastern US Portend Higher Earthquake Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Mueller, C. S.; Michael, A. J.; McGarr, A.; Petersen, M. D.; Weingarten, M.; Holland, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2009 the central and eastern United States has experienced an unprecedented increase in the rate of M≥3 earthquakes that is unlikely to be due to natural variation. Where the rates have increased so has the seismic hazard, making it important to understand these changes. Areas with significant seismicity increases are limited to areas where oil and gas production take place. By far the largest contributor to the seismicity increase is Oklahoma, where recent studies suggest that these rate changes may be due to fluid injection (e.g., Keranen et al., Geology, 2013; Science, 2014). Moreover, the area of increased seismicity in northern Oklahoma that began in 2013 coincides with the Mississippi Lime play, where well completions greatly increased the year before the seismicity increase. This suggests a link to oil and gas production either directly or from the disposal of significant amounts of produced water within the play. For the purpose of assessing the hazard due to these earthquakes, should they be treated differently from natural earthquakes? Previous studies suggest that induced seismicity may differ from natural seismicity in clustering characteristics or frequency-magnitude distributions (e.g., Bachmann et al., GJI, 2011; Llenos and Michael, BSSA, 2013). These differences could affect time-independent hazard computations, which typically assume that clustering and size distribution remain constant. In Oklahoma, as well as other areas of suspected induced seismicity, we find that earthquakes since 2009 tend to be considerably more clustered in space and time than before 2009. However differences between various regional and national catalogs leave unclear whether there are significant changes in magnitude distribution. Whether they are due to natural or industrial causes, the increased earthquake rates in these areas could increase the hazard in ways that are not accounted for in current hazard assessment practice. Clearly the possibility of induced

  4. Within treatment therapeutic alliance ratings profiles predict posttreatment frequency of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mark A.; Connors, Gerard J.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2016-01-01

    While past research has demonstrated a positive relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) and improved drinking outcomes, specific aspects of the alliance have received less attention. In this study, we examined the association between alliance characteristics during treatment and 4-month follow-up drinking reports. 65 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent clients who participated in 12 weeks of individual outpatient treatment provided weekly TA ratings during treatment and reported on pre-treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment alcohol use. Latent profile analysis was conducted to discern distinct profiles of client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance with similar alliance characteristics. TA profiles were based on clients’ and therapists’ mean alliance rating, minimum alliance rating, maximum alliance rating, the range of alliance ratings, and the difference in session number between maximum and minimum alliance ratings. 1- through 4- class models were fit to the data. Model fit was judged by comparative fit indices, substantive interpretability, and parsimony. Wald tests of mean equality determined whether classes differed on follow-up percentage of days abstinent (PDA) at 4 months posttreatment. 3-profile solutions provided the best fit for both client and therapist ratings of the therapeutic alliance. Client alliance rating profiles predicted drinking in the follow-up period, but therapist rating profiles did not. These results suggest that distinct profiles of the therapeutic alliance can be identified and that client alliance rating profiles are associated with frequency of alcohol use following outpatient treatment. PMID:26999350

  5. Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

  6. Validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale: Prediction of Mentally Retarded Workers' Placement in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale (VARS) for predicting placement of 125 mentally retarded workers in sheltered workshop settings was investigated. Results indicated low to moderate significant partial correlations with concurrent placement and one year follow-up placement (controlling IQ, age, and sex). (Author)

  7. An Evaluation of the Predictive Validity of Confidence Ratings in Identifying Functional Behavioral Assessment Hypothesis Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmeier, Chris; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based…

  8. Fetal Heart Rate and Variability: Stability and Prediction to Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Costigan, Kathleen; Achy-Brou, Aristide

    2007-01-01

    Stability in cardiac indicators before birth and their utility in predicting variation in postnatal development were examined. Fetal heart rate and variability were measured longitudinally from 20 through 38 weeks gestation (n = 137) and again at age 2 (n = 79). Significant within-individual stability during the prenatal period and into childhood…

  9. USE OF ROUGH SETS AND SPECTRAL DATA FOR BUILDING PREDICTIVE MODELS OF REACTION RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for predicting the log of the rate constants for alkaline hydrolysis of organic esters has been developed with the use of gas-phase min-infrared library spectra and a rule-building software system based on the mathematical theory of rough sets. A diverse set of 41 esters ...

