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1

Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

Tom Leininger

2005-03-31

2

Error analysis of a ratio pyrometer by numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

A numerical method has been devised to evaluate measurement errors for a three channel ratio pyrometer as a function of temperature. The pyrometer is simulated by computer codes, which can be used to explore the behavior of various designs. The influence of the various components in the system can be evaluated. General conclusions can be drawn about what makes a good pyrometer, and an existing pyrometer was evaluated, to predict its behavior as a function of temperature. The results show which combination of two channels gives the best precision. 12 refs., 12 figs.

Gathers, G.R.

1990-05-01

3

Error analysis of a ratio pyrometer by numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

A numerical method has been devised to evaluate measurement errors for a three-channel ratio pyrometer as a function of temperature. The pyrometer is simulated by computer codes, which can be used to explore the behavior of various designs. The influence of the various components in the system can be evaluated. General conclusions can be drawn about what makes a good pyrometer, and an existing pyrometer was evaluated, to predict its behavior as a function of temperature. The results show which combination of two channels gives the best precision. 13 refs., 12 figs.

Gathers, G.R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1992-01-01

4

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2004-01-01

5

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-10-01

6

Automated coke guide pyrometer system  

SciTech Connect

Coke temperature in coke ovens during pushing is monitored automatically by a computer based system using five pyrometers. Vertical and horizontal temperature profiles of the oven walls and entire coke battery are used to pinpoint heating problems, adjust heating practices for maximum efficiency and set priorities for battery maintenance.

Horvath, V.V.; Pfeiffer, T.J.; Wetzel, J.S.

1985-09-01

7

PYROLASER - PYROLASER OPTICAL PYROMETER OPERATING SYSTEM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PYROLASER package is an operating system for the Pyrometer Instrument Company's Pyrolaser. There are 6 individual programs in the PYROLASER package: two main programs, two lower level subprograms, and two programs which, although independent, function predominantly as macros. The package provides a quick and easy way to setup, control, and program a standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emissivity measurements may be either collected as if the Pyrolaser were in the manual operations mode, or displayed on real time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for post-test analysis. A shell is supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, to be easily added to the system. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program provides full on-screen remote operation capabilities, thus allowing the user to operate the Pyrolaser from the computer just as it would be operated manually. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program also allows the use of "quick starts". Quick starts provide an easy way to permit routines to be used as setup macros for specific applications or tests. The specific procedures required for a test may be ordered in a sequence structure and then the sequence structure can be started with a simple button in the cluster structure provided. One quick start macro is provided for continuous Pyrolaser operation. A subprogram, Display Continuous Pyr Data, is used to display and store the resulting data output. Using this macro, the system is set up for continuous operation and the subprogram is called to display the data in real time on strip charts. The data is simultaneously stored in a spreadsheet format. The resulting spreadsheet file can be opened in any one of a number of commercially available spreadsheet programs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program is provided as a continuously run subprogram for incorporation of the Pyrolaser software into a process control or feedback control scheme in a multi-component system. The program requires the Pyrolaser to be set up using the Pyrometer String Transfer macro. It requires no inputs and provides temperature and emissivity as outputs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program can be run continuously and the data can be sampled as often or as seldom as updates of temperature and emissivity are required. PYROLASER is written using the Labview software for use on Macintosh series computers running System 6.0.3 or later, Sun Sparc series computers running OpenWindows 3.0 or MIT's X Window System (X11R4 or X11R5), and IBM PC or compatibles running Microsoft Windows 3.1 or later. Labview requires a minimum of 5Mb of RAM on a Macintosh, 24Mb of RAM on a Sun, and 8Mb of RAM on an IBM PC or compatible. The Labview software is a product of National Instruments (Austin,TX; 800-433-3488), and is not included with this program. The standard distribution medium for PYROLASER is a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. It is also available on a 3.5 inch 720K MS-DOS format diskette, a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format, and a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation in Macintosh WordPerfect version 2.0.4 format is included on the distribution medium. Printed documentation is included in the price of the program. PYROLASER was developed in 1992.

Roberts, F. E.

1994-01-01

8

Signal processing computer system for multi-wavelength imaging pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the multi-wavelength imaging pyrometer (M-WIP) workstation, a signal processing computer system for multi-wavelength imaging pyrometer, is presented in this paper. The M-WIP was developed for non-contact surface temperature profile measurement of distant objects with unknown spectrally varying emissivity. The M-WIP workstation was designed as a general purpose computer system for electronic imaging, and its application targets are

Jun Li; Edwin Hou; Walter F. Kosonocky

1996-01-01

9

Optical System for a Two Colour Pyrometer,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To increase understanding of the combustion process it is desirable to know the time development of the temperature of burning coal particles. This may be measured by the technique of 'two color pyrometer' where the intensity of light emission is compared...

I. A. Armour

1987-01-01

10

Multi-color pyrometer temperature measurement system. Topical report 10  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Color Pyrometer System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Green, R.A.; Philip, T.

1995-04-01

11

Model-based emissivity correction in pyrometer temperature control of rapid thermal processing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-wavelength pyrometers are most often used to infer wafer temperature in rapid-thermal-processing (RTP) systems. A constant wafer emissivity is assumed with a pyrometer, but a variation in the wafer's surface emissivity can result in an error in the inferred temperature which affects the temperature control of the RTP system. A time-dependent variation is evident in rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition

F. Y. Sorrell; R. S. Gyurcsik

1993-01-01

12

Pyrometer method for measuring slab temperature in a reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to measure the temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace with increased accuracy using either a single or dual pyrometer system through use of a multiplicity of temperature correction functions involving temperatures of slab and wall, distance between a pyrometer and the slab at which it is aimed, a ratio of air and fuel supplying the furnace heat and radiation interferences. The functions are chosen by a micro-processor in the system dependent on temperature differentials, emissivity setting of the pyrometer, target distance between pyrometer and slab, and air and fuel flow rates existing and fluctuating in the system.

Rudzki, E.M.; Jackson, R.W.; Martocci, A.P.

1984-02-21

13

Development of a Multi-Point Pyrometer System (MPPS) for measuring surface temperature and emissivity  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US DOE MHD research program, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP which can make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. This report describes this system.

Benton, R.D.; Jang, Ping-Rey

1993-06-01

14

Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].

Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shibata, S.; Aoki, H. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gregory, C. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2012-10-15

15

Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas.  

PubMed

A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of ~10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)]. PMID:23126856

Morita, T; Sakawa, Y; Kuramitsu, Y; Dono, S; Ide, T; Shibata, S; Aoki, H; Tanji, H; Sano, T; Shiroshita, A; Waugh, J N; Gregory, C D; Woolsey, N C; Takabe, H

2012-10-01

16

Streaked Optical Pyrometer System for Laser-Driven Shock-Wave Experiments on OMEGA  

SciTech Connect

The temperature of laser-driven shock waves is of interest to inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density physics. We report on a streaked optical pyrometer that measures the self-emission of laser-driven shocks simultaneously with a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Together these diagnostics are used to obtain the temporally and spatially resolved temperatures of ~Mbar shocks driven by the OMEGA laser. We provide a brief description of the diagnostic and how it is used with VISAR. Key spectral calibration results are discussed and important characteristics of the recording system are presented.

Miller, J.E.; Boehly, T.R.; Melchior, Meyerhofer, D.D.; Celliers, P.M.; Eggert, J.H.; Hicks, D.G.; Sorce, C.M.; Oertel, J.A.; Emmel, P.M.

2007-03-23

17

Streaked optical pyrometer system for laser-driven shock-wave experiments on OMEGA.  

PubMed

The temperature of laser-driven shock waves is of interest to inertial confinement fusion and high-energy-density physics. We report on a streaked optical pyrometer that measures the self-emission of laser-driven shocks simultaneously with a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). Together these diagnostics are used to obtain the temporally and spatially resolved temperatures of approximately megabar shocks driven by the OMEGA laser. We provide a brief description of the diagnostic and how it is used with VISAR. Key spectral calibration results are discussed and important characteristics of the recording system are presented. PMID:17411209

Miller, J E; Boehly, T R; Melchior, A; Meyerhofer, D D; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Hicks, D G; Sorce, C M; Oertel, J A; Emmel, P M

2007-03-01

18

Polaradiometric Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polaradiometric pyrometer provides measurements from which one calculates temperature of specimen, without having to measure or account explicitly for polarization-dependent emissivities and reflectivities of specimen. Provides measurements of spectral intensities in two perpendicular polarizations. When brightness of lamp set so two measured intensities equal, measurements used to compute temperature.

Abtahi, Ali A.

1995-01-01

19

Rotating turbine blade pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-contacting pyrometer system optically measures surface temperature distribution on rotating turbine blade, comprising line-by-line scan via fiber optic probe. Each scan line output is converted to digital signals, temporarily stored in buffer memory, and then processed in minicomputer for display as temperature.

Buchele, D. R.; Lesco, D. J.

1974-01-01

20

Improvements to the three-color optical CCD-based pyrometer system  

SciTech Connect

We put forward an improved three-color measurement scheme with a color CCD sensor using the combination of effective wavelengths and blackbody calibrations. The process of effective wavelengths realizes the separation of the emissivity function from the measurement integral equation. This improved method not only effectively avoids errors arising from the traditional process adopting the basic wavelengths, but also simplifies the complex integral calculations. For a blackbody or graybody, the measurement performance of the pyrometer was experimentally investigated from the point of the temperature sensitivity. The results show that narrowing the spectrum bandwidth with different bandpass spectral filters may improve the temperature sensitivities. The spectrum adjustment not only makes the linear emissivity more suitable in the narrower waveband, but also reduces the numerical uncertainty of the effective wavelengths. For nongray objects, the effects of the numerical uncertainty of the effective wavelengths to measurements were quantificationally evaluated at different measurement conditions (different temperatures, emissivities, and spectrums). The results indicate that the reference values of 584, 555, and 511nm or 607, 560, and 506nm of the effective wavelengths are reasonable for the present system with the modified spectral response using Filter 1 or Filter 2. The maximum calculation errors arising from the reference effective wavelengths are less than 1.6%. In this paper, the technical realization steps of the improved method are also described. The measurement experiments of a metal sample in hot environments were carried out to further verify the applicability of this improved CCD-based pyrometer. The results agreed well with the spectrometer-based results.

Fu Tairan; Zhao Huan; Zeng Jun; Wang Zhe; Zhong Maohua; Shi Congling

2010-11-01

21

Closed loop control for laser micro spot welding using fast pyrometer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser micro spot welding offers temperature resistant high strength contacts without filler material. However, due to varying surface absorption properties of copper, the welding quality shows poor reproducibility.To stabilize the process we set up a power control for laser micro spot welding of copper. It consists of a high speed pyrometer and an external micro controller. The subject of the

T. Stehr; J. Hermsdorf; T. Henning; R. Kling

2010-01-01

22

Reference wavelength method for a two-color pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference wavelength method is used for a two-color pyrometer and, with the reference wavelength method, an analytical formula of the ratio temperature for the two-color pyrometer is derived. For one channel of the two-color pyrometer, with a triangular spectral response of 100-nm FWHM and 2.0-micron peak wavelength, the effective wavelength and the correction factors with several reference wavelengths are

Jae Won Hahn; Chunghi Rhee

1987-01-01

23

Closed loop control for laser micro spot welding using fast pyrometer systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser micro spot welding offers temperature resistant high strength contacts without filler material. However, due to varying surface absorption properties of copper, the welding quality shows poor reproducibility. To stabilize the process we set up a power control for laser micro spot welding of copper. It consists of a high speed pyrometer and an external micro controller. The subject of the investigations is to apply a constant energy amount using conduction welding to increase the process stability. Using the closed loop control, the standard deviation of pull force for overlap welds is reduced from 3.3N to 1.3N.

Stehr, T.; Hermsdorf, J.; Henning, T.; Kling, R.

24

Reference wavelength method for a two-color pyrometer.  

PubMed

The reference wavelength method is used for a two-color pyrometer and, with the reference wavelength method, an analytical formula of the ratio temperature for the two-color pyrometer is derived. For one channel of the two-color pyrometer, with a triangular spectral response of 0.1-micro m FWHM and 2.0-micro m peak wavelength, the effective wavelength and the correction factors with several reference wavelengths are determined. By fitting the curves of the effective wavelength and the correction factor to simple functional forms of temperature, the radiance errors for both cases are calculated. Also, it is found that the correction factor determined in a single-color pyrometer can be used directly in one channel of the two-color pyrometer without additional calculation. PMID:20523516

Hahn, J W; Rhee, C

1987-12-15

25

The use of optical pyrometers in axial flow turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical pyrometer system that can be used to measure metal temperatures over an extended range of temperature has been developed. Real-time flame discrimination permits accurate operation in the gas turbine environment with high flame content. This versatile capability has been used in a number of ways. In experimental engines, a fixed angle pyrometer has been used for turbine health monitoring for the automatic test stand abort system. Turbine blade creep capability has been improved by tailoring the burner profile based on measured blade temperatures. Fixed and traversing pyrometers were used extensively during engine development to map blade surface temperatures in order to assess cooling effectiveness and identify optimum configurations. Portable units have been used in turbine field inspections. A new low temperature pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool in the alternate turbopump design for the Space Shuttle main engine. Advanced engine designs will incorporate pyrometers in the engine control system to limit operation to safe temperatures.

Sellers, R. R.; Przirembel, H. R.; Clevenger, D. H.; Lang, J. L.

1989-07-01

26

The use of optical pyrometers in axial flow turbines  

SciTech Connect

An optical pyrometer system that can be used to measure metal temperatures over an extended range of temperature has been developed. Real-time flame discrimination permits accurate operation in the gas turbine environment with high flame content. This versatile capability has been used in a number of ways. In experimental engines, a fixed angle pyrometer has been used for turbine health monitoring for the automatic test stand abort system. Turbine blade creep capability has been improved by tailoring the burner profile based on measured blade temperatures. Fixed and traversing pyrometers were used extensively during engine development to map blade surface temperatures in order to assess cooling effectiveness and identify optimum configurations. Portable units have been used in turbine field inspections. A new low temperature pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool in the alternate turbopump design for the Space Shuttle main engine. Advanced engine designs will incorporate pyrometers in the engine control system to limit operation to safe temperatures.

Sellers, R.R.; Przirembel, H.R.; Clevenger, D.H.; Lang, J.L.

1989-01-01

27

Microprocessor directed optical pyrometer  

SciTech Connect

A portable automatic disappearing filament optical pyrometer having low power demand incorporating a solid state line scanner as a sensing element is controlled by a microprocessor to perform a balance between the radiation from a target and a lamp filament to provide a digital indication of the temperature of the target including compensation for emissivity of the target.

Clark, A.H.; O'neil, J.E.; Tenney, A.S.

1983-03-01

28

Fiber-coupled optical pyrometer for shock-wave studies  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a new optical pyrometer with unique advantages for shock-wave studies and for measurements of systems that are moving with respect to the detection system. Our pyrometer is fully fiber optic coupled. This completely eliminates any time-dependent imaging or aperture effects common to imaging pyrometers, and is simple to align and calibrate. The sensitivity is also higher than typical imaging systems used for shock experiments. The design is excellent for observations of time-varying phenomena. Detection is done with fast photomultiplier tubes with roughly 1 ns response. In addition, one may also include a streaked spectroscopic system, making this system ideal for fast spectroscopic studies.

Holmes, N.C. (University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1995-03-01

29

Development of multicolor pyrometers to monitor the transient response of burning carbonaceous particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-color ratio pyrometer has been developed to obtain surface temperatures and high-temperature combustion rates of burning carbonaceous particles. The features and performance of this instrument are contrasted to those of a two-color ratio pyrometer, constructed earlier for similar studies. The three-color pyrometer employs a visible (0.65 μm) and two near-infrared (0.80 and 0.975 μm) wavelengths. The instrument uses a

Yiannis A. Levendis; Kelvin Rafael Estrada; Hoyt C. Hottel

1992-01-01

30

A multicolor imaging pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multicolor imaging pyrometer was designed for accurately and precisely measuring the temperature distribution histories of small moving samples. The device projects six different color images of the sample onto a single charge coupled device array that provides an RS-170 video signal to a computerized frame grabber. The computer automatically selects which one of the six images provides useful data, and converts that information to a temperature map. By measuring the temperature of molten aluminum heated in a kiln, a breadboard version of the device was shown to provide high accuracy in difficult measurement situations. It is expected that this pyrometer will ultimately find application in measuring the temperature of materials undergoing radiant heating in a microgravity acoustic levitation furnace.

Frish, Michael B.; Frank, Jonathan H.

1989-01-01

31

Fast fiber-optic multi-wavelength pyrometer.  

PubMed

A fast fiber-optic multi-wavelength pyrometer was developed for the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra from 200 nm to 1700 nm using a CCD detector and an InGaAs detector. The pyrometer system conveniently and quickly provides the sufficient choices of multiple measurement wavelengths using optical diffraction, which avoids the use of narrow-band filters. Flexible optical fibers are used to transmit the radiation so the pyrometer can be used for temperature measurements in harsh environments. The setup and calibrations (wavelength calibration, nonlinearity calibration, and radiation response calibration) of this pyrometer system were described. Development of the multi-wavelength pyrometer involved optimization of the bandwidth and temperature discrimination of the multiple spectra data. The analysis results showed that the wavelength intervals, ??(CCD) = 30 nm and ??(InGaAs) = 50 nm, are the suitable choices as a tradeoff between the simple emissivity model assumption and the multiple signal discrimination. The temperature discrimination was also quantificationally evaluated for various wavelengths and temperatures. The measurement performance of the fiber-optic multi-wavelength pyrometer was partially verified through measurements with a high-temperature blackbody and actual hot metals. This multi-wavelength pyrometer can be used for remote high-temperature measurements. PMID:21721719

Fu, Tairan; Tan, Peng; Pang, Chuanhe; Zhao, Huan; Shen, Yi

2011-06-01

32

Beam Director For Optical Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical-fiber pyrometer under development observes fields of view as much as 31 degree off axis. Prismlike end fitting bends viewing angle so pyrometer can "look" at object off axis. Angled face directs thermal radiation from object into optical-fiber cable along axis.

Wyett, Lynn M.; Randall, Michael R.

1988-01-01

33

Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goals are to design, construct, and program a prototype imaging pyrometer capable of measuring the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space. The approach is to utilize an optical system which operates at short wavelengths compared to the peak of the blackbody spectrum for the temperature range of interest, thus minimizing errors associated with a lack of knowledge about heated sample emissivity. An analysis of the system's temperature measurement capability based on the camera's responsivity was performed and bound to be satisfactory. Details for the evolving optical design and the progress towards construction of a working model are discussed. Details of the algorithm developed for selecting the optimum colors to be used by the pyrometer are reported. Though final selection of the colors will have to await a final design of the optical system, results using a preliminary optical design are presented.

Frish, Michael; Frank, Jonathan; Beerman, Henry

1988-01-01

34

C2 Swan spectrum used as a molecular pyrometer in transferred arc and the influence noise to signal ratio on the temperature values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C2 Swan system molecular emission spectrum is frequently observed in arc plasmas containing hydrocarbons. The spectra emitted from 5 kw in the transferred arc reactor at atmospheric pressure by CH4/CO2/Ar mixture are recorded with the help of an optical system consisting of a linear CCD array coupled with 2m spectrometer. The rotational temperature of 4300300K is found from the experimental Abel inverted spectra in the arc center after a point-to-point comparison of the spectrum with a computer simulated one. The influence of the noise to signal ratio has been studied, if the noise to signal ratio is about 10% we found an error of 7% at temperature 3000K and 10% at 6000K.

Nassar, H.

2014-05-01

35

Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); International Space University, 67000 Strasbourg (France); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2007-09-15

36

Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

2007-09-01

37

Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), under contract to NASA JPL, during a 2.5-year SBIR Phase 2 Program. The program goals were to design, construct, and program a prototype passive imaging pyrometer capable of measuring, as accurately as possible, and controlling the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space. These goals were achieved and the instrument was delivered to JPL in November 1989. The pyrometer utilizes an optical system which operates at short wavelengths compared to the peak of the black-body spectrum for the temperature range of interest, thus minimizing errors associated with a lack of knowledge about the heated sample's emissivity. To cover temperatures from 900 to 2500 K, six wavelengths are available. The preferred wavelength for measurement of a particular temperature decreases as the temperature increases. Images at all six wavelengths are projected onto a single CCD camera concurrently. The camera and optical system have been calibrated to relate the measured intensity at each pixel to the temperature of the heated object. The output of the camera is digitized by a frame grabber installed in a personal computer and analyzed automatically to yield temperature information. The data can be used in a feedback loop to alter the status of computer-activated switches and thereby control a heating system.

Frish, M. B.; Frank, J.; Baker, J. E.; Foutter, R. R.; Beerman, H.; Allen, M. G.

1990-01-01

38

Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

1988-01-01

39

Two-color optical charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer using a two-peak filter.  

PubMed

A two-color optical charge-coupled-device (CCD)-based pyrometer was developed using a multipeak interference filter with a color CCD sensor to measure multicolor signals with specified wavelengths. The effective and simple method adjusts the fixed spectrum response characteristics of a color CCD to allow improved temperature measurements. This pyrometer system not only has the advantage of traditional two-color (two-wavelength) pyrometry, but also overcomes the restrictions of color CCDs that can only be applied in waveband measurements. The measurement performance of the system using a two-peak filter (?(1)=643?nm,??(2)=564?nm) was evaluated by blackbody experiments. The results show that the low temperature detection limit is increased about 200 K with an increase in the sensitivity of the measured signals compared with the original system without two-peak filter [Fu, et al., Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 586 (2010)]. And the effective temperature range is also increased when T > 1233 K. The measured ratio C(R)/C(G) is monotonically relative to the temperature, which simplifies the measurements. The temperature sensitivity of 2.49 is larger and more uniform than the temperature sensitivity of 1.36 in the previous original system. Thus, the measurement performance of the new system is greatly improved. Finally, as an application, the surface temperature distribution of stainless steel sample in hot environments was determined by this new CCD-based pyrometer. The results agree well with the spectrometer-based results and further verify the applicability of the new system. PMID:21198043

Fu, Tairan; Zhao, Huan; Zeng, Jun; Zhong, Maohua; Shi, Congling

2010-12-01

40

Uncertainty of Pyrometers in a Casting Facility  

SciTech Connect

This work has established uncertainty limits for the EUO filament pyrometers, digital pyrometers, two-color automatic pyrometers, and the standards used to certify these instruments (Table 1). If symmetrical limits are used, filament pyrometers calibrated in Production have certification uncertainties of not more than {+-}20.5 C traceable to NIST over the certification period. Uncertainties of these pyrometers were roughly {+-}14.7 C before introduction of the working standard that allowed certification in the field. Digital pyrometers addressed in this report have symmetrical uncertainties of not more than {+-}12.7 C or {+-}18.1 C when certified on a Y-12 Standards Laboratory strip lamp or in a production area tube furnace, respectively. Uncertainty estimates for automatic two-color pyrometers certified in Production are {+-}16.7 C. Additional uncertainty and bias are introduced when measuring production melt temperatures. A -19.4 C bias was measured in a large 1987 data set which is believed to be caused primarily by use of Pyrex{trademark} windows (not present in current configuration) and window fogging. Large variability (2{sigma} = 28.6 C) exists in the first 10 m of the hold period. This variability is attributed to emissivity variation across the melt and reflection from hot surfaces. For runs with hold periods extending to 20 m, the uncertainty approaches the calibration uncertainty of the pyrometers. When certifying pyrometers on a strip lamp at the Y-12 Standards Laboratory, it is important to limit ambient temperature variation (23{+-}4 C), to order calibration points from high to low temperatures, to allow 6 m for the lamp to reach thermal equilibrium (12 m for certifications below 1200 C) to minimize pyrometer bias, and to calibrate the pyrometer if error exceeds vendor specifications. A procedure has been written to assure conformance.

Mee, D.K.; Elkins, J.E.; Fleenor, R.M.; Morrision, J.M.; Sherrill, M.W.; Seiber, L.E.

2001-12-07

41

IR optical fiber-based noncontact pyrometer for drop tube instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a two color pyrometer with infrared optical fiber bundles for collection of the infrared radiation is described. The pyrometer design is engineered to facilitate its use for measurement of the temperature of small, falling samples in a microgravity materials processing experiment using a 100 meter long drop tube. Because the samples are small and move rapidly through the field of view of the pyrometer, the optical power budget of the detection system is severly limited. Strategies for overcoming this limitation are discussed.

May, R. G.; Moneyhun, S.; Saleh, W.; Sudeora, S.; Claus, R. O.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

1989-01-01

42

Self Calibration of a 2-wavelength Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pyrometers require calibrations to determine their instrument constants before they can be used in remote temperature measurements. These constants reflect the combined effects of detector response, the transmissivities of intervening optical media (windows and gases) and the emissivity of the measured surface. We describe here the principal and the demonstration of self calibrating 2-wavelength pyrometer.

Ng, Daniel

1998-01-01

43

A Self Calibrating Emissivity and/or Transmissivity Independent Multiwavelength Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pyrometer is a favorite method to do remote temperature measurement in research and development. One-color, two-color and the disappearing filament pyrometers are most common, multicolor and multiwavelength pyrometers are being introduced recently. All these pyrometers invariably require, in one form or another, information concerning emissivity, the medium transmissivity, their ratio at some two spectral regions, the instrument's calibration constant, etc. for their operation. This information can come from hand books, from the manufacturer or in some instances, from results of dedicated separate experiments. Often this information is sample or instrument specific. Sometimes this information, though obtained from a special experiment, is obtained using a separate sample rather than the one pursued for temperature measurement. Then, there would be the question of variability from sample to sample and variability from batch to batch in the sample used. Also, previously determined calibrations can change with time, and the only way to reduce uncertainty is to perform the calibration more frequently or even immediately before the experiment. We have developed a multiwavelength pyrometer, which eliminates the need to supply the necessary emissivity and/or transmissivity information and the instrument calibration constants ahead of time. The pyrometer calibrates itself from its first cycle data.

Ng, Daniel

1996-01-01

44

Spectral Sensitivity Corrections for Optical Standard Pyrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed to deal with the spectral width of optical pyrometers. A constant reference wavelength and a radiance correction factor are introduced instead of a temperature dependent effective wavelength as is used in the conventional method.

J. Bezemer

1974-01-01

45

Real-time optical pyrometer in laser machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunities for temperature measurement by a high-speed high-spatial-resolution pyrometer system in a wide range of laser applications are illustrated by heat treatment, welding, cladding and alloying. Continuous CO2 and pulsed Nd:YAG laser machining are considered. The influence of such factors as beam traverse speed, laser power (or pulse energy), slab thickness, melt drop expulsion and distance from the seam

M. Ignatiev; I. Smurov; G. Flamant

1994-01-01

46

The Spectropyrometer - a Practical Multi-wavelength Pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expert-system multi-wavelength pyrometer, commercially available since 1997 and using a spectrophotometer as its detector, has been able to overcome many well-known difficulties of pyrometry, including unknown, changing, and\\/or spectral dependence of emissivity as well as environmental absorption of radiation. In addition to a spectrophotometer and the usual optics, the instrument includes a computer which analyzes each measurement and then

Ralph A. Felice

2002-01-01

47

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-07-01

48

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

2003-04-01

49

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01

50

[Research on the non-source temperature calibration of Multispectral pyrometer].  

PubMed

At present, Multispectral pyrometer used in high-temperature measurement has already had high resolution and high signal to noise ratio. However, the non-source temperature (higher than 3 000 degrees C) calibration falls far behind the development of multispectral pyrometer and has already seriously hindered the precision and application range of the pyrometer. In order to break through the limitation of calibration of non-source temperature, a new calibration method was put forward in the present paper. The temperature-voltage (T-U) model was formed based on power function where output voltage U of the multispectral pyrometer was derived from its corresponding known temperature point. Based on the model, derivative least square method was used to obtain the parameters of the model to realize the non-source temperature calibration. Both theoretical and experimental data proved the efficiency and precision of the calibration method. In addition, within the spectral range of high-temperature measurement pyrometer (0.4-1.1 microm), the range of non-source temperature calibration with precision better than 3 per thousand, 1% and 3% respectively have been divided theoretically. PMID:22497175

Sun, Xiao-gang; Sun, Kun; Dai, Jing-min

2012-01-01

51

The set-up of a vision pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new radiation pyrometer, a vision pyrometric device based on a commercial digital colour camera and SUNPRO software, which converts the calibrated commercial digital colour camera into a scientific instrument for temperature measurement. We introduce the calibration experiments and the principle of this vision pyrometer, and the application of the vision pyrometer is illustrated in the specific

Tairan Fu; Xiaofang Cheng; Congling Shi; Maohua Zhong; Tiemin Liu; Xiaobing Zheng

2006-01-01

52

High-speed spatial scanning pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed spatial scanning pyrometer has been designed and developed to measure spectral radiance temperatures at multiple target points along the length of a rapidly heating/cooling specimen in dynamic thermophysical experiments at high temperatures (above about 1800 K). The design, which is based on a self-scanning linear silicon array containing 1024 elements, enables the pyrometer to measure spectral radiance temperatures (nominally at 650 nm) at 1024 equally spaced points along a 25-mm target length. The elements of the array are sampled consecutively every 1 microsec, thereby permitting one cycle of measurements to be completed in approximately 1 msec. Procedures for calibration and temperature measurement as well as the characteristics and performance of the pyrometer are described. The details of sources and estimated magnitudes of possible errors are given. An example of measurements of radiance temperatures along the length of a tungsten rod, during its cooling following rapid resistive pulse heating, is presented.

Cezairliyan, A.; Chang, R. F.; Foley, G. M.; Miller, A. P.

1993-01-01

53

A sensitive optical pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical system was used to determine temperatures above 2400 K in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of sub-microsecond pulses of light emitted from initially transparent solid samples in the visible and near infrared (450 to 900 nm). The high sensitivity of this optical pyrometer is attributed to the small number of channels, large aperture (0.03 steradian), the large bandwidth per channel (40 nm), and large photodiode detection area (0.2 sq cm). Improved calibration techniques reduce systematic errors encountered in previous shock-temperature experiments.

Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

1984-01-01

54

Development of multicolor pyrometers to monitor the transient response of burning carbonaceous particles  

SciTech Connect

A three-color ratio pyrometer has been developed to obtain surface temperatures and high-temperature combustion rates of burning carbonaceous particles. The features and performance of this instrument are contrasted to those of a two-color ratio pyrometer, constructed earlier for similar studies. The three-color pyrometer employs a visible (0.65 {mu}m) and two near-infrared (0.80 and 0.975 {mu}m) wavelengths. The instrument uses a single optical fiber to capture radiation emitted from a particle burning in a high-temperature laminar flow furnace. Monitoring of the combustion events takes place coaxially with the particle flow, from observation windows located at the top of the furnace injectors. Thus, the temperature-time history of burning particles can be recorded. The radiation flux is split into three beams using dichroic edge filters. Narrow (or medium) bandwidth interference filters guide monochromatic radiation to solid-state silicon photodetectors. The associated amplification is linear and/or logarithmic. In contrast, the two-color pyrometer used a bifurcated optical fiber bundle to split radiation to two medium bandwidth interference filters centered at 0.80 and 1.0 {mu}m. Silicon detectors were employed, associated with linear amplification. Both instruments were used to monitor the combustion temperature-time behavior of burning highly homogeneous, spherical, and monodisperse carbonaceous particles, and their performance is discussed herein.

Levendis, Y.A.; Estrada, K.R. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)); Hottel, H.C. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1992-07-01

55

75 FR 42330 - Elemental Mercury Used in Flow Meters, Natural Gas Manometers, and Pyrometers; Significant New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elemental Mercury Used in Flow Meters, Natural Gas Manometers, and Pyrometers; Significant...7439-97-6) for use in flow meters, natural gas manometers, and pyrometers, except...elemental mercury used in flow meters, natural gas manometers, or pyrometers....

2010-07-21

56

Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

Ng, Daniel

1997-01-01

57

An automatic emissivity-compensated radiation pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new radiation pyrometer is described for measuring the true temperature of a surface, independently of the emissivity of that surface. A two-beam null-balancing technique is used which provides automatic operation and recording of the temperature. The detector employed is a photoconductive lead sulphide cell.The prototype described was designed to measure the temperatures of the commutator surfaces of the traction

D. Kelsall

1963-01-01

58

Application of neural fuzzy network to pyrometer correction and temperature control in rapid thermal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature measurement and control are two difficult problems in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) system. For many applications such as rapid thermal processing chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) and rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), large changes in wafer emissivity can occur during film growing, leading to erroneous temperature measurements with a single wavelength pyrometer. The error in the inferred temperature will affect

Jiun-Hong Lai; Chin-Teng Lin

1999-01-01

59

Likelihood Ratio Derivative Estimators for Stochastic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the likelihood ratio derivative estimation techniques for stochastic systems. After a brief review of the basic concepts, likelihood ratio derivative estimators are presented for the following classes of stochastic processes: time hom...

P. W. Glynn

1989-01-01

60

Three-color pyrometer for burning particle temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A custom made three-color pyrometer was utilized to measure the temperature of pulverized coal particles heated, in an inert gas environment, by a high energy HF laser beam. The pyrometer operates in the near IR portion of the spectrum, and has a spatial resolution of about 1 mm. Particle temperature and surface area are obtained by correlating the measurements with

N. Gat; L. M. Cohen; A. B. Witte

1983-01-01

61

The construction and calibration of an inexpensive microsuction pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive microsuction pyrometer has been developed which is able to measure true gas temperatures using a very small gas flow. The efficiency of the pyrometer has been determined theoretically and by four different experimental techniques. The results of the four methods have been found to agree with one another and with the theoretical calculations. It is envisaged that these

A. W. D. Hills; A. Paulin

1969-01-01

62

Two-Band Pyrometers Detect Hydrogen Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-band infrared pyrometers detect small hydrogen fires at greater distances in full daylight being developed. Detectors utilize part of infrared spectrum in which signals from hydrogen flames 10 to the 3rd power to 10 to the 4th power times as intense as ultraviolet region of current detectors. Utilize low-loss infrared lenses for focusing and for limiting fields of view to screen out spurious signals from nearby sources. Working distances of as much as 100 meters possible. Portable, battery-powered unit gives audible alarm, in form of increase in frequency of tone, when aimed at hydrogen fire.

Collins, J. David; Youngquist, Robert C.; Simmons, Stephen M.

1993-01-01

63

High-Resolution, Two-Wavelength Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified two-color pyrometer measures temperatures of objects with high spatial resolution. Image focused on hole 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) in diameter in brass sheet near end of bundle, causing image to be distributed so fibers covered by defocused radiation from target. Pinhole ensures radiation from only small part of target scene reaches detector, thus providing required spatial resolution. By spreading radiation over bundle, pinhole ensures entire active area of detectors utilized. Produces signal as quiet as conventional instruments but with only 1/64 input radiation.

Bickler, Donald B.; Henry, Paul K.; Logiurato, D. Daniel

1989-01-01

64

Development of three-wavelength CCD image pyrometer used for the temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets.  

PubMed

This paper develops an imaging based three-color pyrometer for the monitoring of temperature distribution in a continuous casting billet. A novel optical device, together with an embedded electronic system, is designed to sequentially collect a dark image and three thermal images with specified wavelengths on a same monochromatic charge-coupled-device (CCD). The three thermal images provide the basis for the determination of target temperature, while the dark image is used to online eliminate the dark noise of CCD with a differential method. This image pyrometer is not only independent of target emissivity but also overcomes the dissimilarity of measuring accuracy between the micro-sensors of CCD resulted from the non-uniformity of pixels' intensity response and the vignetting of optical system. Furthermore, a precise two-color temperature field measuring model on the CCD pyrometer is established, based on which a self-adaptive light-integration mechanism is presented. Compared with the traditional fixed light-integration method, the measuring range of the pyrometer is greatly extended and its sensitivity in low temperature segment is improved. The test results in a steel factory demonstrate that the pyrometer is capable of meeting the requirement of surface temperature measurements about casting billets. Reliability and accuracy of measurement results are also discussed herein. PMID:24593387

Xie, Zhi; Bai, Haicheng

2014-02-01

65

Noncontact true temperature measurement. [of levitated sample using laser pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser pyrometer has been developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The laser beam is first expanded to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the target. For calibration of such a system, the reflectivity signal of an ideal 0.95 cm diameter gold-coated sphere (reflectivity = 0.99) is used as the reference for any other real targets. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of a blackbody furnace (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photo sensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. Preliminary results indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in excellent correlation with thermocouple measured temperatures.

Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

1987-01-01

66

Comparison of two pyrometers used to calibrate Primary Standards Laboratory's tungsten filament lamps  

SciTech Connect

The Primary Standards Laboratory presently uses an automatic optical pyrometer with a photomultiplier tube photodetector to calibrate tungsten filament lamps. This pyrometer is compared to a newly designed direct optical pyrometer with a photodiode photodetector. Though the direct pyrometer looks promising, final improvements are necessary to make a conclusive comparison.

Odom, M.K.

1987-01-01

67

Dual purpose pyrometer for temperature and solidification velocity measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual purpose pyrometer is described that allows both accurate radiance temperature measurement and fast temporal response. The system uses two silicon photodiodes with separate optical paths derived from a common spot on the sample. The optical bandwidths and response times of each detection circuit are tailored to the function of each radiometer. The radiance temperature of electromagnetically levitated metallic samples is measured over a narrow optical bandwidth with a high-gain silicon detector. The velocity of solidification of undercooled melts can be deduced from the rise time of the second silicon detector which samples a broad optical bandwidth and has a fast response time. Results from experiments on the undercooling and solidification behavior of electromagnetically levitated pure nickel show that the solidification velocity approaches 17 m/s at high undercooling.

Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.