  10. Predicting Cognitive Development, Intellectual Styles, and Personality Traits from Self-Rated Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports a series of six studies, each investigating the power of self-rated analytical, creative, and practical abilities for predicting one of six individual-difference variables: cognitive development, modes of thinking, career interests, learning approaches, thinking styles, and personality traits. Contributing to the…

  11. Evaluating the Prediction of Maximal Heart Rate in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Lee, Jonah D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Hanna, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compared measured maximal heart rate (HRmax) to two different HRmax prediction equations [220-age and 208-0.7(age)] in 52 children ages 7-17 years. We determined the relationship of chronological age, maturational age, and resting HR to measured HRmax and assessed seated resting HR and HRmax during a graded exercise test.…

  12. Predicting Lexical Density Growth Rate in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this longitudinal correlational study was to test whether an environmental variable and 4 child variables predicted growth rate of number of different nonimitative words used (i.e., lexical density). Method: Thirty-five young (age range = 21-54 months) children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who were initially…

  13. The Predictive Validity of Savry Ratings for Assessing Youth Offenders in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Goh, Mui Leng; Chong, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Empirical support for the usage of the SAVRY has been reported in studies conducted in many Western contexts, but not in a Singaporean context. This study compared the predictive validity of the SAVRY ratings for violent and general recidivism against the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) ratings within the Singaporean context. Using a sample of 165 male young offenders (Mfollow-up = 4.54 years), results showed that the SAVRY Total Score and Summary Risk Rating, as well as YLS/CMI Total Score and Overall Risk Rating, predicted violent and general recidivism. SAVRY Protective Total Score was only significantly predictive of desistance from general recidivism, and did not show incremental predictive validity for violent and general recidivism over the SAVRY Total Score. Overall, the results suggest that the SAVRY is suited (to varying degrees) for assessing the risk of violent and general recidivism in young offenders within the Singaporean context, but might not be better than the YLS/CMI. PMID:27231403

  14. Clinical and Radiographic Factors Predicting Hearing Preservation Rates in Large Vestibular Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Daniel; Westerberg, Brian D; Dong, Charles; Akagami, Ryojo

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Postoperative hearing preservation rates for patients with large vestibular schwannomas range from 0 to 43%. The clinical and radiographic factors predicting hearing preservation in smaller vestibular schwannomas are well described; however, their importance in larger tumors is unclear. We investigated factors predicting hearing preservation in large vestibular schwannomas. Design Retrospective review. Setting Quaternary care academic center. Participants A total of 85 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas > 3 cm underwent retrosigmoid resections. Main Outcomes Measures Preoperative and postoperative serviceable hearing rates. Methods Clinical and radiographic data including preoperative and postoperative audiograms, preoperative symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging features, and postoperative facial weakness were analyzed. Results Hearing was preserved in 41% of patients (17 of 42) with preoperative serviceable hearing. Hypertension and diabetes increased the likelihood of preoperative hearing loss. Preoperative tinnitus predicted a lower likelihood of hearing preservation. No radiographic factors predicted hearing preservation; however, larger tumor size, smaller fourth ventricular width, and the presence of a cerebrospinal fluid cleft surrounding the tumor predicted postoperative facial weakness. Conclusion Systemic comorbidities may influence hearing loss preoperatively in patients with large vestibular schwannomas. The absence of tinnitus may reflect hearing reserve and propensity for hearing preservation. Preoperative radiographic features did not predict hearing preservation despite some associations with postoperative facial weakness. PMID:27175312

  15. Asymptotic rates of response from forest tree breeding strategies using best linear unbiased prediction.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R J