1990-01-01

68

A fast UV/visible pyrometer for shock temperature measurements to 20 000 K  

SciTech Connect

An ultraviolet/visible pyrometer is described which can measure shock temperatures from 3000 to 20 000 K. The system is modular, and in general consists of six photomultiplier tubes and two linear intensified diode array/spectrograph systems which can cover the range from 250 to 800 nm. Extension of the pyrometer's capabilities into the ultraviolet is necessary for accurate measurements above 8000 K. The nature of the shock environment requires the photomultiplier tubes to have rise times on the order of 2 ns, with a typical experiment lasting between 20 and 500 ns. The system measures absolute intensity, and is calibrated against a known tungsten lamp prior to each experiment. The highest temperature measured was 18 300 K for fluid Xe. The targets needed to contain this type of cryogenic sample are described as well.

Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (US))

1989-12-01

69

Method and Apparatus for Polaradiometric Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation pyrometer for measuring the true temperature of a body is provided by detecting and measuring thermal radiation from the body based on the principle that the effects of angular emission I(sub 1) and reflection I(sub 2) on the polarization states p and s of radiation are complementary such that upon detecting the combined partial polarization state components I(sub p) = I(sub 1p) + I(sub 2p) and I(sub s) = I(sub 1s) + I(sub 2s) and adjusting the intensity of the variable radiation source of the reflected radiation I(sub 2) until the combined partial radiation components I(sub p) and I(sub s) are equal, the effects of emissivity as well as diffusivity of the surface of the body are eliminated, thus obviating the need for any post processing of brightness temperature data.

Abtahi, Ali A. (inventor)

1994-01-01

70

Multicolor pyrometer for materials processing in space, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program goals were to design, construct, and program a prototype passive imaging pyrometer capable of measuring, as accurately as possible, the temperature distribution across the surface of a moving object suspended in space.

Frish, Michael; Frank, Jonathan; Beerman, Henry

1988-01-01

71

Evaluation of Raytek Infrared Pyrometer for Continuous Propellant Temperature Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the Raytek IR pyrometer that was installed in the 600 gallon propellant mixers could be used to provide a continuous, accurate, reliable measurement of the propellant temperature during mixing. Th...

M. D. Dykstra

1990-01-01

72

A Comparison of Suction Pyrometer and CARS Derived Temperatures in an Industrial Scale Flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report compares temperatures measured with the suction pyrometer and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) techniques in turbulent, swirling, coal and No. 2 oil flames. The flames were generated in a horizontally fired, cylindrical (1.0 m dia. by 5.0 m long), axi-symmetric, tunnel furnace (firing rate l,000M.J\\/h). A broadband USED-CARS system was employed to make several, one thousand shot acquisitions

P. M. J. HUGHES; R. J. LACELLE; T. PARAMESWARAN

1995-01-01

73

A Blip-Scan Ratio Scoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A digital recording system for use in determining the blip-scan ratio of search radars was designed and constructed. The system accepts input from as many as seven operators observing one or more radars. Each operator has a choice of three input levels or...

F. D. Queen E. E. Maine

1974-01-01

74

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter\\/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter\\/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes

Paul P. Woskov; Daniel R. Cohn; Charles H. Titus; Jeffrey E. Surma

1998-01-01

75

Air-fuel ratio control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent described an air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine having an intake passage, fuel supply means for supplying fuel to cylinders of the engine through the intake passage in dependency on engine operating conditions, an exhaust passage from the engine. It also includes an O-sensor for detecting the concentration of oxygen in exhaust gases passing through

Kataoka

1986-01-01

76

Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

2012-01-01

77

A high-speed four-channel infrared pyrometer  

SciTech Connect

A high-speed, four-wavelength pyrometer has been developed for dynamic temperature measurements on samples that are heated by shock compression. The pyrometer uses a pair of off-axis parabolic mirrors to collect radiance emitted from a target of 1 mm in diameter. A single optical fiber delivers the collected radiant flux to the detector housing. Three dichroic beam splitters are used to spectrally split the light into four beams that are then focused onto an equal number of LN2-cooled InSb photodetectors. Broad bandwidth interference filters that are nominally centered at 1.8, 2.4, 3.4, and 5.0 {micro}m define the wavelength ranges of the four channels. The blackbody-temperature threshold of the pyrometer is at about 400 K. The signals are recorded at intervals as short as 20 ns using a four-channel digital oscilloscope. Procedures for calibration and temperature measurements are described.

Boboridis, K.; Obst, A. W. (Andrew W.)

2002-01-01

78

Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

1999-01-01

79

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

80

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30

81

Direct emissivity measurements on liquids and corrections to multi-color pyrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical pyrometry provides a means for non-contact temperature measurements whose accuracy depends on the accuracy with which specimen emittance is known. Two methods for obtaining the required emittance data are discussed in which the emittance is determined from measurements of the wavelength or polarization dependence of light emitted by the specimen. The spectral technique, multi-color pyrometry, yields apparent values for specimen emittance and temperature from emitted intensity measurements at two or more wavelengths. Emittance corrections cannot be eliminated by increasing the number of spectral intensity measurements required by an n-color pyrometer. Even if this were possible, the accuracy of temperature measurements by n-color pyrometry decreases with n such that pyrometers that require four intensity measurements would be impractical. In contrast, emittance values and corrections for one-color pyrometers can be accurately measured by the polarized light technique. The polarized light technique involves measurement of the degree of polarization for light emitted at an angle of 45 deg to the specimen normal. The reflectivities (r) for light polarized parallel (p) and normal (n) to the plane of emission are related by r(p) = r(n) squared. This leads to a simple relation between the intensity ratio for light emitted in the two polarized states and the emittance, i.e., e(n) = 2 - I(p)/I(n). The true specimen temperature is also obtained if absolute intensities are measured. Delvelopment of the polarized light technique in combination with one-color optical pyrometry is recommended to achieve accurate non-contact temperature measurements on liquids.

Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

1988-01-01

82

Pyrometer model based on sensor physical structure and thermal operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new simplified thermal model for pyrometers, which takes into account both their internal and external physical structure and operation. The model is experimentally tested on the REMS GTS, an instrument for measuring ground temperature, which is part of the payload of the NASA MSL mission to Mars. The proposed model is based on an energy balance

Eduardo Sebastin; Carlos Armiens; Javier Gmez-Elvira

2010-01-01

83

Three-wavelength pyrometer for measuring flame temperatures.  

PubMed

This paper describes a pyrometer that measures the continuum radiation from particles in a flame or explosion at three wavelengths (0.8 microm, 0.9 microm, and 1.0 microm). The particle temperature is calculated from the radiation data using the Planck equation. Temperatures measured for coal dust explosions in a closed vessel are presented. PMID:20212715

Cashdollar, K L

1979-08-01

84

Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.  

PubMed

The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. PMID:24248279

Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

2013-01-01

85

Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers  

PubMed Central

The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

2013-01-01

86

Development of infrared radiation pyrometer with optical fibersTwo-color pyrometer with non-contact fiber coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of pyrometer is developed, in which two optical fibers are used to accept and transmit the infrared energy. These two fibers are connected using a non-contact fiber coupler. In turning, the incidence face of one optical fiber which is embedded in a rotating workpiece accepts the infrared rays radiated from the cutting tool and emits it at

T. Ueda; M. Sato; A. Hosokawa; M. Ozawa

2008-01-01

87

Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

Abbey, H. G.

1980-02-12

88

A new multiwavelength pyrometer: Design and feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

A condition that must be fulfilled by a multiwavelength fiberoptics pyrometer is that the common end face of the fiber bundle must be located on the aperture stop of the instrument instead of the field stop. Unless the fibers are absolutely randomly mixed, each optical channel would select a different portion of the target, which is not necessarily isothermal. Wasting of available radiation flux is avoided if the radiation is dispersed with a prism and a detector is placed to intercept a band of the dispersed radiation. In the present work, a multiwavelength pyrometer is described in which the wavelength bands are selected with a direct vision prism and a diode array. The main optical and electronic parameters of the instrument are specified. The input parameters of the optical design are the target shape and dimensions, the prism dispersion angle, and the length of the array. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Ruffino, G. (II Universita di Roma (Italy))

1992-01-01

89

Multi-color pyrometer for materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction and calibration of a computer-linked multicolor pyrometer is described. The device was constructed for ready adaptation to a spacecraft and for use in the control of thermal processes for manufacturing materials in space. The pyrometer actually uses only one color at a time, and is relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the heated object's emissivity because the product of the color and the temperature has been selected to be within a regime where the radiant energy emitted from the body increases very rapidly with temperature. The instrument was calibrated and shown to exceed its design goal of temperature measurements between 300 and 2000 C, and its accuracy in the face of imprecise knowledge of the hot object's emissivity was demonstrated.

Frish, Michael B.; Spencer, Mark N.; Wolk, Nancy E.; Werner, Jennifer S.; Miranda, Henry A., Jr.

1988-01-01

90

Filter Radiometers as a Tool for Quality Assurance of Temperature Measurements with Linear Pyrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made with a pyrometer are vulnerable to errors if the pyrometer is misaligned, inaccurately characterized, or\\u000a malfunctioning. In this work, thermodynamic temperatures between 1,373 and 1,773K were studied by measuring a variable-temperature\\u000a blackbody with a linear pyrometer and four absolutely characterized filter radiometers. The filter radiometer measurements\\u000a were done in the irradiance mode. In the first set of measurements,

M. Ojanen; V. Ahtee; M. Noorma; T. Weckstrm; P. Krh; E. Ikonen

2008-01-01

91

Recent advances in the development of a multiwavelength imaging pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiwavelength imaging pyrometer (MWIP) is described that permits real-time remote sensing of temperature profiles of targets with unknown emissivity by measuring the spectral radiance of a target at several distinct wavelengths using a 320 by 122-element PtSi IR CCD imager with an assembly of seven narrowband IR filters in the range from 1790 to 4536 nm. Based on these

Michael B. Kaplinsky; Jun Li; Nathaniel J. McCaffrey; Vipulkumar Patel; Edwin S. Hou; Nuggehalli M. Ravindra; Constantine N. Manikopoulos; Walter F. Kosonocky

1997-01-01

92

Combustion gas temperature in a prechamber spark ignition engine measured by infrared pyrometer  

SciTech Connect

To obtain a more reasonable model of torch combustion in a spark ignition engine with a vertical or horizontal prechamber, the instantaneous temperatures of combustion gas are measured by an infrared absorption-emission pyrometer with a narrow band pass filter for CO/sub 2/ gas, while changing the torch nozzle area and air-fuel ratio. The gas temperature diagrams indicate that the ignition timing, flame propagation and combustion duration in the main chamber with vertical prechamber differ entirely from those with horizontal one. The fact is verified by comparing them with the heat release rates obtained from the pressure diagrams and with the flame propagation taken by means of high-speed photography. The measured gas temperature diagrams are, therefore, found to provide a lot of useful and local information concerning the combustion process and the engine performance in the prechamber engines.

Sakurauchi, Y.; Ryu, H.; Iijima, T.; Asanuma, T.

1987-01-01

93

Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircomia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

2001-01-01

94

A Precision Photoelectric Pyrometer for the Realization of the IPTS-68 above 1064.43 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, operation and performance of a precision photoelectric pyrometer, which operates automatically under computer control, are described. Methods of determining the spectral characteristics, the size-of-source effect, the degree of polarization and the nonlinearity are described and results given. A table of uncertainties shows that the pyrometer has the capability of realizing the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 with

T. P. Jones; J. Tapping

1982-01-01

95

Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus.

De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

1984-08-01

96

Evaluation of Raytek infrared pyrometer for continuous propellant temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the Raytek IR pyrometer that was installed in the 600 gallon propellant mixers could be used to provide a continuous, accurate, reliable measurement of the propellant temperature during mixing. The Raytek infrared sensor is not recommended to be used for controlling propellant temperature nor for inspection buy-off. The first part of the evaluation was to determine the accuracy of the sensor in measuring the propellant temperature. The second part was to determine the reliability of the air purge design in preventing contamination of the IR window.

Dykstra, Mark D.

1990-01-01

97

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine having a throttle valve to driving wheels of a motor vehicle through a clutch. The improvement in the system consists of: means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and for producing a corresponding first signal; means responsive to the first signal for determining a desired transmission ratio; means responsive to the desired transmission ratio for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve so as to provide an actual transmission ratio of the transmission corresponding to the desired transmission ratio; means for detecting actual rapid deceleration of the vehicle above a predetermined value of rapid deceleration and producing a rapid deceleration signal when the actual rapid deceleration is above the predetermined value; and means responsive to the rapid deceleration signal for increasing the desired transmission ratio so as via the second means to increase the actual transmission ratio.

Ohkuma, H.

1989-02-14

98

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars  

PubMed Central

We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASAs Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensors main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

Sebastian, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, Maria P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

2010-01-01

99

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.  

PubMed

We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

Sebastin, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gmez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, Mara P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

2010-01-01

100

Development of a multi-point two-color pyrometer for tube and wall temperature and emissivity measurement at the CFFF  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. DIAL's systems have been used primarily in support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) research program. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). The TCP is used to measure surface temperature and emissivity. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP to make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This paper describes an improvement in the DIAL TCP which provides for near simultaneous multipoint measurements, reduced dependence on electronic circuits. and a greatly improved data display system. Commercial two-color pyrometer systems are not suitable for our work because they do not provide for emissivity measurement The emissivity measurement provides insight into changes in surface characteristics and is an important consideration in our work. A second and important reason for our development of this system is the need to make simultaneous measurements at widely separated points. Finally, the data measured by this system is stored on magnetic media and can be correlated with other measurements on the system, e.g. furnace, under study.

Benton, R.D.; Jang, P.R.

1993-01-01

101

Multiwavelength optical pyrometer for shock compression experiments.  

PubMed

A system for measurement of the spectral radiance of materials shocked to high pressures ( approximately 100 GPa) by impact using a light gas gun is described. Thermal radiation from the sample is sampled at six wavelength bands in the visible spectrum, and each signal is separately detected by solid-state photodiodes, and recorded with a time resolution of approximately 10 ns. Interpretation of the records in terms of temperature of transparent sample materials is discussed. Results of a series of exploratory experiments with metals are also given. Shock temperatures in the range 4000-8000 K have been reliably measured. Spectral radiance and temperatures have been determined with uncertainties of 2%. PMID:18699402

Lyzenga, G A; Ahrens, T J

1979-11-01

102

Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary properties are usually expressed (for good observational reasons) as a function of primary mass. It has been found that the distribution of companion masses - the mass ratio distribution - is different for different primary masses. We argue that system mass is the more fundamental physical parameter to use. We show that if system masses are drawn from a log-normal mass function, then the different observed mass ratio distributions as a function of primary mass, from M-dwarfs to A-stars, are all consistent with a universal, flat, system mass ratio distribution. We also show that the brown dwarf mass ratio distribution is not drawn from the same flat distribution, suggesting that the process which decides upon mass ratios is very different in brown dwarfs and stars.

Goodwin, Simon P.

2013-03-01

103

Maximum ratio combining for OFDM systems with cochannel interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate a receive diversity combining method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless local area network systems with cochannel interference. The scheme utilizes interference plus noise power (INP) to obtain the weighting factors for signal to interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) based maximum ratio combining (MRC). INP is estimated by using the correlation between the subchannel

Bo-Seok Seo; Seong-Gon Choi; Jae-Sang Cha

2006-01-01

104

High-resolution surface temperature measurements on rotating turbine blades with an infrared pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-resolution pyrometer was developed and tested on a modified turbine engine. The pyrometer was used to obtain temperature profiles of the viewed surface of turbine blades in the engine at tip speeds up to 366 meters per second. The combination of coherent fiber optics, a silicon avalanche detector, and high-speed electronics enabled surface resolution of a spot diameter of 0.05 centimeter. The data, in the form of temperature profiles, was obtained in near real time as a hard copy output from a computer display terminal. Temperatures measured with the pyrometer and with thermocouples agreed within 2 percent at temperatures between 977 to 1144 K.

Uguccini, O. W.; Pollack, F. G.

1976-01-01

105

A sensitive time-resolved radiation pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements above 1500 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general design, calibration, and performance of a new high-sensitivity radiation pyrometer are described. The pyrometer can determine time-resolved temperatures (as low as 1500 K) in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of light emitted from shocked solid samples in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.5-1.0 micron). The high sensitivity of the radiation pyrometer is attributed to the large angular aperture (0.06 sr), the large bandwidth per channel (up to 0.1 micron), the large photodiode detection areas (1.0 sq cm), and the small number of calibrated channels (4) among which light is divided.

Boslough, Mark B.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

1989-01-01

106

Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface t...

D. Ng G. Fralick

2001-01-01

107

Multiwavelength Pyrometer Developed for Use at Elevated Temperatures in Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have developed a unique multiwavelength pyrometer for aerospace applications. It has been shown to be a useful and versatile instrument for measuring the surface temperatures of ceramic zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and alumina, even when their emissivity is unknown. The introduction of fiber optics into the pyrometer has greatly increased the ease of using this instrument. Direct comparison of measurements obtained using the pyrometer and thin film thermocouples on a sample provided independent verification of pyrometry temperature measurement. Application of the pyrometer has also included simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurement in a transparent material, the measurement of combustion gas temperatures in the flames of an atmospheric burner, the measurement of the temperature distribution appearing on a large surface from the recording of just a single radiation spectrum emitted from this nonuniform temperature surface, and the measurement of some optical properties for special aeronautical materials-such as nanostructured layers. The multiwavelength pyrometer temperature is obtained from a radiation spectrum recorded over a broad wavelength region by transforming it into a straight line segment(s) in part or all of the spectral region. The intercept of the line segment(s) with the vertical axis at zero wavelength gives the inverse of the temperature. In a two-color pyrometer, the two data points are also amenable to this analysis to determine the unknown temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength-independent emissivity. Its two (and minimum) pieces of data are sufficient to determine this straight line. However, a multiwavelength pyrometer not only has improved accuracy but also confirms that the wavelength-independent emissivity assumption is valid when a multitude of data points are shown to lie on a simple straight line.

Ng, Daniel L.

2003-01-01

108

Measurements of thermophysical properties of nickel with a new highly sensitive pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, sensitive, and fast (response time, 100 ns) pyrometer used for the measurement of temperature in pulse heating experiments is described. The monochromatic instrument may use two detectors, namely, a Si diode and an InGaAs diode. Since monochromatic pyrometers usually are self-calibrated with the plateau of the melting transition of the investigated metal, a high sensitivity is desirable. The

W. Obendrauf; E. Kaschnitz; G. Pottlacher; H. Jger

1993-01-01

109

Adult sex ratio variation: implications for breeding system evolution.  

PubMed

Adult sex ratio (ASR) exhibits immense variation in nature, although neither the causes nor the implications of this variation are fully understood. According to theory, the ASR is expected to influence sex roles and breeding systems, as the rarer sex in the population has more potential partners to mate with than the more common sex. Changes in mate choice, mating systems and parental care suggest that the ASR does influence breeding behaviour, although there is a need for more tests, especially experimental ones. In the context of breeding system evolution, the focus is currently on operational sex ratios (OSRs). We argue that the ASR plays a role of similar importance and urge researchers to study the ASR and the OSR side by side. Finally, we plead for a dynamic view of breeding system evolution with feedbacks between mating, parenting, OSR and ASR on both ecological and evolutionary time scales. PMID:24848871

Szkely, T; Weissing, F J; Komdeur, J

2014-08-01

110

An evaluation of ratio systems in radioecological studies  

SciTech Connect

Replicate samples of soil, Juncus squarrosus and Calluna vulgaris were taken within a grid system on an organic peatland soil site in Ireland. A similar sampling survey was carried out on an organic rich forest soil site in Sweden, where Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea with corresponding soil samples were taken within a Picea abies stand. The data were used to investigate the relationship between soil and plant {sup 137}Cs content and to examine the validity of using ratios to describe this relationship. Findings from both countries were in agreement. There were no significant changes in plant {sup 137}Cs concentration associated with increasing soil content. When data from both countries were merged and treated as a single data set, a significant overall positive correlation (95% confidence level) between soil and plant {sup 137}Cs levels was observed. Concentration ratios and transfer factors were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K uptake from soils to plants. Both ratio types exhibited a clearly defined decrease associated with increasing soil concentrations for both radionuclides. Findings demonstrate serious problems with the use of ratios for the evaluation of radionuclide transfer. 28 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland)] [and others

1996-02-01

111

An evaluation of ratio systems in radioecological studies.  

PubMed

Replicate samples of soil, Juncus squarrosus and Calluna vulgaris were taken within a grid system on an organic peatland soil site in Ireland. A similar sampling survey was carried out on an organic rich forest soil site in Sweden, where Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea with corresponding soil samples were taken within a Picea abies stand. The data were used to investigate the relationship between soil and plant 137Cs content and to examine the validity of using ratios to describe this relationship. Findings from both countries were in agreement. There were no significant changes in plant 137Cs concentration associated with increasing soil content. When data from both countries were merged and treated as a single data set, a significant overall positive correlation (95% confidence level) between soil and plant 137Cs levels was observed. Concentration ratios and transfer factors were calculated for 137Cs and 40K uptake from soils to plants. Both ratio types exhibited a clearly defined decrease associated with increasing soil concentrations for both radionuclides. Findings demonstrate serious problems with the use of ratios for the evaluation of radionuclide transfer. PMID:8567289

McGee, E J; Johanson, K J; Keatinge, M J; Synnott, H J; Colgan, P A

1996-02-01

112

The NBS Photoelectric Pyrometer and its Use in realizing the International Practical Temperature Scale above 1063 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoelectric pyrometer has been developed with which the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS) above the gold point, 1063 C, is realized about 5 times more accurately than with the prevalently used disappearing filament visual pyrometer. Estimated standard deviation uncertainties of realizing the IPTS with the photoelectric instrument are 0.06 deg C at 1063 C, 0.12 deg C at 1256

R D Lee

1966-01-01

113

Development of a fast fiber-optic two-color pyrometer for the temperature measurement of surfaces with varying emissivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-color pyrometer has been developed to measure the temperature of surfaces with unknown emissivities during high speed turning processes. Quartz fibers enable measurements at locations with limited optical access. The sensitivity of the pyrometer has to be high enough to measure temperatures down to 300 C of an aluminum alloy with an emissivity as low as 0.2. The accuracy

B. Mller; U. Renz

2001-01-01

114

Use of a variable exposure photographic pyrometer to measure surface temperatures on a hemispherical-face model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a photographic pyrometer for nonintrusive measurement of high temperature surfaces in a wind tunnel test is described. The advantages of the pyrometer for measuring surfaces whose unique shape makes use of thermocouples difficult are pointed out. The use of computer operated densitometers or optical processors for the data reduction is recommended.

Kantsios, A. G.; Henley, W. C., Jr.; Snow, W. L.

1982-01-01

115

The signal to noise ratio of gaseous photoacoustic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of small absorption coefficients of weakly absorbing or trace gases in the atmosphere has been one of the most important applications of laser photoacoustic devices. Normally, the major factor limiting the sensitivity of these systems is the spurious signal produced by the heating of the cell windows, due to the partial absorption of the laser pump radiation. We present a simple photoacoustic configuration that eliminates the spurious window and external background signals and enhances the main (real) signal of IR gaseous photoacoustic systems, optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio.

Pereira, D.; Scalabrin, A.

1992-11-01

116

Infrared pyrometer for high resolution surface temperature measurements on rotating turbine blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution pyrometer was developed and used to obtain temperature profiles of rotating turbine blades at tip speeds up to 366 meters per second (1200 fps). Surface temperature variations from 920 to 1250 K (1200 to 1800 F) can be measured and variations over distances of 0.05 cm (0.020 in.) can be resolved. Temperature profiles were obtained in near real time as hard copies from a computer display terminal. Temperatures measured with the prototype pyrometer and with thermocouples agreed to within 2 percent over the temperature range from 977 to 1144 K (1300 to 1600 F).

Uguccini, O. W.

1976-01-01

117

Infrared pyrometer for high resolution surface temperature measurement on rotating turbine blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high resolution pyrometer was developed and used to obtain temperature profiles of rotating turbine blades at tip speeds up to 366 meters per second. Surface temperature variations from 920 to 1250 K can be measured and variations over distances of 0.05 cm can be resolved. Temperature profiles were obtained in near real time as hard copies from a computer display terminal. Temperatures measured with the prototype pyrometer and with thermocouples agreed to within 2 percent over the temperature range from 977 to 1144.

Uguccini, O. W.

1976-01-01

118

Some consideration of the errors of brightness and two-colour types of spectral radiation pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressions are derived for the errors of the two types and from them a chart, from which these errors can be calculated for any pyrometer for all possible values of emissivity. The limitations of both types for direct measurement of true temperature are discussed and the errors likely to result when true temperatures are calculated from apparent temperature from previous

E C Pyatt

1954-01-01

119

A cooled-gas pyrometer for use in hypersonic engine testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooled-gas pyrometer designed for application in a hypersonic research engine program was fabricated and tested. Design and operational considerations and calibration data are presented. The probe was tested in a rocket-engine exhaust stream operating at Mach 2 and 2300 K. Test temperature measurements agreed to within 2 percent with a radiation shielded thermocouple probe.

Glawe, G. E.

1973-01-01

120

Processing Method of Multi-Wavelength Pyrometer Data for Continuous Temperature Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of multi-wavelength pyrometer data is a problem that needs further improvements. The solutions developed in earlier decades generally assumed one particular mathematical relation for emissivity versus wavelength in the wavelength range of the measurements. Sometimes this assumption worked and produced acceptable results, but in many other cases this approach provided erroneous results. Individual results were strongly dependent on

X. G. Sun; G. B. Yuan; J. M. Dai; Z. X. Chu

2005-01-01

121

Seven-wavelength pyrometer for determining surface temperature of ablation materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results which were achieved by a seven-wavelength pyrometer last year are reported in this paper. These studies are directed toward the development of a method for determining the real surface temperature of thermal protection materials and for evaluating its emittance under varieties of reentry environment. A description of the data processing method and apparatus is also included.

Yi, H.

1985-01-01

122

A pyrometer for calibration traceable to a future thermodynamic temperature scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiation thermometer (pyrometer) has been built that is relatively low cost but is shown will be capable of providing calibration and industrial laboratories with National Measurement Institute primary standard levels of uncertainty traceable to the kelvin at temperatures above 1300 K following proposed changes to the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin.

Lowe, D.

2013-01-01

123

Diagnostics of laser radiance penetration into material by multi-channel pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the melt removing in the gasjet-assisted CO2 laser cutting by pyrometer have been performed for steel plate 3, 6 mm and 10 mm thick are reported. The measurements of local brightness and brightness temperature were conducted for different values of cutting speed and assisted gas pressure.

V. S. Golubev; A. V. Dubrov; Yu. N. Zavalov; V. D. Dubrov; N. G. Dubrovin

2010-01-01

124

Factors affecting the Reproducibility of Brightness of Tungsten Strip Lamps for Pyrometer Standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative examination is made of the effect of the experimental conditions on the apparent brightness of tungsten strip lamps when used for pyrometer standardization. It is shown that unless certain precautions are observed appreciable differences in brightness may occur as a result of gradients of temperature in the lamp filament and of ambient temperature changes. Owing to the incidence

C R Barber

1946-01-01

125

Development of a two-colour infrared pyrometer for coal particle temperature measurements during devolatilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal characterisation data obtained in entrained flow experiments are often corrupted by poor measurement of the coal particle temperature. This paper describes the development of a two-colour pyrometer operating in the infrared and capable of measurement in the range 700 to 1400 K. The instrument is particularly suited to the devolatilisation phase of coal combustion.

Sandra M. Godoy; Frederick C. Lockwood

1998-01-01

126

An Analysis of Coal Particle Temperature Measurements with Two-color Optical Pyrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-color optical pyrometers have been used to measure the temperature of reacting pulverized coal particles. An analysis of such measurements was performed to determine the effect of several possible conditions on the measured temperature. The conditions investigated were the use of a single photomultiplier to alternately measure the radiant emission at the two selected wavelengths, the presence of soot, light

Rodney M. Lafolletie; Paul O. Hedman; Philip J. Smith

1989-01-01

127

Alternative calibration techniques for high-speed pyrometers in shock experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical pyrometry is widely used in industry and research laboratories to perform surface temperature measurements of sample materials. These shock physics experiments are normally conducted at powder or gas gun facilities or at facilities where high explosives can be used as a shock wave source, and using high-speed pyrometers that are usually calibrated by using a blackbody source. But, electrical

D. Partouche-Sebban; D. B. Holtkamp; P. Rodriguez; J. B. Stone; S. D. Borror; C. A. Kruschwitz; J. A. Young

2005-01-01

128

Fast six-channel pyrometer for warm-dense-matter experiments with intense heavy-ion beams  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warmdense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring of brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50000 K, at 6 wavelengths in visible and near-infrared parts of spectrum, with 5 nanosecond temporal resolution and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which act as filters and mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.

Ni, P.A.; Kulish, M.I.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.N.; Ternovoi, V.Ya.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Udrea, S.; Tahir, N.A.; Varentsov, D.; Hug, A.

2008-12-01

129

Experience in the use of the type FEP-4M pyrometer to monitor the temperature distribution along the coke mass  

SciTech Connect

The use of a photoelectric pyrometer for the temperature measurement of the coke mass in coke ovens was discussed. The use of the pyrometer to evaluate the effects of coal composition, moisture, bulk density of the charge, calorific value of the heating gas, and the uniformity of the combustion flare on the final temperature of the coke cake was also included. It was concluded that using the pyrometer made it possible to determine the coke cake heating temperature distribution by length and height, and to adopt operatinal measures in the case of a deviation in the oven heating or charging conditions.

Zernii, G.G.; Smoilovskii, N.I.; Leibovich, R.E.; Robul, L.A.; Kardashova, E.F.; Sulimova, E.I.

1982-01-01

130

A sensitive time-resolved radiation pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements above 1500 K  

SciTech Connect

An optical system has been developed which can determine time-resolved temperatures in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of light emitted from shocked solid samples in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.5--1.0 {mu}m). It can measure temperatures as low as 1500 K and has been successfully used to observe shock-induced chemical reactions in powder samples. The high sensitivity of this radiation pyrometer can be attributed to the large angular aperture (0.06 sr), the large bandwidth per channel (up to 0.1 {mu}m), the large photodiode detection areas (1.0 cm{sup 2} ), and the small number of calibrated channels (4) among which light is divided. Improved calibration techniques, as well as the layout of the instrument, eliminate certain sources of error encountered in previous shock-temperature experiments. Errors in the measured spectral radiance were reduced by: (1) recalibration before every experiment to account for changes in optical components; (2) direct calibration of voltage recorded at each digitizer to prevent transfer error by an intermediate step; (3) use of a spectral irradiance calibration lamp to exclude errors due to spatial inhomogeneities associated with spectral radiance sources; and (4) obtaining a large spatial average of light at each wavelength from the same portion of the sample to eliminate errors from possible inhomogeneities in the sample. The magnitude each of these errors could previously contribute was 1%--2% of the total signal. Absolute temperature uncertainties, determined from the standard deviation of the measured spectral radiances from the least-squares-fit values, are typically about 5%. Emissivities are poorly constrained by spectral radiance data because of a weak functional dependence, and uncertainties can easily exceed 50% for temperatures of around 2000 K.

Boslough, M.B. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (USA)); Ahrens, T.J. (Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (USA))

1989-12-01

131

A high-speed spatial (linear) scanning pyrometer: A tool for diagnostics, temperature mapping, and property determinations at high temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a fast spatial scanning pyrometer for temperature measurements above 1500 K is described. The salient features of the pyrometer are: (1) it measures spectral radiance temperature (at 0.65 micron) at 1024 points along a straight line (25 mm long) on the target; (2) it has no moving parts and uses a self-scanning linear array of silicon photodiodes as the detector; (3) its output is recorded digitally every 1 microsec with a full-scale resolution of about 1 part in 4000, permitting performance of a complete cycle of measurements (1024 points) in about 1 ms. Operational characteristics of the pyrometer are given. Examples of measurements of the temperature along rapidly heated (resistive self-heating) specimens (rod, tube, strip) are presented. Potential use of the pyrometer in the experiments, both ground-based and in microgravity, requiring temperature mapping and property distribution of the specimen at high temperatures is discussed.

Cezairliyan, A.; Chang, R. F.; Foley, G. M.

1990-01-01

132

Evaluation and comparison of three IR detectors and three amplifier designs for a new high-speed IR pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a high-speed, four-wavelength, infrared (IR) pyrometer has been used for surface temperature measurements in shock-physics experiments for several years. The pyrometer uses solid-state detectors and a single fiber-optic cable for transmission of light from the target surface to the detectors. This instrument has recently been redesigned for an upcoming experiment at the Nevada Test

J. A. Young; S. Borrora; A. W. Obst; J. R. Payton; A. Seifter

2005-01-01

133

Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (late of Galway, NY); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY); Fulton, John Robert (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01

134

High-speed two-camera imaging pyrometer for mapping fireball temperatures.  

PubMed

A high-speed imaging pyrometer was developed to investigate the behavior of flames and explosive events. The instrument consists of two monochrome high-speed Phantom v7.3 m cameras made by Vision Research Inc. arranged so that one lens assembly collects light for both cameras. The cameras are filtered at 700 or 900 nm with a 10 nm bandpass. The high irradiance produced by blackbody emission combined with variable shutter time and f-stop produces properly exposed images. The wavelengths were chosen with the expected temperatures in mind, and also to avoid any molecular or atomic gas phase emission. Temperatures measured using this pyrometer of exploded TNT charges are presented. PMID:22108886

Densmore, John M; Homan, Barrie E; Biss, Matthew M; McNesby, Kevin L

2011-11-20

135

Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets.

Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

2013-06-01

136

Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets.  

PubMed

This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets. PMID:23822369

Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

2013-06-01

137

The Realization of the IPTS68 above 1064.43 C Using the NSL Photoelectric Pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of the establishment of the IPTS68 from 1064.43 C to 2200 C on vacuum and gas-filled tungsten blackbody lamps using the NSL photoelectric pyrometer. The apparatus, experimental technique and computational methods, including a method for calculating the effective emissivity of the walls of blackbody cavity radiators, are described and the components of all significant uncertainties are

T. P. Jones; J. Tapping

1972-01-01

138

Two-colour pyrometer measurement of the temperature of individual combusting particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-colour pyrometer was developed for measuring the temperature of single moving particles (typically 50 mu m in diameter, moving with a velocity of 3.8 m s-1) over the temperature range 1473-2773K. The rise and response times were 0.5 and 0.1 ms respectively; the accuracy was estimated to be +or-50K. The instrument has been used to study the combustion of

F. R. A. Jorgensen; M. Zuiderwyk

1985-01-01

139

Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 C by a dual-frequency pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the\\u000a infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed\\u000a in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values\\u000a has been

L. Biasetto; M. Manzolaro; A. Andrighetto

2008-01-01

140

Spatial Scatter Effects in the Calibration of IR Pyrometers and Imagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the calibration conditions and the real-life applications of infrared pyrometers, radiometers, or imagers can\\u000a contribute to significant measurement errors due to the presence of scattered light from the areas surrounding the reference\\u000a source during the calibration process or the measured object in the field measurements. This out-of-field scatter (also known\\u000a as size-of-source effect, SSE) has to be analyzed

J. Envall; S. N. Mekhontsev; Y. Zong; L. M. Hanssen

2009-01-01

141

Two-Step Calibration of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer for High Temperature Measurement Using a Quartz Lamp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is no theoretical upper temperature limit for pyrometer application in temperature measurements. NASA Glenn's multiwavelength pyrometer can make measurements over wide temperature ranges. However, the radiation spectral response of the pyrometer's detector must be calibrated before any temperature measurement is attempted, and it is recommended that calibration be done at temperatures close to those for which measurements will be made. Calibration is a determination of the constants of proportionality at all wavelengths between the detector's output (voltage) and its input signals (usually from a blackbody radiation source) in order to convert detector output into radiation intensity. To measure high temperatures, the detectors are chosen to be sensitive in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers. A blackbody furnace equilibrated at around 1000 C is often used for this calibration. Though the detector may respond sensitively to short wavelengths radiation, a blackbody furnace at 1000 C emits only feebly at very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the calibration constants that result may not be the most accurate. For pyrometry calibration, a radiation source emitting strongly at the short wavelengths is preferred. We have chosen a quartz halogen lamp for this purpose.

Ng, Daniel

2001-01-01

142

Temperature measurement involving nanostructured thermal barrier coating using a multiwavelength pyrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been reported that erroneous results were obtained when a conventional pyrometer was used to measure the surface temperature of turbine engine components. Temperatures discrepancies were observed in components which were identical, except that one had its measured surface covered by a nanostructured thermal barrier coating (TBC) whereas the other component's surface was not so coated. These components were placed in an identical environment, receiving identical heat fluxes. A pyrometer measured the TBC covered surface hundreds degrees lower. These coatings were about 25 (mu)m thick, consisting of hundreds of layers of finer structures. The TBC's had very low thermal conductivity, heat flux calculations indicated that the temperatures of the coated surface should exhibit much higher temperature than the uncoated surface. Because these coatings were transparent to radiation from the visible to the infrared region, the temperatures measured by the pyrometer should be the temperature of the covered surface. Turbo components' performance and service life depend critically on the temperatures that it would experience; it is therefore important to know accurately and confidently the real surface temperature. Out of these concerns, an investigation into the measurement of nanostructured material surface temperature was carried out.

Ng, Daniel

1996-01-01

143

Near-infrared two-color pyrometer for determining ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-color pyrometer has been designed, constructed, and used to measure the ignition temperatures of metals and metal alloys. Cylindrical metal and metal alloy specimens were ignited by a focused cw CO2 laser beam in a cool, static, pure oxygen environment. The pyrometer operates in the near-infrared at two narrow spectral regions, with a nominal bandwidth of 10 nm centered at 0.9051 and 1.06 micron, and has a temperature range from 1000 to 4000 K. In the present design the temperature of a spot, about 0.5 mm in diameter, can be recorded with a maximum time resolution of 25 microseconds and with an accuracy of a few percent. Results of CO2 laser ignition of cylindrical specimens of 6061 aluminum alloy and 302 SS in a pure oxygen environment were obtained from the two-color pyrometer and were compared with those obtained from a thermocouple placed inside the specimen near the laser-irradiated surface.