    1998-03-01

    Genetic gain equations are developed for selection on multiple traits using either multi- or univariate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUP) and for selection under controlled and open pollination and polymix mating schemes. The equations assume an infinite population and account for the effects of selection. A comparison with simulated populations under the same mating schemes show that the gain equations predict selection response well, with the predictions having some upward bias. The gain equations are used to compare across mating schemes, to compare univariate to multivariate analyses, and to measure the reduction in the rate of genetic gain due to selection disequilibrium. Results show controlled pollination schemes can offer as much as a 56% advantage in genetic gain relative to open pollination. The reduction in the rate of genetic gain due to selection disequilibrium is approximately 27% under controlled pollination for the breeding goals studied. The results show a limited benefit in using multivariate analyses for predicting breeding values. PMID:24710888

  16. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner. PMID:27164483

  17. State funding for higher education and RN replacement rates by state: a case for nursing by the numbers in state legislatures.

    PubMed

    Bargagliotti, L Antoinette

    2009-01-01

    Amid an enduring nursing shortage and state budget shortfalls, discerning how the percentage of state funding to higher education and other registered nurse (RN) workforce variables may be related to the RN replacement rates (RNRR) in states has important policy implications. Regionally, the age of RNs was inversely related to RNRR. State funding in 2000 significantly predicted the 2004 RNRR, with the percentage of LPNs in 2004 adding to the model. The stability of the model using 2000 and 2004 funding data suggests that state funding creates a climate for RNRR. PMID:19789005

  18. Higher attack rates for left motor deficit among men with cerebrovascular events.

    PubMed

    Devroey, D; Buntinx, F; Van Castere, V; Van Der Heyden, J; Vandenberghe, H

    2002-12-10

    The authors report the findings of a prospectively collected database of stroke and TIA recorded from 1998 through 1999 by the 178 family physicians of the Belgian sentinel network. The yearly age-adjusted attack rate per 100,000 men was estimated as 109 (95% CI = 86 to 137) for left motor deficit and 75 (95% CI = 56 to 99) for right motor deficit (p = 0.011). This difference was not observed among women nor in the entire sample population. The authors suggest that handedness should be systematically recorded and compared to both sex and the side of the event. PMID:12473775

  19. DEFINING THE PLAYERS IN HIGHER-ORDER NETWORKS: PREDICTIVE MODELING FOR REVERSE ENGINEERING FUNCTIONAL INFLUENCE NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Costa, Michelle N.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-01-20

    A difficult problem that is currently growing rapidly due to the sharp increase in the amount of high-throughput data available for many systems is that of determining useful and informative causative influence networks. These networks can be used to predict behavior given observation of a small number of components, predict behavior at a future time point, or identify components that are critical to the functioning of the system under particular conditions. In these endeavors incorporating observations of systems from a wide variety of viewpoints can be particularly beneficial, but has often been undertaken with the objective of inferring networks that are generally applicable. The focus of the current work is to integrate both general observations and measurements taken for a particular pathology, that of ischemic stroke, to provide improved ability to produce useful predictions of systems behavior. A number of hybrid approaches have recently been proposed for network generation in which the Gene Ontology is used to filter or enrich network links inferred from gene expression data through reverse engineering methods. These approaches have been shown to improve the biological plausibility of the inferred relationships determined, but still treat knowledge-based and machine-learning inferences as incommensurable inputs. In this paper, we explore how further improvements may be achieved through a full integration of network inference insights achieved through application of the Gene Ontology and reverse engineering methods with specific reference to the construction of dynamic models of transcriptional regulatory networks. We show that integrating two approaches to network construction, one based on reverse-engineering from conditional transcriptional data, one based on reverse-engineering from in situ hybridization data, and another based on functional associations derived from Gene Ontology, using probabilities can improve results of clustering as evaluated by a

  20. Higher Rates of Retinopathy of Prematurity after Increasing Oxygen Saturation Targets for Very Preterm Infants: Experience in a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Manley, Brett J; Kuschel, Carl A; Elder, James E; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Randomized trials of oxygen saturation target ranges for extremely preterm infants showed increased survival but increased retinopathy of prematurity with higher compared with lower target ranges. In our center, changing from a target range of 88%-92% to 91%-95% has been associated with increased rates and severity of retinopathy of prematurity. PMID:26548746