Nguyen, K.; Branch, M. C.

1985-01-01

144

Simulating extreme-mass-ratio systems in full general relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method for numerically evolving the full Einstein field equations in situations where the spacetime is dominated by a known background solution. The technique leverages the knowledge of the background solution to subtract off its contribution to the truncation error, thereby more efficiently achieving a desired level of accuracy. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the radial infall of a solar-type star into supermassive black holes with mass ratios ?106. The self-gravity of the star is thus consistently modeled within the context of general relativity, and the stars interaction with the black hole computed with moderate computational cost, despite the over five orders of magnitude difference in gravitational potential (as defined by the ratio of mass to radius). We compute the tidal deformation of the star during infall, and the gravitational wave emission, finding the latter is close to the prediction of the point-particle limit.

East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans

2013-05-01

145

Surface heat flux data from energy balance Bowen ratio systems  

SciTech Connect

The 350 {times} 400 km domain of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in the southern Great Plains is equipped with 10 energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations at grassland sites; they measure the net radiation, ground heat flux, and temperature/humidity differences between 1.0 and 2.0 m heights. The latter differences provide estimates of the geometric Bowen ratio ({beta}), which are used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes. This paper addresses the problem that occurs when the value of {beta} is near {minus}1 and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the EBBR stations in collecting energy flux data at the CART site.

Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Coulter, R.L.

1995-06-01

146

21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic...

2009-04-01

147

21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic...

2010-04-01

148

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOEpatents

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

Frank, A.A.

1984-07-10

149

Radiation pyrometer for gas turbine blades. [in LOX turbopump engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A turbine blade temperature measuring system for liquid oxygen turbopumps is reported. The system includes a three mode, two-input optical signal processor, interconnecting cable, and four sensor heads. Two of the heads are aperture type, while the other two are lens type. This system is applicable to a temperature range of 1400 to 2200 F.

Rohy, D. A.; Compton, W. A.

1973-01-01

150

Design of high ratio middle infrared continuous zoom optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the demand for infrared zoom systems is increasing in proportion with the development of infrared technology and its applications. To meet this demand a variety of zoom lenses have been designed. Infrared cameras operating in the 3-5?m spectral band are used in a wide variety of applications such as targeting, rescue, guidance and surveillance systems as well as other equipment. This paper using cool 320240 detector with staring focal plane array and secondary imaging, a mid-wave optical system using mechanical-compensated with large-aperture and a zoom range of 10:1 is designed. The Pixel Dimensions of the detector is 30?m, and the wavelength between 3.7?m ~4.8?m.The system adopts negative group variable times and positive group of compensation which can realize 33mm~330mm continuous zoom and FOV =20.61~2.08 ,it consists of 7 lenses including 3 aspheric surface. The length of the system is 262mm with the reflection mirror multipass optical path. The results show that the modulation transfer function(MTF)are above 0.4 within the whole focal range at spatial frequency of 17 lp/mm, and Root Mean Square (RMS) value of spot diameter were smaller than the Pixel Dimensions. After the image quality being optimized, the narcissus analysis is done and 100% cold shield efficiency is obtained. Finallythe monotonic and smooth Cam curve is given. The curve shows that the imaging plane is stable and the cam is easy to process. The system has advantages of simple structure, high image quality and short zoom path etc.

Fan, Zheyuan; Cao, Jianzhong; Yang, Hongtao; Qu, Enshi; Wu, Dengshan

2011-06-01

151

Symmetrized magnetic field configuration of low aspect ratio helical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A helical system has the attractive feature such that it can generate the closed magnetic surface by externally wound coils alone. However, there are many problems to be solved for the confinement of a reactor grade plasma in helical systems. A new method is proposed for coil width modulation (modulation of the helical coil current distribution) to meet with the requirement for the magnetic configuration of a high temperature plasma confinement. This method can reduce multi-helicity (higher or satellite harmonics of the fundamental helical field) which brings many demerits into the conventional stellerator/torsatron/heliotron configuration.

Nishimura, Kiyohiko; Fujiwara, Masami

1988-05-01

152

Design and fabrication of an infrared optical pyrometer ASIC as a diagnostic for shock physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical pyrometry is the sensing of thermal radiation emitted from an object using a photoconductive device to convert photons into electrons, and is an important diagnostic tool in shock physics experiments. Data obtained from an optical pyrometer can be used to generate a blackbody curve of the material prior to and after being shocked by a high speed projectile. The sensing element consists of an InGaAs photodiode array, biasing circuitry, and multiple transimpedance amplifiers to boost the weak photocurrent from the noisy dark current into a signal that can eventually be digitized. Once the circuit elements have been defined, more often than not commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components are inadequate to satisfy every requirement for the diagnostic, and therefore a custom application specific design has to be considered. This thesis outlines the initial challenges with integrating the photodiode array block with multiple COTS transimpedance amplifiers onto a single chip, and offers a solution to a comparable optical pyrometer that uses the same type of photodiodes in conjunction with a re-designed transimpedance amplifier integrated onto a single chip. The final design includes a thorough analysis of the transimpedance amplifier along with modeling the circuit behavior which entails schematics, simulations, and layout. An alternative circuit is also investigated that incorporates an approach to multiplex the signals from each photodiode onto one data line and not only increases the viable real estate on the chip, but also improves the behavior of the photodiodes as they are subjected to less thermal load. The optical pyrometer application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for shock physic experiments includes a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a 100 k? gain operating at bandwidth of 30 MHz, and an input-referred noise RMS current of 50 nA that is capable of driving a 50 ? load.

Gordon, Jared

153

CENOSES AND THE GOLDEN RATIO IN ENGINEERING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific and technological progress has nowadays achieved such stage of development when diver- sity of the products being manufactured can be commensurable with species diversity in the nature. Evo- lution laws of technology comprising individual elements, and wildlife consisting of separate species have a lot in common. When engineering systems achieve certain complexity level they begin to obey the same

A. Yu. Yuzhannikov

154

Remote Heat Flux Measurement Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (lambda > 6 micrometers). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 micrometers) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity k of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h(sub 1) and h(sub 2) of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

Ng, Daniel

1998-01-01

155

Remote Heat Flux Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (k = 6 gm). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 gm) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h, and h2 of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

Ng, Daniel

1998-01-01

156

Particle deposition on optical pyrometer lenses: an illustrative case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important issue with the application of optical pyrometry is the particulate contamination of the system's lens. This results in measurement errors and seriously degrades the instrument's operational performance. This paper will illustrate the fouling mechanism, through the flow field and particle trajectory investigation of a pertinent case study, together with an analysis of the deposits that constitute the

Clive I. V Kerr; Paul C Ivey

2002-01-01

157

Air purging unit for an optical pyrometer of a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

In order to measure the temperature of the mid-span first stage rotor blade of a gas turbine engine, an optical pyrometer is mounted in the inner casing of the gas turbine engine and includes an elongated sight tube extending from the optical lens of the pyrometer and through the wall of the engine separating the inner casing from the rotor. The sight tube includes an array of spaced apertures extending therethrough in the vicinity of the optical lens, with each aperture extending at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the sight tube away from the optical lens. Pressurized air within the inner casing passes through the array of apertures and effectively forms a conically-shaped fluid screen for preventing smoke, dust, fumes, or other contaminants from contaminating the optical lens. A second fluid screen may be provided by mounting the free end of the sight tube in an enlarged opening in the wall of the engine casing, whereby a secondary, generally cylindrical flow of air is developed for shielding the open end of the sight tube. The upstream edge of the sight tube may project into the flow path of the combustion gases flowing to the rotor stage whereby such combustion gases will be deflected and directed around the circumference of the sight tube to further inhibit contaminants from entering the sight tube and contaminating the optical lens.

Hurley, J.F.

1981-12-22

158

Detonation and shock-wave front temperature measurement by two-wave pyrometer based on optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we employed two-wave optical pyrometer to record characteristics of light emission and brightness temperature in shock and detonation waves. Light is transmitted to photoelectronic multiplier over a fiber light conductor with its end located in the immediate neighborhood of a light source. Error in brightness temperature determination does not exceed value (Delta) T equals +\\/- 5%. Limit

M. D. Tarasov; A. I. Tolshmyakov; F. O. Kuznetsov; O. N. Petrushin; V. S. Petushkov; Yu. A. Savel'Ev; M. Y. Tarakanov; V. A. Til'Kunov

1997-01-01

159

Global qualitative analysis of a ratio-dependent predatorprey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.?Ratio-dependent predatorprey models are favored by many animal ecologists recently as more suitable ones for predatorprey\\u000a interactions where predation involves searching process. However, such models are not well studied in the sense that most\\u000a results are local stability related. In this paper, we consider the global behaviors of solutions of a ratio-dependent predatorprey\\u000a systems. Specifically, we shall show that ratio

Yang Kuang; Edoardo Beretta

1998-01-01

160

Global analysis of the MichaelisMenten-type ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The recent broad interest on ratio-dependent based predator functional response calls for detailed qualitative study on ratio-dependent\\u000a predator-prey differential systems. A first such attempt is documented in the recent work of Kuang and Beretta(1998), where\\u000a Michaelis-Menten-type ratio-dependent model is studied systematically. Their paper, while contains many new and significant\\u000a results, is far from complete in answering the many subtle

Sze-Bi Hsu; Tzy-Wei Hwang; Yang Kuang

2001-01-01

161

Mortality, fertility, and the OY ratio in a model hunter-gatherer system.  

PubMed

An agent-based model (ABM) is used to explore how the ratio of old to young adults (the OY ratio) in a sample of dead individuals is related to aspects of mortality, fertility, and longevity experienced by the living population from which the sample was drawn. The ABM features representations of rules, behaviors, and constraints that affect person- and household-level decisions about marriage, reproduction, and infant mortality in hunter-gatherer systems. The demographic characteristics of the larger model system emerge through human-level interactions playing out in the context of "global" parameters that can be adjusted to produce a range of mortality and fertility conditions. Model data show a relationship between the OY ratios of living populations (the living OY ratio) and assemblages of dead individuals drawn from those populations (the dead OY ratio) that is consistent with that from empirically known ethnographic hunter-gatherer cases. The dead OY ratio is clearly related to the mean ages, mean adult mortality rates, and mean total fertility rates experienced by living populations in the model. Sample size exerts a strong effect on the accuracy with which the calculated dead OY ratio reflects the actual dead OY ratio of the complete assemblage. These results demonstrate that the dead OY ratio is a potentially useful metric for paleodemographic analysis of changes in mortality and mean age, and suggest that, in general, hunter-gatherer populations with higher mortality, higher fertility, and lower mean ages are characterized by lower dead OY ratios. PMID:24523247

White, Andrew A

2014-06-01

162

Mating system and sex ratios of a pollinating fig wasp with dispersing males.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have used sex ratios to quantify the mating systems of organisms, the argument behind it being that more female-biased sex ratios are an indication of higher local mate competition, which goes hand-in-hand with higher levels of inbreeding. Although qualitative tests of the effects of mating systems on sex ratios abound, there is a dearth of studies that quantify both the mating system and the sex ratio. I use a colour dimorphism with a simple Mendelian inheritance to quantify the mating system of an unusual fig-pollinating wasp in which males disperse to obtain matings on non-natal mating patches. In qualitative agreement with initial expectations, the sex ratios of single foundresses are found to be higher than those of regular species. However, by quantifying the mating system, it is shown that the initial expectation is incorrect and this species' sex ratio is a poor predictor of its mating system (it underestimates the frequency of sib-mating). The species has a very high variance in sex ratio suggesting that excess males can simply avoid local mate competition (and hence a lowered fitness to their mother) by dispersing to other patches.

Greeff, Jaco M

2002-01-01

163

Quantum statistical thermodynamics of hot finite nuclear systems: Temperatures and isotopic yield ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the importance of the quantum statistics and deexcitation of primary fragments on the isotope yield ratio temperature determination. A phenomenological formula is presented which allows derivation of the temperature of the decaying nuclear system at the freeze-out time from the measured double yield ratios of two isotope pairs. This prescription is applied to the recent ALADIN and EOS

Z. Majka; P. Staszel; J. Cibor; J. B. Natowitz; K. Hagel; J. Li; N. Mdeiwayeh; R. Wada; Y. Zhao

1997-01-01

164

Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47C to 85C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

165

21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test...

2012-04-01

166

Global dynamics of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Recently, ratio-dependent predator-prey systems have been regarded by some researchers to be more appropriate for predator-prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves serious searching processes. However, such models have set up a challenging issue regarding\\u000a their dynamics near the origin since these models are not well-defined there. In this paper, the qualitative behavior of a\\u000a class of ratio-dependent predator-prey system at

Dongmei Xiao; Shigui Ruan

2001-01-01

167

Outage probability of cellular radio systems using maximal ratio combining in the presence of multiple interferers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobile radio systems, antenna diversity is used to combat fading and reduce the impact of cochannel interference. We derived a new expression for probability density functions of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio and apply it to analyze the outage probability (OTP) for a maximal ratio combining diversity system when multiple cochannel interferers are present. Numerical results showing the impact of the

Jian Cui; Asrar U. H. Sheikh

1999-01-01

168

High-aperture ratio optical system for observation of telescopic meteors and comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of television equipment and an electrooptical converter in combination with a high-aperture-ratio optical system makes possible a significant increase in the capabilities of the optical method of observing giant meteors and comets. An optical system similar to a Schwarzschild (1905) system was calculated with an aspherical main mirror and a spherical secondary mirror. It is shown that such a

S. Mukhamednazarov; O. G. Ovezgeldyev; G. M. Popov; E. G. Popova

1986-01-01

169

Performance of the Bowen ratio systems on a 22 deg slope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to assess the energy fluxes on inclined surfaces during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Since air flow over sloping surface may differ from that over flat terrain, it is important to examine whether Bowen ratio measurements taken on sloping surfaces are valid. In this study, the suitability of using the Bowen ratio technique on sloping surfaces was tested by examining the assumptions that the technique requires for valid measurements. This was accomplished by studying the variation of Bowen ratio measurements along a selected slope at the FIFE site. In September 1988, four Bowen ratio systems were set up in a line along the 22 degree north-facing slope with northerly air flow (wind went up the slope). In July of 1989, six Bowen ratio systems were similarly installed with southerly air flow (the wind went down slope). Results indicated that, at distances between 10 to 40 meters from the top of the slope, no temperature or vapor pressure gradient parallel to the slope was detected. Uniform Bowen ratio values were obtained on the slope, and thus the sensible or latent heat flux should be similar along the slope. This indicates that the assumptions for valid flux measurements are reasonably met at the slope. The Bowen ratio technique should give the best estimates of the energy fluxes on slopes similar to that in this study.

Nie, D.; Flitcroft, I.; Kanemasu, E. T.

1990-01-01

170

Control valve system for a four speed ratio automatic transmission including a dual range regulator valve for controlling independently two upshift ratio changes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a four speed automatic transmission for use in a vehicle driveline to deliver torque from an engine to vehicle traction wheels. The transmission has a driving shaft powered by the engine, a driven shaft, multiple ratio gearing establishing multiple torque delivery paths between the driving and driven shafts and fluid pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to control the relative motion of the elements of the gearing; clutch and brake servo means for activating and deactivating the clutches and brakes to effect speed ratio changes; a fluid pressure source, conduit structure connecting the pressure source with the servo means, multiple ratio shift valve structure including a 1-2 shift valve means and a 3-4 shift valve means in the conduit structure for controlling distribution of pump pressure to the servo means to effect ratio changes, respectively, between a first ratio and a second ratio and between a third ratio and a fourth ratio; a 1-2 accumulator comprising an accumulator cylinder and an accumulator piston cooperating with the cylinder to define 1-2 accumulator chamber, the 1-2 accumulator chamber communicating with the servo means for effecting second speed ratio; and a 3-4 accumulator comprising an accumulator cylinder and an accumulator piston cooperating with the cylinder to define a 3-4 accumulator chamber, the 3-4 accumulator chamber communicating with the servo means for effecting fourth speed ratio.

Timte, F.W.

1987-01-06

171

Effective spectral emissivity measurements of superalloys and YSZ thermal barrier coating at high temperatures using a 1.6?m single wavelength pyrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method which employs an integrating sphere and a single-wavelength (1.6?m) pyrometer for measuring the spectral effective emissivities of superalloys in the temperature range (=6501050C) is described. The spectral effective emissivities for five superalloys, namely, MARM-247, MARM-509, CMSX-4, Inconel-718, N-155 and two Ren-N6 samples coated with YSZ thermal barrier coating were measured. Correcting the pyrometer measurements for the variations in

Sami Alaruri; Lisa Bianchini; Andrew Brewington

1998-01-01

172

Investigation of AC\\/DC Resistance Ratios of Various Designs of Pipe-Type Cable Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ac\\/dc resistance ratios of pipe-type cables are essential for the accurate determination of ampacity and power transmission capability. This Paper presents such measured and calculated data for large size compact segmental aluminum and tin and enamel coated copper conductor cables in carbon and stainless steel pipes. Ac\\/dc resistance ratios have also been determined for single cable per pipe systems. Measurements

D. A. Silver; G. W. Seman

1982-01-01

173

Air-fuel ratio controlling system for an internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air-fuel ratio controlling system for a fuel-injection type internal combustion engine has an air valve disposed in an air intake duct upstream of a throttle valve and a fuel-metering variable orifice disposed in a fuel circuit. The air valve and the fuel-metering variable orifice are operatively associated with each other and controlled normally to maintain the air-fuel ratio at

T. Ando; M. Minoura; K. Motosugi; S. Sekiya; M. Sumiyoshi; Y. Takeuchi; J. Uozumi

1980-01-01

174

Ratio-Lindahl equilibria and an informationally efficient and implementable mixed-ownership system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we formalize an informationally efficient and implementable mixed-ownership economic institutional framework by using the Ratio-Lindahl equilibrium that yields Pareto-efficient and individually rational allocations for public goods economies with general variable returns. We consider the incentive aspects of the system by giving an incentive-compatible, informationally efficient, and privacy preserving mechanism whose Nash allocations coincide with Ratio-Lindahl allocations. Moreover,

Guoqiang Tian; Qi Li

1995-01-01

175

Reliability of international normalised ratios from two point of care test systems: comparison with conventional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To find out how accurately two point of care test systemsCoaguChek Mini and TAS PT-NC (RapidPointCoag)display international normalised ratios (INRs). Design Comparison of the INRs from the two systems with a \\

Leon Poller; Michelle Keown; Nikhil Chauhan; Armando Tripodi; Caroline Shiach; Jorgen Jespersen

2003-01-01

176

Optimized signal to noise ratio of a PMT based detector system in Mie-Lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal to noise ratio calculations are made for a Mie-Lidar system which uses photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a detector. Power received by the Lidar system from different altitudes is calculated considering four different model vertical profiles of aerosols representing urban and background continent conditions, with and without stratospheric volcanic aerosol layer. The minimum detectable energy of the backscattered laser pulse

Y. B. Acharya; A. Jayaraman

2006-01-01

177

The Determination of Heat Capacity Ratios in a Simple Open System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A virtually closed system is treated as open and compared to known results. The classic experiment of Clement and Desormes provides the conceptual framework for this open system approach in determining the molar heat capacity ratios, lambda. This alternate view, extends the theoretical treatment beyond the first law of thermodynamics for closed

Holden, Glen L.

2007-01-01

178

On the Planetary Orbital Period Ratio Distribution In Multiple Planet Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many multiple planet systems have been found by both radial velocity (RV) and transit surveys, such as the Kepler mission. Period ratio distribution of these planet candidates show that they do not prefer to be in or near Mean Motion Resonance (MMR). Nevertheless, there are small but significant excesses of candidate pairs both spaced slightly exterior to exact resonance, particular near the first order of MMR, such as 2:1 and 3:2. Here, we first review recent observational constraints on these multiple transiting systems and theoretical models, which attempt to understand their period ratio distributions. Then we identify a statistical effect based on an intrinsic asymmetry associated with MMR, and find it play an important role in shaping the period ratio distribution near MMR. Last but least, we also find such an intrinsic asymmetry is existing in asteroids of our solar system.

Xie, Ji-Wei

2014-04-01

179

Two-dimensional resolution pyrometer for real-time monitoring of temperature image in laser materials processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics of the developed two-dimensional resolution pyrometer are the following: temperature range 10004700C; sampling time (17 ?s for each channel) suitable for temperature image monitoring both for continuous wave and pulsed (millisecond range) laser action; spatial resolution 250 ?m (1010 points for measured area 2.52.5 mm) compatible with the typical size of the laser focus spot. The developed

M. Ignatiev; I. Yu. Smurov; G. Flamant; V. Senchenko; V. Dozhdikov

1997-01-01

180

Application of hemispherical surface pyrometers to the measurement of the emissivity of platinum (a low-emissivity material)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total hemispherical emissivity epsilonht of platinum in the temperature range 300-1200C has been determined by a technique based on the Land hemispherical surface pyrometer. It is shown that epsilonht of a low-emissivity material and its dependence on temperature can be measured conveniently, rapidly and precisely by this technique. The spectral hemispherical emissivity of platinum at 0.9 ?m has been

P R C Goard

1966-01-01

181

Measurement of the radial temperature distribution of the heated spot produced by a focused laser beam using an optical pyrometer.  

PubMed

A method is described for the evaluation of the Gaussian curve parameters needed for the description of the temperature distribution of the heated spot produced on a target substrate by a well-focused laser beam, using an optical pyrometer to read the weighted average temperatures from two distinct distances. The parameter so found gave a calculated distribution curve in excellent agreement with experimental determinations of that distribution. PMID:20332849

Hendricks, L J; Zobrist, S P

1981-05-15

182

Application of Taguchi methods to dual mixture ratio propulsion system optimization for SSTO vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. For a selected SSTO concept, a dual mixture ratio, staged combustion cycle engine that employs a number of innovative technologies was selected as the baseline propulsion system. A series of parametric trade studies are presented to optimize both a dual mixture ratio engine and a single mixture ratio engine of similar design and technology level. The effect of varying lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio, engine mode transition Mach number, mixture ratios, area ratios, and chamber pressure values on overall vehicle weight is examined. The sensitivity of the advanced SSTO vehicle to variations in each of these parameters is presented, taking into account the interaction of each of the parameters with each other. This parametric optimization and sensitivity study employs a Taguchi design method. The Taguchi method is an efficient approach for determining near-optimum design parameters using orthogonal matrices from design of experiments (DOE) theory. Using orthogonal matrices significantly reduces the number of experimental configurations to be studied. The effectiveness and limitations of the Taguchi method for propulsion/vehicle optimization studies as compared to traditional single-variable parametric trade studies is also discussed.

Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit; Joyner, C. R.

1992-01-01

183

Development of a System to Measure Recrystallization Ratio of Plate Steel Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a material property measurement system of plate steel using laser-based ultrasonics has been developed. The system consists of pulsed Nd:YAG laser for ultrasonic generation, CW single frequency laser and Fabry-Perot interferometer for ultrasonic detection. The system generates and detects shear waves and precisely calculates anisotropy parameter values of shear wave velocities of test samples. At first, the relationship between anisotropy parameter and recrystallization ratio was investigated in the laboratory experiments. Quenching the test samples just after the ultrasonic measurement, recrystallization ratio values were measured by the conventional microscopic method. According to the experimental results, the anisotropy parameter values showed a good correlation with actual recrystallization ratio values. To evaluate the applicability of the system to real steel production line, the system was installed in hot rolling pilot plant of plate steel. As the results, it was demonstrated that the system could measure the recrystallization ratio using the anisotropy parameter values of shear wave velocities, even in the environment of hot rolling pilot plant.

Nagata, Y.; Yamada, H.; Hamada, N. [Environment and Process Technology Center, Nippon Steel Corporation, Futtu-shi, Chiba (Japan); Lim, C. S.; Yi, J. K.; Hong, S. T.; Choi, S. G.; Oh, K. J. [POSLAB, POSCO, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-21

184

Dynamic variability of biogeochemical ratios in the Southern California Current System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use autonomous nitrate (NO3-), oxygen (O2), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) observations to examine the relationship between ratios of C:N:O at an upwelling site in the Southern California Current System. Mean ratios and 95% confidence intervals observed by sensors over 8 months were NO3-:O2 = -0.11 0.002, NO3-:DIC = 0.14 0.001, and DIC:O2 = -0.83 0.01, in good agreement with Redfield ratios. Variability in the ratios on the weekly time scale is attributable to shifts in biological demand and nutrient availability and shown to exhibit a spectrum of values ranging from near 100% New Production to 100% Regenerated Production.

Martz, Todd; Send, Uwe; Ohman, Mark D.; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Bresnahan, Philip; Kim, Hey-Jin; Nam, SungHyun

2014-04-01

185

An experimental system for spectral line ratio measurements in the TJ-II stellarator  

SciTech Connect

The chord-integrated emissions of spectral lines have been monitored in the TJ-II stellarator by using a spectral system with time and space scanning capabilities and relative calibration over the entire UV-visible spectral range. This system has been used to study the line ratio of lines of different ionization stages of carbon (C{sup 5+} 5290 A and C{sup 4+} 2271 A) for plasma diagnostic purposes. The local emissivity of these ions has been reconstructed, for quasistationary profiles, by means of the inversion Fisher method described previously. The experimental line ratio is being empirically studied and in parallel a simple spectroscopic model has been developed to account for that ratio. We are investigating whether the role played by charge exchange processes with neutrals and the existence of non-Maxwellian electrons, intrinsic to Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) heating, leave any distinguishable mark on this diagnostic method.

Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Jimenez-Rey, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pelaez, R. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-4701 Valladolid (Spain)

2008-10-15

186

An experimental system for spectral line ratio measurements in the TJ-II stellarator.  

PubMed

The chord-integrated emissions of spectral lines have been monitored in the TJ-II stellarator by using a spectral system with time and space scanning capabilities and relative calibration over the entire UV-visible spectral range. This system has been used to study the line ratio of lines of different ionization stages of carbon (C(5+) 5290 A and C(4+) 2271 A) for plasma diagnostic purposes. The local emissivity of these ions has been reconstructed, for quasistationary profiles, by means of the inversion Fisher method described previously. The experimental line ratio is being empirically studied and in parallel a simple spectroscopic model has been developed to account for that ratio. We are investigating whether the role played by charge exchange processes with neutrals and the existence of non-Maxwellian electrons, intrinsic to Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) heating, leave any distinguishable mark on this diagnostic method. PMID:19044682

Zurro, B; Baciero, A; Fontdecaba, J M; Pelez, R; Jimnez-Rey, D

2008-10-01

187

Disk-Planets Interactions and the Diversity of Period Ratios in Kepler's Multi-planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler mission is dramatically increasing the number of planets known in multi-planetary systems. Many adjacent planets have orbital period ratios near resonant values, with a tendency to be larger than required for exact first-order mean-motion resonances. This feature has been shown to be a natural outcome of orbital circularization of resonant planetary pairs due to star-planet tidal interactions. However, this feature holds in multi-planetary systems with periods longer than 10 days, in which tidal circularization is unlikely to provide efficient divergent evolution of the planets' orbits to explain these orbital period ratios. Gravitational interactions between planets and their parent protoplanetary disk may instead provide efficient divergent evolution. For a planet pair embedded in a disk, we show that interactions between a planet and the wake of its companion can reverse convergent migration and significantly increase the period ratio from a near-resonant value. Divergent evolution due to wake-planet interactions is particularly efficient when at least one of the planets opens a partial gap around its orbit. This mechanism could help account for the diversity of period ratios in Kepler's multiple systems from super-Earth to sub-Jovian planets with periods greater than about 10 days. Diversity is also expected for pairs of planets massive enough to merge their gap. The efficiency of wake-planet interactions is then much reduced, but convergent migration may stall with a variety of period ratios depending on the density structure in the common gap. This is illustrated for the Kepler-46 system, for which we reproduce the period ratio of Kepler-46b and c.

Baruteau, Clement; Papaloizou, John C. B.

2013-11-01

188

Periodicity in a Delayed Ratio-Dependent PredatorPrey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of a continuation theorem based on Gaines and Mawhin's coincidence degree, easily verifiable criteria are established for the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a delayed ratio-dependent predatorprey system in a periodic environment.

Meng Fan; Ke Wang

2001-01-01

189

Periodic solutions of a discrete time nonautonomous ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, we first propose a discrete analogue of continuous time ratio-dependent predator-prey system, which is governed by nonautonomous difference equations, modeling the dynamics of the prey and the predator having nonoverlapping generations. Then, easily verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions. The approach is based on

Meng Fan; Ke Wang

2002-01-01

190

Carbon\\/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the inorganic nitrogen by manipulating the carbon\\/nitrogen ratios is a potential control method for aquaculture systems. This approach seems to be a practical and inexpensive means of reducing the accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in the pond. Nitrogen control is induced by feeding bacteria with carbohydrates, and through the subsequent uptake of nitrogen from the water, by the synthesis of

Yoram Avnimelech

1999-01-01

191

BER analysis of optimum combining and maximal ratio combining with channel correlation for dual antenna systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BER expressions for optimum combining (OC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) in the presence of one co-channel interferer are derived in this paper for a dual antenna TDMA communication system with correlated channel diversity. Numerical results demonstrate the impact of the different correlation coefficients in combating fading and reducing CCI. It is shown that the BERs of OC and

Jian Cui; A. U. H. Sheikh; D. D. Falconer

1997-01-01

192

Efficient high-order methods based on golden ratio for nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive new iterative methods with order of convergence four or higher, for solving nonlinear systems, by composing iteratively golden ratio methods with a modified Newtons method. We use different efficiency indices in order to compare the new methods with other ones and present several numerical tests which confirm the theoretical results.

Alicia Cordero; Jos L. Hueso; Eulalia Martnez; Juan R. Torregrosa

2011-01-01

193

Inhibition to excitation ratio regulates visual system responses and behavior in vivo.  

PubMed

The balance of inhibitory to excitatory (I/E) synaptic inputs is thought to control information processing and behavioral output of the central nervous system. We sought to test the effects of the decreased or increased I/E ratio on visual circuit function and visually guided behavior in Xenopus tadpoles. We selectively decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission in optic tectal neurons by knocking down the ?2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R) using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or by expressing a peptide corresponding to an intracellular loop of the ?2 subunit, called ICL, which interferes with anchoring GABA(A)R at synapses. Recordings of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) and miniature excitatory PSCs (mEPSCs) showed that these treatments decreased the frequency of mIPSCs compared with control tectal neurons without affecting mEPSC frequency, resulting in an ?50% decrease in the ratio of I/E synaptic input. ICL expression and ?2-subunit knockdown also decreased the ratio of optic nerve-evoked synaptic I/E responses. We recorded visually evoked responses from optic tectal neurons, in which the synaptic I/E ratio was decreased. Decreasing the synaptic I/E ratio in tectal neurons increased the variance of first spike latency in response to full-field visual stimulation, increased recurrent activity in the tectal circuit, enlarged spatial receptive fields, and lengthened the temporal integration window. We used the benzodiazepine, diazepam (DZ), to increase inhibitory synaptic activity. DZ increased optic nerve-evoked inhibitory transmission but did not affect evoked excitatory currents, resulting in an increase in the I/E ratio of ?30%. Increasing the I/E ratio with DZ decreased the variance of first spike latency, decreased spatial receptive field size, and lengthened temporal receptive fields. Sequential recordings of spikes and excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the same visual stimuli demonstrated that decreasing or increasing the I/E ratio disrupted input/output relations. We assessed the effect of an altered I/E ratio on a visually guided behavior that requires the optic tectum. Increasing and decreasing I/E in tectal neurons blocked the tectally mediated visual avoidance behavior. Because ICL expression, ?2-subunit knockdown, and DZ did not directly affect excitatory synaptic transmission, we interpret the results of our study as evidence that partially decreasing or increasing the ratio of I/E disrupts several measures of visual system information processing and visually guided behavior in an intact vertebrate. PMID:21795628

Shen, Wanhua; McKeown, Caroline R; Demas, James A; Cline, Hollis T

2011-11-01

194

Transmit Precoding for Flat-Fading MIMO Multiuser Systems With Maximum Ratio Combining Receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the application of transmit precoding in multi- user multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) communication systems with max- imum ratio combining (MRC) receivers. In many multiuser applications, the maximum-likelihood or minimum mean-square error (MMSE) re- ceivers can be prohibitive to implement due to their high implementation complexity. We examine the performance of the system with simple MRC receivers and carefully selected precoders,

Adem Coskun

2011-01-01

195

Period ratios in multiplanetary systems discovered by Kepler are consistent with planet migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler planet candidates are an interesting test bed for planet formation scenarios. We present results from N-body simulations of multiplanetary systems that resemble those observed by Kepler. We add both smooth (Type I/II) and stochastic migration forces. The observed period ratio distribution is inconsistent with either of those two scenarios on its own. However, applying both stochastic and smooth migration forces to the planets simultaneously results in a period ratio distribution that is similar to the observed one. This is a natural scenario if planets form in a turbulent protoplanetary disc where these forces are always present. We show how the observed period ratio and eccentricity distribution can constrain the relative strength of these forces, a parameter which has been notoriously hard to predict for decades. We make the source code of our simulations and the initial conditions freely available to enable the community to expand this study and include effect other than planetary migration.

Rein, Hanno

2012-11-01

196

Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 ratio on immune and reproductive systems of pullet chicks.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 ratio on immune and reproduction systems of Leghorn pullet chicks. A total of 216 Hy-Line W-36 pullet chicks (1 d old) were randomly assigned to 3 diets (n-6:n-3 ratios of 10, 6, and 2) until 22 wk of age. The Optomega-50 (Optivite International Ltd., Nottinghamshire, UK) containing 50% salmon fish oil was used as an n-3 source. Pullets were injected with SRBC suspension at 6 and 9 wk and anti-SRBC titers were measured 7 and 14 d after each immunization. The antibody (Ab) titers for Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza, infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) were determined at 4, 6, 10, 14, and 18 wk of age. Pullets fed diet with the n-6:n-3 ratio of 2 had higher feed consumption and lower BW gain (P < 0.05) compared those fed diets with the ratios of 6 and 10. The results demonstrated that the different dietary n-6:n-3 ratios did not have a significant effect on the anti-SRBC titers in pullets serum (P > 0.05). The Ab production against avian influenza vaccine was increased in pullets fed diet containing the n-6:n-3 ratio of 10 at wk 10 and 14 and increased for ND at only 14 wk (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the Ab response to IBD (14 wk) and IB (14 wk) vaccines was increased when pullets were fed diet containing a ratio of 6 (P < 0.05). The pullets fed diet with the n-6:n-3 ratio of 2 showed lower egg production and late sexual maturity (P > 0.05) whereas ovary weight (P = 0.01) and number of large yellow follicles (P = 0.049) were significantly decreased at first oviposition. Our results revealed that the supplementation of Optomega-50 as a source of n-3 to decrease the n-6:n-3 ratio in diet significantly increased Ab production for ND, IB, and IBD in pullet chicks with slight reduction in reproductive organs weight at early production. PMID:21753213

Pilevar, M; Arshami, J; Golian, A; Basami, M R

2011-08-01

197

User Reservation Approach for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in MC-CDMA Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicarrier Code-Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a foreseen technique for future high data rate and high capacity multiuser wireless communications. However, the often large values of the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals pose a problem in multicarrier systems, because they can lead to nonlinear distortion at the High Power Amplifier (HPA) and a subsequent degradation of the

Luis A. Paredes Hernndez; Mariano Garca Otero

2009-01-01

198

The Minimum Mass Ratio for Contact Close Binary Systems of W Ursae Majoris-Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main research topic of this dissertation are extreme mass ratio contact close binary systems, q ? 0.1, of W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) type. These close binaries (CBs) represent an interesting class of objects in which "normal", approximately one solar mass main-sequence star is in contact with a significantly less massive companion, M_2 0.1 M_?. Earlier theoretical investigations of these systems found that there is a minimum mass ratio q_{min} = M_2/M_1 = 0.085 - 0.095 (obtained for n = 3 polytrope - fully radiative primary) above which these CBs are stable and could be observed. If the mass ratio is lower than q_{min}, or, equivalently, if orbital angular momentum is only about three times larger than the spin angular momentum of a massive primary, a tidal instability develops (Darwin's instability) forcing eventually the stars to merge into a single, rapidly rotating object (such as FK Com-type stars or blue stragglers). However, there appear to be some W UMa-type CBs with empirically obtained values for the mass ratio below the theoretical limit for stability. The aim of this dissertation is to try to resolve the discrepancy between theory and observations by considering rotating polytropes. By including in theory the effects of higher central condensation due to rotation we were able to reduce qmin to the new theoretical value q_{min} = 0.070-0.074, for the overcontact degree f = 0 - 1, which is more consistent with the observed population. Other candidate systems for stellar mergers such as AM CVn-type stars have also been discussed in the dissertation.

Arbutina, B.

2012-12-01

199

The mass ratio and formation mechanisms of Herbig Ae/Be star binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present B- and R-band spectroastrometry of a sample of 45 Herbig Ae/Be (HAe/Be) stars in order to study their binary properties. All but one of the targets known to be binary systems with a separation of ~0.1-2.0 arcsec are detected by a distinctive spectroastrometric signature. Some objects in the sample exhibit spectroastrometric features that do not appear attributable to a binary system. We find that these may be due to light reflected from dusty haloes or material entrained in winds. We present eight new binary detections and four detections of an unknown component in previously discovered binary systems. The data confirm previous reports that HAe/Be stars have a high binary fraction, 74 +/- 6 per cent in the sample presented here. We use a spectroastrometric deconvolution technique to separate the spatially unresolved binary spectra into the individual constituent spectra. The separated spectra allow us to ascertain the spectral type of the individual binary components, which in turn allows the mass ratio of these systems to be determined. In addition, we appraise the method used and the effects of contaminant sources of flux. We find that the distribution of system mass ratios is inconsistent with random pairing from the initial mass function, and that this appears robust despite a detection bias. Instead, the mass ratio distribution is broadly consistent with the scenario of binary formation via disc fragmentation. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias. E-mail: pyhew@leeds.ac.uk

Wheelwright, H. E.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Goodwin, S. P.