  1. Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

  2. Phylogenetic prediction of the maximum per capita rate of population growth

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, William F.; Pearson, Yanthe E.; Larsen, Elise A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Turner, Jessica B.; Staver, Hilary; Noble, Andrew E.; Bewick, Sharon; Goldberg, Emma E.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum per capita rate of population growth, r, is a central measure of population biology. However, researchers can only directly calculate r when adequate time series, life tables and similar datasets are available. We instead view r as an evolvable, synthetic life-history trait and use comparative phylogenetic approaches to predict r for poorly known species. Combining molecular phylogenies, life-history trait data and stochastic macroevolutionary models, we predicted r for mammals of the Caniformia and Cervidae. Cross-validation analyses demonstrated that, even with sparse life-history data, comparative methods estimated r well and outperformed models based on body mass. Values of r predicted via comparative methods were in strong rank agreement with observed values and reduced mean prediction errors by approximately 68 per cent compared with two null models. We demonstrate the utility of our method by estimating r for 102 extant species in these mammal groups with unknown life-history traits. PMID:23720545

  3. Relative rate and location of intra-host HIV evolution to evade cellular immunity are predictable.

    PubMed

    Barton, John P; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Butler, Thomas C; Walker, Bruce D; McMichael, Andrew J; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evolves within infected persons to escape being destroyed by the host immune system, thereby preventing effective immune control of infection. Here, we combine methods from evolutionary dynamics and statistical physics to simulate in vivo HIV sequence evolution, predicting the relative rate of escape and the location of escape mutations in response to T-cell-mediated immune pressure in a cohort of 17 persons with acute HIV infection. Predicted and clinically observed times to escape immune responses agree well, and we show that the mutational pathways to escape depend on the viral sequence background due to epistatic interactions. The ability to predict escape pathways and the duration over which control is maintained by specific immune responses open the door to rational design of immunotherapeutic strategies that might enable long-term control of HIV infection. Our approach enables intra-host evolution of a human pathogen to be predicted in a probabilistic framework. PMID:27212475

  4. Relative rate and location of intra-host HIV evolution to evade cellular immunity are predictable

    PubMed Central

    Barton, John P.; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Butler, Thomas C.; Walker, Bruce D.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evolves within infected persons to escape being destroyed by the host immune system, thereby preventing effective immune control of infection. Here, we combine methods from evolutionary dynamics and statistical physics to simulate in vivo HIV sequence evolution, predicting the relative rate of escape and the location of escape mutations in response to T-cell-mediated immune pressure in a cohort of 17 persons with acute HIV infection. Predicted and clinically observed times to escape immune responses agree well, and we show that the mutational pathways to escape depend on the viral sequence background due to epistatic interactions. The ability to predict escape pathways and the duration over which control is maintained by specific immune responses open the door to rational design of immunotherapeutic strategies that might enable long-term control of HIV infection. Our approach enables intra-host evolution of a human pathogen to be predicted in a probabilistic framework. PMID:27212475

  5. Technologies to develop a video camera with a frame rate higher than 100 Mfps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo Le, Cuong; Nguyen, H. D.; Dao, V. T. S.; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Akino, T.; Nishi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Maruyama, H.

    2008-11-01

    A feasibility study is presented for an image sensor capable of image capturing at 100 Mega-frames per second (Mfps). The basic structure of the sensor is the backside-illuminated ISIS, the in-situ storage image sensor, with slanted linear CCD memories, which has already achieved 1 Mfps with very high sensitivity. There are many potential technical barriers to further increase the frame rate up to 100 Mfps, such as traveling time of electrons within a pixel, Resistive-Capacitive (RC) delay in driving voltage transfer, heat generation, heavy electro-magnetic noises, etc. For each of the barriers, a countermeasure is newly proposed and the technical and practical possibility is examined mainly by simulations. The new technical proposals include a special wafer with n and p double epitaxial layers with smoothly changing doping profiles, a design method with curves, the thunderbolt bus lines, and digitalnoiseless image capturing by the ISIS with solely sinusoidal driving voltages. It is confirmed that the integration of these technologies is very promising to realize a practical image sensor with the ultra-high frame rate.