2010-01-01

200

Primary Radiometry for the mise-en-pratique: The Laser-Based Radiance Method Applied to a Pyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new setup has been implemented at LCM-LNE-CNAM for the determination "of the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers for the determination" of the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature blackbodies at the temperature of a metal-carbon eutectic phase transition. In this new setup, an innovative acoustic-optic modulator feedback loop is used to stabilize the radiance of a wavelength tunable laser. The effect of residual optical interferences on the calibration of a test pyrometer is analyzed. The full uncertainty budget is presented.

Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.; Bourson, F.; Rougi, B.; Rihan, A.; Zondy, J.-J.

2011-12-01

201

Development of neutron measurement system for nd/nt fuel ratio measurement in ITER experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of measurement of fuel ratio from the DT/DD reaction ratio with a neutron spectrometer in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor was studied. The results of neutron transport calculations using the Monte Carlo N-particle [MCNP, a general Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 4C, LA-13709, edited by J. F. Briesmeister, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2000] code system indicated the possibility of DD spectrum separation from the scattered/energy-degraded neutrons derived from DT neutrons by selection of the measurement location and collimator design. A time-of-flight spectrometer was used in this study. An experiment using DD and DT neutrons from an accelerator was conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Neutronics Source facility. Using a sophisticated circuit with three discriminators for the first detector, separation of DD and DT neutron components of the spectrum in the megahertz region was confirmed experimentally.

Okada, K.; Kondo, K.; Sato, S.; Nishitani, T.; Nomura, K.; Okamoto, A.; Iwasaki, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.

2006-10-01

202

Magnetization reversal with variation of the ratio of the anisotropy energies in exchange bias systems  

SciTech Connect

We systematically vary the ratio of the exchange and ferromagnetic anisotropies in a single multilayered system in finally unravelling the mysteries of magnetization reversal of exchange coupled systems. This is particularly possible due to increasing unidirectional exchange anisotropies in our multilayer system which we saw earlier from sequential switching of exchange coupled layers along the stack with increasing applied field strengths. Here, by introducing different directions ({theta}) of the applied field with respect to the unidirectional anisotropy direction, we have varied two different energy parameters: (i) the exchange anisotropy for each layer (ii) the ferromagnetic anisotropy. Our polarized neutron measurements thus show a gradual crossover from layer flipping (domain-wall motion) for low torque regimes of the effective field to coherent rotation for high torque regimes. We explain these findings within a general and simple model where the angular dependencies for reversal are guided by the relative strengths of Zeeman, exchange, and anisotropy energies.

Paul, Amitesh; Kentzinger, Emmanuel; Ruecker, Ulrich; Brueckel, Thomas [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2006-08-01

203

Spatio-temporal patterns of C : N : P ratios in the northern Benguela upwelling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a global scale the ratio of fixed nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) is characterized by a deficit of N with regard to the classical Redfield ratio of N : P = 16 : 1 reflecting the impact of N loss occurring in the oceanic oxygen minimum zones. The northern Benguela upwelling system (NBUS) is known for losses of N and the accumulation of P in sub- and anoxic bottom waters and sediments of the Namibian shelf resulting in low N : P ratios in the water column. To study the impact of the N : P anomalies on the regional carbon cycle and their consequences for the export of nutrients from the NBUS into the oligotrophic subtropical gyre of the South Atlantic, we measured dissolved inorganic carbon (CT), total alkalinity (AT), oxygen (O2) and nutrient concentrations in February 2011. The results indicate increased P concentrations over the Namibian shelf due to P efflux from sediments resulting in a C : N : P : -O2 ratio of 106 : 16 : 1.6 : 138. N reduction further increase C : N and reduce N : P ratios in those regions where O2 concentrations in bottom waters are < 20 ?mol kg-1. However, off the shelf along the continental margin, the mean C : N : P : -O2 ratio is again close to the Redfield stoichiometry. Additional nutrient data measured during two cruises in 2008 and 2009 imply that the amount of excess P, which is created in the bottom waters on the shelf, and its export into the subtropical gyre after upwelling varies through time. The results further reveal an inter-annual variability of excess N within the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) that flows from the north into the NBUS, with highest N values observed in 2008. It is postulated that the N excess in SACW occurred due to the impact of remineralized organic matter produced by N2 fixation and that the magnitude of excess P formation and its export is governed by inputs of excess N along with SACW flowing into the NBUS. Factors controlling N2 fixation north of the BUS need to be addressed in future studies to better understand the role of the NBUS as a P source and N sink in the coupled C : N : P cycles.

Flohr, A.; van der Plas, A. K.; Emeis, K.-C.; Mohrholz, V.; Rixen, T.

2014-02-01

204

CK Bootis: a W UMa system with a small mass ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of BVR light curves of an eclipsing binary {CK Bootis}, a system with a very small mass ratio. The light curves appear to exhibit a typical O'Connell effect. The light curves are analyzed by means of the latest version of the WD program. The asymmetry of the light curves is explained by a cool star spot model. The simultaneous BVR synthetic light curve analysis gives a tiny mass ratio of 0.12, an extremely large fill-out factor of 0.65, and a very small difference between the component temperatures of 90 K. The absolute parameters of the system were also derived by combining the photometric solutions with the radial velocity data. The mass of the secondary is very low (0.15 M_?) and it continues losing mass. Thirty seven new times of minimum are reported. It is found that the orbital period of the system has a quasi periodic variation, superimposed on a period increase. The long-term period increase rate is deduced to be dP/dt = 3.54 x 10-7 d yr-1, which can be interpreted as being due to mass transfer from the less massive star to the more massive component.

Kalci, R.; Derman, E.

2005-06-01

205

System-specific spare rail vehicle ratios: A synthesis of transit practice. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis addresses the system-specific variables that directly impact fleet size, and the spare ratios that are maintained by individual transit agencies. From the information obtained, it appears that most rail transit agencies closely monitor the spare vehicles they maintain to maximize efficiency and thereby reduce operating costs. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes operating environments at 21 selected rail transit agencies of various sizes in key geographical locations in North America. It contains survey information about operating practices, impediments, and strategies used to appropriately size fleets within each agency`s operating context.

Pierce, J.T.

1995-12-31

206

Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test  

DOEpatents

A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Valentine, John D. (Redwood City, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA)

2007-07-17

207

40 CFR 141.534 - How does my system use this data to calculate an inactivation ratio?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9 value. Calculate the total inactivation ratio as follows, and multiply the value by 3.0 to determine log inactivation of Giardia lamblia: If your system * * * Your system must determine * * * (a) Uses only one point of disinfectant...

2010-07-01

208

Reliability of international normalised ratios from two point of care test systems: comparison with conventional methods  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out how accurately two point of care test systemsCoaguChek Mini and TAS PT-NC (RapidPointCoag)display international normalised ratios (INRs). Design Comparison of the INRs from the two systems with a true INR on a conventional manual test from the same sample of blood. Setting 10 European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation centres. Participants 600 patients on long term dosage of warfarin. Main outcome measures Comparable results between the different methods. Results The mean displayed INR differed by 21.3% between the two point of care test monitoring systems. The INR on one system was 15.2% higher, on average, than the true INR, but on the other system the INR was 7.1% lower. The percentage difference between the mean displayed INR and the true INR at individual centres varied considerably with both systems. Conclusions Improved international sensitivity index calibration of point of care test monitors by their manufacturers is needed, and better methods of quality control of individual instruments by their users are also needed.

Poller, Leon; Keown, Michelle; Chauhan, Nikhil; van den Besselaar, Anton MHP; Tripodi, Armando; Shiach, Caroline; Jespersen, Jorgen

2003-01-01

209

Computer-controlled flow injection analysis system for on-line determination of distribution ratios  

SciTech Connect

An automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system has been developed for the rapid acquisition of liquid/liquid, metal ion distribution ratios (D). The system features automatic switching between aqueous metal sample and wash solutions, on-line solvent extraction, phase separation, and the simultaneous detection of the separated phases by diode-array spectrophotometry. A comparative study of manual, single-stage liquid/liquid extractions with the flow injection system was completed by using a new extraction system UO/sub 2//sup 2 +//benzene/TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide)/HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione). The batch and FIA methods yielded results generally within 5% of each other. The major differences between the two systems are that the FIA system is at least twice as fast, is less labor intensive, is more reproducible, and yields better statistics (a result of the FIA's speed and automation features). Slope analysis of the plotted data from the uranyl extraction studies indicates that the extraction complex is UO/sub 2/(BMPPT)/sub 2/(TOPO).

Nekimken, H.L.; Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Peterson, E.J.; Jones, M.M.

1988-07-15

210

Molecular beam sampling system with very high beam-to-background ratio: The rotating skimmer concept  

SciTech Connect

A novel method of reducing the background pressure in a vacuum system used for sampling a molecular beam from a high pressure region is presented. A triple differential pumping stage is constructed with a chopper with rotating skimmer within the first pumping stage, which serves effectively as a valve separating periodically the vacuum system from the ambient environment. The mass spectrometry measurement of the species in the molecular beam show an excellent beam-to-background ratio of 14 and a detection limit below 1 ppm. The potential of this method for detection of low density reactive species in atmospheric pressure plasmas is demonstrated for the detection of oxygen atoms generated in an atmospheric pressure microplasma source.

Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; Keudell, A. von [Arbeitsgruppe Reaktive Plasmen, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2009-05-15

211

Molecular beam sampling system with very high beam-to-background ratio: The rotating skimmer concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of reducing the background pressure in a vacuum system used for sampling a molecular beam from a high pressure region is presented. A triple differential pumping stage is constructed with a chopper with rotating skimmer within the first pumping stage, which serves effectively as a valve separating periodically the vacuum system from the ambient environment. The mass spectrometry measurement of the species in the molecular beam show an excellent beam-to-background ratio of 14 and a detection limit below 1 ppm. The potential of this method for detection of low density reactive species in atmospheric pressure plasmas is demonstrated for the detection of oxygen atoms generated in an atmospheric pressure microplasma source.

Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; von Keudell, A.

2009-05-01

212

Performance and limits of liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for halogenated compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) has been an important step for the assessment of the origin and fate of compounds in environmental science.[1] Biologically or pharmaceutically important compounds often are not amenable for gas chromatographic separation because of high polarity and lacking volatility, thermostability. In 2004 liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) became commercially available. LC-IRMS system intent a quantitative conversion of analytes separation into CO2 via wet oxidation with sodium persulfate in the presence of phosphoric acid while analytes are still dissolved in the aqueous liquid phase.[2] The aim of this study is to analyze the oxidation capacity of the interface of the LC-IRMS system and determine which parameters could improve oxidation of compounds which are resistant to persulfate oxidation. Oxidation capacity of the liquid chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry system was tested with halogenated acetic acid and a set of aromatic compounds with different substitutes. Acetic acid (AA) was taken as a model compound for complete oxidation and compared to the oxidation of other analytes on a molar basis. Correct values were obtained for di- and mono chlorinated and fluorinated and also for tribrominated acetic acid and for all studied aromatic compounds. Incomplete oxidation for trichloroacetic (TCAA) and trifluoroacetic (TFAA) acid was revealed with lower recovery compared to acetic acid and isotope fractionation leading to depleted carbon isotope composition compared to values obtained with an elementary analyzer connected to an isotope mass spectrometer Several optimization steps were tried in order to improve the oxidation of TCAA and TFAA: (i) increasing the concentration of the oxidizing agent, (ii) variation of flow rate of the oxidizing and acid solution, (iii) variation of flow rate of liquid chromatography pump (iv) addition of a catalyzer. These modifications lead to longer reaction time in the coil and increase in the concentration of radical but complete combustion of highly chlorinated or fluorinated compounds was not achieved. Due to these findings the limit for a LC-IRMS system for similar structure compounds can be predicted. 1. Elsner, M., et al., Current challenges in compound-specific stable isotope analysis of environmental organic contaminants. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2012. 403(9): p. 2471-2491. 2. Krummen, M., et al., A new concept for isotope ratio monitoring liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 2004. 18(19): p. 2260-2266.

Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans

2014-05-01

213

High Fill-Out, Extreme Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. VIII. EM Piscium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD photometric observations of the newly discovered close binary, EM Piscium, obtained from 2006 December 4 to 2008 January 7, are presented. The light curves are symmetric and show complete eclipses with an eclipse duration of 54 minutes. When comparing the present light curves with those published by Gonzlez-Rojas et al., it is found that the depths of the two minima of the light curve have been interchanged, and the positive O'Connell effect has disappeared. The symmetric light curves in R and I bands were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is found that EM Piscium is a high fill-out overcontact binary system (f = 95.3 2.7%) with an extreme mass ratio of q = 0.1487, suggesting that it is on the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binaries. Based on the nine instances of light minimum that we determined and those published by previous investigators, it is discovered that the orbital period shows a cyclic period variation with a period of 3.3 years, while it undergoes a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt = +3.97 10-6 days year-1. The cyclic period reveals the presence of a tertiary companion, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the overcontact binary by drawing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction. The high fill-out, the extreme mass ratio, and the rapid period increase may suggest that the binary system is quickly evolving into a rapid-rotating single star.

Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Soonthornthum, B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W. P.; Dai, Z.-B.

2008-11-01

214

DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XI. V1191 CYGNI  

SciTech Connect

Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI){sub c} bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5({+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m{sub 3} = 0.77 M{sub sun} and an orbital radius of a{sub 3} = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming (China); Soonthornthum, B., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand/Ministry of Science and Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

2011-10-15

215

A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in recirculation aquaponic system.  

PubMed

The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic system (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield was significantly higher in the lower hydraulic loading rate. Fish production, plant growth and percentage nutrient removal were highest at hydraulic loading rate of 1.28 m/day. The ratio of fish to plant production has been calculated to balance nutrient generation from fish with nutrient removal by plants and the optimum ratio was 15-42 gram of fish feed/m(2) of plant growing area. Each unit in RAS was evaluated in terms of oxygen demand. Using specified feeding regime, mass balance equations were applied to quantify the waste discharges from rearing tanks and treatment units. The waste discharged was found to be strongly dependent on hydraulic loading rate. PMID:19819130

Endut, Azizah; Jusoh, A; Ali, N; Wan Nik, W B; Hassan, A

2010-03-01

216

Distribution function for the system of galaxies for any ratio of gravitational potential to kinetic energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate a distribution function for the system of galaxies clustering gravitationally in an expanding universe on the basis of statistical mechanics. We extend our previous work to incorporate the effect of any ratio of gravitational potential to kinetic energies. We determine the cosmological many-body partition function inclusive of higher order terms and calculate all thermodynamic quantities and the distribution function from it. We find that our new results are consistent with the previous ones, particularly in the large bar{N} (average number of galaxies) limit. We also investigate the effect on clustering parameter b and find our new results in very good agreement with the previous ones in the small b limit. We find that for large b, the departure from the original distribution function is greater. We also observe that the effect of softening on the distribution function is consistent with our previous work.

Ahmad, Farooq; Malik, Manzoor A.; Mir, Hameeda

2014-02-01

217

CO A-X system for constraining cosmological drift of the proton-electron mass ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The A1?-X1?+ band system of carbon monoxide, which has been detected in six highly redshifted galaxies (z=1.6-2.7), is identified as a probe method to search for possible variations of the proton-electron mass ratio (?) on cosmological time scales. Laboratory wavelengths of the spectral lines of the A-X (v,0) bands for v=0-9 have been determined at an accuracy of ??/?=1.510-7 through VUV Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive and accurate zero-redshift data set. For the (0,0) and (1,0) bands, two-photon Doppler-free laser spectroscopy has been applied at the 310-8 accuracy level, verifying the absorption data. Sensitivity coefficients K? for a varying ? have been calculated for the CO A-X bands so that an operational method results to search for ? variation.

Salumbides, E. J.; Niu, M. L.; Bagdonaite, J.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Ubachs, W.

2012-08-01

218

Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. III. CU Tauri and TV Muscae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New CCD photometric light curves in the B and V bands of the neglected W UMa-type eclipsing variable star CU Tauri are presented. The O'Connell effect in the V light curve obtained in 2001 by Yang and Liu was about ?V=+0.015, but it vanished in our 2004 observations. The variations in the levels of both minima were seen. Our two epochs of light minimum and others compiled from the literature were used for the period study. It is shown that the types of some eclipse times were incorrect and the values of the period obtained by previous investigators were aliases that prevented formation of a plausible O-C curve. A new linear ephemeris was derived, and it is discovered that the orbital period of CU Tau shows a continuous decrease at a rate of dP/dt=-1.8110-6 days yr-1. The present symmetric light curves were solved with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code. Both our solutions and those derived by Yang and Liu reveal that CU Tau is a deep (f=50.1%+/-3.2%), low mass ratio (q=0.1770+/-0.0017) overcontact binary system. Meanwhile, the photoelectric light curves in the B, V, R, and I bands of TV Muscae published by Hilditch and coworkers were reanalyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is shown that the low mass ratio binary turns out to be a deep overcontact system with f=74.3%+/-11.3%. A period analysis with all collected times of light minimum revealed a combination of a long-term period decrease (dP/dt=-2.1610-7 days yr-1) and a possible cyclic change with a period of 29.1 yr. The rapid long-term period decreases of both systems can be explained as a combination of the mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one and the angular momentum loss due to mass outflow from the L2 point. In that way, the overcontact degrees of the two systems will become deeper as their periods decrease, and finally they will evolve into a single rapid-rotation star. However, for CU Tau, the rate of the secular period decrease is very large when compared with the other systems of the same type. This suggests that the long-term period decrease may be part of a long-period periodic change, which we need more data to check.

Qian, S.-B.; Yang, Y.-G.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Yuan, J.-Z.

2005-07-01

219

An overview of the measurement errors associated with gas turbine aeroengine pyrometer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is advantageous to operate the thermodynamic cycle of an aeroengine at as high a turbine entry temperature as practical for the current metallurgical limits of the turbine blades, in order to achieve peak cycle efficiency and thus lower specific fuel consumption. However, achieving the highest possible turbine entry temperature requires accurate knowledge of the turbine blade temperatures for control

Clive Kerr; Paul Ivey

2002-01-01

220

An acoustic pyrometer system for tomographic thermal imaging in power plant boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an acoustic pyrometry method for the reconstruction of temperature maps inside power plant boilers. It is based on measuring times-of-flight of acoustic waves along a number of straight paths in a cross-section of the boiler; via an integral relationship, these times depend on the temperature of the gaseous medium along the paths. On this basis, 2D temperature

Mauro Bramanti; Emanuele A. Salerno; Anna Tonazzini; Sauro Pasini; Antonio Gray

1996-01-01

221

A Designment of Experimenttal System of No-line Measuring the Water Ratio in Turbine Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarized the present state of measuring water ratio of turbine oil. Owing to the present measuring methods in a power plant it is not possible to adapt the demands of the real-time measurement of water ratio of turbine oil, this paper puts forward a method that can measure the water ratio of the turbine oil continuously based on

Song Feng Tian; Zhong He Han; Kun Yang; Zhi Qiang Wang

2006-01-01

222

Monte Carlo simulation of two-dimensional hard body systems with extreme values of the Poisson's ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo computer simulations with variable shape of the periodic box were performed for a few two-dimensional, hard-body models showing elastically isotropic solid phases. Two examples of homo-molecular (i.e. consisting of identical molecules) systems of anisotropic molecules are discussed which form unusual solid phases, showing negative Poisson's ratio and know as auxetic ones, at densities and pressures higher than the elastically isotropic solid phases. Sharp extremes of the Poisson's ratio were observed for both systems at freezing of the orientational degrees of freedom of the molecules: a minimum was observed for the system for which the auxetic phase with frozen rotation is isotropic and a maximum was found for the other system. This indicates that isotropic auxetic phases can have auxetic precursors with much more negative Poisson's ratios than those characterizing the auxetic phases themselves. An example of a hetero-molecular (i.e. mixture consisting of different molecules), elastically isotropic system is also discussed - the polydisperse hard disc system. The simulations revealed a maximum of the Poisson's ratio in the close packing limit at any nonzero polydispersity. Although no manifestation of any auxetic behaviour has been found in this system, the obtained results indicate other unusual effect - a jump (discontinuity) of the Poisson's ratio at close packing when the polydispersity tends to zero. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the Poisson's ratio can play the role of a sensitive indicator of (at least) some structural changes in solids.

Tretiakov, K. V.; Wojciechowski, K. W.

2005-03-01

223

Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder as an Indicator of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to Estuarine Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrogen isotope ratios (?15N) were measured in muscle tissue of juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, collected from several estuarine systems (lagoons, river, bay) along the coast of Rhode Island, USA over a three-year period. Significant differences i...

224

Neutron to proton ratio dependence of energy of vanishing flow: role of system size and collision geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of system size on the neutron to proton ratio dependence of the energy of vanishing flow for isotopic series of various colliding nuclei. We find a significant effect of the nuclear symmetry energy on the neutron to proton ratio dependence of the energy of vanishing flow throughout the mass range for central as well as peripheral collisions. We find that the neutron to proton ratio dependence of the energy of vanishing flow for isotopic series of heavier system shows more sensitivity to the symmetry energy compared to that for lighter systems and that this sensitivity is enhanced in peripheral collisions. In addition, the mass dependence of the energy of vanishing flow has also been studied for systems having a neutron to proton ratio varying from purely symmetric matter to a highly neutron-rich one.

Gautam, Sakshi

2014-04-01

225

The differential Howland current source with high signal to noise ratio for bioimpedance measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the current source circuit are the important factors contributing to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in bioimpedance measurement system. In this paper we propose a new differential Howland topology current source and evaluate its output characters by simulation and actual measurement. The results include (1) the output current and impedance in high frequencies are stabilized after compensation methods. And the stability of output current in the differential current source circuit (DCSC) is 0.2%. (2) The output impedance of two current circuits below the frequency of 200 KHz is above 1 M?, and below 1 MHz the output impedance can arrive to 200 K?. Then in total the output impedance of the DCSC is higher than that of the Howland current source circuit (HCSC). (3) The SNR of the DCSC are 85.64 dB and 65 dB in the simulation and actual measurement with 10 KHz, which illustrates that the DCSC effectively eliminates the common mode interference. (4) The maximum load in the DCSC is twice as much as that of the HCSC. Lastly a two-dimensional phantom electrical impedance tomography is well reconstructed with the proposed HCSC. Therefore, the measured performance shows that the DCSC can significantly improve the output impedance, the stability, the maximum load, and the SNR of the measurement system.

Liu, Jinzhen; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mengjun; Zhang, Weibo; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

2014-05-01

226

Phase coherence and Signal-To-Noise ratio considerations for sampled aperture radar systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the application of Sampled Aperture Radar (SAMPAR) technology to the tracking of low-angle targets of low-angle targets at sea. In particular, expressions are developed and presented describing aperture signals for a conventional (SAMPAR) configuration which uses coherent local oscillators. The radar signals are shown to contain an interference term in which is contained all of the information used during Correlation Height Analysis (CHA) processing. A continuous wave (CW) experiment designed to evaluate the CHA algorithm is described. This system employs a beacon source and self-cohering receivers. It is shown that the same interference term is also contained in the self-cohered received signal. Some pre-processing of the interference term is required prior to CHA processing to optimize the results. A discussion is given of the implementation of Doppler processing for various target velocities. Finally a discussion is given of signal-to-noise ratios for typical target geometries and sea-state conditions, in which forward-scatter clutter, back-scatter clutter and system noise are taken into account.

Litva, J.; Chan, H. C.

1987-12-01

227

Anisoplanatism effects on signal-to-noise ratio performance of adaptive optical systems  

SciTech Connect

The effects of turbulence-induced anisoplanatism cause the performance of an adaptive-optics system to be dependent on the angular separation between the object wave front being corrected and the wave front of the reference source. One method of quantifying this angular-dependent performance is through the average optical transfer function (OTF). An equally important measure is the variance of the OTF. The variance is used together with the average OTF in the definition of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Knowledge of the SNR is essential for determining the spatial frequency limit of image restoration. We present a diffraction-based method of computing the object-angle-dependent OTF SNR for an adaptive-optics system. The SNR is computed with normalized correlation functions that are valid for a wide range of atmospheric turbulence profiles and beacon-object angles. The SNR results are presented for observation angles out to 6 times the isoplanatic angle as defined by Fried. 18 refs., 10 figs.

Troxel, S.E.; Welsh, B.M.; Roggemann, M.C. [Air Force Inst. of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1995-03-01

228

Pyrometer for measurement of surface temperature distribution on a rotating turbine blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual optical method and some test results are presented for measuring the surface temperature distribution on one of the rotating turbine blades with a surface resolution of 0.05 cm spot diameter at a tip speed of 400 m/sec. The blade is scanned line-by-line by a fixed optical system. During each line-scan, the detector analog output signal is converted to two hundred consecutive digital values that are temporarily stored in a high speed buffer memory, and then transferred at a slower rate to a computer for processing. The signal-to-noise ratio of the silicon avalanche detector is large enough to obtain an accuracy of one percent at 1050 K blade temperature. By averaging 25 scans of the same line the same accuracy can be obtained at 900 K.

Buchele, D. R.; Lesco, D. J.

1972-01-01

229

Pyrometer for measurement of surface temperature distribution on a rotating turbine blade.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual optical method and some test results are presented for measuring the surface temperature distribution on one of the rotating turbine blades with a surface resolution of 0.05 cm spot diameter at a tip speed of 400 m/sec. The blade is scanned line-by-line by a fixed optical system. During each line-scan, the detector analog output signal is converted to 200 consecutive digital values that are temporarily stored in a high-speed buffer memory and then transferred at a slower rate to a computer for processing. The signal-to-noise ratio of the silicon avalanche detector is large enough to obtain an accuracy of 1% at 1050 K blade temperature. By averaging 25 scans of the same line the same accuracy can be obtained at 900 K.

Buchele, D. R.; Lesco, D. J.

1972-01-01

230

The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

Kochurov, Boris P.

1995-09-01

231

Enhancing Multiple-Transiting Planet System Validation with Transit Duration Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discoveries of three planets transiting Kepler-9 (Holman et al. 2010; Torres et al. 2011), six densely packed planets transiting Kepler-11 (Lissauer et al. 2011), and a total of 170 stars with multiple transiting planet candidates (Borucki et al. 2011; Steffen et al. 2010) bode well for the future of multiple-transiting planet systems (MTPSs). For many faint (Kp>14) Kepler targets, traditional confirmation by radial velocities is not practical. Fortunately, detailed light curve analysis can eliminate the vast majority of false-positive scenarios and statistically validate such systems (Torres et al. 2011; Fressin et al. 2011). We explore the utility of the ratio of the observed transit durations in MTPSs for validating candidate MTPSs. After normalizing by a function of orbital periods, we obtain a parameter with a distribution centered on unity for multiple planets around the same star, but markedly different for certain blend scenarios. Using the Kepler Input Catalog and galactic stellar population models, we investigate these distributions through Monte Carlo simulations of four scenarios: 1) one star with two planets, 2) one star with one planet blended with an eclipsing binary, 3) two eclipsing binaries, and 4) two stars each with one planet. We discuss the utility of this statistics for in planet validation and estimating the false alarm probabilities for candidate systems identified by Kepler. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate. R.C.M. is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-0802270.

Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.; Pra, A.; Ragozzine, D.

2011-09-01

232

A synthetic sex ratio distortion system for the control of the human malaria mosquito  

PubMed Central

It has been theorized that inducing extreme reproductive sex ratios could be a method to suppress or eliminate pest populations. Limited knowledge about the genetic makeup and mode of action of naturally occurring sex distorters and the prevalence of co-evolving suppressors has hampered their use for control. Here we generate a synthetic sex distortion system by exploiting the specificity of the homing endonuclease I-PpoI, which is able to selectively cleave ribosomal gene sequences of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that are located exclusively on the mosquitos X chromosome. We combine structure-based protein engineering and molecular genetics to restrict the activity of the potentially toxic endonuclease to spermatogenesis. Shredding of the paternal X chromosome prevents it from being transmitted to the next generation, resulting in fully fertile mosquito strains that produce >95% male offspring. We demonstrate that distorter male mosquitoes can efficiently suppress caged wild-type mosquito populations, providing the foundation for a new class of genetic vector control strategies.

Galizi, Roberto; Doyle, Lindsey A.; Menichelli, Miriam; Bernardini, Federica; Deredec, Anne; Burt, Austin; Stoddard, Barry L.; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

2014-01-01

233

A synthetic sex ratio distortion system for the control of the human malaria mosquito.  

PubMed

It has been theorized that inducing extreme reproductive sex ratios could be a method to suppress or eliminate pest populations. Limited knowledge about the genetic makeup and mode of action of naturally occurring sex distorters and the prevalence of co-evolving suppressors has hampered their use for control. Here we generate a synthetic sex distortion system by exploiting the specificity of the homing endonuclease I-PpoI, which is able to selectively cleave ribosomal gene sequences of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that are located exclusively on the mosquito's X chromosome. We combine structure-based protein engineering and molecular genetics to restrict the activity of the potentially toxic endonuclease to spermatogenesis. Shredding of the paternal X chromosome prevents it from being transmitted to the next generation, resulting in fully fertile mosquito strains that produce >95% male offspring. We demonstrate that distorter male mosquitoes can efficiently suppress caged wild-type mosquito populations, providing the foundation for a new class of genetic vector control strategies. PMID:24915045

Galizi, Roberto; Doyle, Lindsey A; Menichelli, Miriam; Bernardini, Federica; Deredec, Anne; Burt, Austin; Stoddard, Barry L; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

2014-01-01

234

Rapid evolution towards equal sex ratios in a system with heterogamety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equal sex ratios found in many species with heterogametic sex determination may be a consequence of selection for equality or the result of the Mendelian segregation of the two sex chromosomes. A lack of genetic variation in sex ratio in species with heterogamety has been the major obstacle in distinguishing between these two hypotheses. We overcome this obstacle by

Mark W. Blows; David Berrigan; George W. Gilchrist

1999-01-01

235

Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. IX. V345 Geminorum with a Bright Visual Pair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCD photometric observations of the visual binary, V345 Geminorum, obtained from 2007 January 24 to 2009 March 22, are presented. When comparing the light curves in 2007 and 2008, it is found that there appears to be an O'Connell effect in the light curves of 2008. From those observations, two sets of photometric solutions were deduced using the 2003 version of the W-D program. The results indicated that V345 Gem is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with f = 72.9%(3.1%). The asymmetric light curves in 2008 may be attributed to the activity of starspot, whose area is up to 1.55% of the area of the more massive component. The contributions of the third light to the total light are approximately 20% in the BVR bands. The absolute physical parameters for V345 Gem were obtained first. From the log L-log M diagram of the binary-star evolution, the primary component is an evolved star. From the O-C curve for V345 Gem, it is discovered that there exists a long-term period increase with a cyclic variation. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation are P 3 = 646.7(0.7) day and A = 0fd0019(0fd0002), which may be caused by the light-time effect via the assumed third body. If it is true, the visual binary V345 Gem may be a quadruple star. The kind of additional component may remove angular momentum from the central system, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the binary. The secular period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +5.88 10-8 d yr-1, indicating that the mass transfers from the less massive component to the more massive component. With mass transferring, the orbital angular momentum decreases while the spin angular momentum increases. When J spin/J orb > 1/3, this kind of deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary with secular period increase may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star.

Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.

2009-08-01

236

Observed solar radio burst effects on GPS\\/Wide Area Augmentation System carrier-to-noise ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first direct observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) L1 (1.57542 GHz) carrier-to-noise ratio degradation due to a solar radio burst are presented for an event that occurred on 7 September 2005. Concurrent carrier-to-noise ratio data from GPS satellites are available from receivers at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and also from Anderson, South Carolina, United States.

Alessandro P. Cerruti; Paul M. Kintner; Dale E. Gary; Louis J. Lanzerotti; Eurico R. de Paula; Hien B. Vo

2006-01-01

237

Improving Compression Ratio, Area Overhead, and Test Application Time for System-on-a-Chip Test Data Compression\\/Decompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new test data compression\\/decompression method for systems-on-a-chip. Themethod is based on analyzing the factors that influencetest parameters: compression ratio, area overhead and testapplication time. To improve compression ratio, the newmethod is based on a Variable-length Input Huffman Coding(VIHC), which fully exploits the type and length of the patterns,as well as a novel mapping and reordering algorithmproposed

Paul Theo Gonciari; Bashir M. Al-Hashimi; Nicola Nicolici

2002-01-01

238

A sex-ratio Meiotic Drive System in Drosophila simulans. I: An Autosomal Suppressor  

PubMed Central

Sex ratio distortion (sex-ratio for short) has been reported in numerous species such as Drosophila, where distortion can readily be detected in experimental crosses, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here we characterize an autosomal sex-ratio suppressor from D. simulans that we designate as not much yang (nmy, polytene chromosome position 87F3). Nmy suppresses an X-linked sex-ratio distorter, contains a pair of near-perfect inverted repeats of 345 bp, and evidently originated through retrotransposition from the distorter itself. The suppression is likely mediated by sequence homology between the suppressor and distorter. The strength of sex-ratio is greatly enhanced by lower temperature. This temperature sensitivity was used to assign the sex-ratio etiology to the maturation process of the Y-bearing sperm, a hypothesis corroborated by both light microscope observations and ultrastructural studies. It has long been suggested that an X-linked sex-ratio distorter can evolve by exploiting loopholes in the meiotic machinery for its own transmission advantage, which may be offset by other changes in the genome that control the selfish distorter. Data obtained in this study help to understand this evolutionary mechanism in molecular detail and provide insight regarding its evolutionary impact on genomic architecture and speciation.

Tao, Yun; Masly, John P; Araripe, Luciana; Ke, Yeyan; Hartl, Daniel L

2007-01-01

239

Error probability for maximum ratio combining multichannel reception of Mary coherent systems over flat Ricean fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a simple closed-form series expression for the error probability of maximum ratio combining (MRC) multichannel reception of M-ary coherent systems over flat Ricean fading channels. This series expansion provides a simple and numerically efficient mean of calculating the error probability with controlled accuracy. M-ary PAM, PSK and QAM systems are investigated.