  6. Prediction of FV520B Steel Flow Stresses at High Temperature and Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaolan; Zhao, Shengdun; Zhang, Chenyang; Fan, Shuqin; Xu, Fan

    2015-10-01

    In order to develop reliable constitutive equations for the simulation, the hot deformation behavior of FV520B steel was investigated through isothermal compression tests in a wide range of temperatures from 900 °C to 1100 °C at an interval of 50 °C and strain rate from 0.01 to 10 s-1 on Gleeble-1500D simulator. The effects of temperature and strain rate on deformation behavior were represented by Zener-Holloman parameter in an exponent-type equation of Arrhenius constitutive. The influence of strain was incorporated in the constitutive analysis by material constants expressed as a polynomial function of strain. The constitutive equation (considering the compensation of strain) could precisely predict the flow stress only at strain rate 0.01 s-1 except at the temperatures of 900 °C and 1000 °C, whereas the flow stress predicted by a modified equation (incorporating both the strain and strain rate) demonstrated a well agreement with the experimental data throughout the entire range of temperatures and strain rates. Correlation coefficient (R) of 0.988 and average absolute relative error (AARE) of 5.7% verified the validity of developed equation from statistical analysis, which further confirmed that the modified constitutive equation could accurately predict the flow stress of FV520B steel.

  7. Predicting a Taxonomy of Organisational Effectiveness in U.K. Higher Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysons, Art; Hatherly, David

    1996-01-01

    The framework of a study of organizational effectiveness in Australian higher education institutions was applied to a similar study in the United Kingdom. The approach was found useful for classifying U.K. institutions as classical universities, former polytechnics and colleges of advanced technology, and greenfield universities. (Author/MSE)

  8. The Role of Prior Mathematical Experience in Predicting Mathematics Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Fiona; Hannigan, Ailish; Fitzmaurice, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of deficiencies in basic mathematical skills of beginning undergraduates has been documented worldwide. Many different theories have been set out as to why these declines in mathematical competency levels have occurred over time. One such theory is the widening access to higher education which has resulted in a less mathematically…

  9. Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in Korean athletic and non-athletic adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kim, Gwi-Sun; Park, Ji-Sun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Athletes generally desire changes in body composition in order to enhance their athletic performance. Often, athletes will practice chronic energy restrictions to attain body composition changes, altering their energy needs. Prediction of resting metabolic rates (RMR) is important in helping to determine an athlete's energy expenditure. This study compared measured RMR of athletic and non-athletic adolescents with predicted RMR from commonly used prediction equations to identify the most accurate equation applicable for adolescent athletes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 50 athletes (mean age of 16.6 ± 1.0 years, 30 males and 20 females) and 50 non-athletes (mean age of 16.5 ± 0.5 years, 30 males and 20 females) were enrolled in the study. The RMR of subjects was measured using indirect calorimetry. The accuracy of 11 RMR prediction equations was evaluated for bias, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Until more accurate prediction equations are developed, our findings recommend using the formulas by Cunningham (-29.8 kcal/day, limits of agreement -318.7 and +259.1 kcal/day) and Park (-0.842 kcal/day, limits of agreement -198.9 and +196.9 kcal/day) for prediction of RMR when studying male adolescent athletes. Among the new prediction formulas reviewed, the formula included in the fat-free mass as a variable [RMR = 730.4 + 15 × fat-free mass] is paramount when examining athletes. CONCLUSIONS The RMR prediction equation developed in this study is better in assessing the resting metabolic rate of Korean athletic adolescents. PMID:26244075

  10. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females

    PubMed Central

    ALIASGHARZADEH, Soghra; MAHDAVI, Reza; ASGHARI JAFARABADI, Mohammad; NAMAZI, Nazli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a necessary component in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used predictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18–30 years old with body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013. After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™) and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR. Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736–1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day). Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over estimated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05). As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction) and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction), the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively. Conclusion: Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people. PMID:26258095