Hao Zhang; T. Aaron Gulliver

2004-01-01

240

Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract-<span class="hlt">Ratios</span> determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. SIMS studies of short-lived radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of short-lived radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by <span class="hlt">ratio</span> bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The cycle data also provide a more robust estimate of the uncertainties from temporal variations in the secondary ion signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24045385"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of neutrophyl lymphocyte count <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as an inflammatory marker in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: to evaluate neutrophyl lymphocyte count <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (NLCR) as an inflammatory marker in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: this was a cross sectional study involving 21 SLE patients with mild and moderate disease activity according to Mex SLEDAI score and 30 normal subjects. White blood cells counts were examined with Sysmex XE-5000. The absolute neutrophyl count and absolute lymphocyte count were tabulated and compared between SLE and normal subjects using unpaired t-test. The comparison of NLCR between SLE and normal subject was calculated using Mann-Whitney test. This study was conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine Hasan Sadikin Hospital from November 2011 until January 2012. Results: there was no significant difference in absolute neutrophyl count between SLE and normal subjects (4158+1517 vs 4031+1218 /mm3, p=0.74). The absolute lymphocyte count was significantly lower in SLE than normal subjects (1721+600 vs 2397+587/mm3, p=0.000). NLCR was significantly higher in SLE than normal subjects (2.52 (1.01-10.92) vs 1.65 (0.77-4.59), p=0.007). There was no significant difference in NLCR between SLE with mild and moderate activity (2.59 (1.01-10.92) vs 2.01 (1.38-3.98), p= 0.412). Based on ROC curve, with AUC 0.727, cut off NLCR value >1.93 had 70% sensitivity and 67% specificity in differentiating between SLE and normal subjects. Conclusion: NLCR could be used as simple inflammatory parameter in SLE. PMID:24045385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oehadian, Amaylia; Suryadinata, Hendarsyah; Dewi, Sumartini; Pramudyo, Riardi; Alisjahbana, Bachti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17749309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chondrites: initial strontium-87/strontium-86 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and the early history of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sodium-poor, calcium-rich inclusion in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende had a (87)Sr/(86)Sr <span class="hlt">ratio</span> at the time of its formation of 0.69880, as low a value as that found in any other meteorite. The higher (87)Sr/(86)Sr <span class="hlt">ratios</span> found in ordinary chondrites indicate that their formation or isotopic equilibration occurred tens of millions of years later. PMID:17749309</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wetherill, G W; Mark, R; Lee-Hu, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-10-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in porous media <span class="hlt">systems</span> from 3D X-ray microtomography images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present in this paper a methodology to calculate the distribution of local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in porous media <span class="hlt">systems</span> from high-resolution three-dimensional images. We introduce an algorithm to calculate the distribution of local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span> from 3D images based on distance and watershed transforms. The watershed transform is used to segment touched or overlapped particles in an efficient way and the distance transform is used to calculate the boundaries of local void regions. The algorithm is validated using computer simulated 3D images of regular packing, irregular (non-spherical particles) packing, and random uniform spherical packing. Results show that the algorithm is robust, accurate and can be used to calculate local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distribution of 3D <span class="hlt">systems</span> regardless of irregularity in shapes, sizes, or arrangement of particles. X-ray microtomography images of different glass bead <span class="hlt">systems</span> are used to calculate distributions of local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Parameters of distributions are function of porosity and particle-size distribution. The maximum local void <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in each <span class="hlt">system</span> is less than 3.0 and the minimum is greater than 0.2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Raoush, R.; Alshibli, K.A. (SU-A& M); (LSU)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hfga68pp176m524x.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of variations in counterion to surfactant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on rheology and microstructures of drag reducing cationic surfactant <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rheology, drag reduction and cryo-TEM experiments were performed on Arquad 1650\\/NaSal and Ethoquad O\\/12\\/NaSal surfactant\\u000a <span class="hlt">systems</span> at different counterion-to-surfactant <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and at constant low surfactant concentrations, 5 mM, appropriate for\\u000a drag reduction. The molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of counterion-to-surface was varied from 0.6 to 2.5. All the surfactant <span class="hlt">systems</span> described\\u000a here are viscoelastic and drag reducing. The viscoelasticity and drag reducing effectiveness</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Lu; Y. Zheng; H. T. Davis; L. E. Scriven; Y. Talmon; J. L. Zakin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V11F..07W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Model of Emitted Gas <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> From Persistently-Degassing Volcanoes and Implications for Equilibrium Closed-<span class="hlt">System</span> Degassing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many passively degassing volcanoes exhibit remarkably constant <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of different emitted gas species. Examples, with measured sulphur : chlorine <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (S/Clemitted) include Stromboli, Italy (0.8 -- 0.9); Masaya, Nicaragua (1.4 -- 1.5) and Nyiragongo, Dem. Rep. Congo (0.034 -- 0.035). These <span class="hlt">ratios</span> persist over periods of years despite variations in absolute gas fluxes of over 200%. We present a simple model for the evolution of gas <span class="hlt">ratios</span> during volcanic degassing which shows that a constant gas <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is exactly what one would expect if degassing processes are dominated by equilibrium, closed-<span class="hlt">system</span> degassing. The model assumes a simplified configuration consisting of a single magma reservoir connected to the surface by a conduit in which magma convection occurs, with degassing taking place rapidly as the magma reaches the surface, followed by return of degassed magma to the deep reservoir. Using measured `primitive' and `degassed' volatile concentrations from these volcanoes, we find excellent quantitative agreement between the simple model and observed values at Stromboli and Masaya. We show that the emitted gas <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are controlled by the initial (S0, Cl0) and degassed (Sd, Cld) volatile concentrations of the source magmas and the degassed magmas, according to the expression S/Clemitted = (S0 - Sd) / (Cl0 - Cld). The <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are not affected by the extent of degassing, or by an influx of fresh, volatile-rich magma of the same initial volatile composition. We infer that volcanoes that exhibit strongly variable gas <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (e.g. Etna, Italy, S/Clemitted ~ 0 -- 7) must either be controlled by open- <span class="hlt">system</span> degassing, or tap several magmas with distinct initial volatile compositions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Witham, F.; Phillips, J. C.; Blundy, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60506112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crude oil--natural gas <span class="hlt">system</span> vapor--liquid equilibrium <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (data at 250°F and <span class="hlt">system</span> containing 20% C\\/sub 7+\\/. [<span class="hlt">Ratios</span> for determining total oil recovery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vapor--liquid equilibrium <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (K values) have been determined experimentally on a Devonian crude oil--natural gas <span class="hlt">system</span> containing 20% of the C\\/sub 7+\\/ or heavy fraction. The data were obtained at 250°F and five pressures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. F. Wiesepape; H. T. Kennedy; P. B. Crawford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12602152"> <span id="translatedtitle">The low aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> design concept possibility of an acceptable fusion power <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scoping design code has been prepared and utilized to evaluate the critical issues of the low aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (LAR) concept as a design for a fusion power reactor. The physics basis for the A=1.4, ?=3, ?T of 62% and bootstrap fraction of 87% equilibrium design point was derived from earlier work. Using Kr to enhance the radiation from the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. P. C. Wong; R. Cerbone; E. T. Cheng; R. L. Miller; R. D. Stambaugh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9313254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance of the Bowen <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> <span class="hlt">Systems</span> on a 22 Deg Slope.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> energy balance technique was used to assess the energy fluxes on inclined surfaces during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Since air flow over sloping surface may differ from that over flat terrain, it is important to examine whet...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Nie I. Flitcroft E. T. Kanemasu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61386577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air-fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control apparatus of a fuel supply <span class="hlt">system</span> for an internal combustion engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An air-fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control apparatus for an internal combustion engine has an air valve disposed in an intake passage downstream of a throttle valve to cooperate therewith to define an air pressure chamber and operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure therein. A fuel circuit includes a fuel discharge port open to the intake passage and a fuel-metering orifice operatively</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Ando; M. Minoura; K. Motosugi; S. Sekiya; M. Sumiyoshi; Y. Takeuchi; J. Uozumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019784"> <span id="translatedtitle">The salivary alpha amylase over cortisol <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a marker to assess dysregulations of the stress <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different factors have been associated with changes in the regulation of the two major stress response <span class="hlt">systems</span> of the human body, the sympathetic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in these <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been associated with various (psycho)pathologies across adulthood, and are thus frequently assessed within the context of allostatic load. Early Life Adversity (ELA) has been identified as one such factor. Individuals with histories of ELA show evidence of elevated basal and reactive salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels (a marker of SNS activity), blunted cortisol levels (a marker of HPA axis activity), and an asymmetrical relationship between the two variables. However, variable methods used in the past to measure each variable, and the relationship between the two <span class="hlt">systems</span>, prevent us from drawing firm conclusions. This preliminary study investigated whether the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of reactive sAA over reactive cortisol would be more informative to investigate the relationship between the two stress <span class="hlt">systems</span> than the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cortisol over sAA, or either marker alone, and whether there is a systematic link between this marker and subjective indexes of chronic stress and depression. We studied this in a total of 37 subjects (n=20 with signs of early life adversity and n=17 without) exposed to the Trier social stress test. Using a specific formula to determine the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of sAA over cortisol, we found a systematically stronger positive relationship with indexes of chronic stress and depression when compared to cortisol over sAA, or either marker alone. Our findings suggest that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of sAA over cortisol might be a better marker of stress <span class="hlt">systems</span> dysregulation than the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of cortisol over sAA, sAA or cortisol alone. The usefulness of this marker for other chronic stress states as found in allostatic load is discussed. PMID:22019784</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, Nida; Pruessner, Jens C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45490779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the association between microalbuminuria and the urine albumin-creatinine <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and <span class="hlt">systemic</span> disease in dogs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: To evaluate semiquantitative and quantitative assays for microalbuminuria and determination of the urine albumin-creatinine (UAC) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in detection of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> disease in dogs without overt proteinuria. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 408 dogs. PROCEDURES: Urine samples that had been obtained from dogs for which a complete medical record was available and in which results of a dipstick test for urine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacqueline C. Whittemore; Virginia L. Gill; Wayne A. Jensen; Steven V. Radecki; M R Lappen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86000789"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of a Monochromator/Spectrometer <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Measurement of Photoelectron Angular Distributions and Branching <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the techniques used in calibrating a monochromator/spectrometer <span class="hlt">system</span> for gas-phase photoelectron angular distribution and branching <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurements. We report a self-consistent set of values for the Ne 2p, Ar 3p, Kr 4p/sub 3/2/ and 4p/sub...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Southworth A. C. Parr J. E. Hardis J. L. Dehmer D. M. P. Holland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50692846"> <span id="translatedtitle">An improved <span class="hlt">system</span> for the automatic estimation of the Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (AVR) in retinal images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> (AVR), a parameter derived from vessel caliber measurements in a specific region of retinal images, is used as a descriptor of generalized arteriolar narrowing, an eye fundus sign often seen in patients affected by hypertensive or diabetic retinopathies. We developed an improved <span class="hlt">system</span> to compute AVR in a totally automatic way. Images are at first enhanced</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lara Tramontan; Enrico Grisan; Alfredo Ruggeri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3933798"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aripiprazole-Cyclodextrin Binary <span class="hlt">Systems</span> for Dissolution Enhancement: Effect of Preparation Technique, Cyclodextrin Type and Molar <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective(s): The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the natural and the chemically modified form of cyclodextrins namely; ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) respectively on the solubility and dissolution rate of aripiprazole; an antipsychotic medication showing poor aqueous solubility. Materials and Methods: Phase solubility of aripiprazole with the studied CDs and the complexation efficiency values (CE) which reflect the solubilizing power of the CDs towards the drug was performed. Solid binary <span class="hlt">systems</span> of aripiprazole with CDs were prepared by kneading, microwave irradiation and freeze-drying techniques at 1:1 and 1:2 (drug to CD) molar <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Drug-CD physical mixtures were also prepared in the same molar <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for comparison. The dissolution of aripiprazole-binary <span class="hlt">systems</span> was carried out to select the most appropriate CD type, molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and preparation technique. Results: Phase solubility study indicated formation of higher order complexes and the complexation efficiency values was higher for HP-?-CD compared to ?-CD. Drug dissolution study revealed that aripiprazole dissolution was increased upon increasing the CD molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and, the freeze-drying technique was superior to the other studied methods especially when combined with the HP-?-CD. The cyclodextrin type, preparation technique and molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> exhibited statistically significant effect on the drug dissolution at P? 0.05. Conclusion: The freeze-dried <span class="hlt">system</span> prepared at molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 1:2 (drug: CD) can be considered as efficient tool for enhancing aripiprazole dissolution with the possibility of improving its bioavailability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa; A. Ahmed, Tarek; R Ismail, Hatem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60218338"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alkali injection <span class="hlt">system</span> with controlled CO\\/O <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for combustion of coal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur in which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of CO\\/O being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000°K for a gas-gas reaction with SO and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750004345&hterms=classifying+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclassifying%2Brocks"> <span id="translatedtitle">New theoretical models and <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging techniques associated with the NASA earth resources spectral information <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four independent investigations are reported; in general these are concerned with improving and utilizing the correlation between the physical properties of natural materials as evidenced in laboratory spectra and spectral data collected by multispectral scanners. In one investigation, two theoretical models were devised that permit the calculation of spectral emittance spectra for rock and mineral surfaces of various particle sizes. The simpler of the two models can be used to qualitatively predict the effect of texture on the spectral emittance of rocks and minerals; it is also potentially useful as an aid in predicting the identification of natural atmospheric aerosol constituents. The second investigation determined, via an infrared <span class="hlt">ratio</span> imaging technique, the best pair of infrared filters for silicate rock-type discrimination. In a third investigation, laboratory spectra of natural materials were compressed into 11-digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> codes for use in feature selection, in searches for false alarm candidates, and eventually for use as training sets in completely automatic data processors. In the fourth investigation, general outlines of a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> preprocessor and an automatic recognition map processor are developed for on-board data processing in the space shuttle era.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vincent, R. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..26..167T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-Time Measurement of Oil Circulation <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in CO2 Heat Pump <span class="hlt">System</span> Using Optical Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lubricating oil in the refrigerant flow in a CO2 heat pump <span class="hlt">system</span> has a great influence on cycle performance. In order to measure the OCR (Oil circulation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>), a mixing chamber and a visual vessel were installed at the outlet of the gas-cooler. By mixing the oil and refrigerant, the liquid mixture of oil and refrigerant becomes cloudy at the outlet of the gas-cooler. By measuring the infrared ray transmittance of the oil-refrigerant liquid mixture, it was found that the transmittance decreases with an increase in the oil circulation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. For this reason, it is found that, in spite of immiscible refrigerant and oil, the measurement of the oil circulation <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is possible by measuring the transmittance of infrared ray at the outlet of the gas-cooler.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takigawa, Ryusuke; Shimizu, Takao; Matsusaka, Yukio; Gao, Lei; Honda, Tomohiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18337966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wide-angle narrow-bandpass optical detection <span class="hlt">system</span> optimally designed to have a large signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for achieving optimal design of a wide-angle narrow-bandpass optical detection <span class="hlt">system</span> composed of a spherical interference filter and a circular photodetector is introduced. It was found that there is an optimal photodetector diameter that maximizes the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) for a given filter configuration. We show how to optimize optical detection <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on spherical interference filters for all the important parameters simultaneously. The SNR values of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> are compared with the SNR values of spherical-step-filter-based detection <span class="hlt">systems</span>. When large silicon photodetectors are used, the two <span class="hlt">systems</span> have equal SNR values so that the more economical step-filter <span class="hlt">systems</span> are preferable. The results given here in the near-infrared region can be used for the optimization of any configuration of a detection <span class="hlt">system</span> based on a spherical interference filter and a silicon photodetector working at the same wavelength range, without further calculations. PMID:18337966</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schweitzer, N; Arieli, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-02-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.2107A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Estimates for Site Effects on the Horst-Graben <span class="hlt">System</span> in West Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recordings of micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes have been used to quantify site effects in the central-west Turkey which contains one of the world's best examples of a rapid intra-continental extension with its high population and industrial potential. We analyzed 436 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6 using three component digital recordings from 32 stations. Site functions were obtained using two different spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> approaches (horizontal to vertical spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, HVSR, and standard spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, SSR). HVSR estimates of transverse and radial S-waves were compared with one another. Epicentral distance, magnitude and back-azimuth dependencies of site functions were also evaluated. In general, HVSR values from transverse and radial S-waves are similar within a factor of 2. The back-azimuth dependencies of transverse S-wave HVSR results are more significant than distance and magnitude dependencies. On the other hand, averaging of transverse and radial S-wave HVSR results eliminates systematic back-azimuth dependencies caused by source radiation effects. Distributions of HVSR estimates along ~N-S linear array, which traversed main grabens in the region with a station spacing of 3-4 km, reflect subsurface geological complexities in the region. The sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. The results also show that, even if the site is located on a horst, the presence of weathered zones along the surface could cause moderate frequency dependent site effects. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the stations on the graben sites showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akyol, N?hal; Kurtulmu?, Tevf?k zgr; amyildiz, Murat; Gngr, Tal?p</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/vejabn90h3cndnac.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pollen grain numbers, ovule numbers and pollen-ovule <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in Caryophylloideae: correlation with breeding <span class="hlt">system</span>, pollination, life form, style number, and sexual <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pollen-ovule <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (P\\/O) were measured for 79 species of Caryophylloideae (Agrostemma, Dianthus, Saponaria, Silene, and Vaccaria). We analyzed if these features are best correlated with (1) the breeding <span class="hlt">system</span> (outcrossing or selfing), (2) diurnal or nocturnal pollination, (3) life form (annual versus perennial), (4) style number, (5) the sexual <span class="hlt">system</span> (hermaphroditism, gynodioecism, dioecism), or (6) the taxonomy of species. According</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Jrgens; T. Witt; G. Gottsberger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/q33m152065254x66.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An integrated microfluidic <span class="hlt">system</span> for the determination of microalbuminuria by measuring the albumin-to-creatinine <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an integrated microfluidic <span class="hlt">system</span> for the determination of microalbuminuria (MAU) through the measurements\\u000a of the albumin-to-creatinine <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in patients urinary samples. Albumin concentrations are determined based on a non-immunological\\u000a dye binding assay in which the dyes react specifically with albumin to undergo a strong fluorescence enhancement. Creatinine\\u000a concentrations are determined based on the Jaff reaction in which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chun-Che Lin; Jue-Liang Hsu; Chin-Chung Tseng; Gwo-Bin Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28208760"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of pulmonary\\/<span class="hlt">systemic</span> blood flow <span class="hlt">ratio</span> after first-stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Circulatory maldistribution is believed to be a major cause of early death after first-stage palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Flow reversal in the reconstructed aorta may reflect the pulmonary\\/<span class="hlt">systemic</span> blood flow <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The purpose of our study was to investigate the utility of arterial PO, arterial oxygen saturation, and a newly developed Doppler-derived flow index in predicting the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jack Rychik; David M. Bush; Thomas L. Spray; J. William Gaynor; Gil Wernovsky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840020673&hterms=hmac&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522hmac%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wind tunnel tests of high-lift <span class="hlt">systems</span> for advanced transports using high-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> supercritical wings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift <span class="hlt">system</span> for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improving signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by use of a cross-shaped aperture in the holographic data storage <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cross-shaped aperture is proposed to improve signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) in the holographic data storage <span class="hlt">system</span> (HDSS). Both simulated and experimental results show that higher SNR can be achieved by the cross-shaped aperture than traditional square or circular apertures with the same area. A maximum gain of 20% in SNR is obtained for the optimized cross-shaped aperture. The sensitivities to pixel misalignment and magnification error are also numerically compared. PMID:19904322</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gu, Huarong; Yin, Songfeng; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span> superior to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> in prognosis of colon cancer?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Decision making for adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer is based on the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span>. It is well known that prognosis worsens with higher pN classification, and several recent studies propose superiority of the lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span>) to the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span>. Therefore, we compared the prognosis of ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> in our stage III colon cancer patients. Methods A total of 939 patients underwent radical surgery for colorectal cancer between January 2000 and December 2009. From this pool of patients, 142 colon cancer stage III patients were identified and taken for this analysis. Using martingale residuals, this cohort could be separated into a group with a low ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and one with a high ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. These groups were compared to pN1 and pN2 of the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span>. Results For ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the cutoff was calculated at 0.2. There was a good prognosis of disease-free and cancer-related survival for the N-category of the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> as well as for the lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. There was no statistical difference between using the N-category of the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> and the ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. Conclusions There might not be a benefit in using the lymph node <span class="hlt">ratio</span> rather than the N category of the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> as long as the number of subgroups is not increased. In our consideration, there is no need to change the N categorization of the TNM <span class="hlt">system</span> to the ln <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2003101522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">System</span> Gain and Bias Using Noisy Observations with Known Noise Power <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The identification of linear <span class="hlt">systems</span> from input and output observations is an important and well-studied topic. When both the input and output observations are noisy, the resulting problem is sometimes called the 'errors in variables' problem. Existing wo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. D. Voran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESD.....4...31R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The exponential eigenmodes of the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span>, and their implications for <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several basic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings in the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> are observed to be relatively steady. Examples include the CO2 airborne fraction (the fraction of the total anthropogenic CO2 emission flux that accumulates in the atmosphere) and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> T/QE of warming (T) to cumulative total CO2 emissions (QE). This paper explores the reason for such near-constancy in the past, and its likely limitations in future. The contemporary carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> is often approximated as a set of first-order linear <span class="hlt">systems</span>, for example in response-function descriptions. All such linear <span class="hlt">systems</span> have exponential eigenfunctions in time (an eigenfunction being one that, if applied to the <span class="hlt">system</span> as a forcing, produces a response of the same shape). This implies that, if the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> is idealised as a linear <span class="hlt">system</span> (Lin) forced by exponentially growing CO2 emissions (Exp), then all <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of responses to forcings are constant. Important cases are the CO2 airborne fraction (AF), the cumulative airborne fraction (CAF), other CO2 partition fractions and cumulative partition fractions into land and ocean stores, the CO2 sink uptake rate (kS, the combined land and ocean CO2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO2), and the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> T/QE. Further, the AF and the CAF are equal. Since the Lin and Exp idealisations apply approximately to the carbon-climate <span class="hlt">system</span> over the past two centuries, the theory explains the observed near-constancy of the AF, CAF and T/QE in this period. A nonlinear carbon-climate model is used to explore how future breakdown of both the Lin and Exp idealisations will cause the AF, CAF and kS to depart significantly from constancy, in ways that depend on CO2 emissions scenarios. However, T/QE remains approximately constant in typical scenarios, because of compensating interactions between CO2 emissions trajectories, carbon-climate nonlinearities (in land-air and ocean-air carbon exchanges and CO2 radiative forcing), and emissions trajectories for non-CO2 gases. This theory establishes a basis for the widely assumed proportionality between T and QE, and identifies the limits of this relationship.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raupach, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20681297"> <span id="translatedtitle">California bearing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/464859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the water-effect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> procedure for metals in a riverine <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Site-specific metal standards were determined for a part of the lower Lehigh River using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s water-effect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (WER) procedure. The WERs were based on laboratory and site water testing of the species Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) and five metals (copper, cadmium, lead, silver, and zinc) during four different months. Both species generally exhibited similar patterns in WERs. The greatest variability between the two species was observed for copper, silver, and lead. Ceriodaphnia yielded a lower mean WER than the fathead minnow for lead and zinc and WERs similar to those of the fathead minnow for copper, cadmium, and silver. The species more sensitive to a given metal did not always exhibit a higher WER, as had been previously assumed. A comparison of final WER calculations indicated that the geometric mean WER was typically higher than the final WER obtained using the 1994 guidance. For most metals, site water toxicity was reduced due to nonacutely toxic dissolved metal. Copper yielded the highest final WER regardless of the calculation method used. Regression analyses indicated that the copper WER was directly related, and the cadmium WER inversely related, to effluent concentration. Copper, lead, and silver WERs were related to site water pH. Cadmium and lead WERs were related to pH and dissolved solids. Zinc WERs were unrelated to any of the water quality variables measured and were similar among site water samples. The results suggest it is prudent to use two species in WER testing and different site water samples to derive a final WER, particularly at sites that are not effluent dominated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diamond, J.M. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Owings Mills, MD (United States); Koplish, D.E.; McMahon, J. III; Rost, R. [Bureau of Water Resources, Allentown, PA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=62084"> <span id="translatedtitle">RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HVAC <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> OPERATION, AIR EXCHANGE RATE, AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of duty cycle , the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) <span class="hlt">system</span> was operating, were made in each participant's home during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study. A miniature temperature sensor/data logger combination placed on the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35557512"> <span id="translatedtitle">A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in recirculation aquaponic <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic <span class="hlt">system</span> (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Azizah Endut; A. Jusoh; N. Ali; W. B. Wan Nik; A. Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49373467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance analysis of liquid desiccant based air-conditioning <span class="hlt">system</span> under variable fresh air <span class="hlt">ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In conventional air-conditioning <span class="hlt">system</span>, fresh air volume is always restricted to save energy, which sacrifices indoor air quality (IAQ) to some extent. However, removing the latent load of air by liquid desiccant rather than by cooling is an alternative way of reducing energy consumption. Therefore, IAQ can be improved by increasing the volume of fresh air introduced into an air-conditioning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaofeng Niu; Fu Xiao; Gaoming Ge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/611754"> <span id="translatedtitle">36Cl/Cl <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>: preliminary measurements from the Coso Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results indicate that most of the chlorine is not derived from the dominant granitoid that host the geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. If the chlorine was originally input into the Coso subsurface through meteoric recharge, that input occurred at least 1-1.25 million years ago. The results suggest that the thermal waters could be connate waters derived from sedimentary formations, presumably underlying and adjacent top the granitic rocks, which have recently migrated into the host rocks. Alternatively, most of the chlorine but not the water, may have recently input into the <span class="hlt">system</span> from magmatic sources. In either case, the results indicate that most of the chlorine in the thermal waters has existed within the granitoid host rocks for no more than about 100,00-200,00 years. this residence time for the chlorine is similar to residence times suggested by other researchers for chlorine in deep groundwaters of the Mono Basin north of the Coso field.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nimz, G.J.; Moore, J.N.; Kasameyer, P.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/202/@displayLabelxls@noteDATABASE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/202/htdocs/NogaDat-V1.0%20-%200629006.xls@displayLabelgif@noteIMAGE#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2006/202/htdocs/SampleMap.gif"> <span id="translatedtitle">USGS-NoGaDat - a global dataset of noble gas concentrations and their isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in volcanic <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The database (Version 1.0) is a MS-Excel file that contains close to 5,000 entries of published information on noble gas concentrations and isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from volcanic <span class="hlt">systems</span> in Mid-Ocean ridges, ocean islands, seamounts, and oceanic and continental arcs (location map). Where they were available we also included the isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of strontium, neodymium, and carbon. The database is sub-divided both into material sampled (e.g., volcanic glass, different minerals, fumarole, spring), and into different tectonic settings (MOR, ocean islands, volcanic arcs). Included is also a reference list in MS-Word and pdf from which the data was derived. The database extends previous compilations by Ozima (1994), Farley and Neroda (1998), and Graham (2002). The extended database allows scientists to test competing hypotheses, and it provides a framework for analysis of noble gas data during periods of volcanic unrest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abedini, Atosa A.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, W. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of neutron measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for n{sub d}/n{sub t} fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurement in ITER experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possibility of measurement of fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> from the DT/DD reaction <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with a neutron spectrometer in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor was studied. The results of neutron transport calculations using the Monte Carlo N-particle [MCNP, a general Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, version 4C, LA-13709, edited by J. F. Briesmeister, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2000] code <span class="hlt">system</span> indicated the possibility of DD spectrum separation from the scattered/energy-degraded neutrons derived from DT neutrons by selection of the measurement location and collimator design. A time-of-flight spectrometer was used in this study. An experiment using DD and DT neutrons from an accelerator was conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Neutronics Source facility. Using a sophisticated circuit with three discriminators for the first detector, separation of DD and DT neutron components of the spectrum in the megahertz region was confirmed experimentally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okada, K.; Kondo, K.; Sato, S.; Nishitani, T.; Nomura, K.; Okamoto, A.; Iwasaki, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); JAEA, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast17dec_1/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lightning <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for the continental United States. The Lightning <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6741295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Problems of trace-element <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and geothermometry in a gravel geothermal-aquifer <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">system</span> studied is a Tertiary-age, block-faulted basin in which a Pleistocene gravel bed acts as a confined aquifer and permits the lateral dispersion of the geothermal fluids. Vertical movement of the hot water is currently believed to be controlled by faults on the east side of the valley. An aerial magnetic anomaly and a Bouguer gravity anomaly appear to correspond with thoese eastern faults. Basic data on the geology and trace element halos has been presented previously. Evaluation of the mixing phenomena in this <span class="hlt">system</span> was attempted using a dissolved silica-enthalpy graph. A chalcedony curve is also plotted. An enthalpy versus chloride plot, suggests that either conductive cooling occurs before mixing or that higher chloride content background waters are available for mixing. (MHR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonderegger, J.L.; Donovan, J.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4353088"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Calibrating Camera Lens Distortion with Cross-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Invariability in Welding Seam <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wide-Angle lenses have broad applications in lots of fields for their larger fields of view. However, image deformation is\\u000a its main backward. Thus, calibration of distortion parameters of wide-angle lens is an essential procedure for 3D information\\u000a recovering from 2D images in applications. Based on our 3D welding seam extraction <span class="hlt">system</span>, we propose a nonlinear calibration\\u000a method by using calibration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guangtao Zhao; Hong Qiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8839E..0GK"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of high-aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> quality control optical scanning <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are widely used in contemporary high-energy physics experiments. The GEM is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil, coated with a thin metal layer on one or both sides. They are able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh radiation conditions. The holes in the foils have a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m and 140 ?m pitch distance between the centers of the holes. High-quality assurance is needed to guarantee a long lifespan for the detectors in the severe radiation environment. Mapping of the defects connecting two or more holes is important phase when determining the usability of a foil for detector application. The commercial optical scanning <span class="hlt">system</span> (OSS) with a scanning area of 950 950 mm was further developed in the Detector Laboratory at Helsinki Institute of Physics for controlling the quality of GEM foils. Microfabricated transfer standard containing sets of 10 10 numbered etched cavities with a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m was produced for <span class="hlt">system</span> calibration. The cavity dimensions and the expanded uncertainty were calculated with the 95% confidence level, as is required by the ISO Guide for Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The transfer standard was examined with the OSS in nine different positions of the scanning area. The results were analyzed, the uncertainties were calculated and the corrections were made according to the ISO requirement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Hildn, Timo; Heino, Jouni; Berdova, Maria; Lauhakangas, Rauno; Garcia, Francisco; Tuominen, Eija; Kassamakov, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092251"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONSTRAINING MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEM</span> WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S <span class="hlt">system</span> and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pueyo, Laurent [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Monnier, John D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 941 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Parry, Ian [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3, OHA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img 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target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...757...57P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining Mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> and Extinction in the FU Orionis Binary <span class="hlt">System</span> with Infrared Integral Field Spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0farcs5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 ?m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, AV = 8-12, with an effective temperature of ~4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S <span class="hlt">system</span> and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Vasisht, Gautam; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Monnier, John D.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jenny; Soummer, Rmi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61279734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air\\/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control <span class="hlt">system</span> having function of controlling supply of secondary air into intake pipe of internal combustion engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An air\\/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control <span class="hlt">system</span> is disclosed for performing feedback control of the air\\/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of an air\\/fuel mixture being supplied to an internal combustion engine in response to the concentration of an exhaust gas ingredient. The air\\/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> control <span class="hlt">system</span> includes a device for controlling a shot air valve for supplying secondary air into the intake pipe of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Otsuka; S. Hasegawa; S. Narasaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011RAA....11..843A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photometric study and preliminary elements of the low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> W UMa <span class="hlt">system</span> ASAS 021209+2708.3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present CCD B and V light curves, obtained in the year 2006, and a photometric solution of the low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> contact binary ASAS 021209+2708.3. With our data we were able to determine six new times of minimum light and refine the orbital period of the <span class="hlt">system</span> to 0.3181963 days. The light curves are analyzed using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program and the analysis was performed with and without adding a spot on the surface of one star because the light curves appear to exhibit a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II. The results show that ASAS 021209+2708.3 may be classified as an A-subtype W Ursae Majoris <span class="hlt">system</span> with a small mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> q = 0.1889, a large over-contact degree of f = 0.587, a very small difference between the component temperatures of ?T = 53 K and an orbital inclination of i = 81. It is known that deep (f > 50%), low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (q < 0.25) overcontact binary stars are a very important resource for understanding the phenomena of Blue Straggler/FK Com-type stars. The formations of Blue Straggler stars and FK Com-type stars are unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics. One of the possible explanations for their formation is from the coalescence of W UMa-type overcontact binary <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The absolute dimensions of ASAS 021209+2708.3 are estimated and its dynamical evolution is inferred.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Acerbi, Francesco; Barani, Carlo; Martignoni, Massimiliano</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Polymer Gel <span class="hlt">Systems</span> to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied <span class="hlt">system</span> in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial <span class="hlt">system</span> conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012017"> <span id="translatedtitle">A five-collector <span class="hlt">system</span> for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in a static mass spectrometer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">system</span> is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stacey, J. S.; Sherrill, N. D.; Dalrymple, G. B.; Lanphere, M. A.; Carpenter, N. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30723230"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blood Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Predicts Survival in Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases Treated with <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> Chemotherapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundWhether neutrophil-to-lymphocyte <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (NLR) predicts survival of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) treated\\u000a with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> chemotherapy remains unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsClinicopathologic data were reviewed for patients with CLM treated with chemotherapy and resection (n=200) or chemotherapy only (n=90). Univariate and multivariate analyses for prognostic factors were performed. In the resection group, whether chemotherapy\\u000a normalizes high NLR and the effect of NLR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoji Kishi; Scott Kopetz; Yun Shin Chun; Martin Palavecino; Eddie K. Abdalla; Jean-Nicolas Vauthey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21569029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in three wolf-ungulate <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.?Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three <span class="hlt">systems</span> where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2.?To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3.?The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4.?The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5.?Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological communities. Second, kill rate is the primary statistic for many traditional models of predation. However, our work suggests that kill rate and PR are similarly important for understanding why predation is such a complex process. PMID:21569029</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21284205"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Development of transient <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> based on multi-spectral radiation technology].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In modern dynamics <span class="hlt">system</span>, the radiant temperature of the flame, which caused by the transient plasma stimulated by high-energy-level electromagnetism field, takes an important role in the description of the flying object's status as well as cauterization of the trajectory. Due to its extremely high temperature and transient process, the radiant temperature of the flame can hardly be measured through contracted ways, either static ways such as traditional pyrophotometer or CCD arrays. In the present paper, the authors bring forward a novel pyrophotometer based on classical theory of Planck's law (blackbody radiation law) and multi-channel spectrums radiation method. With this new type pyrophotometer, any spectrum can be selected out from the wavelength of 300 to 860 nm within 2 ns. Also, the application of high-definition diffraction grating and fibers can'ensure the accuracy of selected spectrum. The results through a serial of experiments by using this theory as well as high-speed photodetector indicate that this method is valid and accurate for the measurement of the object's surface's radiant temperature. PMID:21284205</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhai, Yang; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Ri-hong; Ma, Suo-dong; Li, Jian-xin; Chen, Lei; Gu, Jin-liang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24634725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disentangling community functional components in a litter-macrodetritivore model <span class="hlt">system</span> reveals the predominance of the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> hypothesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">RECENT INVESTIGATIONS HAVE SHOWN THAT TWO COMPONENTS OF COMMUNITY TRAIT COMPOSITION ARE IMPORTANT FOR KEY ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES: (i) the community-weighted mean trait value (CWM), related to the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> hypothesis and dominant trait values in the community, and (ii) functional diversity (FD), related to the complementarity hypothesis and the divergence of trait values. However, no experiments controlling for the inherent dependence between CWM and FD have been conducted so far. We used a novel experimental framework to disentangle the unique and shared effects of CWM and FD in a leaf litter-macrodetritivore model <span class="hlt">system</span>. We manipulated isopod assemblages varying in species number, CWM and FD of litter consumption rate to test the relative contribution of these community parameters in the decomposition process. We showed that CWM, but also the combination of CWM and FD, is a main factor controlling litter decomposition. When we tested individual biodiversity components separately, CWM of litter consumption rate showed a significant effect on decomposition, while FD and species richness alone did not. Our study demonstrated that (i) trait composition rather than species diversity drives litter decomposition, (ii) dominant trait values in the community (CWM) play a chief role in driving ecosystem processes, corroborating the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> hypothesis, and (iii) trait dissimilarity can contribute in modulating the overall biodiversity effects. Future challenge is to assess whether the generality of our finding, that is, that dominant trait values (CWM) predominate over trait dissimilarity (FD), holds for other ecosystem processes, environmental conditions and different spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24634725</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bl, Karolna; Moretti, Marco; Bello, Francesco; Dias, Andr Tc; Pezzatti, Gianni B; Van Oosten, Arend Raoul; Berg, Matty P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12111885"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the assessment of adverse drug reactions from spontaneous reporting <span class="hlt">systems</span>: the influence of under-reporting on odds <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A well-known problem in spontaneous reporting <span class="hlt">systems</span> (SRSs) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is under-reporting, that is, the problem that not all occurrences of ADRs are reported to the SRS. We look at the question of how to draw statistical conclusions from analyses of SRS data using reporting odds <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. We will show that certain under-reporting problems play no role in assessing ADRs from SRSs: the results from the analyses turn out to be biased by some specific under-reporting problems, but not by others. SRS data can be particularly useful for the assessment of drug-drug interactions. If the assumption holds that there is an under-reporting problem for a first drug, and an under-reporting problem for a second drug, but that these two under-reporting problems do not influence each other, then reporting odds <span class="hlt">ratios</span> estimated from SRSs are useful for signalling drug-drug interactions in the ADR-experiencing population. Similar results hold for covariate-drug interactions. We illustrate our results using two examples. PMID:12111885</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Puijenbroek, Eugne P; van Buuren, Stef; van der Hofstede, Jacques W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EPJAP..5231102B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of a high voltage input - output <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dc-dc converter dedicated to small power fuel cell <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consuming chemical energy, fuel cells produce simultaneously heat, water and useful electrical power [J.M. Andjar, F. Segura, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 13, 2309 (2009)], [J. Larminie, A. Dicks, Fuel Cell <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Explained, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)]. As a matter of fact, the voltage generated by a fuel cell strongly depends on both the load power demand and the operating conditions. Besides, as a result of many design aspects, fuel cells are low voltage and high current electric generators. On the contrary, electric loads are commonly designed for small voltage swing and a high V/I <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in order to minimize Joule losses. Therefore, electric loads supplied by fuel cells are typically fed by means of an intermediate power voltage regulator. The specifications of such a power converter are to be able to step up the input voltage with a high <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 10 is a classic situation) and also to work with an excellent efficiency (in order to minimize its size, its weight and its losses) [A. Shahin, B. Huang, J.P. Martin, S. Pierfederici, B. Davat, Energy Conv. Manag. 51, 56 (2010)]. This paper deals with the design of this essential ancillary device. It intends to bring out the best structure for fulfilling this function. Several dc-dc converters with large voltage step-up <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are introduced. A topology based on a coupled inductor or tapped inductor is closely studied. A detailed modelling is performed with the purpose of providing designing rules. This model is validated with both simulation and implementation. The experimental prototype is based on the following specifications: the fuel cell output voltage ranges from a 50 V open-voltage to a 25 V rated voltage while the load requires a constant 250 V voltage. The studied coupled inductor converter is compared with a classic boost converter commonly used in this voltage elevating application. Even though the voltage regulator faces severe FC specifications, the measured efficiency reaches 96% at the rated power whereas conventional boost efficiency barely achieves 91.5% in the same operating conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bthoux, O.; Cathelin, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhDT........81C"> <span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for water pollution control trading <span class="hlt">systems</span> using a geographic information <span class="hlt">system</span> and the finite segment method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrogen from non-point sources reacts with the environment during flow to the waterway. These reactions cause decay of the pollutant. There is a question regarding whether pollution trades between point sources and non-point sources that involve nitrogen should consider this decay. The failure to consider this decay may cause trades to fail to achieve their environmental goal or to inefficiently achieve their environmental goal. Additionally, planners may consider the decay to target reductions and improve efficiency of trading programs. The dissertation uses a geographic information <span class="hlt">system</span> (GIS) and the finite segment method to evaluate the need for the use of a trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to consider decay. It uses GIS, principles of process engineering, and principles of hydrology to model the distribution of the nitrogen in the watershed with and without decay. Additionally, it compares the predictions of the concentrations with and without decay. Finally, it uses GIS to estimate appropriate values of trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The results show that the effect from decay during overland flow is appreciable but not always significant. The appropriate values of trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are likely to be less than 1.3. Use of trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span> may protect environmental quality and improve the efficiency of pollution control. However, sometimes the values of trading <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are small relative to other factors so that the use of trading <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is inconsequential. Finally, planners may use the decay of nitrogen from non-point sources to target the locations of the reductions to achieve the maximum decrease of concentration or to achieve the maximum increase of load without an increase in concentration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curley, Donald Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780015327&hterms=CSR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522CSR%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass <span class="hlt">systems</span> with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication <span class="hlt">systems</span> where the mapping from the signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many <span class="hlt">systems</span> through digital computer simulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.chemeddl.org/alfresco/service/org/chemeddl/nsdl/groups?id=chemeddl_0133&guest=true"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radius <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a set of animations that demonstrates properties of the spherical holes formed when uniform spheres are packed. Cubic, octahedral and tetrahedral packing arrangements may be examined without anything in the holes,and with the repective holes filled. The sizes of the various holes relative to the spheres being packed are shown, which can lead students into an exploration of the radius <span class="hlt">ratio</span> concept. An example is given of computing the relative size of an octahedral hole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m2q4727711l57p03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Video <span class="hlt">Pyrometer</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pyrometric device based on a consumer color digital video camera and a personal computer is described. A procedure for the study of thermodynamic processes is offered. The measured temperature range is 8002500C, and the measurement error is =50C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Tsyba; V. G. Salamatov; V. L. Polyakov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27443621"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Venturi pneumatic <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An instrument for measuring gas and flame temperatures, is described. From design considerations it is shown that the instrument can be used at higher temperatures than existing probe instruments and has a very rapid rate of response. The operation of the instrument is discussed and examples of its use are given. In the downtakes of open-hearth furnaces and in water-tube</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. M. Godridge; R. Jackson; G. G. Thurlow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1958-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21090550"> <span id="translatedtitle">The potential of a partial-flow constant dilution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> as a candidate for vehicle exhaust aerosol measurements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the measurement of airborne particle properties with use of a dedicated sampling protocol and a measurement setup directly installed in the exhaust line of vehicles and engines. The sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> dilutes a small part of the exhaust directly at the tailpipe without the need of exhaust gas transfer lines that may lead to sampling artifacts. Dilution takes place in two steps with a primary dilution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> universally set at a value of 12.5:1 for all vehicles and engines tested, and subsequent dilution steps reducing particle concentration within the measuring range of the instruments used. Dilution air temperature and residence time were set at 32 degrees C and 2.5 sec respectively, to allow repeatable measurement of nucleation-mode particles. The paper summarizes the specifications of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, evaluates its performance in comparison to real-world dilution (chasing experiments), and presents the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements performed in different laboratories. In general, after taking precautions for the setup and condition of instruments, both measurement quality indices reached levels similar to the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass. Application of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, using the same protocol, to measure many light-duty vehicles and engines is finally demonstrated, providing useful conclusions for the emission performance of different sized engines. The study concludes that the use of partial-flow sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span> may offer advantages for the measurement of particle emissions from low-emission engines compared with constant volume sampling facilities, including lower cost of purchase and operation, versatility, lack of artifacts, and possibilities for standardization in different environments. PMID:21090550</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AJ....134.1475Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep, Low Mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Overcontact Binary <span class="hlt">Systems</span>. VII. QX Andromedae in the Intermediate-Age Open Cluster NGC 752</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">QX Andromedae is a short-period eclipsing binary in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 752. Charge-coupled device photometric observations of the close binary <span class="hlt">system</span> obtained from 2004 November 13 to 2006 November 18 are presented. It is confirmed that the light curves show partial eclipses, and night-to-night intrinsic variations are seen. As in the case of AH Cancri in the old open cluster M67, the light curve of QX And seems to change between A and W types. Both the short- and long-term light variations suggest that QX And shows strong magnetic activity, which is in agreement with its X-ray observations. The symmetric light curves in B and V bands obtained the night of 2004 November 13 were analyzed with the new version of the W-D code. It is found that QX And is a deep overcontact binary <span class="hlt">system</span> with a high degree of overcontact of f = 55.9% and a low mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of q = 0.2327, suggesting that it is in the late stage of overcontact evolution. Based on our 23 times of light minimum, including four recently published eclipse times, the orbital period of the eclipsing binary was revised. It was discovered that the orbital period shows a continuous period increase at a rate of dP/dt = +2.48 10-7 days yr-1, which can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. As the period increases, the mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the <span class="hlt">system</span> will decrease. It may finally evolve into a rapid-rotating single star when it meets the more familiar criterion that the orbital angular momentum is less than 3 times the total spin angular momentum. The existence of QX And in the late evolutionary stage of an overcontact binary in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 752 indicates that it may undergo strong cluster stellar interaction. This means it had a very short initial orbital period and could have evolved into the present evolutionary state within the cluster age. By comparing with the evolutionary state of TX Cnc in M44, it is estimated that the lifetime of overcontact binaries may be no less than 1 Gyr.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Soonthornthum, B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPA.733...12N"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-wavelength streak-optical-<span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> for warm-dense matter experiments at NDCX-I and NDCX-II</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on a multi-wavelength streak-optical-<span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> (SOP) developed the for warm-dense-matter (WDM) experiments at the existing NDCX-I facility and the NDCX-II facility currently being commissioned at LBNL. The SOP served as the primary temperature diagnostic in the recent NDCX-I experiments, in which an intense K+ beam was used to heat different metal samples into WDM states. The SOP consists of a spectral grating (visible and near-infrared spectral range) and a fast, high-dynamic-range optical streak camera. The instrument is calibrated absolutely with a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp and can itself be considered as an absolutely calibrated, time-resolving spectrometer. The sample temperature is determined from fitting the recorded thermal spectrum into the Planck formula multiplied by a model of emissivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ni, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AJ....143..122Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep, Low-mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Overcontact Binary <span class="hlt">Systems</span>. XII. CK Bootis with Possible Cyclic Magnetic Activity and Additional Companion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7( 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67( 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days( 0.0009 days) and P 3 = 24.16( 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span>. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 (0.80) 10-8 days yr-1, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J spin > (1/3)J orb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27447149"> <span id="translatedtitle">SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A variable step-down conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> switched capacitor DC-DC converter for energy harvesting <span class="hlt">systems</span> working in intermittent mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Energy harvesting <span class="hlt">systems</span> stimulate the development of power management for low power consumption applications. Improving the converter efficiency of power management circuits has become a significant issue in energy harvesting <span class="hlt">system</span> design. This paper presents a variable step-down conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> switched capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter to advance the converter efficiency of charge on the stored capacitor in a wireless monitoring</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hao Wenhan; Jia Chen; Chen Hong; Zhang Chun; Wang Zhihua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1627821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Mach-Zehnder modulator DC extinction <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on residual chirp-induced dispersion in 10Gb\\/s binary and AM-PSK duobinary lightwave <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is shown through numerical simulation that residual frequency chirping in lithium niobate external modulators, which accompanies devices with a finite-optical extinction <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, always degrades the performance of lightwave <span class="hlt">systems</span> that use optical AM-PSK duobinary signaling. This is unlike binary <span class="hlt">systems</span> which will exhibit either an improvement or degradation, depending on the polarity of residual chirp.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheldon Walklin; Jan Conradi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034574"> <span id="translatedtitle">DEEP, LOW-MASS <span class="hlt">RATIO</span> OVERCONTACT BINARY <span class="hlt">SYSTEMS</span>. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary <span class="hlt">system</span>. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Y.-G. [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, 235000 Huaibei, Anhui Province (China); Qian, S.-B. [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Soonthornthum, B., E-mail: yygcn@163.com, E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand/Ministry of Science and Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013mss..confEMF07N"> <span id="translatedtitle">The CO A-X <span class="hlt">System</span> for Constraining Cosmological Drift of the Proton-Electron Mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The {A}^1?-{X}^1?^+ band <span class="hlt">system</span> of carbon monoxide, which has been detected in six highly redshifted galaxies (z=1.6-2.7), is identified as a novel probe method to search for possible variations of the proton-electron mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (?) on cosmological time scales. Laboratory wavelengths of the spectral lines of the A-X (v,0) bands for v=0-9 have been determined at an accuracy of ??/?=1.5 10^{-7} through VUV Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive and accurate zero-redshift data set. Two-photon Doppler-free laser spectroscopy has been applied for the (0,0) and (1,0) bands, achieving 3 10^{-8} accuracy level, verifying the absorption data. Accurate sensitivity coefficients K_{?} for a varying ? have been calculated for the CO A-X bands, so that an operational method results to search for ?-variation. The data from both experiments were used to perform an improved analysis of the perturbations in the A^1?, v=0 and 1 levels by vibrational levels in the D^1?, I^1?^-, e^3?^-, d^3?, and a'^3?^+ states. The object Q1237+064 will be observed in May 2013, aiming for a good signal-to-noise spectrum containing the CO A-X bands as well as the H_2 Lyman and Werner bands. This should result in an accurate and robust constraint on ??/?. E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510 (2012).}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Zhao, D.; Bagdonaite, J.; De Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Field, R. W.; Ubachs, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40851709"> <span id="translatedtitle">Old SmNd ages for cumulate eucrites and redetermination of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> initial 146Sm\\/ 144Sm <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short-lived 146Sm142Nd and long-lived 147Sm143Nd chronometers have been measured in three cumulate eucrites (Binda, Moore County and Moama). The two major mineral phases (plagioclase and pyroxene) present in these achondrites are characterized by a wide range of Sm\\/Nd <span class="hlt">ratios</span> that allows well-resolved SmNd isochrons. This group of meteorites thus is suitable to better constrain the initial 146Sm\\/144Sm <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maud Boyet; Richard W. Carlson; Mary Horan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JPhy2...5.1649L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polymorphism of Lipid-Water <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Epitaxial Relationships, Area-per-Volume <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>, Polar-Apolar Partition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The original purpose of this work was to seek an explanation of the empirical observation that pairs of phases in thermodynamic equilibrium often display an epitaxial relationship. Considering that the polar/apolar interfacial interactions appear to play a predominant role among all the forces that stabilize the phases, there is ground for the proposition that the two phases involved in any particular phase transition consist of structure elements whose area/volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is invariant. Volume and area of the structure elements can be expressed as functions of the water content and the cell parameters of the two coexisting phases: their values can thus be determined experimentally. The volume <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (structure elements)/(lipid molecules) is equivalent to a partition coefficient. These ideas were applied to a large variety of data available in the literature. The partition coefficient was found to display wide variations, remarkably correlated with the chemical and the physical parameters of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, suggesting that the segregation of the hydrocarbon chains away from the polar headgroups is not as sharp as it is commonly assumed. The notion of a variable polar/apolar partition is a novelty in the field; moreover, this partition coefficient may well turn into an interesting thermodynamic parameter. As to the significance of the epitaxial relationships, a search through the literature shows that its very existence has many exceptions. In order to explain these observations the conjecture is put forward that the epitaxial coincidences have a kinetic effect on the phase transitions. In particular, it is suggested that any transition involving epitaxially related phases is unlikely to display metastable states. The possibility is also evoked that a selective advantage (be it technological, biological or experimental) may be associated with the existence of epitaxial relationships. This conjecture is illustrated by several examples drawn from the literature. De nombreuses observations exprimentales ont montr que les deux phases qui coexistent lors d'une transition respectent souvent des relations pitaxiales: le but initial de ce travail tait d'expliquer ce phnomne trange. Puisque les intractions interfaciales semblent jouer un rle prdominant dans l'quilibre nergtique il y a lieu de supposer que les deux phases l'quilibre consistent d'lments de structure dont le volume et l'aire superficielle sont invariants. Ces deux paramtres peuvent s'exprimer en fonction de la teneur en eau et des dimensions des mailles lmentaires des deux phases : leurs valeurs peuvent donc tre dtermines partir de donnes exprimentales. On note, en outre, que le rapport entre le volume des lments de structure et celui de la composante lipidique du systme quivaut un coefficient de partage. Lorsqu'on applique ces ides aux donnes de la littrature on observe que le coefficient de partage varie fortement et que ses valeurs manifestent des corrlations remarquables avec d'autres paramtres chimiques et physiques du systme. Ceci suggre que la sparation des chanes paraffiniques et des ttes polaires des lipides n'est pas aussi nette qu'on a l'habitude de le penser. Cette notion d'un partage polaire/apolaire variable est une nouveaut dans ce domaine; le coefficient de partage, par ailleurs, pourrait jouer un rle thermodynamique intressant. En ce qui concerne les relations pitaxiales une analyse des donnes publies montre que de telles relations sont frquentes, mais avec beacoup d'exceptions. Pour expliquer ces observations on met l'hypothse que le rle des relations pitaxiales est surtout cintique. Cette hypothse conduit associer aux relations pitaxiales un avantage slectif (dans un sens large). Plusieurs exemples sont cits l'appui de cette hypothse.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luzzati, Vittorio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fuel Cycle <span class="hlt">System</span> Analysis Implications of Sodium-Cooled Metal-Fueled Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">If advanced fuel cycles are to include a large number of fast reactors (FRs), what should be the transuranic (TRU) conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CR)? The nuclear energy era started with the assumption that they should be breeder reactors (CR > 1), but the full range of possible CRs eventually received attention. For example, during the recent U.S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, the proposal was burner reactors (CR < 1). Yet, more recently, Massachusetts Institute of Technology's "Future of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle" proposed CR [approximately] 1. Meanwhile, the French company EDF remains focused on breeders. At least one of the reasons for the differences of approach is different fuel cycle objectives. To clarify matters, this paper analyzes the impact of TRU CR on many parameters relevant to fuel cycle <span class="hlt">systems</span> and therefore spans a broad range of topic areas. The analyses are based on a FR physics parameter scan of TRU CR from 0 to [approximately]1.8 in a sodium-cooled metal-fueled FR (SMFR), in which the fuel from uranium-oxide-fueled light water reactors (LWRs) is recycled directly to FRs and FRs displace LWRs in the fleet. In this instance, the FRs are sodium cooled and metal fueled. Generally, it is assumed that all TRU elements are recycled, which maximizes uranium ore utilization for a given TRU CR and waste radiotoxicity reduction and is consistent with the assumption of used metal fuel separated by electrochemical means. In these analyses, the fuel burnup was constrained by imposing a neutron fluence limit to fuel cladding to the same constant value. This paper first presents static, time-independent measures of performance for the LWR [right arrow] FR fuel cycle, including mass, heat, gamma emission, radiotoxicity, and the two figures of merit for materials for weapon attractiveness developed by C. Bathke et al. No new fuel cycle will achieve a static equilibrium in the foreseeable future. Therefore, additional analyses are shown with dynamic, time-dependent measures of performance including uranium usage, TRU inventory, and radiotoxicity to evaluate the complex impacts of transition from the current uranium-fueled LWR <span class="hlt">system</span>, and other more realistic impacts that may not be intuited from the time-independent steady-state conditions of the end-state fuel cycle. These analyses were performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model VISION. Compared with static calculations, dynamic results paint a different picture of option space and the urgency of starting a FR fleet. For example, in a static analysis, there is a sharp increase in uranium utilization as CR exceeds 1.0 (burner versus breeder). However, in dynamic analyses that examine uranium use over the next 1 to 2 centuries, behavior as CR crosses the 1.0 threshold is smooth, and other parameters such as the time required outside of reactors to recycle fuel become important. Overall, we find that there is no unambiguously superior value of TRU CR; preferences depend on the relative importance of different fuel cycle <span class="hlt">system</span> objectives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ryan Clement; David W. Gerts</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2008937203"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flexible Conversion <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Fast Reactor <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Evaluation. Final Report. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Project 06-040.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate hea...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. E. Todreas P. Hejzlar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51032254"> <span id="translatedtitle">DSP-based control of multi-rail DC-DC converter <span class="hlt">systems</span> with non-integer switching frequency <span class="hlt">ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the use of non-integer switching frequency <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in digitally controlled DC-DC converters. In particular the execution of multiple control algorithms using a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for this application is analyzed. The variation in delay from when the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) samples the output voltage to when the duty cycle is updated is identified as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Mooney; Simon Effler; Mark Halton; Abdulhussain E. Mahdi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50511747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimisation of Chopping <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Back-Boost Converter by MPPT technique with a variable reference voltage applied to the Photovoltaic Water Pumping <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an optimisation study of a photovoltaic (PV) pumping <span class="hlt">system</span> using maximum power point tracking technique (MPPT). The optimisation is based on new reference voltage criterion, which is the addition of the open circuit voltage of photovoltaic generator and a segment of solar radiation. This technique is developed to ensure an optimum chopping <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of a back-boost converter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Saadi; A. Moussi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-536.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.536 - My <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>; what must we do now?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.536 My <span class="hlt">system</span>...inactivation serves as a data point in your disinfection profile. Your <span class="hlt">system</span> will...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5461026"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">system</span> SnTe-InSe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the nature of the interaction and physicochemical properties of the alloys of the <span class="hlt">system</span> SnTe-InSe. The DTA was performed on an NTR-74 <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span>, XPA on a Dron-2.0 diffractometer and MSA on an MIM-7 metallographic microscope. The microhardness of the samples was determined on a PMT-3 microhardness tester. The congruently melting compound SnInTeSe and solid solutions based on the starting components are formed in the <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gurshumov, A.P.; Alidzhanov, M.A.; Aliev, A.S.; Gadzhiev, T.G.; Mamedov, N.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54246687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Itoh; H. Kubo; H. Honda; T. Tominaga; Y. Makide; A. Yakohata; H. Sakai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/20009785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication of High-Resolution and High-Aspect-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Patterns on a Stepped Substrate by Using Scanning Probe Lithography with a Multilayer-Resist <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high-resolution and high-aspect-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> resist-patterning method using a trilayer-resist <span class="hlt">system</span> with atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography is described. This <span class="hlt">system</span> consists of a high-resolution negative-type resist as a top layer, p-Si as an intermediate layer, and an organic resist as a bottom layer. Since the bottom layer planarizes the surface, the patterns can be fabricated on a stepped surface. Using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masayoshi Ishibashi; Nami Sugita; Seiji Heike; Hiroshi Kajiyama; Tomihiro Hashizume</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40081595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of interactions between carbon dioxide enrichment and NH 4 + \\/NO 3 ? <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on pH of culturing nutrient solution, growth and vigor of tomato root <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A growth chamber experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of NH4+\\/NO3? <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and elevated CO2 concentration on the pH in nutrient solution, growth and root vigor <span class="hlt">system</span> of tomato seedling roots, which attempts to understand\\u000a whether the elevated CO2 concentration can alleviate the harmful effects of higher NH4+-N concentration in nutrient solutions on the tomato root <span class="hlt">system</span>. Tomato (Lycopersicon</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juan Li; Jianmin Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45440654"> <span id="translatedtitle">A High-precision Measurement <span class="hlt">System</span> for Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Atmospheric Methane and Its Application to Air Samples Collected in the Western Pacific Region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to study temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric CH4 quantitatively, we originally improved a measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for carbon and hydrogen isotopic <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (?13C and ?D) of CH4 to attain high-precision measurements. By analyzing 100 mL aliquots of an ambient air sample, the precision of our <span class="hlt">system</span> is 0.080 for ?13C and 2.20 for ?D(1?), which are one of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taku UMEZAWA; Shuji AOKI; Takakiyo NAKAZAWA; Shinji MORIMOTO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24779439"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single macroscopic pillars as model <span class="hlt">system</span> for bioinspired adhesives: influence of tip dimension, aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and tilt angle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 ?m diameter with different aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The experiments show that for the tested aspect <span class="hlt">ratios</span> between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces. PMID:24779439</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miccich, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870012669&hterms=bit+error+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbit%2Berror%2Brate"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated measurement of the bit-error rate as a function of signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for microwave communications <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of microwave <span class="hlt">systems</span> and components for digital data transmission can be characterized by a plot of the bit-error rate as a function of the signal to noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (or E sub b/E sub o). Methods for the efficient automated measurement of bit-error rates and signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, are described. Noise measurement considerations and time requirements for measurement accuracy, as well as computer control and data processing methods, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerczewski, Robert J.; Daugherty, Elaine S.; Kramarchuk, Ihor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985icsu...18R....I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Vertical profiles of mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860018341&hterms=tokyo+motor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtokyo%2Bmotor"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling <span class="hlt">system</span> has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the <span class="hlt">system</span>. Vertical profiles of mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35141492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Platinum <span class="hlt">ratio</span> search versus golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> search</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this simulation study, we examine the traditional golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> search in view of cost minimization and search risk, and propose an alternative search plan with what we call platinum <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> search has been thought the best for unimodal optimization. However, our study shows that the golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> search is the best only in the sense of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xia Pan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JSemi..30l5008W"> <span id="translatedtitle">SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A variable step-down conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> switched capacitor DC-DC converter for energy harvesting <span class="hlt">systems</span> working in intermittent mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Energy harvesting <span class="hlt">systems</span> stimulate the development of power management for low power consumption applications. Improving the converter efficiency of power management circuits has become a significant issue in energy harvesting <span class="hlt">system</span> design. This paper presents a variable step-down conversion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> switched capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter to advance the converter efficiency of charge on the stored capacitor in a wireless monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> of orthopedic implants. The converter is designed to work at 1 MHz switching frequency and achieves 15 to 2 V conversion. Measurement results show that the converter efficiency can reach 42% including all circuit power consumption, which is much higher than previous work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wenhan, Hao; Chen, Jia; Hong, Chen; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880004720&hterms=company+designs+next+drone+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bdesigns%2Bnext%2Bdrone%2Btechnology"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design verification and fabrication of active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wing. Part 2: Appendices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control <span class="hlt">system</span> design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and an automatic flight control <span class="hlt">system</span>. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the <span class="hlt">systems</span> collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mcgehee, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880004719&hterms=company+designs+next+drone+technology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bdesigns%2Bnext%2Bdrone%2Btechnology"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design verification and fabrication of active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> wing, part 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control <span class="hlt">systems</span> compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control <span class="hlt">system</span> design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and an automatic flight control <span class="hlt">system</span>. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual <span class="hlt">systems</span> and the <span class="hlt">systems</span> collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mcgehee, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1079425"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">System</span> and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a region remote from a borehole</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49126101"> <span id="translatedtitle">The salivary alpha amylase over cortisol <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as a marker to assess dysregulations of the stress <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different factors have been associated with changes in the regulation of the two major stress response <span class="hlt">systems</span> of the human body, the sympathetic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (SNS) and the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. Changes in these <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been associated with various (psycho)pathologies across adulthood, and are thus frequently assessed within the context of allostatic load. Early Life Adversity (ELA) has been</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nida Ali; Jens C. Pruessner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40125383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Denitrification and nitrous oxide to nitrous oxide plus dinitrogen <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the soil profile under three tillage <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a growing interest in the adoption of conservation tillage <span class="hlt">systems</span> [no-till (NT) and reduced tillage (RT)] as alternatives to conventional tillage (CT) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. A 2-year study was conducted to investigate possible environmental consequences of three tillage <span class="hlt">systems</span> on a 2.4-ha field located at Macdonald Research Farm, McGill University, Montreal. The soil was a sandy loam (0.5m depth) underlain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdirashid A. Elmi; Chandra Madramootoo; Chantal Hamel; Aiguo Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:1228"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning About <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ratios</span> appear in everyday life, but what exactly is a <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. This lesson will help you understand what is a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and what to do with a <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. What is a <span class="hlt">ratio</span>? Dr. Math gives a pretty good explanation on these sites What is a <span class="hlt">ratio</span>? <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> as Fractions Figuring <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> Writing <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> Use this site to explore <span class="hlt">ratios</span> using pictures All About <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> Now that you have a little understanding here are some in-class activities that your teacher can help you with ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hadley, Mrs.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/866467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alkali injection <span class="hlt">system</span> with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for combustion of coal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3004101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Empirical formula for the prediction of off axis <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and isodose curves for a treatment planning <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mathematical model has been developed for prediction of off axis <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (OAR), using Wood - Saxon term used to represent nuclear potential. This method has been satisfactorily applied for predicting OAR in case of 60Co ?-rays and high energy X-rays. Investigations are considered upto a depth of 25 cm in the case of 4MV LINAC for which measurements were carried out in our laboratory using indigenously developed Radiation Field Analyzer. For 60Co ?-rays as well as 6 and 18MV LINAC beams we could get off-axis profiles only upto 20 cm. The shift ? between measured and predicted OAR is within 2 mm except for 20 cm depth near the falling edge of the penumbra, where it is 2.80 mm. Software has been developed in Visual Basic 6 on Windows platform to plot Isodose curves, which is based on the mathematical modeling of OAR and central axis percentage depth dose.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pal, Surajit; Ravishankar, R.; Sharma, R. P.; Muthukrishnan, G.; Ray, Dilip Kr; Roy, S. N.; Srivastava, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24810095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Dot-Based Multidonor Concentric FRET <span class="hlt">System</span> and Its Application to Biosensing Using an Excitation <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A plethora of semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-based probes that rely on Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been developed for the optical detection of a wide array of biological targets. To date, the vast majority of these probes have utilized one-step energy transfer between individual donor-acceptor pairs. Here, we report a new multidonor concentric FRET configuration that comprised two fluorescent dyes assembled around a central CdSeS/ZnS QD through peptide linkers. One of these dyes, either Alexa Fluor 555 (A555) or Alexa Fluor 647 (A647), served as an acceptor for both the central QD and the other coassembled dye, Alexa Fluor 488 (A488). The unresolved emission between the A488 and the QD precluded a standard analysis of FRET efficiency from quenching of donor emission intensity or decay time, instead necessitating an analysis of the two energy transfer pathways from deconvolved excitation spectra. When A647 was the terminal acceptor, both the QD-to-A647 and A488-to-A647 energy transfer pathways could be interrogated with blue light, but only the former could be interrogated with violet light. The different degrees of A647 sensitization between these two excitation wavelengths was a predictable function of the above energy transfer efficiencies and dye stoichiometry, and was exploited for quantitative bioanalysis through an excitation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which is in contrast to the conventional use of an emission <span class="hlt">ratio</span> with FRET-based probes. Detection of the activity of nanomolar concentrations of trypsin, a model protease that hydrolyzed the A488-labeled peptide linker, was demonstrated using both a fluorescence plate reader and a low-cost, compact device that used two low-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources and a silicon photodiode to detect A647 emission. This multidonor concentric FRET configuration represents a new modality for ratiometric biosensing with QDs and is potentially useful for portable in vitro diagnostics. PMID:24810095</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Hyungki; Ng, Cheryl Y W; Algar, W Russ</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40610801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the in vitro culture <span class="hlt">system</span> on the kinetics of blastocyst development and sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of bovine embryos</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bovine blastocysts were produced using 6 different <span class="hlt">systems</span>: 5 commonly used in vitro culture <span class="hlt">systems</span> (synthetic oviduct fluid medium - SOF - without fetal calf serum, SOF supplemented with 10% serum for the entire culture period, SOF supplemented with 10% serum from Day 4 of culture, M199 coculture with bovine oviduct epithelial cells, M199 coculture with granulosa cell monolayer) and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Gutirrez-Adn; P. Lonergan; D. Rizos; F. A. Ward; M. P. Boland; B. Pintado; J. de la Fuente</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48510988"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of [Fe 3+ ]\\/[Fe 2+ ] molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and iron salts concentration on the properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the water\\/ethanol\\/toluene <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we developed a convenient one-pot method with sodium oleate as both the surfactant and precipitant to synthesize\\u000a pure magnetite nanoparticles in the water\\/ethanol\\/toluene <span class="hlt">system</span>. The initial molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of [Fe3+]\\/[Fe2+] and the concentration of iron salts were changed in order to systematically investigate their influences on the chemical\\u000a and physical properties of nanoparticles, such as the crystal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wen JiangKui-Lin; Kui-Lin Lai; Hao Hu; Xiao-Bo Zeng; Fang Lan; Ke-Xia Liu; Yao Wu; Zhong-Wei Gu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895274"> <span id="translatedtitle">High Resolution Imaging of the Anomalous Flux-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Gravitational Lens <span class="hlt">System</span> CLASS B2045+265: Dark Or Luminous Satellites?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The existence of flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomalies between fold and cusp images in galaxy-scale strong-lens <span class="hlt">systems</span> has led to an interpretation based on the presence of a high mass-fraction of cold-dark-matter (CDM) substructures around galaxies, as predicted by numerical N-body simulations. These substructures can cause large perturbations of the image magnifications, leading to changes in the image flux <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. The flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomaly is particularly evident in the radio-loud quadruple gravitational lens <span class="hlt">system</span> CLASS B2045+265. In this paper, new high-resolution radio, optical, and infrared imaging of B2045+265 is presented which sheds more light on this anomaly and its possible causes. First, deep Very Long Baseline Array observations show very compact images, possibly with a hint of a jet, but with no evidence for differential scattering or scatter broadening. Hence, the flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> anomaly is unlikely to be caused by refractive scattering in either the Milky Way or the lens galaxy. Second, optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and through Adaptive-Optics imaging with the W. M. Keck Telescope, show a previously undiscovered object--interpreted as a (tidally disrupted) dwarf satellite based on its colors and slight extension--between the main lens galaxy and the three anomalous flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> images. Third, color variations in the early-type lens galaxy indicate recent star-formation, possibly the result of secondary infall of gas-rich satellites. A population of young galaxies around the lens <span class="hlt">system</span> could explain the previously discovered strong [O II] emission. However, spiral structure and/or normal star formation in the lens galaxy cannot be excluded. In light of these new data, we propose a lens model for the <span class="hlt">system</span>, including the observed dwarf satellite, which reproduces all positional and flux-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> constraints, without the need for additional CDM substructure. Although the model is peculiar in that the dwarf galaxy must be highly flattened, the model is very similar to recently proposed mass models based on high-order multipole expansions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McKean, J.P.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Flack, C.E.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Thompson, D.; Matthews, K.; Blandford, R.D.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Soifer, B.T.; /UC, Davis /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron. /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /Bemidji State U. /Caltech /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cornell U., Astron. Dept.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol24-sec141-534.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 141.534 - How does my <span class="hlt">system</span> use this data to calculate an inactivation <span class="hlt">ratio</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-<span class="hlt">Systems</span> Serving Fewer Than 10,000 People Disinfection Profile § 141.534 How does my...CTcalc/CT99.9 ) value of each disinfection segment immediately prior to...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7260E.116L"> <span id="translatedtitle">ARGALI: an automatic cup-to-disc <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for glaucoma detection and AnaLysIs framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glaucoma is an irreversible ocular disease leading to permanent blindness. However, early detection can be effective in slowing or halting the progression of the disease. Physiologically, glaucoma progression is quantified by increased excavation of the optic cup. This progression can be quantified in retinal fundus images via the optic cup to disc <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CDR), since in increased glaucomatous neuropathy, the relative size of the optic cup to the optic disc is increased. The ARGALI framework constitutes of various segmentation approaches employing level set, color intensity thresholds and ellipse fitting for the extraction of the optic cup and disc from retinal images as preliminary steps. Following this, different combinations of the obtained results are then utilized to calculate the corresponding CDR values. The individual results are subsequently fused using a neural network. The learning function of the neural network is trained with a set of 100 retinal images For testing, a separate set 40 images is then used to compare the obtained CDR against a clinically graded CDR, and it is shown that the neural network-based result performs better than the individual components, with 96% of the results within intra-observer variability. The results indicate good promise for the further development of ARGALI as a tool for the early detection of glaucoma.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, J.; Wong, D. W. K.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Tan, N. M.; Wong, T. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392784"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineered high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> vertical nanotubes as a model <span class="hlt">system</span> for the investigation of catalytic methanol synthesis over Cu/ZnO.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Catalytically synthesized methanol from H2 and CO2 using porous Cu/ZnO aggregates is a promising, carbon neutral, and renewable alternative to replace fossil fuel based transport fuels. However, the absence of surface-engineered model <span class="hlt">systems</span> to understand and improve the industrial Cu/ZnO catalyst poses a big technological gap in efforts to increase industrial methanol conversion efficiency. In this work, we report a novel process for the fabrication of patterned, vertically aligned high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 1D nanostructures on Si that can be used as an engineered model catalyst. The proposed strategy employs near-field phase shift lithography (NF-PSL), deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to pattern, etch, and coat Si wafers to produce high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 1D nanostructures. Using this method, we produced a model <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of high aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> Cu-decorated ZnO nanotubes (NTs) to investigate the morphological effects of ZnO catalyst support in comparison to the planar Cu/ZnO catalyst in terms of the catalytic reactions. The engineered catalysts performed 70 times better in activating CO2 than the industrial catalyst. In light of the obtained results, several important points are highlighted, and recommendations are made to achieve higher catalytic performance. PMID:24392784</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gder, Firat; Frei, Elias; Kckbayrak, Umut M; Menzel, Andreas; Thomann, Ralf; Luptak, Roman; Hollaender, Bernd; Krossing, Ingo; Zacharias, Margit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biodegradable in situ gelling delivery <span class="hlt">systems</span> containing pilocarpine as new antiglaucoma formulations: effect of a mercaptoacetic acid/N-isopropylacrylamide molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocular drug delivery is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities in the management of glaucoma. We have recently proposed the use of gelatin and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) graft copolymers as biodegradable in situ forming delivery <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the intracameral administration of antiglaucoma medications. In this study, we further investigated the influence of carrier characteristics on drug delivery performance. The carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm samples with different molecular weights were synthesized by varying the molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of mercaptoacetic acid (MAA)/N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) from 0.05 to 1.25, and were determined by end-group titration. The preparation of gelatin-g-PNIPAAm (GN) copolymers from these thermoresponsive polymers was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. Our results showed that the carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm of high molecular weight may lead to the lower thermal phase transition temperature and slower degradation rate of GN vehicles than its low molecular weight counterparts. With a decreasing MAA/NIPAAm molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, the drug encapsulation efficiency of copolymers was increased due to fast temperature-triggered capture of pilocarpine nitrate. The degradation of the gelatin network could greatly affect the drug release profiles. All of the GN copolymeric carriers demonstrated good corneal endothelial cell and tissue compatibility. It is concluded that different types of GN-based delivery <span class="hlt">systems</span> exhibit noticeably distinct intraocular pressure-lowering effect and miosis action, thereby reflecting the potential value of a MAA/NIPAAm molar <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in the development of new antiglaucoma formulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lai, Jui-Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840023203&hterms=logo+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlogo%2Bdesign"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary engineering report for design of a subscale ejector/diffuser <span class="hlt">system</span> for high expansion <span class="hlt">ratio</span> space engine testing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design of a subscale jet engine driven ejector/diffuser <span class="hlt">system</span> is examined. Analytical results and preliminary design drawings and plans are included. Previously developed performance prediction techniques are verified. A safety analysis is performed to determine the mechanism for detonation suppression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wojciechowski, C. J.; Kurzius, S. C.; Doktor, M. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40771344"> <span id="translatedtitle">Degree of hydration and gel\\/space <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of high-volume fly ash\\/cement <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although fly ash has been widely used in concrete as a cement replacement, little work has been done on determining the degree of hydration of high-volume fly ash\\/cement (FC) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In the present study, the degree of hydration of the cement in Portland cement (PC) paste was obtained by determining the non-evaporable water (Wn) content. The degree of reaction of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L Lam; Y. L Wong; C. S Poon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53A0131H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a tracer release and measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> for the detection and quantification of air emissions using the tracer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The number of oil and gas production operations is increasing as is their proximity to residential areas. These facilities have been known to emit methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere during the different phases of development and operation. To gain a better understanding of the types and magnitude of these emissions, accurate methods for identifying and measuring the plumes released from these sources are needed. One of the most common methods for characterization of emissions is the tracer <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. In this method, a known amount of a tracer gas is released near the potential emission source, both the tracer and the compound(s) of interest are then measured at a location downwind of the potential emissions; and the emission rate is estimated based on the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the compound of interest to the tracer at the location of the measurement. This work describes field tests conducted in an air field in Fort Collins, CO to evaluate a tracer release and detection <span class="hlt">system</span>. Acetylene (tracer gas) and methane (emission from potential source) have been released from a custom made manifold <span class="hlt">system</span>. A PICARRO G2203 analyzer (using cavity ring down spectroscopy) and a mobile kit A0941 have been deployed on a vehicle for the downwind measurements. The emissions are measured downwind of the source and the tracer <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method is used to calculate the emissions of methane. The measured and calculated values have been compared. Additionally, silonite-coated canisters have been used for collection and analysis of acetylene to further validate the setup. This <span class="hlt">system</span> has been evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy and response time through a series of controlled tracer and methane releases under various meteorological conditions. The results from these tests and error analysis for the <span class="hlt">system</span> are presented and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hecobian, A.; Clements, A. L.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Williams, C. M.; Wells, B. L.; MacDonald, L. P.; Pierce, J. R.; Ham, J. M.; Collett, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?ID=L510"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lesson, "students learn about <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, including the 'Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>', a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of length to width that can be found in art, architecture, and nature. Students examine different <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to determine whether the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> can be found in the human body." (from NCTM's Illuminations) This is lesson 3 in a 7-lesson unit called "Measuring Up"</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathematics, Illuminations N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50818745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Newly developed Fountain <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> for a running hot strip in the cooling banks of a hot strip mill</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature control of a hot strip has been important in run-out table of hot strip mill in order to stabilize and improve the material properties of its products. We developed a new temperature measurement method for hot strip cooled by a lot of water in the cooling banks. And we developed control <span class="hlt">system</span> using the new measurement method and confirmed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Honda; S. Nakagawa; C. Uematsu; H. Tachibana; Y. Buei; K. Sakagami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18283065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of European protocol in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and mean glandular dose for two digital mammography <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of two digital mammography <span class="hlt">systems</span>, Agfa CR75 and CRMM3 computed radiography (CR) and IMS Giotto MD direct digital radiography (DR), was assessed by applying a method recommended in the European protocol for quality control in mammography screening. The contrast-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CNR) and mean glandular dose (MGD) values were measured and contrast detail (CD) analysis was performed. The CNRs for <span class="hlt">system</span> CR were 21.9, 12.9, 9.5, 8.8, 7.4, 5.5 and 4.4 for 2, 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 6 and 7-cm polymenthylmethacrylate (PMMA) thickness, respectively. The respective CNRs for <span class="hlt">system</span> DR were 10.4, 8.8, 6.3, 7.3, 7.2, 6.4 and 6.54. For the same phantom thickness sequence, the MGDs were 0.7, 1.1, 1.3, 1.6, 1.9, 2.5 and 3.4 mGy for <span class="hlt">system</span> CR, whereas they were 0.7, 1.2, 1.1, 1.3, 1.8, 3.5 and 3.9 mGy for <span class="hlt">system</span> DR. The CNR and MGD results satisfactorily correlate with CD analysis results. The MGD values compare well with the values recommended in the European protocol. Despite being simple, CNR and MGD can provide an effective <span class="hlt">system</span> for performance assessment and constancy checks for related optimisations. PMID:18283065</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muhogora, W E; Devetti, A; Padovani, R; Msaki, P; Bonutti, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5481272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> on TFTR using infrared pyrometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the region of the TFTR vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite titles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm/sup 2/ the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200/sup 0/C within 250 ms and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of approx.30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900 nm <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed to interrupt each of the twelve ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold settable in the range of 500 to 2300/sup 0/C. A description of the <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> and its performance will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5405940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> on TFTR using infrared pyrometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the region of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite tiles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm/sup 2/ the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200 /sup 0/C within 250 ms, and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of --30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900-nm <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed to interrupt each of the 12 ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold which can be set in the range of 500--2300 /sup 0/C. A description of the <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> interlock <span class="hlt">system</span> and its performance will be presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7961E.177S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detailed characterization of 2D and 3D scatter-to-primary <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of various breast geometries using a dedicated CT mammotomography <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With a dedicated breast CT <span class="hlt">system</span> using a quasi-monochromatic x-ray source and flat-panel digital detector, the 2D and 3D scatter to primary <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (SPR) of various geometric phantoms having different densities were characterized in detail. Projections were acquired using geometric and anthropomorphic breast phantoms. Each phantom was filled with 700ml of 5 different water-methanol concentrations to simulate effective boundary densities of breast compositions from 100% glandular (1.0g/cm3) to 100% fat (0.79g/cm3). Projections were acquired with and without a beam stop array. For each projection, 2D scatter was determined by cubic spline interpolating the values behind the shadow of each beam stop through the object. Scatter-corrected projections were obtained by subtracting the scatter, and the 2D SPRs were obtained as a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the scatter to scatter-corrected projections. Additionally the (un)corrected data were individually iteratively reconstructed. The (un)corrected 3D volumes were subsequently subtracted, and the 3D SPRs obtained from the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the scatter volume-to-scatter-corrected (or primary) volume. Results show that the 2D SPR values peak in the center of the volumes, and were overall highest for the simulated 100% glandular composition. Consequently, scatter corrected reconstructions have visibly reduced cupping regardless of the phantom geometry, as well as more accurate linear attenuation coefficients. The corresponding 3D SPRs have increased central density, which reduces radially. Not surprisingly, for both 2D and 3D SPRs there was a dependency on both phantom geometry and object density on the measured SPR values, with geometry dominating for 3D SPRs. Overall, these results indicate the need for scatter correction given different geometries and breast densities that will be encountered with 3D cone beam breast CT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, Jainil; Pachon, Jan H.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P.228A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extreme oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the early solar <span class="hlt">system</span>: a stellar encounter with the young Sun or irradiation in protosolar outflows?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxygen isotopic mapping by ion microprobe of the deuterium-rich acid insoluble organic macromolecule extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed the presence of micrometersized silica-rich grains having extreme 18O/16O and 17O/16O <span class="hlt">ratios</span> ( ~ 10-1). Such extreme <span class="hlt">ratios</span> have previously been reported only once : in CO2 from the circumstellar enveloppe of the binary post-AGB star HR4049 (Cami & Yamamura 2001). However, by contrast with typical presolar interstellar grains preserved in primitive meteorites, which show a compositional scatter attributed to multiple stellar sources, 36 grains accounting for 1 ppm of the total meteorite show a mixing between a single endmember source of heavy oxygen and solar or close-to-solar oxygen. Silicon isotopes in these grains do not show any deviation from solar. These extremely unusual compositions are not explained by conventional stellar nucleosynthesis models. Neither interactions with Galactic Cosmic Rays, nor isotope selective photochemistry due to CO self-shielding, nor non-mass-dependant fractionations during chemical reactions can explain the observed compositions. However we show that irradiation of a gas of solar composition by particles with characteristics of 3He-rich impulsive solar flares can produce these compositions provided a selective chemical trapping of the nuclear-induced oxygen exists.We therefore propose two explanations for these extremely unusual oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in micrometer-sized silica-rich grains from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. (1) The young Sun encountered an exotic evolved star comparable to HR4049. (2) These compositions were produced in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> itself during an active phase of the young Sun by high energy particle irradiation of the circumsolar gas followed by a chemical trapping of the anomaly and condensation of SiO2-rich grains. A possible locale for the condensation of these grains may be energetic, SiO-rich protosolar outflows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aleon, J.; Robert, F.; Duprat, J.; Derenne, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maternal oral consumption of morphine increases Bax/Bcl-2 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and caspase 3 activity during early neural <span class="hlt">system</span> development in rat embryos.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maternal morphine consumption has been shown to result in physical and neurobehavioral defects in fetus and offspring, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of these defects remain unclear. Regarding the critical role of apoptosis in normal development of central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of intrauterine morphine exposure on programmed cell death of neuroblasts during the early development of neural <span class="hlt">system</span>. Pregnant Wistar rats received morphine sulfate through drinking water at the concentration of 0.01 mg/ml (20 ml water per day for each rat) from the first day of gestation to the time of sampling. Control groups received tap water. Control and morphine-treated pregnant rats, each in five separated groups, were killed on gestational days 9.5 to 13.5, and the embryos were taken out, fixed, and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemical assay was used to reveal the protein expression of Bax, Bcl2, and the activation of caspase 3. The results showed a significant increase in Bax immunoreactivity in all of the mentioned embryonic days (E9.5 to E13.5) and a significant decrease in Bcl-2 immunoreactivity at days E10.5 and E12.5 in morphine-treated groups compared with control. Data analysis revealed that Bax/Bcl2 <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was increased in all of the morphine-exposed groups. Consistent with these results, immunostaining of cleaved caspase 3 showed a significant increase at days E11.5 to E13.5. These findings suggest that morphine exposure during the first embryonic days may enhance the susceptibility of neuroblasts to apoptosis by upregulating the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Bax to Bcl-2 protein expression and increasing downstream caspase-3 activity. The increased probability of neuroblast apoptosis may be the cause of morphine-induced defects in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> development and its structural and neurobehavioral consequences. PMID:19936637</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nasiraei-Moghadam, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40171452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Male gametophyte development and two different DNA classes of pollen grains in Rumex acetosa L., a plant with an XX\\/XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome <span class="hlt">system</span> and a female-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female-biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is an interesting phenomenon observed in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with an XX\\/XY1Y2 sex chromosome <span class="hlt">system</span>. Previous authors have suggested that the biased sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in this species is conditioned not only\\u000a postzygotically (sex-differential sporophytic mortality) but also prezygotically, because the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of seeds is also female-biased,\\u000a although to a lesser extent than the sex</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Magdalena B?ocka-Wandas; Elwira Sliwinska; Aleksandra Grabowska-Joachimiak; Krystyna Musial; Andrzej J. Joachimiak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4060194"> <span id="translatedtitle">High serum sCD163/sTWEAK <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is associated with lower risk of digital ulcers but more severe skin disease in patients with <span class="hlt">systemic</span> sclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction <span class="hlt">Systemic</span> sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation, vascular injury and excessive fibrosis. CD163 is a scavenger receptor which affects inflammatory response and may contribute to connective tissue remodelling. It has recently been demonstrated that CD163 can bind and neutralize the TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a multifunctional cytokine which regulates inflammation, angiogenesis and tissue remodelling. We aimed to investigate the relationships between serum levels of soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble TWEAK (sTWEAK) in relation to disease manifestations in SSc patients. Methods This study included 89 patients with SSc who had not received immunosuppressive drugs or steroids for at least 6 months and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) from four European centres. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The mean serum concentrations of sTWEAK were comparable between SSc patients (mean +/- SD: 270 +/- 171 pg/mL) and HC (294 +/- 147pg/mL, P >0.05). Concentration of sCD163 and sCD163/sTWEAK <span class="hlt">ratio</span> were significantly greater in SSc patients (984 +/- 420 ng/mL and 4837 +/- 3103, respectively) as compared to HC (823 +/- 331 ng/mL and 3115 +/- 1346 respectively, P <0.05 for both). High sCD163 levels and a high sCD163/sTWEAK <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (defined as > mean +2SD of HC) were both associated with a lower risk of digital ulcers in SSc patients (OR, 95%CI: 0.09; 0.01, 0.71, and 0.17; 0.06, 0.51, respectively). Accordingly, patients without digital ulcers had a significantly higher sCD163 concentration and sCD163/sTWEAK <span class="hlt">ratio</span> as compared to SSc patients with digital ulcers (P <0.01 for both) and HC (P <0.05 for both). A high sCD163/sTWEAK <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, but not high sCD163 levels, was associated with greater skin involvement. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that CD163-TWEAK interactions might play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc and that CD163 may protect against the development of digital ulcers in SSc. Further studies are required to reveal whether targeting of the CD163-TWEAK pathway might be a potential strategy for treating vascular disease and/or skin fibrosis in SSc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.3864H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing <span class="hlt">systems</span> using sulfur and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span>: The example of oil reservoir souring control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/867083"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">ratio</span> recirculating gas compressor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high <span class="hlt">ratio</span> positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation <span class="hlt">system</span> which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure <span class="hlt">ratios</span> without overheating of the compressor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Coll_Group_SanDiegoCommunityCollegesDevelopmentalMathExchange/BicycleGears?bc=;Coll_Group_SanDiegoCommunityCollegesDevelopmentalMathExchange.Pre-Algebra"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bicycle Gears- <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students experiment with and learn about the gear <span class="hlt">ratios</span> on a bicyclethus enhancing their understanding of circumference of a circle, proportions, etc. Actual gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> would be the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between the front and rear sprocket, NOT between pedal and rear wheel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ743536.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> and the <span class="hlt">ratios</span> within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyde, Hartley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080004764&hterms=emissivity+tungsten&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Demissivity%2Btungsten"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polaradiometric <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> in which the parallel and perpendicular components of radiation reflected from an unpolarized light source are equalized with the thermal radiation emitted from a measured object to determine its true temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A radiation <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> for measuring the true temperature of a body is provided by detecting and measuring thermal radiation from the body based on the principle that the effects of angular emission I(sub 1) and reflection I(sub 2) on the polarization states p and s of radiation are complementary such that upon detecting the combined partial polarization state components I(sub p) =I(sub 1p) + I(sub 2p) and I(sub s)=I(sub 1s) + I(sub 2s) and adjusting the intensity of the variable radiation source of the reflected radiation I(sub 2) until the combined partial radiation components I(sub p) and I(sub s) are equal, the effects of emissivity as well as diffusivity of the surface of the body are eliminated, thus obviating the need for any post processing of brightness temperature data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abtahi, Ali A. (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..85d1129G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium thermodynamics. III. Generalization of Maxwell, Clausius-Clapeyron, and response-function relations, and the Prigogine-Defay <span class="hlt">ratio</span> for <span class="hlt">systems</span> in internal equilibrium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We follow the consequences of internal equilibrium in nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">systems</span> that has been introduced recently [Gujrati, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.051130 81, 051130 (2010) and Gujrati, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.041128 85, 041128 (2012).] to obtain the generalization of the Maxwell relation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation that are normally given for equilibrium <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The use of Jacobians allows for a more compact way to address the generalized Maxwell relations in the presence of internal variables. The Clausius-Clapeyron relation in the subspace of observables shows not only the nonequilibrium modification but also the modification due to internal variables that play a dominant role in glasses to which we apply the above relations. Real <span class="hlt">systems</span> do not directly turn into glasses (GL) that are frozen structures from the supercooled liquid state L; there is an intermediate state (gL) where the internal variables are not frozen. A <span class="hlt">system</span> possesses several kinds of glass transitions, some conventional (L?gL; gL?GL) in which the state changes continuously and the transition mimics a continuous or second-order transition, and some apparent (L?gL; L?GL) in which the free energies are discontinuous so that the transition appears as a zeroth-order transition, as discussed in the text. We evaluate the Prigogine-Defay <span class="hlt">ratio</span> ? in the subspace of the observables at these transitions. We find that it is normally different from 1, except at the conventional transition L?gL, where ?=1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gujrati, P. D.; Aung, P. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMIN21B1064J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the impact of different ESMF regridding algorithms in a simplified coupled geophysical flow problem as coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> resolution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is varied.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Modeling Framework (ESMF) supports generalized regridding algorithms that are designed for flexibly coupling models at different spatial and temporal scales. In the context of atmosphere ocean modeling these ESMF capabilities provide a solid basis for coupled experiments in which atmosphere and ocean components are configured independently with significant differences in spatial and temporal resolution. In these scenarios the choice of regridding method can introduce numerical artifacts. In this talk we look at the impact of different ESMF regridding algorithms in a range of idealized scenarios in order to develop guidance on when one regridding algorithm should be favored over another. The results provide useful pointers for coupled experiments connecting atmospheric and ocean simulations on different meshes and at different resolutions. Our approach uses the classic Stommel ocean gyre problem as its basis. In this problem an ocean gyre is driven by surface wind-stress and the equilibrated solution is a balance between vorticity input from the wind and dissipation due to mixing and boundary drag. For our study we configure an MITgcm ocean ESMF component and a pseudo atmosphere ESMF component that maps an analytical wind stress to an arbitrary numerical mesh. Using different ESMF regridding schemes we vary the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the atmosphere to ocean mesh resolution and the absolute ocean resolution. The results clearly illustrate the benefits of preserving C2 or greater continuity in interpolation schemes for problems where the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of mesh resolutions is large. Finally we repeat selected experiments for a, simple geometry, global ocean simulation, showing how the same rules hold. This work illustrate the flexibility now available in ESMF and assesses accuracy and computational cost trade offs and inherent biases associated with interpolation algorithm selection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jahn, O.; Hill, C.; Neckels, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1455682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maximum <span class="hlt">ratio</span> transmission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum <span class="hlt">ratio</span> transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titus K. Y. Lo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21630662"> <span id="translatedtitle">A perspective for biowaivers of human bioequivalence studies on the basis of the combination of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of AUC to the dose and the biopharmaceutics classification <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of AUC to the dose (AUC/dose) was previously found as a parameter that predicts a risk of bioinequivalence of oral drug products. On the basis of the combination of this parameter and the biopharmaceutics classification <span class="hlt">system</span> (BCS), a perspective for biowaivers of human bioequivalence studies is discussed. Databases of bioequivalence studies using immediate-release solid oral dosage forms were disclosed by 6 Japanese generic pharmaceutical companies, and the number of subjects required for demonstrating bioequivalence between generic and reference products was plotted as a function of AUC/dose for each BCS category. A small variation in the number of subjects was constantly observed in bioequivalence studies using dosage forms containing an identical BCS class 1 or class 3 drug, even though formulations of the generic product differ between companies. The variation was extremely enlarged when the drugs were substituted with BCS class 2 drugs. Rate-determining steps in oral absorption of highly water-soluble BCS class 1 and class 3 drugs are independent of formulations when there is no significant difference in the in vitro dissolution profiles between formulations. The small variation observed for both BCS categories indicates that the number of subjects converges into one value for each drug. Our analysis indicates the appropriateness of biowaiver of bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing not only BCS class 1 drugs but also class 3 drugs. PMID:21630662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakuma, Shinji; Tachiki, Hidehisa; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Fukui, Yasunobu; Takeuchi, Naohiro; Kumamoto, Kazuo; Satoh, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Ishii, Emi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Yamashita, Shinji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24692120"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of a mouse brain (13) C CryoProbe <span class="hlt">system</span> in comparison with room temperature coils: spectroscopic phantom and in vivo results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MRI and MRS in small rodents demand very high sensitivity. Cryogenic transmit/receive radiofrequency probes (CryoProbes) designed for (1) H MRI of mouse brain provide an attractive option for increasing the performance of small-animal MR <span class="hlt">systems</span>. As the Larmor frequency of (13) C nuclei is four times lower than that for (1) H nuclei, an even larger sensitivity improvement is expected for (13) C applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a prototype (13) C CryoProbe for mouse brain MRS. To investigate the possible gain of the (13) C CryoProbe, we acquired localized single-voxel (13) C spectra and chemical shift images of a dimethyl sulfoxide phantom with the CryoProbe, as well as with two room temperature resonators. The cryogenically cooled resonator achieved approximately four-fold higher signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in phantom tests when compared with the best-performing room temperature coil. In addition, we present localized (13) C spectra of mouse brain obtained with the CryoProbe, as well as with one of the room temperature coils, demonstrating the performance in vivo. In summary, the cryogenic cooling technique significantly enhances the (13) C signal sensitivity at 9.4?T and enables the investigation of metabolism within mouse brain. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24692120</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sack, M; Wetterling, F; Sartorius, A; Ende, G; Weber-Fahr, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20155754"> <span id="translatedtitle">A gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry <span class="hlt">system</span> for high-precision deltaD measurements of atmospheric methane extracted from ice cores.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Air enclosures in polar ice cores represent the only direct paleoatmospheric archive. Analysis of the entrapped air provides clues to the climate <span class="hlt">system</span> of the past in decadal to centennial resolution. A wealth of information has been gained from measurements of concentrations of greenhouse gases; however, little is known about their isotopic composition. In particular, stable isotopologues (deltaD and delta(13)C) of methane (CH(4)) record valuable information on its global cycle as the different sources exhibit distinct carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition. However, CH(4) isotope analysis is limited by the large sample size required and the demanding analysis as high precision is required. Here we present a highly automated, high-precision online gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> monitoring mass spectrometry (GC/P/irmMS) technique for the analysis of deltaD(CH(4)). It includes gas extraction from ice, preconcentration, gas chromatographic separation and pyrolysis of CH(4) from roughly 500 g of ice with CH(4) concentrations as low as 350 ppbv. Ice samples with approximately 40 mL air and only approximately 1 nmol CH(4) can be measured with a precision of 3.4 per thousand. The precision for 65 mL air samples with recent atmospheric concentration is 1.5 per thousand. The CH(4) concentration can be obtained along with isotope data which is crucial for reporting ice core data on matched time scales and enables us to detect flaws in the measurement procedure. Custom-made script-based processing of MS raw and peak data enhance the <span class="hlt">system</span>'s performance with respect to stability, peak size dependency, hence precision and accuracy and last but not least time requirement. PMID:20155754</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Behrens, Melanie; Mller, Lars; Schneider, Robert; Sapart, Celia; Fischer, Hubertus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.8321T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of Effective Work Function Modulation with Phosphorous Segregation on Ni to Si <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in Ni Silicide/SiO2 <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of Ni to Si <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on effective work function (?eff) modulation with phosphorus (P) segregation at the Ni silicide/SiO2 interface was systematically investigated. To discriminate the P segregation effect from other parasitic possibilities of ?eff modulation, which are changes in Ni-Si <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and crystallinity including crystal grain orientation near the interface, we applied a P post-doping process for Ni2Si (Ni3Si2)/SiO2, NiSi/SiO2, and NiSi2/SiO2 <span class="hlt">systems</span>. In the post-doping process, P atoms were segregated to the Ni silicide/SiO2 interface after Ni silicide gate formation; hence, independent control of a desired interface P density can be realized. In addition, we newly developed a thin Ti-inserted NiSi2 formation process, by which NiSi2 can be formed at a temperature as low as 450 C, thus revealing the P-segregated ?eff modulation effect at the NiSi2/SiO2 interface for the first time. As a result, the largest ?eff modulation (??eff = -0.45 eV) occurs at the P-segregated NiSi2/SiO2 interface, and a ?eff of near the Si conduction band edge (4.13 0.04 eV) was realized, although the obtained ?eff values with P segregation at Ni2Si (Ni3Si2)/SiO2 and NiSi/SiO2 were 4.38 0.01 eV (??eff = -0.32 eV) and 4.37 0.01 eV (??eff = -0.29 eV) for the same P dose, respectively. Moreover, we found that ??eff at the NiSi2/SiO2 interface is larger than those at the NiSi/SiO2 and the Ni2Si (Ni3Si2)/SiO2 interfaces, even when the segregated P densities are the same. These results can be explained by an increase in the density of effective interface dipole for ?eff modulation at a high-Si-content interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Koga, Junji; Nishiyama, Akira; Koyama, Masato; Ogawa, Masaki; Zaima, Shigeaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820000072&hterms=Gasoline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DGasoline"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compression <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Adjuster</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New mechanism alters compression <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akkerman, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.uah.edu/stat/hypothesis/Likelihood.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Likelihood <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This page, created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama - Huntsville, introduces likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> tests by giving the Neyman-Pearson lemma and several examples. The examples include a gamma model, a binomial model, and a nonparametric model. The page concludes with a definition of the generalized likelihood <span class="hlt">ratio</span> test.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siegrist, Kyle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U51A0018K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Modeling of Trace Elements and Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> in Basalts from the Easter Salas y Gomez Seamount Chain - Easter Microplate <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Easter-Salas y Gomez Seamount Chain - Easter Microplate (ESC-EMP) <span class="hlt">system</span> is thought to be an archetypal example of plume-ridge interaction, with compositionally distinct plume mantle upwelling beneath the ESC and migrating along the base of the lithosphere to the ridge sinkalong the EMP. Highly linear arrays in Pb-Pb isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> space from the surface basalts of this <span class="hlt">system</span> clearly indicate that binary mixing between a depleted upper-mantle-type source and a high U/Pb time-integrated enriched source is the primary process affecting the geochemical variations in the region. Here we present a simple forward stochastic (Monte Carlo) model whereby mixing occurs in melts of a two-component solid mantle, which is distinct in terms of lithology (partition coefficients) and trace element (Rb, Ba, Th, U, Nb, La, Ce, Pb, Nd, Hf, Zr, Sr, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb, Lu, Ni) contents. We vary randomly the melting parameter F (fraction of melt within a reasonable range), and the solid mixing parameter (z) to produce mixes of melts. We assume the trace element and isotopic content of a solid depleted end-member similar to accepted Depleted Mantle (DM) compositions. The model results are compared to the observed basalt trace element and isotopic contents both visually and statistically. The stochastic modeling results compare favorably with observational data from the ESC-EMP <span class="hlt">system</span> that have been corrected for fractional crystallization, suggesting this simple two-component model could explain the geochemistry of the oceanic crust throughout the region. More specifically, according to the modeling, and in order to satisfy the trace element and isotopic observations, we require: 1) a solid source for the enriched end-member, which is enhanced by up to 20 times over DM for LILE, and much less for HREE; 2) at least part of the melting must occur at garnet-free depths; and 3) in the enriched solid source, the enhancement over DM of Sr must be greater than that of Pb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kingsley, R. H.; Hall, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ITEIS.129.1770M"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation on Recognition Accuracy Rate of Speaker Identification <span class="hlt">System</span> Using Spectral <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> between Air-Transmitted Speech Sounds and Bone-Transmitted Speech Sounds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Up to now, a speaker identification method using MFCC spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between air-transmitted speech sounds and bone-transmitted speech sounds, has been proposed. However, the recognition accuracy rate of this method which is applied to many speakers, has not been shown. This paper shows that the proposed method is useful to identify many speakers using MFCC spectral <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by the experiment with 70 speakers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mori, Mikio; Ogihara, Mitsuhiro; Kiyogane, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Shuji; Araki, Chikahiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v142258x6240t17r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isomeric yield <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of fission products in the <span class="hlt">system</span> of 24 MeV proton-induced fission of 238 U</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isomeric yield <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of 30 fission products in 24 MeV proton-induced fission of238U were measured by the use of the ion-guide isotope separator on-line. The obtained isomeric yield <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were converted to the angular momenta of primary fission fragments based on the statistical model. The deduced angular momenta were examined from various aspects. It is found that in general the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Tanikawa; H. Kudo; H. Sunaoshi; M. Wada; T. Shinozuka; M. Fujioka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8229605"> <span id="translatedtitle">Directional Gear <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Transmission.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear <span class="hlt">ratio</span> dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun ge...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. E. Lefever</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8619407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> of ARALL.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The inelastic <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (IR) of ARALL was determined in bending tests on four configurations with varying length, width, thickness, fiber orientation, and number of layers. The IR is 65%, differences between the configurations are negligibly small. The small ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. L. C. E. Verbruggen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17297927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Infrared temperature control <span class="hlt">system</span> for a completely noncontact polymerase chain reaction in microfluidic chips.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A completely noncontact temperature <span class="hlt">system</span> is described for amplification of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in glass microfluidic chips. An infrared (IR)-sensitive <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> was calibrated against a thermocouple inserted into a 550-nL PCR chamber and used to monitor the temperature of the glass surface above the PCR chamber during heating and cooling induced by a tungsten lamp and convective air source, respectively. A time lag of less than 1 s was observed between maximum heating rates of the solution and surface, indicating that thermal equilibrium was attained rapidly. Moreover, the time lag was corroborated using a one-dimensional heat-transfer model, which provided insight into the characteristics of the device and environment that caused the time lag. This knowledge will, in turn, allow for future tailoring of the devices to specific applications. To alleviate the need for calibrating the <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> with a thermocouple, the on-chip calibration of <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> was accomplished by sensing the boiling of two solutions, water and an azeotrope, and comparing the <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> output voltage against the known boiling points of these solutions. The "boiling point calibration" was successful as indicated by the subsequent chip-based IR-PCR amplification of a 211-bp fragment of the B. anthracis genome in a chamber reduced beyond the dimensions of a thermocouple. To improve the heating rates, a parabolic gold mirror was positioned above the microfluidic chip, which expedited PCR amplification to 18.8 min for a 30-cycle, three-temperature protocol. PMID:17297927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roper, Michael G; Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Humphrey, Joseph A C; Landers, James P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19173039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Mass Spectrometry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isotope <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is a specialized technique used to provide information about the geographic, chemical, and biological origins of substances. The ability to determine the source of an organic substance stems from the relative isotopic abundances of the elements which comprise the material. Because the isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen can become locally enriched or depleted through a variety of kinetic and thermodynamic factors, measurement of the isotope <span class="hlt">ratios</span> can be used to differentiate between samples which otherwise share identical chemical compositions. Several sample introduction methods are now available for commercial isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometers. Combustion is most commonly used for bulk isotopic analysis, whereas gas and liquid chromatography are predominately used for the real-time isotopic analysis of specific compounds within a mixture. Here, highlights of advances in instrumentation and applications within the last three years are provided to illustrate the impact of this rapidly growing area of research. Some prominent new applications include authenticating organic food produce, ascertaining whether or not African elephants are guilty of night-time raids on farmers' crops, and linking forensic drug and soil samples from a crime scene to a suspected point of origin. For the sake of brevity, we focus this Minireview on the isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> measurements of lighter-elements common to organic sources; we do not cover the equally important field of inorganic isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometry. PMID:19173039</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muccio, Zeland; Jackson, Glen P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol1-sec3-6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (b) Total assets leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. All national banks must... (c) Additional leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span> requirement. An institution...composite 1 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating <span class="hlt">System</span>...the minimum Tier 1 leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is 4 percent. In all...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title12-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title12-vol1-sec3-6.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital <span class="hlt">ratios</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... (b) Total assets leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. All national banks must... (c) Additional leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span> requirement. An institution...composite 1 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating <span class="hlt">System</span>...the minimum Tier 1 leverage <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is 4 percent. In all...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HESS...17.4159B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Informal uncertainty analysis (GLUE) of continuous flow simulation in a hybrid sewer <span class="hlt">system</span> with infiltration inflow - consistency of containment <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in calibration and validation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monitoring of flows in sewer <span class="hlt">systems</span> is increasingly applied to calibrate urban drainage models used for long-term simulation. However, most often models are calibrated without considering the uncertainties. The generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) methodology is here applied to assess parameter and flow simulation uncertainty using a simplified lumped sewer model that accounts for three separate flow contributions: wastewater, fast runoff from paved areas, and slow infiltrating water from permeable areas. Recently GLUE methodology has been critisised for generating prediction limits without statistical coherence and consistency and for the subjectivity in the choice of a threshold value to distinguish "behavioural" from "non-behavioural" parameter sets. In this paper we examine how well the GLUE methodology performs when the behavioural parameter sets deduced from a calibration period are applied to generate prediction bounds in validation periods. By retaining an increasing number of parameter sets we aim at obtaining consistency between the GLUE generated 90% prediction limits and the actual containment <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CR) in calibration. Due to the large uncertainties related to spatio-temporal rain variability during heavy convective rain events, flow measurement errors, possible model deficiencies as well as epistemic uncertainties, it was not possible to obtain an overall CR of more than 80%. However, the GLUE generated prediction limits still proved rather consistent, since the overall CRs obtained in calibration corresponded well with the overall CRs obtained in validation periods for all proportions of retained parameter sets evaluated. When focusing on wet and dry weather periods separately, some inconsistencies were however found between calibration and validation and we address here some of the reasons why we should not expect the coverage of the prediction limits to be identical in calibration and validation periods in real-world applications. The large uncertainties result in wide posterior parameter limits, that cannot be used for interpretation of, for example, the relative size of paved area vs. the size of infiltrating area. We should therefore try to learn from the significant discrepancies between model and observations from this study, possibly by using some form of non-stationary error correction procedure, but it seems crucial to obtain more representative rain inputs and more accurate flow observations to reduce parameter and model simulation uncertainty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breinholt, A.; Grum, M.; Madsen, H.; rn Thordarson, F.; Mikkelsen, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1214442"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Population Genetics of Meiotic Drive <span class="hlt">Systems</span>. III. Neutralization of Sex-<span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Distortion in Drosophila through Sex-Chromosome Aneuploidy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster were challenged by pseudo-Y drive, which mimics true Y-chromosome meiotic drive through the incorporation of Segregation Distorter (SD) in a T(Y;2) complex. This causes extreme sex-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> distrotion and can ultimately lead to population extinction. Populations normally respond by the gradual accumulation of drive suppressors, and this reduction in strength of distortion allows the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to move closer to the optimal value of 1:1. One population monitored, however, was rapidly able to neutralize the effects of sex-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> distortion by the accumulation of sex-chromosome aneuploids (XXY, XYY). This apparently occurs because XX-bearing eggs, produced in relatively high numbers (?4%) by XXY genotypes, become the main population source of females under strong Y-chromosome drive. Computer simulation for a discrete generation model incorporating random mating with differences in fitness and segregation permits several predictions that can be compared to the data. First, sex-chromosome aneuploids should rapidly attain equilibrium, while stabilizing the population at ?60% males. This sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> should be roughly independent of the strength of the meiotic drive. Moreover, conditions favoring the accumulation of drive suppressors (e.g., weak distortion, slow population extinction) are insufficient for maintaining aneuploidy, while conditions favoring aneuploidy (e.g., strong distortion, low production of females) lead to population extinction before drive suppressors can accumulate. Thus, the different mechanisms for neutralizing sex-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> distortion are complementary. In addition, Y drive and sex-chromosome aneuploidy are potentially co-adaptive, since under some conditions neither will survive alone. Finally, these results suggest the possibility that genetic variants promoting sex-chromosome nondisjunction may have a selective advantage in natural populations faced with sex-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> distortion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lyttle, Terrence W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5013463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> regulator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A description is given of an air/fuel <span class="hlt">ratio</span> regulator for use with the fuel injection control <span class="hlt">system</span> of an internal combustion engine of the spark ignition type having an air and exhaust gas (gas) induction passage open at one end to air at ambient pressure level and connected at its other end to the engine combustion chamber to be subject to manifold vacuum changes therein, a throttle valve rotatably mounted for movement across the passage to control the gas flow therethrough, exhaust gas recirculation (egr) passage means connecting engine exhaust gases to the induction passage above the closed position of the throttle valve, an egr flow control valve mounted in the egr passage means for movement between open and closed postions to control the volume of egr gas flow, an engine speed responsive positive displacement type fuel injection pump having a fuel flow output to the engine that varies in direct proportion to changes in engines speed to match fuel flow and mass airflow through the induction <span class="hlt">system</span> of the engine over the entire speed and load range of the engine to maintain the intake mixture <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of air to fuel constant, the pump having a fuel flow control lever movable to vary the fuel rate of flow, the regulator being characterized by engine manifold vacuum responsive first servo means operably connected to the fuel control lever for maintaining a constant air/fuel (A/F) <span class="hlt">ratio</span> by changing fuel output as a function of changing manifold vacuum and air flow upon opening of the throttle valve, a fuel enrichment control lever operably connected to the pump control lever and movable to modify the position of the pump lever dictated by the first servo means to change the A/F <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, and further means responsive to engine operating conditions for moving the fuel enrichment control lever to provide the changed A/F <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simko, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j6640t483277u3u7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of optimum combining and maximal <span class="hlt">ratio</span> combining in the presence of co?channel interference and channel correlation for wireless communication <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Antenna diversity is an important technique to combat fading and reduce co-channel interference (CCI). In this paper, we present an analytical approach to derive bit error rate (BER) for Optimum Combining (OC) and Maximal <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Combining (MRC) in the presence of CCI. The paper has two parts. In the first part, the analysis of BER for OC with two co-channel</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jian Cui; David D. Falconer; Asrar U. H. Sheikh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45364172"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Set of Equations for Computing Equilibrium <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of a Crude Oil\\/Natural Gas <span class="hlt">System</span> at Pressures Below 1,000 psia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Equations are presented for computing equilibrium <span class="hlt">ratios</span> (K values) for calculating flash vaporizations at conditions usually found in oilfield gas-oil separation processes (temperatures between 40° and 200°F and pressures below 1000 psia). Simple enough for small programmable calculators, the equations were developed from K values derived experimentally by Katz and Hachmuth in 1937.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. B. Standing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~dlnarain/golden/activities.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site provides a "basic introduction to one of the most amazing discoveries in mathematics: the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>." Created by David L. Narain, this site offers a particularly engaging way to bring together math and the natural sciences in the classroom. Seven straightforward activities have students construct a golden rectangle and spiral, and also explore the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> in nature and in other contexts. The site also includes a quiz; answers are not provided, though. The activities are designed for 9th and 10th graders, but would also be appropriate for middle school students.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Narain, David L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=recipe&pg=3&id=EJ988421"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Recipe for <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moffett, Pamela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18833568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in birds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in birds. PMID:18833568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020128&hterms=mq-9&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmq-9"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cruise performance of an isolated 1.15 pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbofan propulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> simulator at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.85</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An isolated 1.15 pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbofan engine simulator was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.85. At Mach 0.75 the net propulsive force of the fan and nacelle (excluding core thrust) was 73 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. Internal losses amounted to 7 percent, and external drag amounted to 20 percent of the ideal fan net thrust. External pressure and friction drag were about equal. The propulsive efficiency with a 90 percent efficient fan would have been 63 percent. For the aerodynamic characteristics of the nacelle that was tested, increasing the fan pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to approximately 1.35 would have resulted in a maximum propulsive efficiency of 67 percent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steffen, F. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1078057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weather-Corrected Performance <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photovoltaic (PV) <span class="hlt">system</span> performance depends on both the quality of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and the weather. One simple way to communicate the <span class="hlt">system</span> performance is to use the performance <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PR): the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield for flat-plate PV <span class="hlt">systems</span> is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV <span class="hlt">system</span> efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual <span class="hlt">system</span> yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://education.ti.com/educationportal/activityexchange/Activity.do?cid=US&aId=5722"> <span id="translatedtitle">What's My <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, students use linear measurement and calculators to investigate proportionality and determine the constant <span class="hlt">ratio</span> between similar figures. In it, students draw a figure on centimeter graph paper, increase or decrease the size, and predict the dimensions. Then students compare the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of two pictures by measuring, recording their data, and discussing their findings to draw conclusions. Suggested guidelines for instruction and classroom discussion are included, as well as data collection worksheets for students, and centimeter graph paper to print. The lesson may be introduced by reading appropriate sections from "GoosebumpsMonster Blood III" (Chapters 15 and 16) by R.L. Stine, or "The Shrinking of Treehorn" by F. Heide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=ENG20804"> <span id="translatedtitle">Displacement and Velocity <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses displacement and velocity <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of both topics and then provide mathematical examples of each. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to the physical and mathematical concepts of displacement and velocity <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bourassa, James; Rosz, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:9284"> <span id="translatedtitle">PROPORTIONS and <span class="hlt">RATIOS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using what you already know and the text, can you solve these problems? Just by looking at the titles below, describe in your journal what you think each activity is going to be about and how it relates to proportions and <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Which tastes juicier? Statue of Liberty : is the Statue of Liberty's nose too long? Describe in your journal how your favorite question above was answered. Also, include any fun facts you learned along the way. What ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Squire, Mrs.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mathplayground.com/MTV/mathtv08.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Word Problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson begins with a word problem in which students must figure how much money Erica and Tim each earn when they split $480 by a <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 5:3. After the problem, students watch a video in which the problem is solved using division and multiplication and again using fractions. Students then click the Try It button to complete a problem on their own. There are also embedded tools, a calculator and scratchpad, for students to use as they solve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4373761"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Encoder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfe ct components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder with ? = ? = (1 + ? 5)\\/2, the golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ingrid Daubechies; C. Sinan Gntrk; Yang Wang; zgr Yilmaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.thinkingblocks.com/tb_ratios/ratios.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thinking Blocks: <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This set of six interactive Flash activities gives students an opportunity to visually model and calculate the unknown quantity from <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and other information, all in the context of solving word problems. A video demonstration introduces each method, and then students work on modeling and solving five problems. Students can check their modeling of the problem at intermediate stages. Teachers can track a student's progress throughout the problem set.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD615141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Axial <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> of the Projected Polarization Ellipse.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The axial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the polarization ellipse of a radio wave is often evaluated using a crossed-dipole antenna <span class="hlt">system</span> placed in a horizontal plane. The axial <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the ellipse as deduced from the responses of the two antennas should correspond to the ax...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Ramu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1964-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3799653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of speckle/pixel size <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on temporal and spatial speckle-contrast analysis of dynamic scattering <span class="hlt">systems</span>: Implications for measurements of blood-flow dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is an optical technique used to generate blood flow maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. It is well known that in LSCI, the speckle size must exceed the Nyquist criterion to maximize the speckle's pattern contrast. In this work, we study experimentally the effect of speckle-pixel size <span class="hlt">ratio</span> not only in dynamic speckle contrast, but also on the calculation of the relative flow speed for temporal and spatial analysis. Our data suggest that the temporal LSCI algorithm is more accurate at assessing the relative changes in flow speed than the spatial algorithm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.; Mendez-Aguilar, E.; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N.; Fuentes-Garcia, A.; Ramos-Garcia, R.; Choi, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940000409&hterms=sparc&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsparc"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyrolaser Operating <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Software provides for control and acquisition of data from optical <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span>. There are six individual programs in PYROLASER package. Provides quick and easy way to set up, control, and program standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emisivity measurements either collected as if Pyrolaser in manual operating mode or displayed on real-time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for posttest analysis. Shell supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, added to <span class="hlt">system</span> easily. Written using Labview software for use on Macintosh-series computers running <span class="hlt">System</span> 6.0.3 or later, Sun Sparc-series computers running Open-Windows 3.0 or MIT's X Window <span class="hlt">System</span> (X11R4 or X11R5), and IBM PC or compatible computers running Microsoft Windows 3.1 or later.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roberts, Floyd E., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........12C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating evapotranspiration using remote sensing: A hybrid approach between MODIS derived enhanced vegetation index, Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>, and ground based micro-meteorological data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated water loss by evapotranspiration (ET) from the Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) in southern California bordering the Colorado River collaborating with the United States Bureau of Reclamation (U.S.B.R.). We developed an empirical model to estimate ET for the entire PVID using satellite derived MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and ground based measurements of solar radiation and vapor pressure. We compared our predictions with U.S.B.R. estimates through statistical cross validation and showed they agree with an error less than 8%. We tested the same model for an alfalfa field inside PVID to check its applicability at a smaller spatial scale. We showed that the same model developed for PVID is the best model for estimating ET for the alfalfa field. We collected data from three Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> energy balance (BREB) towers installed in the invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp) dominated riparian zone in the CNWR and a fourth tower in the alfalfa field in PVID. The riparian sites were selected according to different densities of vegetation. We collected data from these sites at various intervals during the period between June 2006 to November 2008. We reduced the errors associated with the Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> data using statistical procedures taking into account occasional instrument failures and problems inherent in the BREB method. Our results were consistent with vegetation density and estimates from MODIS EVI images. To estimate ET for larger patches of mixed vegetation we modified the crop coefficient equation and represented it in terms of EVI. Using this approach, we scaled the alfalfa field data to the entire PVID and compared the results with U.S.B.R. (2001-2007) estimates. We predicted ET well within the acceptable range established in the literature. We empirically developed ET models for the riparian tower sites to provide accurate point scale ET estimation and scaled for the entire riparian region in CNWR with our modified crop coefficient approach. We investigated the assumptions upon which the Bowen <span class="hlt">ratio</span> equation is developed. In the presence of turbulence some of the assumptions may not be valid, and the final data may require correction factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatterjee, Sumantra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3908351"> <span id="translatedtitle">The midbrain to pons <span class="hlt">ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objectives: MRI-based measurements used to diagnose progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) typically lack pathologic verification and are not easy to use routinely. We aimed to develop in histologically proven disease a simple measure of the midbrain and pons on sagittal MRI to identify PSP. Methods: Measurements of the midbrain and pontine base on midsagittal T1-weighted MRI were performed in confirmed PSP (n = 12), Parkinson disease (n = 2), and multiple <span class="hlt">system</span> atrophy (MSA) (n = 7), and in controls (n = 8). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, cutoff values were applied to a clinically diagnosed cohort of 62 subjects that included PSP (n = 21), Parkinson disease (n = 10), MSA (n = 10), and controls (n = 21). Results: The mean midbrain measurement of 8.1 mm was reduced in PSP (p < 0.001) with reduction in the midbrain to pons <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PSP smaller than MSA; p < 0.001). In controls, the mean midbrain <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was approximately two-thirds of the pontine base, in PSP it was <52%, and in MSA the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was greater than two-thirds. A midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm and <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 0.52 had 100% specificity for PSP. In the clinically defined group, 19 of 21 PSP cases (90.5%) had a midbrain measurement of <9.35 mm. Conclusions: We have developed a simple and reliable measurement in pathologically confirmed disease based on the topography of atrophy in PSP with high sensitivity and specificity that may be a useful tool in the clinic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Massey, Luke A.; Jager, Hans R.; Paviour, Dominic C.; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Ling, Helen; Williams, David R.; Kallis, Constantinos; Holton, Janice; Revesz, Tamas; Burn, David J.; Yousry, Tarek; Lees, Andrew J.; Fox, Nick C.; Micallef, Caroline</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HyInt.222...15A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Cl NQR spin-lattice relaxation times in 1D hydrogen-bonding <span class="hlt">system</span> of tetramethylpyrazine-chloranilic acid at high temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The temperature dependences of spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 of 35Cl and 37Cl NQR were studied for the co-crystal of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) with chloranilic acid (H2ca), TMP-H2ca, in which one-dimensional hydrogen bonding is formed by alternate arrangement of TMP and H2ca. The isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> 37Cl T 1 / 35Cl T 1 was determined to be 1.0 0.1 above ca. 290 K where a steep decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 with increasing temperature was observed. In this temperature range it is suggested that the relaxation is originated from the slow fluctuation of electric field gradient (EFG). Beside EFG fluctuation due to the external-charge-density fluctuation, the small angle reorientation of the quantization axis triggered by a proton transfer motion between N...H-O and N-H...O hydrogen bonding states is proposed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asaji, Tetsuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26373518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design options for achieving a rapidly variable heat-to-power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell <span class="hlt">system</span> (FCS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article calls for a change in paradigm within the fuel cells industry such that it focuses less on solely maximizing a fuel cells electrical efficiency, and more on a fuel cell <span class="hlt">systems</span> (FCS) overall combined thermal and electrical efficiency, as defined in relation to the instantaneous demand for heat and electricity. Based on market needs in the power generation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitney Colella</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/865625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A peak power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V21B2772V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of VNIR Camera <span class="hlt">System</span> to Estimate Lava Temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present initial results from using a visible and near infrared (VNIR) camera as an optical <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. The basic concept of pyrometry simply converts the color of incandescent material into a temperature and has been used on Kilauea since the earliest days of regular volcano monitoring. However, these temperatures have always been lower than expected, raising the concern that the emissivity of lava at these wavelengths was not close to a blackbody. We carefully calibrated a <span class="hlt">system</span> that uses 3 digital cameras with wavelengths similar to the green, red, and near-infrared channels of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissions and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR instruments by imaging a high-temperature blackbody. Following techniques used to estimate lava temperatures on Jupiter's moon, Io, we obtained relationships between band <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and blackbody temperatures. The green/red <span class="hlt">ratio</span> provides good temperature estimates for any reasonable temperature above 1000 C, while the red/NIR is useful from about 700-1200 C. We also observed the glow from the lava lake in Halema`uma`u as reflected and scattered from the steam plume above it. We found that the temperatures inferred from the glow are much too high (~1400 C) from the red/NIR <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and much too low (<700 C) from the green/red <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. One possible explanation is that there are variations in the emissivity of molten lava at these wavelengths. However, we also know that there are wavelength dependent scattering properties of the plume cloud that are consistent with errors in these temperature estimates. Future work examining incandescent lava without the interference of a plume will be needed to better evaluate the emissivity of lava in this wavelength range. However, we have sufficient data to demonstrate the great utility of VNIR data acquired at night for determining if a volcano is actively erupting mafic lava. We propose that further refinement of this methodology using ETM+, ASTER, and other instruments could provide a useful complement to other near-real-time thermal alert <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaughan, R.; Keszthelyi, L. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1688412"> <span id="translatedtitle">CINR difference analysis of optimal combining versus maximal <span class="hlt">ratio</span> combining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The statistical gain differences between two common spatial combining algorithms: optimum combining (OC) and maximal <span class="hlt">ratio</span> combining (MRC) are analyzed using a gain <span class="hlt">ratio</span> method. Using the receive carrier-to-interference plus noise <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (CINR), the gain <span class="hlt">ratio</span> CINR CINR is evaluated in a flat Rayeligh fading communications <span class="hlt">system</span> with multiple interferers. Exact analytical solutions are derived for the probability density function</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joe P. Burke; James R. Zeidler; B. D. Rao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITE..92..307F"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Filter Construction Utilizing HTS Reaction-Type Filter to Improve Adjacent Channel Leakage Power <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> of Mobile Communication <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a new band selective stop filter construction to decrease the out of band intermodulation distortion (IMD) noise generated in the transmitting power amplifier. Suppression of IMD noise directly improves the adjacent channel leakage power <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (ACLR). A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) device with extremely high-Q performance with very small hybrid IC pattern would make it possible to implement the proposed filter construction as a practical device. To confirm the effectiveness of the HTS reaction-type filter (HTS-RTF) in improving ACLR, investigations based on both experiments and numerical analyses are carried out. The structure of a 5-GHz split open-ring resonator is investigated; its targets include high-unload Q-factor, low current densities, and low radiation. A designed 5-GHz HTS-RTF with 4MHz suppression bandwidth and more than 40dB MHz-1 sharp skirt is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The measured ACLR values are improved by a maximum of 12.8dB and are constant up to the passband signal power of 40dBm. In addition, to examine the power efficiency improvement offered by noise suppression of the HTS-RTF, numerical analyses based on measured results of gallium nitride HEMT power amplifier characteristics are conducted. The analyzed results shows the drain efficiency of the amplifier can be improved to 44.2% of the amplifier with the filter from the 15.7% of the without filter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Futatsumori, Shunichi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Akasegawa, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Teru; Yamanaka, Kazunori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ASSP...36...25R"> <span id="translatedtitle">From the Companion Mass <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Distribution to the Planetary Mass Function: Using Multiple <span class="hlt">Systems</span> to Constrain Models of Star and Planet Formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present new results regarding the companion mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> distribution (CMRD) of stars, and sub-stellar objects. Considering the new survey of multiples for solar type field stars (Raghavan et al. ApJS 190:1, 2010) and M dwarfs (Janson et al. ApJ 754(1):26, 2012), we test the universality of the CMRD derived in Reggiani and Meyer (ApJ 738:60, 2011). Whereas we do not find significant differences in the CMRD for M dwarfs compared to previous results, the solar type CMRD appears to inconsistent with the previously derived CMRD from Reggiani and Meyer (ApJ 738:60, 2011). Despite the fact that this survey spans a wider range of angular separations than the previously studied samples, there is no evidence for variations in the CMRD as a function of orbital separation. Assuming that we can extrapolate both the stellar CMRD into the BD regime and the radial velocity planetary Companion Mass Function (Cumming et al. PASP 120:531, 2008) to larger separations, we can run MC simulations to test in which mass range we expect the planet population to become more important than BDs as companions to stars. This tool can be useful to predict the outcome of future surveys for very low mass companions or to analyze already existing datasets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reggiani, Maddalena; Meyer, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006948&hterms=aircraft&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Daircraft"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control <span class="hlt">System</span> to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap <span class="hlt">system</span> that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) <span class="hlt">system</span> offers a lighter-weight lift control <span class="hlt">system</span> having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control <span class="hlt">system</span> during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control <span class="hlt">system</span> is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19143869"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the international normalized <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (INR) in a new point-of-care <span class="hlt">system</span> designed for home monitoring of oral anticoagulation therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The new CoaguChek XS <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed for use in patient self testing with a measuring range from 0.8 INR up to 8.0 INR, which has been calibrated against the mean INR of rTF/95 and ERM-AD149. This study was performed to confirm the correct INR results received from two routinely manufactured lots of test strips when compared with the international reference preparations (IRP) rTF/95 and ERM-AD149. At one study site capillary and noncitrated venous whole blood samples from 20 normal donors and 62 anticoagulated patients were applied to two test strip lots of the new <span class="hlt">system</span> in duplicate. Additionally blood was collected in citrate tubes, processed to plasma, and PT results were obtained using rTF/95 and ERM-AD149 by the manual tilt tube method. Method comparisons of the INR results of the CoaguChek XS <span class="hlt">system</span> vs. the mean INR of the IRP demonstrated a mean relative bias of -0.02% to -0.4%, mean absolute relative deviations of 6.4-9.6%, and accuracy observing >95% of CoaguChek XS INR within limits of +/-14% to +/-21.5% to the mean INR of the IRP. The results of the study confirm the successful calibration of two lots of the new CoaguChek XS <span class="hlt">system</span>, demonstrate the validity of the calibration concept and prove the accuracy of the new <span class="hlt">system</span> in comparison with the IRP. Clinical decisions in oral anticoagulation therapy may be reliably made upon the INR results of the new <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:19143869</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Plesch, W; van den Besselaar, A M H P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740026752&hterms=dry+gas+composition&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddry%2Bgas%2Bcomposition"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-response on-line gas analysis <span class="hlt">system</span> for hydrogen-reaction combustion products</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The results of testing an on-line quadrupole gas analyzer <span class="hlt">system</span> are reported. Gas samples were drawn from the exhaust of a hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen rocket which simulated the flow composition and dynamics at the combustor exit of a supersonic combustion ramjet engine. <span class="hlt">System</span> response time of less than 50 milliseconds was demonstrated, with analytical accuracy estimated to be + or - 5 percent. For more complex chemical <span class="hlt">systems</span> with interfering atom patterns, analysis would be more difficult. A cooled-gas <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> probe was evaluated as a total temperature indicator and as the primary mass flow measuring element for the total sample flow rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Metzler, A. J.; Gaugler, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24769435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elucidating the mechanisms of protein antigen adsorption to the CAF/NAF liposomal vaccine adjuvant <span class="hlt">systems</span>: Effect of charge, fluidity and antigen-to-lipid <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reverse vaccinology approach has recently resulted in the identification of promising protein antigens, which in combination with appropriate adjuvants can stimulate customized, protective immune responses. Although antigen adsorption to adjuvants influences vaccine efficacy and safety, little is generally known about how antigens and adjuvants interact at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between the equally sized, but oppositely charged model protein antigens ?-lactalbumin and lysozyme, and i) the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant CAF01 composed of cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) or ii) the neutral adjuvant formulation NAF01, where DDA was replaced with zwitterionic distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). The effect of liposome charge, bilayer rigidity, isoelectric point and antigen-to-lipid <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was investigated using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, intrinsic fluorescence and Langmuir monolayers. The net anionic ?-lactalbumin adsorbed onto the cationic liposomes, while there was no measureable attractive interaction with the zwitterionic liposomes. In contrast, the net cationic lysozyme showed very little interaction with either types of liposome. Adsorption of ?-lactalbumin altered its tertiary structure, affected lipid membrane packing below and above the phase transition temperature, and neutralized the liposomal surface charge, resulting in reduced colloidal stability and liposome aggregation. Langmuir studies revealed that ?-lactalbumin was not squeezed out of DDA monolayers upon compression, which suggests additional hydrophobic interactions. Such interactions are thus likely to affect the way vaccine antigens are presented to antigen-presenting cells, and may play an important role for the efficacy of the vaccine-induced immune response. These studies thus exemplify the importance of characterizing the molecular interactions between the vaccine antigen and adjuvant along with immunogenicity and efficacy studies. PMID:24769435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamborg, Mette; Rose, Fabrice; Jorgensen, Lene; Bjorklund, Katrine; Pedersen, Helene B; Christensen, Dennis; Foged, Camilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52448944"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the impact of different ESMF regridding algorithms in a simplified coupled geophysical flow problem as coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> resolution <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is varied</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Modeling Framework (ESMF) supports generalized regridding algorithms that are designed for flexibly coupling models at different spatial and temporal scales. In the context of atmosphere ocean modeling these ESMF capabilities provide a solid basis for coupled experiments in which atmosphere and ocean components are configured independently with significant differences in spatial and temporal resolution. In these scenarios</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. Jahn; C. Hill; D. Neckels</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23193490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of extraction efficiencies of penicillin G at different w\\/o <span class="hlt">ratios</span> in the emulsion liquid membrane <span class="hlt">systems</span> with dilute polymer solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A dilute polymer solution as the organic membrane phase was used to improve emulsion stability during extraction of penicillin G in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Viscoelastic polymers were used to prepare the dilute polymer solution, which followed behavior of a non-Newtonian fluid. The effects of composition of polymer and surfactant in the membrane phase on extraction efficiency of penicillin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sang Cheol Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035360&hterms=fossils&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dfossils"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of infrared reflectance <span class="hlt">ratios</span> at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Idaho batholith</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reflectance <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740029745&hterms=difference+operating+systems&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Ddifference%2Boperating%2Bsystems"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of exhaust nozzle configuration on aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an externally blown flap <span class="hlt">system</span> with a quiet 6:1 bypass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A highly suppressed TF-34 engine was used to investigate engine and flap interaction noise associated with an externally blown flap STOL powered lift <span class="hlt">system</span>. Noise, efficiency, and velocity decay characteristics of mixed and separate flow exhaust <span class="hlt">systems</span> including convergent, co-annular, and lobed designs were determined with the engine operating alone. Noise data were then obtained for several of the exhaust configurations with the engine blowing a wing-flap segment. Noise for both the engine alone and the engine with blown flaps showed substantial differences for the various exhaust configurations tested. The differences in observed noise are related primarily to nozzle effective exhaust velocity, flap impingement velocity, and noise spectral shape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samanich, N. E.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Jones, W. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23419648"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cleavage of the antitoxin of the parD toxin-antitoxin <span class="hlt">system</span> is determined by the ClpAP protease and is modulated by the relative <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the toxin and the antitoxin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differential stability of toxins and antitoxins is the key for the conditional activation and function of Toxin-Antitoxin <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Here we report the evaluation of the action of cell proteases Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP and ClpYQ on the Kis antitoxin and the Kid toxin of the parD TA <span class="hlt">system</span> of plasmid R1. In vitro analysis shows that Kis antitoxin, but not the Kid toxin, is cleaved specifically by the ClpAP protease. The Kid toxin is not cleaved either by this protease or by any of the others cell proteases tested but in complex with the Kis antitoxin protects the cleavage of this protein in a way that is dependent on the toxin-antitoxin <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. We further show that this protection is correlated with the inability of the ClpA chaperone to access the Kis antitoxin when in complex with Kid toxin. The stability of the antitoxin greatly increases in vivo in a clpP- background and plasmid maintenance mediated by the parD <span class="hlt">system</span>, which is dependent on the differential decay of the antitoxin, is reduced to the levels observed in the absence of a functional toxin. The functional implications of these data are further discussed within the frame of the regulation of the parD <span class="hlt">system</span> and of the available information on the nature of the toxin-antitoxin complexes formed at different toxin-antitoxin <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. PMID:23419648</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diago-Navarro, Elizabeth; Hernndez-Arriaga, Ana Mara; Kubik, Slawomir; Konieczny, Igor; Daz-Orejas, Ramn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61393481"> <span id="translatedtitle">High pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> turbocharger</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a turbocharger <span class="hlt">system</span> for an internal combustion engine. It comprises means forming a turbine adapted to be driven by exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine comprising: a turbine wheel having a central core and outwardly extending vanes, the turbine wheel being rotatable about a central axis; a meridionally divided volute for exhaust gas surrounding the turbine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woollenweber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375708"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low porosity metallic periodic structures with negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Auxetic behavior in low porosity metallic structures is demonstrated via a simple <span class="hlt">system</span> of orthogonal elliptical voids. In this minimal2D <span class="hlt">system</span>, the Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be effectively controlled by changing the aspect <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the voids. In this way, large negative values of Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be achieved, indicating an effective strategy for designing auxetic structures with desired porosity. PMID:24375708</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, Michael; Francesconi, Luca; Gerends, Mikls; Shanian, Ali; Carson, Carl; Bertoldi, Katia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvL.101h5501R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative Poisson's <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Materials via Isotropic Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We show that under tension a classical many-body <span class="hlt">system</span> with only isotropic pair interactions in a crystalline state can, counterintuitively, have a negative Poissons <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, or auxetic behavior. We derive the conditions under which the triangular lattice in two dimensions and lattices with cubic symmetry in three dimensions exhibit a negative Poissons <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. In the former case, the simple Lennard-Jones potential can give rise to auxetic behavior. In the latter case, a negative Poissons <span class="hlt">ratio</span> can be exhibited even when the material is constrained to be elastically isotropic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23177794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Usefulness of the organ culture <span class="hlt">system</span> when villous height/crypt depth <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, intraepithelial lymphocyte count, or serum antibody tests are not diagnostic for celiac disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The existence of mild forms of celiac disease (CD) can make the histology-based diagnosis difficult to reach. Since anti-endomysium (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) are detectable in culture supernatants of duodenal biopsies from CD patients, our aim was to assess if this <span class="hlt">system</span> can support the histology in the diagnostic work-up. A total of 559 suspected CD patients underwent serum EMA/anti-tTG detection, upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy sampling, histologic analysis, and organ culture to detect EMA/anti-tTG in supernatants. A subgroup of 30 patients with organ culture positive results were put on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Their gluten-dependency was evaluated by the psychological general well-being and beck depression inventory indexes. Statistical analysis was performed by Cohen k inter-test, Friedman test, and Dunn multiple comparison. Two hundred forty-one out of 559 (43.1%) patients showed intestinal villous atrophy, whereas serum and organ culture EMA/anti-tTG were positive in 293/559 (52.4%) and 334/559 (59.7%) patients, respectively. The strength of agreement resulted good for serology vs histology (k = 0.730), good for organ culture vs histology (k = 0.662), and very good for serology vs organ culture (k = 0.852). After 12 months of GFD, psychological general well-being index significantly increased, and beck depression inventory index significantly decreased (P < 0.001 for each one). Data highlight the organ culture <span class="hlt">system</span> as a useful tool to assist the histology in diagnosing CD, mainly in cases without villous atrophy or in seronegative patients. The marked improvement in quality of life after a GFD further supports the reliability of this <span class="hlt">system</span> in diagnosing CD. PMID:23177794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Picarelli, Antonio; Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Libanori, Valerio; Borghini, Raffaele; Salvi, Elisa; Donato, Giuseppe; Vitolo, Domenico; Tiberti, Antonio; Marcheggiano, Adriana; Bassotti, Gabrio; Corazziari, Enrico</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v101/iB02/95JB03446/95JB03446.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and crustal seismology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities to hydrostatic pressures of 1 GPa are summarized for 678 rocks. Emphasis was placed on obtaining high-accuracy velocity measurements, which are shown to be critical in calculating Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from velocities. The rocks have been divided into 29 major groups for which velocities, velocity <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, and Poisson's <span class="hlt">ratios</span> are presented at several</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikolas I. Christensen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211631W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 238U/235U isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32 relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial basalts to be the best representation of the U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the new 238U/235U for SRM 950a of 137.836, this would result in an average 238U/235U for the Earth and the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> of ~ 137.80. The effect of a revised 238U/235U <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on Pb-Pb ages is age dependent. It results in an age overestimation of ~0.8 Ma for the age of the solar <span class="hlt">system</span> and up to 1.5 Ma for very young material (with bulk Earth U isotope composition). [1] Stirling, C.H., Andersen, M.B., Potter, E.-K., et al. (2007) EPSL 264, 208-225; [2] Weyer, S., Anbar, A. D., Gerdes, A., et al. (2008) GCA 72, 345-359. [3] Bopp, C.H., Lundstrom, C.C., Johnsons, T.M., Glessner, J.G. (2009) Geology 37, 611-614. [4] Brennecka, G.A., Weyer, S., Wadhwa, et al. (2010) Science, 327, p. 449. [5] Richter, S., Alonzo-Munoz, A., Eykens, R., et al. (2008) IJMS 269, 145-148. [6] Richter, S., et al. EGU meeting 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NewA...31....1A"> <span id="translatedtitle">First multi-color photometric study and preliminary elements for the low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, possible progenitors of merging stars, W UMa <span class="hlt">systems</span> TYC 3836-0854-1 and TYC 4157-0683-1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we present the first CCD multi-color B, V and Ic light curves of the eclipsing binary stars TYC 3836-0854-1 and TYC 4157-0683-1, the data were obtained in four nights in the year 2010 and three nights in the year 2012 for the first one and in four nights in the year 2010 for the second one. Based on our data the short orbital periods of the <span class="hlt">systems</span> are confirmed and revised to P = 0.4155590 days for TYC 3836-0854-1 and P = 0.3960676 days for TYC 4157-0683-1. Our observations of TYC 3836-0854-1 show symmetric light curves in all passbands with brightness in both maxima at the same level, while the light curve of TYC 4157-0683-1 appear to exhibit the typical OConnell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II. By analyzing simultaneously the complete light curves with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code (2005 revision), photometric solutions were determined. Both the <span class="hlt">systems</span> shows a small difference between the components temperatures of ?T = 14 K for TYC 3836-0854-1 and ?T = 149 K for TYC 4157-0683-1. The orbital inclination is i = 78.6 and i = 79.7 respectively. The <span class="hlt">systems</span> are found to be a high fill-out, extreme mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> overcontact binary with a mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of q = 0.206 and a fill-out factor of f = 59.2% for TYC 3836-0854-1 and q = 0.150 and a fill-out factor of f = 76.3% for TYC 4157-0683-1, suggesting that both the <span class="hlt">systems</span> are in the late stage of overcontact evolution. It is known that deep (f>50%), low-mass <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (q<0.25) overcontact binary stars (DLMR) are a very important resource for understanding the phenomena of Blue Straggler/FK Com-type stars that is an unsolved problem in stellar astrophysics. One of the possible explanations for their formation is from the coalescence of W UMa-type overcontact binary <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The absolute dimensions of both the <span class="hlt">systems</span> are estimated from the logTeff - logL diagram and their dynamical evolution is inferred.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.; Martignoni, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhD...42r5503R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the effect of the stoichiometric <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of Ca/Cu on the electrical and microstructural properties of the CaCu3Ti4O12 polycrystalline <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structural, microstructural, non-ohmic and dielectric properties of perovskite-type CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) with Ca/Cu stoichiometries of 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 are discussed. The 1/3 Ca/Cu <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> presents very high dielectric permittivity (~9000 at 10 kHz) and a low non-ohmic property (? = 9), whereas the 1/1 Ca/Cu <span class="hlt">ratio</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> shows the opposite effect, i.e. the dielectric permittivity decreases (2740 at 10 kHz) and the non-ohmic property increases (? = 42), indicating that these properties are not directly correlated. The results of this work reinforce the idea that the greatest contribution to the very high permittivity is caused by the presence of planar defects inside the CCTO grains, generating internal nanometric domains associated with stacking faults, according to the nanoscale barrier layer capacitance model proposed very recently in the literature [1]. The non-ohmic property is related to the presence and distribution of phases such as CaTiO3 (CTO) and CuO, segregated or precipitated at the grain boundary, which generate large numbers of electrically active interfaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramrez, M. A.; Bueno, P. R.; Tararam, R.; Cavalheiro, A. A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15543546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mobile, outdoor continuous-flow isotope-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometer <span class="hlt">system</span> for automated high-frequency 13C- and 18O-CO2 analysis for Keeling plot applications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A continuous-flow isotope-<span class="hlt">ratio</span> mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS, custom-made GasBenchII and Delta(plus)Advantage, ThermoFinnigan) was installed on a grassland site and interfaced with a closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA). The CF-IRMS and IRGA were housed in an air-conditioned travel van. Air was sampled at 1.5 m above the 0.07-m tall grassland canopy, drawn through a 17-m long PTFE tube at a rate of 0.25 L s(-1), and fed to the IRGA and CF-IRMS in series. The IRMS was interfaced with the IRGA via a stainless steel capillary inserted 0.5 m into the sample air outlet tube of the IRGA (forming an open split), a gas-tight pump, and a sample loop attached to the eight-port Valco valve of the continuous-flow interface. Air was pumped through the 0.25-mL sample loop at 10 mL s(-1) (a flushing frequency of 40 Hz). Air samples were analysed at intervals of approx. 2.8 min. Whole <span class="hlt">system</span> precision was tested in the field using air mixed from pure CO2 and CO2-free air by means of mass flow controllers. The standard deviation of repeated single measurements was 0.21-0.07 per thousand for delta13C and 0.34-0.14 per thousand for delta18O of CO2 in air with mixing <span class="hlt">ratios</span> ranging between 200-800 micromol mol(-1). The CO2 peak area measured by the IRMS was proportional to the CO2 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (r2 = 1.00), allowing estimation of sample air CO2 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> from IRMS data. A 1-day long measurement cycle of CO2, delta13C and delta18O of air sampled above the grassland canopy was used to test the <span class="hlt">system</span> for Keeling plot applications. Delta18O exhibited a clear diurnal cycle (4 per thousand range), but short-term (1-h interval) variability was small (average SD 0.38 per thousand). Yet, the correlation between delta18O and CO2 mixing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> was relatively weak, and this was true for both the whole data set and 1-h subsets. Conversely, the delta13C of all 541 samples measured during the 25.2-h interval fitted well the Keeling regression (r2 = 0.99), yielding an intercept of -27.40 per thousand (+/-0.07 per thousand SE). Useful Keeling regressions (r2 > 0.9, average r2 = 0.96) also resulted from data collected over 1-h intervals of the 12-h long twilight and dark period. These indicated that 13C content of ecosystem respiration was approx. constant near -27.6 per thousand. The precision of the present <span class="hlt">system</span> is similar to that of current techniques used in ecosystem studies which employ flask sampling and a laboratory-based CF-IRMS. Sampling (and measurement) frequency is greatly increased relative to <span class="hlt">systems</span> based on flask sampling, and sampling time (0.025 s per sample) is decreased. These features increase the probability for sampling the entire CO2 range which occurs in a given time window. The <span class="hlt">system</span> obviates sample storage problems, greatly minimises handling needs, and allows extended campaigns of high frequency sampling and analysis with minimal attendance. PMID:15543546</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schnyder, Hans; Schufele, Rudi; Wenzel, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.5658G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The sources and evolution of mineralising fluids in iron oxide-copper-gold <span class="hlt">systems</span>, Norrbotten, Sweden: Constraints from Br/Cl <span class="hlt">ratios</span> and stable Cl isotopes of fluid inclusion leachates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have analysed the halogen concentrations and chlorine stable isotope composition of fluid inclusion leachates from three spatially associated Fe-oxide Cu Au mineralising <span class="hlt">systems</span> in Norrbotten, Sweden. Fluid inclusions in late-stage veins in Fe-oxide-apatite deposits contain saline brines and have a wide range of Br/Cl molar <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, from 0.2 to 1.1 10 -3 and ? 37Cl values from -3.1 to -1.0. Leachates from saline fluid inclusions from the Greenstone and Porphyry hosted Cu-Au prospects have Br/Cl <span class="hlt">ratios</span> that range from 0.2 to 0.5 10 -3 and ? 37Cl values from -5.6 to -1.3. Finally, the Cu-Au deposits hosted by the Nautanen Deformation Zone (NDZ) have Br/Cl molar <span class="hlt">ratios</span> from 0.4 to 1.1 10 -3 and ? 37Cl values that range from -2.4 to +0.5, although the bulk of the data fall within 0 0.5. The Br/Cl <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of leachates are consistent with the derivation of salinity from magmatic sources or from the dissolution of halite. Most of the isotopic data from the Fe-oxide-apatite and Greenstone deposits are consistent with a mantle derived source of the chlorine, with the exception of the four samples with the most negative values. The origin of the low ? 37Cl values in these samples is unknown but we suggest that there may have been some modification of the Cl-isotope signature due to fractionation between the mineralising fluids and Cl-rich silicate assemblages found in the alteration haloes around the deposits. If such a process has occurred then a modified crustal source of the chlorine for all the samples cannot be ruled out although the amount of fractionation necessary to generate the low ? 37Cl values would be significantly larger. The source of Cl in the NDZ deposits has a crustal signature, which suggests the Cl in this <span class="hlt">system</span> may be derived from (meta-) evaporites or from input from crustal melts such as granitic pegmatites of the Lina Suite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gleeson, S. A.; Smith, M. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2526272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Odor Concentration Invariance by Chemical <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Coding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many animal species rely on chemical signals to extract ecologically important information from the environment. Yet in natural conditions chemical signals will frequently undergo concentration changes that produce differences in both level and pattern of activation of olfactory receptor neurons. Thus, a central problem in olfactory processing is how the <span class="hlt">system</span> is able to recognize the same stimulus across different concentrations. To signal species identity for mate recognition, some insects use the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of two components in a binary chemical mixture to produce a code that is invariant to dilution. Here, using psychophysical methods, we show that rats also classify binary odor mixtures according to the molar <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of their components, spontaneously generalizing over at least a tenfold concentration range. These results indicate that extracting chemical <span class="hlt">ratio</span> information is not restricted to pheromone signaling and suggest a general solution for concentration-invariant odor recognition by the mammalian olfactory <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uchida, Naoshige; Mainen, Zachary F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec36-44.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 36.44 Section 36...Requirements § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) When an engine is...<span class="hlt">system</span> shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determined from the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title30-vol1-sec36-44.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 36.44 - Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-07-01 false Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. 36.44 Section 36...Requirements § 36.44 Maximum allowable fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. (a) When an engine is...<span class="hlt">system</span> shall be accepted. The maximum fuel : air <span class="hlt">ratio</span> determined from the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38419272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculating Confidence Intervals for Rates and <span class="hlt">Ratios</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the probability of developing or dying from most neurologic disorders is relatively small, the Poisson distribution is often utilized to establish confidence intervals around rates or <span class="hlt">ratios</span> for diseases of the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. This report describes a simplified method and provides a table of factors based on the Poisson distribution for calculating confidence intervals around estimates of rates and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce S. Schoenberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57075232"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquid Asset <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> and Financial Sector Reform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a monetary, selective credit, and government debt-management instrument, a liquid asset <span class="hlt">ratio</span> is generally inefficient and may introduce serious distortions. However, it may play a limited role as a prudential instrument, particularly in less sophisticated banking <span class="hlt">systems</span> or in the context of currency board arrangements. Recent trends in the use of this instrument have been to either abolish it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anne-Marie Gulde; Jean Claude Nascimento; Lorena Zamalloa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30532621"> <span id="translatedtitle">The sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in anencephaly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of the data supports the suggestion of Knox (1974) that the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> and incidence of anencephalics vary together within populations, as they are known to do between populations. There seems some doubts, though, whether Knox was correct in hypothesising that the sex <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of anencephalics varies with their incidence in relation to the dizygotic twinning rate. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W H James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=golden+AND+ratio&pg=2&id=EJ445071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Misconceptions about the Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Typically, the mathematical properties concerning the golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> are stated correctly, but much of what is presented with respect to the golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span> in art, architecture, literature, and aesthetics is false or seriously misleading. Discussed here are some of the most commonly repeated misconceptions promulgated, particularly within mathematics</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markowsky, George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2806234"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progressive <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Schedules of Reinforcement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pigeons pecks produced grain under progressive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component <span class="hlt">ratio</span> requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive <span class="hlt">ratio</span> schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component <span class="hlt">ratios</span> were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate <span class="hlt">ratios</span> increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borga; Thrailkill, Eric A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49955949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature control strategies for RTP <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simulation of rapid thermal processing (RTP) is made to investigate the accuracy of various control schemes. The simulated RTP process is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polycrystalline silicon over an oxide. The simulated control schemes are open loop control, <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> control, <span class="hlt">pyrometer</span> control with corrected emissivity, and open loop control with the programmed lamp heating. Wafer temperature variation and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Yu; Y. Sorrell; William J. Keither</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120010467&hterms=spreadsheet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522spreadsheet%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> to Thermal Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> factor. The pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> factor is the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span>-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure <span class="hlt">ratio</span> methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910014958&hterms=electric+arc+tungsten&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522electric%2Barc%2522%2B%2522tungsten%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arcjet Nozzle Area <span class="hlt">Ratio</span> Effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to the highest area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area <span class="hlt">ratios</span> below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> optimization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920006804&hterms=electric+arc+tungsten&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2522electric%2Barc%2522%2B%2522tungsten%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arcjet nozzle area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area <span class="hlt">ratio</span>. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> to the highest area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area <span class="hlt">ratios</span> below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area <span class="hlt">ratio</span> optimization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.musc.edu/~elg26/talks/PointEstimation.ppt"> <span id="translatedtitle">Point Estimation: Odds <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>, Hazard <span class="hlt">Ratios</span>, Risk Differences, Precision</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site provides a PowerPoint presentation, created by Dr. Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer of Johns Hopkins University, of a lesson and examples of point estimation, odds <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, hazard <span class="hlt">ratios</span>, risk differences and precision. The presentations is quite thorough. The author attempts to define, provide examples of, and then show the application of almost every concept. The presentation follows a easily followed and logical order. Mathematical formulas are intertwined within the slides. If further research is necessary, the author has provided a list of references and cites them during the presentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24842694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying asymmetry: <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> and alternatives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing <span class="hlt">ratio</span> transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). <span class="hlt">Ratios</span> obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of <span class="hlt">ratios</span>: the relationship between the variables entered in the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the <span class="hlt">ratio</span> model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The <span class="hlt">ratios</span> also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of <span class="hlt">ratios</span>. Am J Phys Anthropol 154:498-511, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24842694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=collection/nyu_/activities/nyu_phi/nyu_phi_activity1.xml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovering Phi: The Golden <span class="hlt">Ratio</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students discover the mathematical constant phi, the golden <span class="hlt">ratio</span>, through hands-on activities. They measure dimensions of "natural objects"a star, a nautilus shell and human hand bonesand calculate <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of the measured values, which are close to phi. Then students learn a basic definition of a mathematical sequence, specifically the Fibonacci sequence. By taking <span class="hlt">ratios</span> of successive terms of the sequence, they find numbers close to phi. They solve a squares puzzle that creates an approximate Fibonacci spiral. Finally, the instructor demonstrates the rule of the Fibonacci sequence via a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot equipped with a pen. The robot (already created as part of the companion activity, The Fibonacci Sequence & Robots) draws a Fibonacci spiral that is similar to the nautilus shape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AMPS GK-12 Program,</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://scie